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Humanist
2012-06-03, 23:41
Assyrians after Assyria

by Dr. Simo Parpola, University of Helsinki

When the Greek historian Xenophon 200 years after Nineveh's fall passed through the Assyrian heartland and visited the sites of two great Assyrian cities, he found nothing but ruin...


Karen Radner, 'Nineveh, Assyria's capital in the 7th century BC', Knowledge and Power, Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/essentials/nineveh/]

From the reign of Sennacherib (r. 704-681 BC) onwards, Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian empire. It was then considered to be the world's largest city: according to the Old Testament book of Jonah, it was home to 120,000 people and took three days to cross.

Water For Nineveh
Like every irrigation system, these waterworks needed constant maintenance and repair. So when Nineveh fell to the Babylonian and Median armies in 612 BC the complex quickly ceased to function properly as no-one was financing or organising the regular upkeep that was necessary. This collapse contributed to the rapid abandonment of the city because without artificial irrigation it could not provide a home for its many inhabitants. Nineveh soon became a ghost town.


Wikipedia:


After passing Nimrud [A] and Nineveh [B] (which he described in ruins), Xenophon and the Greeks turned north-west, following the east bank of the Tigris River, he described rural Assyria as:

“..there was an abundance of corn in the villages, and found a palace, with many villages round about it...In these villages they remained for three days, not only for the sake of the wounded, but likewise because they had provisions in abundance – flour, wine, and great stores of barley that had been collected for horses, all these supplies having been gathered together by the acting satrap of the district.[17]”

The testimony is an example of the rich agricultural resources of Athura's region and the existence of a satrap’s palace. It is not known exactly where this palace was located, but Layard suggest it may have been near Zakho [C].[18]


An inscription found in Egypt written by Arsames describes a few Assyrian cities whom obtained administrative centres during Achaemenid rule:[20]

Lair: Assyrian Lahiru (Eski Kifri), by the Diyala Valley [D]
Arzuhina: Tell Chemchemal, 40 kilometers east of Kirkuk [E]
Arbela [F]
Halsu: Location unknown
Matalubash: Assyrian Ubaše (Tell Huwaish), 20 kilometers north of ancient city of Assur [G]


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/map_xenophon.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-04, 01:20
[Theodore] bar Konay [an Assyrian from the "Nestorian" church] demonstrates a surprising familiarity with their [Mandaean] doctrine, even including a brief extract from the Great Treasure (Pognon 1898, 245–55; Kruisheer 1993–94). Although he writes shortly after the advent of Islam, he assigns their arrival in southern Mesopotamia unambiguously to the pre-Islamic period.

Mandaeism in Antiquity and the Antiquity of Mandaeism
Charles G. Haberl
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Religion Compass Volume 6, Issue 5, Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012

Humanist
2012-06-04, 06:07
I happened to come upon another Nabatean book which contained the explanation of the story of Tammuz. He called a king to serve the Seven and the Twelve, 42 and that king killed him but he returned to life after having been killed. Then the king killed him in many horrible ways but each time he returned to life. In the end he finally died. That story was indeed identical to the last with the story of Jurjis which the Christians know. The Sabians hold a memorial feast for Tammuz which they call the memorial feast of Tammuz and the Christians hold a memorial feast for Jurjis which they call the memorial feast and tadhkira of Jurjis.

The transmission of pagan material to Christianity is often obvious. The mechanisms of this transmission are also relatively clear but I cannot refrain from mentioning here that, according to al Maqdis (Bad’ IV:42), some Christians in the vicinity of Harran had adopted Harranian doctrines (madhhab). What he probably should have said, is that some Harranians had converted – sincerely or not – to Christianity, bringing along with them much of their religious lore and wisdom. Instead of weeping for Tammuz they were now weeping for St. George.



“Continuity of Pagan Religious Traditions in Tenth-Century Iraq”
JAAKKO HÄMEEN-ANTTILA
2002


That may be the explanation. But, no need for them to be pagan Harranians. Assur and other Assyrian deities were being worshiped even after Christianity swept through N Mesopotamia in the early centuries of the faith's existence. Also, I wish the author would have referred to other vestiges of our former paganism in his discussion. For instance, as observed by Lady Drower, in her book on Mandaeans (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=825237&postcount=139):


The Nestorian dukhrana with its distribution in the church of bread and other foods and of meat by the church door, its reciting of names of the dead, and the use of the kaprana (i.e. the sa [dough] or phallus) in the qurbana, is close to Mandaean ritual in many particulars. The word dukhrana is also applied to a love-feast, or public distribution of meat which follows the dukhrana in church. In this, every member of the community shares.

This, kneaded in the hand and baked in ashes like the fatira is a roll about 4 inches long. In a recent article ('The Kaprana' in Orient and Occident l , The Gaster Anniversary Volume, London, Taylor's Foreign Press, 1937) I have pointed out the similarity of the sa [dough] to the Nestorian [Assyrian Christian] kaprana, a dough object of identical shape which plays a part in the Qurbana, and appears to be a relic of some ancient fertility and life cult. That the sa is a phallic emblem one would suspect from its form and size. The reference which puzzled Lidzbarski (Q. 107), pihla d *l shum hiia pla, obviously refers to it.

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Wikipedia:


In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar.

A Sumerian tablet from Nippur (Ni 4486) reads:
She can make the lament for you, my Dumuzid, the lament for you, the lament, the lamentation, reach the desert — she can make it reach the house Arali; she can make it reach Bad-tibira; she can make it reach Dul-šuba; she can make it reach the shepherding country, the sheepfold of Dumuzid "O Dumuzid of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully, "O you of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully. "Lad, husband, lord, sweet as the date, [...] O Dumuzid!" she sobs, she sobs tearfully.[3]

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Dukhrana’d Mar Giwargis (Feast of Saint George)

https://photos-1.dropbox.com/i/l/2UGDFrDEJuAKgfhJIUVFiFv-Ox8B8zsGP158ab3bVsg/38924859/1338868800/70e6919/DSCN2732.JPG

Humanist
2012-06-04, 07:40
More from the the Mandaean text, the Haran Gawaitha. Translated and edited by Lady Drower:


.. and he called the people to himself and spoke of his death and took away some of mysteries of the (Sacred?) Meal and abstained from the Food. And he took to himself a people and was called by the name of the False Messiah. And he perverted them all and made them like himself who perverted words of life and changed them into darkness and even perverted those accounted Mine. And he overturned all the rites. And he and his brother dwell on Mount Sinai, and he joineth all races to him, and perverteth and joineth to himself a people, and they are called Christians.

---------- Post added 2012-06-04 at 02:16 ----------


A “NEW” SOURCE FOR LATE ANTIQUE PAGANISM
Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila
2004


Our sources on Late Antique paganism in rural Northern Iraq are few and far between. A handful of inscriptions in a variety of languages, some notes in Christian hagiographies which are notoriously difficult to date and to evaluate and some problematic accounts in Arabic historical texts are the material with which scholars are wont to work, and the results are meagre enough.

Yet there is a rather large corpus which might be of value in studying the intellectual atmosphere of the area in Late Antiquity and Early Islam. This “Nabatean corpus” * – which has nothing to do with the Nabateans of Petra has been a bone of contention for almost a century and a half. This is not the place to recount the history of Western scholarship on the issue or to review its results, but suffice it to say that we seem to have reason to date this corpus, or at least the main parts of it, to the sixth century A.D. or soon thereafter. The original texts were written in some sort of Aramaic, called “Ancient Syriac” in the text itself, and they were translated into Arabic by Ibn Wa¥shiyya (d. 318 A.H. = 930 A.D.). The purpose of this paper is not to prove the relative authenticity of the corpus, which has been done by me, at least to my own satisfaction, in another paper,but to give a short description of the varied contents of the main text of the corpus, the Nabatean Agriculture (al-Fil ¥a an-Nabaðiyya, abbreviated in the following as Nab. Agr.). This work is a large compendium of agronomical literature, in the modern edition taking up almost 1500 pages.

If we continue to review some main aspects of the book from the sacral to the secular, we next come to various rituals and regulations. There is an interesting description of New Year's Eve rituals (Nab. Agr., 538-541) which, broadly speaking, coincides with what we know of the Harrãnian pagans down to the Islamic times, albeit differing in details, so that the description cannot have been taken from any Arabic source describing the Harrãnians but must be independent of that tradition. Likewise, there are descriptions of idols and their worshiping, communal prayers, feasts, fasts, temples and the services therein, the use of cultic music, incubation and dream oracles, and various other themes. Most of these passages are relatively short and sometimes difficult to set into any context, but in general they offer much material for study. The veneration of sacred trees receives some attention, and it seems that the word “idol” may often, in fact, refer to sacred trees, which act as mediators of divine revelation. Cultic and agricultural calendars, which we also know from Syriac tradition, are discussed in the book (e.g., Nab. Agr., 207-209).

* Nabat in Arabic refers to the non-Arabic rural population of the Near East, and especially Iraq, who spoke different Aramaic dialects.

Ardi
2012-06-04, 16:20
The veneration of sacred trees receives some attention, and it seems that the word “idol” may often, in fact, refer to sacred trees, which act as mediators of divine revelation.

Tree divination was one of the characteristic practices in the Hurrian world and axiomatic to the religion of Urartu. In fact, the veneration of trees as divine mediums is so deeply-embedded in the ritualistic psyche of the region that it continues practically unchanged to this day among the Armenians, and represents a perfect example of the "Christianization" of primordial traditions. I'm sure Assyrian memory has preserved this notion quite intact as well.

Humanist
2012-06-04, 19:10
Tree divination was one of the characteristic practices in the Hurrian world and axiomatic to the religion of Urartu. In fact, the veneration of trees as divine mediums is so deeply-embedded in the ritualistic psyche of the region that it continues practically unchanged to this day among the Armenians, and represents a perfect example of the "Christianization" of primordial traditions. I'm sure Assyrian memory has preserved this notion quite intact as well.

Thanks, Ardi. Very interesting!

Have you read Parpola's "The Assyrian Tree of Life: Tracing the Origins of Jewish Monotheism and Greek Philosophy? (http://www.atour.com/education/pdf/SimoParpola-TheAssyrianTreeOfLife.pdf)" It is an interesting read.

Can you refer me to any links related to Hurrian/Urartian/Armenian tree worship?

---------- Post added 2012-06-04 at 13:43 ----------

From a few pages back:


The Indo-European Elements In Hurrian

by Arnaud Fournet

[T]he deep connections between the Akkadian goddess Ištar and the Hurrian goddess šauška...are held as strong indications that the Hurrians must have been on the spot and that they must have taken part [in] the construction of the Mesopotamian civilization from the start.

Humanist
2012-06-04, 20:11
Lady Drower:


The Tree is a common religious symbol in Mandaean books for Divine Life, and the souls of Mandaeans are not seldom represented as birds, taking refuge in the shelter of a Vine, or Tree, against the tempests of the world. Here, to translate the word mandia by 'dwellings' or 'shelters' would make sense.

Humanist
2012-06-04, 23:02
Dukhrana’d Mar Giwargis (Feast of Saint George)



The link to Saint George (Dumuzi (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wcfl4ziB6s) ;) ) went belly-up, I see.

Here it is, again:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/DSCN2732.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-05, 04:11
Simo Parpola suggests that the Neo-Assyrian Empire can be differentiated from its predecessors by a determination to found its imperial enterprise upon an expanded national core, unifying peoples from diverse ethnic background into a new nation, held together by linguistic and cultural ties imposed by the Assyrian elite. For Parpola, the mass deportations of defeated populations were a key instrument in achieving this.

Parpola argues that these deportations served a radical new project of nation building. He sees the Assyrian kings of this period as deliberately forging a national consciousness in the core provinces of their ever-expanding realm out of disparate ethnic elements. He links the deportations with the promotion of Aramaic, rather than the Assyrians’ own native dialect of Akkadian, as the “Imperial” lingua franca, and argues that the intention was to create one “Land of Aššur” in the home provinces; to fashion a state in which the ethnic differences between what had been a diverse population were increasingly blurred into a common Assyrian identity.

"The intense acculturation process thus started continued for a period of more than two hundred years. It was boosted by intermarriages, participation in common military expeditions, building projects and business ventures, and continuous interaction between all segments of population in all aspects of daily life. As a result, at the same time as Aramaic developed into the lingua franca of the empire and the use of the Aramaic alphabet in its administration steadily increased, its originally heterogeneous population became progressively homogeneous socially and culturally."


“Age After Age…”
The Old Testament and Empire
Peter Hatton
2011

Zert
2012-06-05, 11:29
Tree divination was one of the characteristic practices in the Hurrian world and axiomatic to the religion of Urartu. In fact, the veneration of trees as divine mediums is so deeply-embedded in the ritualistic psyche of the region that it continues practically unchanged to this day among the Armenians, and represents a perfect example of the "Christianization" of primordial traditions. I'm sure Assyrian memory has preserved this notion quite intact as well.

I'd say it's widespread in the whole world, but certainly too in Anatolia/Mesopotamia. Wishing trees are also apparant among Kurds, and tree veneration especially with Yezidis.

Humanist
2012-06-06, 01:36
From another thread.

The below map is from a lecture given by Dr. Mario Fales a few months back:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_intervention.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-05 at 20:17 ----------

I do not believe sufficient consideration is given to the resettlement and deportation policies instituted by the Neo-Assyrians. It may contribute to the genetic landscape now observed among Near Eastern minority populations (see list of populations below). They were on a scale never-before-seen in the history of man, and unparalleled in the pre-Roman era. The Babylonians (e.g. Judea) and others did the same, but on a scale not closely approaching that seen during the Neo-Assyrian era. One Dodecad component that I suggest may in part be a remnant of this past mixing of peoples, is the "Caucasus" component.

^^ Please note the "may" and "part."

Source: Dodecad K12b population sheet values.

52 Assyrian_D
52 Azerbaijan_Jews
52 Georgia_Jews
50 Druze
50 Iranian_Jews
49 Samaritans
48 Iraq_Jews

Wikipedia:


Deportations

It is not known if the Assyrians were the first to deport people, although since none before had ruled the Fertile Crescent as they did it is likely that they were the first to practice it on a large scale. The Assyrians began to utilize mass-deportation as a punishment for rebellions since the 13th century BC.[33] The purposes of deportation included, but were not limited to:

1) Psychological warfare: the possibility of deportation would have terrorized the people;
2) Integration: a multiethnic population base in each region would have curbed nationalist sentiment, making the running of the Empire smoother;
3) Preservation of human resources: rather than being butchered, the people could serve as slave labor or as conscripts in the army.

By the 9th century BC the Assyrians made it a habit of regularly deporting thousands of restless subjects to other lands.[34] Re-settling these people in the Assyrian homeland would have undermined the powerbase of the Assyrian Empire if they would rebel again. As a result, Assyrian deportation involved removing one enemy population and settling them into another. Below is a list of deportations carried out by Assyrian Kings:[32]

744 BC Tiglath Pileser III deports 65,000 people from Iran to the Assyrian-Babylonian border at the Diyala river
742 BC Tiglath Pileser III deports 30,000 people from Hamath, Syria and into the Zagros mountains in the east.
721 BC Sargon II (claimed) deports 27,290 people from Samaria, Israel and disperses them throughout the Empire. However, it is likely that his ousted predecessor, Shalmaneser V ordered the deportation
707 BC Sargon II deports 108,000 Chaldeans and Babylonians from the Babylonian region
703 BC Sennacherib deports 208,000 people from Babylon

Tiglath Pileser III re-introduced deportation on a grand scale, deporting tens, even hundreds of thousands of people. Deportations were also coupled with colonization.

The above list, is only a partial list of the deportations carried out during the Neo-Assyrian era.

Humanist
2012-06-07, 01:54
I created a thread on this topic at DNA-Forums several months ago. The thread is gone. Creating again, below:

1.


After defeating the Urartian troops in Arpad, Tiglath-pileser decided to discipline this kingdom that had provided Urartu with access to Syria and to Assyria’s frontier. His army waged war in Arpad for three years until all resistance was crushed in 740 BC; Arpad’s forces had been assisted not only by the Urartian army but also the troops of all its Syrian neighbors. When Arpad was ultimately defeated,the Assyrian army did not leave as in previous centuries: instead, two Assyrian provinces were established, and the country was transformed into a permanent part of Assyria. The dogged resistance that met the Assyrians in Arpad meant that the war could not end if the new Assyrian holdings were to be protected; although the alliance against Assyria had been driven out of Arpad, it remained in existence and was a powerful adversary. Next in line was...Hamath.

2008 Review of H. Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria (2nd edition, Jerusalem 2007) in Journal of Cuneiform Studies 60 (2008) 177-180.
Karen Radner

2.

Sargon II, however, who had ousted his brother Shalmaneser in 722 BC from the Assyrian throne, faced massive resistance against his rule in the early years of his reign (Fuchs 2009, 53f.), in the Assyrian heartland as well as further away where the western provinces carved out of the former kingdoms of Hamath, Arpad, Damascus and Israel all rose in revolt. After Sargon eventually managed to crush the revolt in 720 BC, the rebellion’s epicentre Hamath was destroyed and ‘6,300 guilty Assyrians’, people from the heartland who had supported Shalmaneser, were exiled from the empire’s core region to Hamath’s ruins, repaying their merciful king for sparing their lives by rebuilding that city (Hawkins 2004, 160: Hama Stele).

As we have seen, elites from newly subjugated areas were resettled in the Assyrian heartland to the economic and cultural benefit of the empire, and disgraced Assyrians were deported (rather than killed) in order to redeem themselves as colonists in the king's service. For all these people, relocation was meant to provide a better future while at the same time benefitting the empire, and not just economically. Of course, the relocation of these people was also an effective way of minimising the risk of rebellions and insurrections against central authority.

The Assur-Nineveh-Arbela Triangle
Karen Radner

3.



Abstract: Considerations of a historical and archaeological nature point to the beginning of the 9th century as a reliable turning point from Iron I to Iron II. Iron IIA and B, documented by several rebuilding activities in most sites cover the 9th and 8th centuries dominated by the increasing territorial competition of the local kingdoms confronted with Assyrian expansion. The end of Iron Age IIB is marked by more or less severe destructions occurring in the last quarter of the 8th century which are often followed by an extensive replanning during Iron III, in the 7th-mid 6th centuries, a period characterized by cultural homogenization and Assyrian acculturation.


Hama was characterized in phase E by a thorough replanning of the ceremonial unit, consisting of several buildings of the bit-hilani type, opening onto a central square or open court. Two phases were identified, E2 and E1, but only E1 was extensively documented by the remains of the unit which were sealed by a severe destruction dated to the time of the conquest of the city by Sargon II in 720 B.C.

In Western Jezireh, known until recently only by the site of KhadatuI Arslan Tash. a survey could bring to light a concentration of settlements in two main areas, the plain of Saruj, with Tell Hajib a s a main centre, near Arslan Tash, and the area of Qaramuh and its tributaries". The published materials belong to a fully Assyrianized 8th and 7th cent. horizon. paralleling the Tell Ahmar assemblage; this region had, in fact long been under the control of the Assyrians and the cultural influence of the centres of Kar Shalmanashar and Khadatu.

The end of Iron Age IIB can be linked on historical grounds to the Assyrian military conquest and the loss of authonomy of the local kingdoms. Since the process was neither simultaneous nor the same in intensity or character. the archaeological evidence is not unequivocal and includes the final destruction which seals the buildings of Hamath E. as well as cases of uninterrupted occupation more often characterized by an Assyrian facies obscuring the pre-Assyrian one. Iron III witnessed a further process of urbanization, stimulated by the new organization of the territory in Assyrian provinces. a process of cultural homogeneization and Assyrian acculturation. Although if the passage from Iron IIB to III can be fixed in relation to events and precises dates, and major occupational breaks, the picture was. however, yet again not generalized and a numer of cases can be singled out where Assyrian military intrusion was less effective or did not occur or where no substantial breaks are archaeologically documented. However, after the conquest, the way towards more marked cultural homogeneization between the many components populating the region was open. We can thus establish a probably flexible border-line between Iron Age II and III at the end of the 8th century.

SYRIA AND THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE IRON AGE
Stefania Mazzoni
Universitii degli Studi di Pisa


From north to south: Arpad, Hamath (destroyed and repopulated by 6300 "guilty Assyrians" from the heartland ~2700 years ago), Damascus.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamath_damascus_arpad.jpg


Whether these and other events during the first half of the 1st millennium BCE have anything to do with the R-M269 distribution in Syria today is obviously a question I do not know the answer to. But, there is a chance, I believe, given the age of the dominant R-M269 lineage in Assyrians, and the similarity of haplotypes between Assyrians and populations such as Alawites and Druze.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Map_Middle_East_R1b_Tats.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-08, 12:06
Despite its use of a script tradition imported from Mesopotamia, RS 20.024 possesses a specifically Ugaritic cultural horizon. The list, therefore, provides no ground for equating Yammu’s significance at Ugarit and the religious connotations of tâmtum in Mesopotamia. Rather, it suggests a strongly independent tradition at Ugarit that calls into question any straightforward parallel between the conflict of Balu and Yammu in the Baal Cycle and the battle between Marduk and Tiamat in Enūma eliš.

Addendum Hurriticum

The chasm between Ugarit’s sea god and the traditions of Mesopotamia emerges more clearly when one takes Hurrian evidence into account. Kiaše is the Hurrian word for sea. This was first recognized thanks to a document discovered at Alalakh in which a woman appears by name four times. Twice her name is written A-gap-A.AB.BA and twice it is spelled A-gap-kí-a-še. The scribe used the logogram A.AB.BA interchangeably with the syllabic spelling kí-a-še to designate kiaše an element found in both masculine and feminine personal names at Alalakh, Ugarit, and elsewhere. Two texts attesting this Hurrian word for sea have particular relevance for the discussion of A.AB.BA at Ugarit. The first, discovered at Boğazköy, is a ritual text relating to the MUNUS ŠU.GI. Notably, in this text the sea appears written with a divine determinative as kí-ia-še reminiscent of the attestation of the sea with a divine determinative in RS20.024. This contrasts with the Akkadian evidence from Mesopotamia discussed above, where the sea rarely appears with a divine determinative except for in the unique “Myth of the Plow.” Considering the disproportion of Akkadian to Hurrian texts in our possession, this evidence might suggest that Hurrian material provides more fitting parallels to the practices at Ugarit than the Akkadian texts from Mesopotamia. The second text comes from Ugarit itself. It is a Hurrian sacrificial list written in alphabetic cuneiform script. In l. 11, in the company of other gods, kiaše (written {kyḏ}) is named as a recipient of cultic offerings. Though the order and personae of this Hurrian list do not conform precisely to any of the ritual texts in Ugaritic, the very inclusion of the sea among those worshiped in cult again marks a similarity between the Ugaritic and Hurrian data, and distinguishes the two from the situation in Mesopotamia. Such observations should unsettle parallels that have sometimes been drawn occasionally on the basis of RS 20.024 between Ugaritic and Mesopotamian notions of the divine, as manifest both in cult and in myth.


On ym and (d)A.AB.BA at Ugarit
Aaron Tugendhaft
Ugarit Forschungen 42 (2011): 697-712


http://folkemord.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/aznatol_1.jpg?w=413&h=277


Wikipedia:

Ugarit (Ugaritic: 𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgrt; Arabic: أوغاريت‎) was an ancient port city on the eastern Mediterranean at the Ras Shamra headland[1] some 11 kilometres (7 mi) north of Latakia in northern Syria. Ugarit sent tribute to Egypt and maintained trade and diplomatic connections with Cyprus (then called Alashiya), documented in the archives recovered from the site and corroborated by Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery found there. The polity was at its height from ca. 1450 BC until 1200 BC.

The Ugaritic language is attested in texts from the 14th through the 12th century BC. Ugaritic is usually classified as a Northwest Semitic language and therefore related to Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician, among others. Its grammatical features are highly similar to those found in Classical Arabic and Akkadian.


Latakia Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة اللاذقية‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. It is situated in western Syria, bordering Turkey. Its reported area varies in different sources from 2,297 km² [1] to 2,437 km² [2]. The Governorate has a population of 991,000 (2010 estimate) and is one of the only governorates in Syria that has an Alawite majority. [3]. The capital is Latakia.

newtoboard
2012-06-08, 14:43
From another thread.

The below map is from a lecture given by Dr. Mario Fales a few months back:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_intervention.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-05 at 20:17 ----------

I do not believe sufficient consideration is given to the resettlement and deportation policies instituted by the Neo-Assyrians. It may contribute to the genetic landscape now observed among Near Eastern minority populations (see list of populations below). They were on a scale never-before-seen in the history of man, and unparalleled in the pre-Roman era. The Babylonians (e.g. Judea) and others did the same, but on a scale not closely approaching that seen during the Neo-Assyrian era. One Dodecad component that I suggest may in part be a remnant of this past mixing of peoples, is the "Caucasus" component.

^^ Please note the "may" and "part."

Source: Dodecad K12b population sheet values.

52 Assyrian_D
52 Azerbaijan_Jews
52 Georgia_Jews
50 Druze
50 Iranian_Jews
49 Samaritans
48 Iraq_Jews

Wikipedia:



The above list, is only a partial list of the deportations carried out during the Neo-Assyrian era.

I doubt the Caucasus component is the result of admixture caused by deportations carried out by the Assyrian empire. I am curious to the effect on ydna and mtdna. Certain lineages might have been introduced to areas where they might not have been native. Any clue?

Humanist
2012-06-08, 15:11
I doubt the Caucasus component is the result of admixture caused by deportations carried out by the Assyrian empire. I am curious to the effect on ydna and mtdna. Certain lineages might have been introduced to areas where they might not have been native. Any clue?

The "Caucasus" component is not the result of deportations. The fact that Yemeni Jews have it at 33% suggests to me that it is a very old component. Assuming the Yemeni Jews did not migrate to their present location in the last two or three millennia. But, I do think it is interesting that from the SW Levant, to NE Mesopotamia, the "Caucasus" component is observed at a near uniform rate (46%-52%). How great an impact the population movements had on the genetic landscape of the region is a question worth examining, in my opinion. If I had to guess, I would lean toward it being more negligible. At least with regard to the autosomal. What I believe is that the "Caucasus" component in the more northern populations may have been diluted by admixture of some sort. Although the "Gedrosia" component may not represent a specific population, I do believe there is something to take away from the distribution of the "Caucasus" and "Gedrosia" components in the map below. I still believe Dagestan may be a key piece to the puzzle.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/farming3_cauc_ged.jpg

newtoboard
2012-06-08, 16:57
The "Caucasus" component is not the result of deportations. The fact that Yemeni Jews have it at 33% suggests to me that it is a very old component. Assuming the Yemeni Jews did not migrate to their present location in the last two or three millennia. But, I do think it is interesting that from the SW Levant, to NE Mesopotamia, the "Caucasus" component is observed at a near uniform rate (46%-52%). How great an impact the population movements had on the genetic landscape of the region is a question worth examining, in my opinion. If I had to guess, I would lean toward it being more negligible. At least with regard to the autosomal. What I believe is that the "Caucasus" component in the more northern populations may have been diluted by admixture of some sort. Although the "Gedrosia" component may not represent a specific population, I do believe there is something to take away from the distribution of the "Caucasus" and "Gedrosia" components in the map below. I still believe Dagestan may be a key piece to the puzzle.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/farming3_cauc_ged.jpg

I think gedrosia is a subsent of Caucasus which for some reason became concentrated in South-Central Asia. i doubt it is a distinct component.

Why Dagestan though?

Humanist
2012-06-08, 18:58
I think gedrosia is a subsent of Caucasus which for some reason became concentrated in South-Central Asia. i doubt it is a distinct component.

Why Dagestan though?

The Lezgins, based on the data in Balanovsky et al., had the highest frequency of R-M269 among the Caucasian populations sampled. The principal Assyrian J1* line is distinguished by the value of 11 at DYS438. This value has a unique distribution. To date, it has only been observed in a handful of men from Dagestan (and one Ossets-Iron), men from Arabia (see Tofanelli et al. and FTDNA database), Iran (see Haber et al. 2010), and Iraq (SMGF database).

MDS, based on Balanovsky et al. Y haplogroup frequencies, and Assyrian and Armenian project data at FTDNA:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Caucasus_Anatolia_Mesopotamiab.jpg

And, although I am not confident in the cephalic index for such purposes, I do believe other trait data may be of some value.

From another post:

Henry Field


The Assyrians are the tallest...

The Lurs of central Luristan have the longest heads, the Kurds of Sulaimaniya the shortest. In breadth the Lurs of Khurrumabad are the narrowest, the Assyrians the widest. The Assyrians are hyperbrachycephalic...

The nasal profile is one of the most important racial criteria in Southwestern Asia, with particular emphasis on the convex and straight categories. For example, more than two-thirds of all Kurds of Iraq and Iran, the Lurs of Pusht-i-Kuh and the Bakthiari tribesmen possesses convex noses. About half of the Assyrians and the Lurs of central Luristan had straight noses.

The majority of all the Kurds of Iraq and Iran and most of the Lurs and Assyrians (97.17 %) were leoptorrhine. Very few platyrrhine individuals were recorded or seen. The Bakhtiari are divided into mesorrhine (49.66 %) and leptorrhine tribesmen. Their convex nasal profile links the Bakthiari with the Iranian Plateau Race and upholds my observations that this convexity is concentrated among the peoples of Western Iran. Eight of the nine groups are leptorrhine, with near uniformity among the Assyrians, many of whom are fair-haired, light-skinned, and possess blue eyes.

The blond element in those four groups is linked either to the peoples of the Caucasus or to the dwellers in the Altai or Pamirs.

These mountain peoples are all related to some degree, although the Assyrians probably belong to a different racial stock with links in the Caucasus.


I certainly agree about the links with the Caucasus. But, I disagree with any suggestion that this is of relatively recent origin (in significant part).

From another thread, on the topic of admixture in Assyrians whose most recent ancestors came from north/northwest of northern Iraq (Hakkari, Turkey and Urmia, Iran).

This is based on the Balkans/West Asian run data.

“Nestorian” (6)

Assyrian_D 4.19

Armenians_16 0
Armenians_Y -0.01
Kurd_D -0.04
Armenian_D -0.07
Kurds_Y -0.08
Iranian_D -0.145
Turks -0.175
Greek_D -0.2
Cypriots -0.215
Georgians -0.225
Iranians_19 -0.255
Bulgarian_D -0.3
Abkhasians_Y -0.31
Turkish_D -0.34
Romanians_14 -0.34
Adygei -0.35
North_Ossetians_Y -0.35
Bulgarians_Y -0.355
Romanian_D -0.38

newtoboard
2012-06-08, 20:58
The Lezgins, based on the data in Balanovsky et al., had the highest frequency of R-M269 among the Caucasian populations sampled. The principal Assyrian J1* line is distinguished by the value of 11 at DYS438. This value has a unique distribution. To date, it has only been observed in a handful of men from Dagestan (and one Ossets-Iron), men from Arabia (see Tofanelli et al. and FTDNA database), Iran (see Haber et al. 2010), and Iraq (SMGF database).

MDS, based on Balanovsky et al. Y haplogroup frequencies, and Assyrian and Armenian project data at FTDNA:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Caucasus_Anatolia_Mesopotamiab.jpg

And, although I am not confident in the cephalic index for such purposes, I do believe other trait data may be of some value.

From another post:

Henry Field

Where do you think j1* in particular comes from and do you think that particular brand of J1* signals admixture in the populations?

I don't know what you are trying to say with regards to facial features. Could you be a bit more clear?

I doubt the blonde element comes from the Pamirs or Altai. those areas have very little to do with Assyrians.

On a side note: You said you had a high central south asian score. Any idea why?

---------- Post added 2012-06-08 at 19:05 ----------

Are you trying to connect those features with R1b-M2699 and J1* (which I personally believe correspond to the Mediterranean and SW Asian autosomal components)?

Humanist
2012-06-10, 06:48
Where do you think j1* in particular comes from and do you think that particular brand of J1* signals admixture in the populations?

I don't know what you are trying to say with regards to facial features. Could you be a bit more clear?

I doubt the blonde element comes from the Pamirs or Altai. those areas have very little to do with Assyrians.

On a side note: You said you had a high central south asian score. Any idea why?

---------- Post added 2012-06-08 at 19:05 ----------

Are you trying to connect those features with R1b-M2699 and J1* (which I personally believe correspond to the Mediterranean and SW Asian autosomal components)?

No. I am not trying to connect those features with R-M269. I thought it was interesting that Henry Field was contrasting Assyrians with their immediate neighbors, and referred to the Caucasus as a possible link. There is evidence of migrations and contacts between Mesopotamia (including parts of the Levant) and the Caucasus in ancient times.

High Central South Asian score? Are you referring to Dr. McDonald's values?

Affinity to Central/South Asia appears to be largely a function of geography. As far as Assyrians are concerned. When we speak of East Assyrian and West Assyrian, this is what we are referring to (see image below). It also includes the denominational divide of (at least) the last ~1600 years (Council of Ephesus). The old Church of the East (Nestorian + Chaldean Catholic) and the Syriac Orthodox Church. Mandaeans had already been "Mandaeans" for at least a couple of centuries by that time, and had migrated south, according to some Mandaean scholars. Otherwise, many things about them become difficult to reconcile (e.g. borrowing of "an abundance" of Babylonian Akkadian terms, in particular, terms associated with the Assyro-Babylonian religion of old). So, folks suggesting that there was significant admixture since that time, from the east, need to explain why the Mandaeans appear to be from where they say they are from. The north, in some proximity to "Iranians," in an oil rich area, and near a mountainous region. And why Assyrians do not appear to be shifted to the east in David's latest Eurogenes SPA plot, after adjusting the latitude by 4.0 degrees north (see second image). I know you are not making that claim.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_cities_b.jpg


Assyrians in green. Iraqi Mandaeans in red. Adjusted 4.00 degrees north.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_mand.jpg



The "South Asian" values from the Dodecad "weac2" calculator:

Assyrians and Iraqi Mandaeans

E/W SoAsia Country Church
E 16.3 IQ Mandaean
E 15.4 IQ/TR Nestorian/Chaldean Catholic
E 14.9 IQ Mandaean
E 14.7 IQ Chaldean Catholic
E 14.7 TR Nestorian
E 14.7 IQ Chaldean Catholic
E 14.6 IR Nestorian
? 14 TR Unknown
E 13.7 IR/TR Nestorian
W/E 13.6 TR/IQ Chaldean Catholic/Syriac Orthodox
E 13.6 TR/IQ Nestorian
? 13.5 ???? Unknown
E 13.1 IR/TR Nestorian
E 12.4 IQ/TR Nestorian
E 12.3 IQ Nestorian
W 11.9 TR Syriac Orthodox
E 11.7 IR Nestorian
W 11.6 TR Syriac Orthodox
W 10.8 TR Syriac Orthodox


Most ME Semitic-speaking populations (still largely a function of geography)

SoAsia Pop N Source
15.6 MAN 2 Dodecad Minority
13.8 IRJ 4 Behar Minority
13.3 ASY 14 Dodecad Minority
12.4 IQJ 10 Behar Minority
10 SYR 15 Behar
8.8 DRZ 31 HGDP Minority
8.3 LEB 7 Behar
8 YEM 8 Behar
7.5 JOR 20 Behar
7.1 PAL 31 HGDP
6.3 SAM 2 Behar Minority
5.5 KSA 20 Behar
5.2 YEJ 14 Behar Minority
5 BED 33 HGDP
3 EGY 12 Behar

newtoboard
2012-06-10, 06:52
No. I am not trying to connect those features with R-M269. I thought it was interesting that Henry Field was contrasting Assyrians with their immediate neighbors, and referred to the Caucasus as a possible link. There is evidence of migrations and contacts between Mesopotamia (including parts of the Levant) and the Caucasus in ancient times.

High Central South Asian score? Are you referring to Dr. McDonald's values?

Affinity to Central/South Asia appears to be largely a function of geography. As far as Assyrians are concerned. When we speak of East Assyrian and West Assyrian, this is what we are referring to (see image below). It also includes the denominational divide of (at least) the last ~1600 years (Council of Ephesus). The old Church of the East (Nestorian + Chaldean Catholic) and the Syriac Orthodox Church. Mandaeans had already been "Mandaeans" for at least a couple of centuries by that time, and had migrated south, according to some Mandaean scholars. Otherwise, many things about them become difficult to reconcile (e.g. borrowing of "an abundance" of Babylonian Akkadian terms, in particular, terms associated with the Assyro-Babylonian religion of old). So, folks suggesting that there was significant admixture since that time, from the east, need to explain why the Mandaeans appear to be from where they say they are from. The north, in some proximity to Iranians, in an oil rich area, and near a mountainous region. And why Assyrians do not appear to be shifted to the east in David's latest Eurogenes SPA plot, after adjusting the latitude by 4.0 degrees north (see second image). I know you are not making that claim.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_cities_b.jpg


Assyrians in green. Iraqi Mandaeans in red. Adjusted 4.00 degrees north.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_mand.jpg



The "South Asian" values from the Dodecad "weac2" calculator:

Assyrians and Iraqi Mandaeans

E/W SoAsia Country Church
E 16.3 IQ Mandaean
E 15.4 IQ/TR Nestorian/Chaldean Catholic
E 14.9 IQ Mandaean
E 14.7 IQ Chaldean Catholic
E 14.7 TR Nestorian
E 14.7 IQ Chaldean Catholic
E 14.6 IR Nestorian
? 14 TR Unknown
E 13.7 IR/TR Nestorian
W/E 13.6 TR/IQ Chaldean Catholic/Syriac Orthodox
E 13.6 TR/IQ Nestorian
? 13.5 ???? Unknown
E 13.1 IR/TR Nestorian
E 12.4 IQ/TR Nestorian
W 12.3 IQ Nestorian
W 11.9 TR Syriac Orthodox
E 11.7 IR Nestorian
W 11.6 TR Syriac Orthodox
W 10.8 TR Syriac Orthodox


Most ME Semitic-speaking populations (still largely a function of geography)

SoAsia Pop N Source
15.6 MAN 2 Dodecad Minority
13.8 IRJ 4 Behar Minority
13.3 ASY 14 Dodecad Minority
12.4 IQJ 10 Behar Minority
10 SYR 15 Behar
8.8 DRZ 31 HGDP Minority
8.3 LEB 7 Behar
8 YEM 8 Behar
7.5 JOR 20 Behar
7.1 PAL 31 HGDP
6.3 SAM 2 Behar Minority
5.5 KSA 20 Behar
5.2 YEJ 14 Behar Minority
5 BED 33 HGDP
3 EGY 12 Behar

I see. The problem with that is feature change easily due to many reasons including admixture. Like you said the Caucasus populations and Assyrians were long headed in older times. I am not sure what the nose comparison was implying.

Humanist
2012-06-10, 10:45
Lady Drower:

That this was a mountainous country and stretched to Harran is clearly indicated, also, that not all the 'Madai' were Nasurai. Noteworthy also is the fact that the expression 'Manda d Hiia' does not occur, nor the expression 'Mandai' for Mandaeans. It may be argued that 'Madai' refers to the Mandaeans, but in that case, Mandaean cannot mean 'gnostic' but refers to nationality.


newtoboard. Not making any claims to territory. You asked about the borders of the Achaemenid satraps of Athura and Mada some days back. Here is Harvard professor Richard Frye (on Athura):


[T]he western part of Assyria (OP Athura) was called Ebir Nari, across the river (Euphrates).

Assyrians after Assyria
Dr. Simo Parpola, University of Helsinki
The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project (State Archives of Assyria)


Under the Achaemenid Empire, the western areas annexed to Babylonia formed a satrapy called Athura (a loanword from Imperial Aramaic Athur, "Assyria"), while the Assyrian heartland remained incorporated in the satrapy of Mada (Old Persian for "Media"). Both satrapies paid yearly tribute and contributed men for the military campaigns and building projects of the Persian kings. Assyrian soldiers participated in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece (480 BC) according to Herodotus, and Assyrians from both Athura and Mada participated in the construction of the palace of Darius at Susa (500-490 BC).

Parpola again:


[T]he Western part of the Empire as far as the Tigris fell into the hands of the Babylonians...


There is no consensus among scholars regarding Mada and Athura, however.


Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Map_of_the_Achaemenid_Empire.jpg


Assyrians do not distinguish between what is labeled in the image immediately above as "Mesopotamia" and "Assyria." We refer to our homeland as Bet Nahrain. Which translates to "the land of the rivers (Tigris and Euphrates)." The Greek word, "Mesopotamia," translates to the "land between the rivers." Of course, the Greek term does not capture a good deal of the Assyrian heartland to the east (e.g. Arbil).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Adiabene and Osroene (source is Wikipedia)

The references to "Syriac" are erroneous. The language of our Christian liturgy is "Syriac." Our vernacular is older than our liturgical tongue by at least a few centuries (refer to the works of Khan, Krotkoff, Loesov, etc.). I do not understand Syriac. Also, the temple of Assur was restored in Arbil, at the time of Adiabene. That is why they refer to Queen Helena as converting to Judaism from Ashurism.


Adiabene was an ancient kingdom in Assyria,[2][3][4][5] with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Arbil, Iraq). Its rulers converted to Judaism from Ashurism in the 1st century.[6] Queen Helena of Adiabene (known in Jewish sources as Heleni HaMalka) moved to Jerusalem where she built palaces for herself and her sons, Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II at the northern part of the city of David, south of the Temple Mount. According to the Talmud, both Helena and Monbaz donated large funds for the Temple of Jerusalem.


Osroene and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom located in upper Mesopotamia,[1] which enjoyed semi-autonomy to complete independence from the years of 132 BC to AD 244.[2][3] It was a Syriac-speaking kingdom.[4]



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/osroene_adiabene.gif


Wikipedia article on the Assyria Provincia:


Assyria was one of three provinces (with Armenia and Mesopotamia) created by the Roman emperor Trajan[1] in 116 AD following a successful military campaign against Parthia, in present-day Iraq.

Despite Rome's military victory, Trajan's province was plagued with difficulties from the start. In 116, a Parthian prince named Santruces organized an armed revolt by the natives in the new Roman provinces. During the revolt, Roman garrisons in Assyria and Mesopotamia were driven from their posts, and a Roman general was killed as his army tried unsuccessfully to stop the rebellion.[2]

When Trajan died in 117, his successor, Hadrian, implemented a new policy with respect to the recently acquired territories in the east. Hadrian believed that the empire was overextended, and wanted to retract Roman rule to more easily defensible borders.[3] As a result, Hadrian evacuated Trajan's three provinces in 118.[4]


Assyria is #44
Mesopotamia is #45

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/provincias_romanas.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Assyria_Provincia.jpg

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The origins of Christianity in Assyria (all but one taken from George Bebla's book):


Alan Segal:


The Addai whom Syriac-speaking Edessans regarded as their Apostle may well have been an historical personage. A missionary of this name is held—and there is no reason to gainsay the view that this account has a basis of facts—to have brought Christianity to Adiabene at the end of the first, or early in the second century. He may have introduced it to Edessa. Relations between Edessa and Adiabene were of the closest. Nor should we overlook the important bond of language, for Syriac was the speech of both Adiabene and Edessa.


The important Assyrian city of Harran was located 22.81 miles SE of Edessa. Recall, the Mandaean book about their history (the one I discussed a few pages back) is called "Harran Gawaitha." The "Inner Harran."


George Phillips, including a bit from the Doctrine of Addai:


Preface

The MS of which a portion is here edited, belongs to the Imperial Public Library of St. Petersburg. It is in fine condition, written in a bold Estrangelo character, comprising several works besides the one now published, and is apparently of the sixth century. It is the only known MS which contains the Syriac text of "The Doctrine of Addai, the Apostle," entire. There exists in the British Museum a MS of this work, which forms one of the ancient Syriac documents edited and translated by the late Dr. Cureton, and published after his death. That MS., however, is very imperfect. It does not contain so much as a half of the entire text, and consequently the value of the work in so mutilated a condition is greatly impaired.


So also Orientals with the appearance of merchants passed into the country of the Romans to see the signs which Addai did, and those of them who became disciples, received from them the hand of the priesthood, and in their own country of the Assyrians they taught the sons of their people, and houses of prayer they built there secretly, because of the danger arising from the worshippers of fire and the adorers of water. But Nersai, the king of the Assyrians, when he had heard of these things which Addai the Apostle had done, he sent to Abgar, the king; either send me the man who hath done these signs with thee, that I may see him and hear his discourse, or send me an account of all these things which thou hast seen him do in thy city.


Jean-Maurice Fiey:


Christianity, starting from Edessa and passing through Nisibis, spread along both shores of the River Tigris, into the provinces of Athor (the ancient Assyria of Nineveh), Adiabene (Arbil), Beth Garmai (Kerkuk), in the south in Beth Aramaye, and in Meishan (Basra).


Christoph Baumer:


Tradition and scholarship do concur, at least, regarding where Christianity first took hold, namely in Edessa (Urfa) and Adiabene (northern Iraq).


Samuel Moffett:


And though Edessa of Osroene was traditionally the first base of missionary expansion to the East, Arbela of Adiabene was also to become a major center for missions beyond Mesopotamia into eastern Persia and central Asia.

Humanist
2012-06-10, 21:30
From another thread, but again, relevant to the topic. The order of presentation is a bit of a mess. Sorry. But, when people speak of Mitanni, and other peoples from the north, in my opinion, it would serve them well to be familiar with what is contained below. Shepherding, warriors, horses, and the word "danna", and other terms, may be particularly significant.


Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted hereditary warrior nobility which dominated many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age. The term is attested in the Amarna letters written by Haapi. Robert Drews writes that the name 'maryannu' although plural takes the singular 'marya', which in Sanskrit means young warrior, and attaches a Hurrian suffix. He suggests that at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age most would have spoken either Hurrian or Aryan but by the end of the 14th century most of the Levant maryannu had Semitic names. Maryannu was also an alternate Egyptian name for Mitanni, where the word undoubtedly originated.

Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
maqqadu : [Legal] : right of pasture

martianni [Army → Military]: (Nuzi [Hurrian-Akkadian] dialect) : men , warriors , braves , fighters

mār damqi , mār banî , rubû , bir kabti ° (?) (feminine : mar'at damqi *): a nobleman , an aristocrat , a high official in the kingdom , a titled person

marru : spade , shovel

rā'i immeri : a shepherd

Arabic
Emir (pronounced [eˈmiːr], Arabic: أمير‎ ʾAmīr (Feminine: Emira, أميرة ʾAmīrah), meaning "commander", "general", or "prince"; also transliterated as Amir, Aamir or Ameer) is a title of high office, used throughout the Muslim world.

Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
mâṛiya: pasture place

mâṛiyana: grazer, pasturer

ṛiya : shepherd

Checked the Sureth online dictionary for my dialect:


ܡܲܪܥܘܼܝܹܐ
Eastern phonetic : maruyi
[Country → Agriculture]
English : (transitive verb) : to pasture , to put out to pasture , to feed (animals) on growing grass , to tend cattle in a pasturage , to let animals graze in a pasture land , to act as a shepherd

maṛa: metal spade

mara (pl. marâwata, marwata) : master, owner

marta: mistress, lady

Mar: The title received by Assyrian men consecrated as Bishops of the different Assyrian churches in Mesopotamia, for the better part of the last two millennia.

Sumerian
an: n., sky, heaven; the god An; grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') v., to be high. adj., high. prep., in front.

en: n., dignitary; lord; high priest; ancestor (statue); diviner [EN archaic frequency: 1232; concatenates 3 sign variants] .v., to rule. adj., noble

maš; máš: interest (of a loan); rent; profit; produce, yield (of a field) (ma4, 'to leave, depart, go out', + šè, 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133].

nun: n., prince, noble, master (ní, 'fear; respect',+ un, 'people' ?) v., to rise up (n, 'to be high',+ u5, 'to mount; be on top of; raised high'). adj., great, noble, fine, deep.

(giš/urudu) mar, gar: n., wagon; winnowing shovel; spoon (ma(3); ñá,'to go', + flowing motion; Akk. marru "shovel; spade"; Orel & Stolbova #1738 *mar- 'hoe') v., to sow, scatter; to coat, apply; to don; to immerse; to enclose, lock up.

Phoenician
jbr: warrior. Pronounced "jabbur."

Sureth
gabbara: hero; Orion.

Wikipedia: “Orion, sometimes subtitled The Hunter, is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. Its name refers to Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology.”

Sumerian
kabar, kapar[PA.DAG.KISIM×GAG]: shepherd boy (ká, 'gate', + bar, 'to open').

gába-ra: shepherd boy/girl (Akk. loanword from kaparrum).

sisi (ANŠE.KUR.RA): horse (reduplicated si, 'to stand upright').

Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
sīsû : horse
sūsānu : [Professions] horse-trainer , chariotman , groom

Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
susa (pl. susǎwata, suse): horse

Wikipedia:


Kikkuli, "master horse trainer (assussanni, virtually Sanskrit aśva-sana-) of the land Mitanni" was the author of a chariot horse training text written in the Hittite language, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC). The text is notable both for the information it provides about the development of Indo-European languages and for its content.

From: The Kikkuli Text. Hittite Training Instructions for Chariot Horses in the Second Half of the 2nd Millennium B.C. and Their Interdisciplinary Context. By Peter RAULWING


Kikkuli “from the land of Mittani” has provided a program for the Hittites to build endurance and stamina reaching the limits of the physical capacity of the horses, as he demands up to 150 km daily (and this on several successive days), if we equate the measurement of 1 DANNA used in the Kikkuli Text with the Sumerian equivalent of 10,7 km.

Sumerian
danna, dana: road-length measure, double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2].

Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
dannu: strong, powerful ; stable
adānu [Time] : fixed date, time limit

Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
dana: time; point in time; period of time
dəna, dena : debt, loan


[A]ll the Luvian words where the etymological /tsu-/ is to be postulated (e.g. *zuwana/i- ëdogí, *azu(wa)- ëhorseí, and *zurni ëhornsí) are written with the sign L 448, conventionally transliterated as sǔ (Melchert 1987: 201-02).
From, “The University of Chicago. Sociolinguistics of the Luvian Language." Volume 1. 2008.

The word aššuššanne‘horse-trainer’ combines the Hurrian suffix -anne with an Indo-Aryan-sounding root aššušš (cf. Sanskrit áśva-* ‘horse’). Indeed, it was probably the Hurrians who introduced “the light horsedrawn chariot with spoked wheels, the training of horses to draw it, its use as a platform for firing the composite bow, and the development of scale-armour for men and horses to counter it” (cf. Sherratt 1980:125).

From, Fournet and Bomhard's "Indo-European Elements in Hurrian."

See the suggested etymology of "Maryannu", at top. Then read through the Akkadian, Sumerian, and Sureth words (the words for noble/bishop, pasture, spade, horse, time("dana"), etc.), and the bit below.


Mitanni (Naharin)


The Mitanni were an Indo-European (Hurrian) people whose kingdom in northern Mesopotamia flourished from about 1600 (Second Intermediate Period) until it was conquered by the Hittite King Suppiluliumas during the reign of Akhenaten. At its peak, the empire stretched from Kirkuk (ancient Arrapkha) and the Zagros mountains in western Iran in the east, through Assyria to the Mediterranean sea in the west. Its center was in the region of the Khabur River, where its capital, Wassukkani was probably located. Under King Saustatar (contemporary with Thutmose III), the Mitanni empire included such cities as Alalakh in northern Syria, and Nuzi, Kurrukhanni, and Arrapkha in Mesopotamia. The northern boundary dividing the Mitanni from other Hurrian states and the Hittites was never clearly fixed.

Originally the Mitanni were probably part of the Aryan people who finally settled in India, but it appears they, and some other of their race (including the Hurri), turned and settled in Mesopotamia instead. Their kingdom was a feudal state led by a Hurrian or Aryan warrior. The upper class in the cities consisted of a chariot-warrior caste, the maryannu, which bred horses on large country estates. The nobles received their land as an inalienable fief: land could not be sold. To get around this law, landowners arranged to sell land by "adopting" buyers for a prearranged sum of money. Sheep were raised for their wool, and the palace collected textiles to be exported to foreign markets. The social structure and legal system were well-organized and patterned after the Babylonian.


An Assyrian, singing about his homeland (Bet Nahrain) (http://youtu.be/fHXONSbxESI).



Manetho derived the word “Hyksos” from two Egyptian words which translated as “Shepherd Kings”. Although this etymology is now rejected, there are good grounds for believing that the Ptolemaic scribe had tapped into a genuine Egyptian tradition about the Hyksos, a tradition which somehow linked them with shepherds. Why link a nation of military conquerors with the humble occupation of the shepherd?

The land most famous in the ancient Near East for its shepherds and sheep was Assyria. A bas-relief on the stairways of the Apadana at Persepolis portrays the subject peoples of the Achaemenid Empire delivering their tribute to king Xerxes. Each region brings the tribute upon which the economic strength of that nation is based. The Lydians, for example, with their long side-locks, deliver measures of gold-dust to the Great King. The Assyrians are there too. They bring fleeces and live sheep. (John Hicks, The Persians (Time Life, 1978) pp. 36-7) The Assyrian kings of the Neo-Assyrian epoch were regularly portrayed wearing robes trimmed with woollen fringes and grasping in their right hands the Assyrian symbol of royal authority and power — the shepherd’s crook. The pharaohs of Egypt also used the shepherd’s crook as a symbol of kingly authority, but its use in this context appears to have been unknown before the Hyksos Age. Who then could have introduced such a royal symbol to Egypt but the sheep-rearing people of northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrian Shepherd Kings?

Ages in Alignment by Emmet Sweeney


Shalmaneser, king of all people, prince, vice-regent of Aššur, strong king, king of Assyria, king of all the four quarters, sun(god) of all people, ruler of all lands, the king who is the desired object of the gods, chosen of the god Enlil, trustworthy appointee of Aššur, attentive prince, who gives income and offerings to the great gods, pious one, who ceaselessly provides for the Ekur, faithful shepherd who leads in peace the population of Assyria, exalted overseer who heeds the commands of the gods, the resplendent one who acts with the support of Aššur and Šamaš, the gods his allies, and at the beginning of his reign conquered the upper sea and the lower sea, who has no rival among the princes of the four quarters, who indeed has seen remote and rugged regions and trodden upon the mountain peaks in all the highlands; son of Ashurnasirpal (II), appointee of the god Enlil, vice-regent of Aššur, son of Tukultī-Ninurta (II), appointee of the god Enlil, vice-regent of Aššur, son of Adad-nārārī (II) who was also appointee of the god Enlil, vice-regent of Aššur:

When Aššur, the great lord, chose me in his steadfast heart and with his holy eyes and named me for the shepherdship of Assyria, he put in my grasp a strong weapon which fells the insubordinate, he crowned me with a lofty crown, and he sternly commanded me to exercise dominion over and to subdue all the lands insubmissive to Aššur. At that time, in my accession year and in my first regnal year, after I nobly ascended the royal throne, I mustered my chariots and troops. I entered the pass of the land Simesi and captured the city Aridu, the fortified city of Ninnu. I erected a tower of heads in front of the city. I burned ten cities in its environs. While I was residing in the same city Aridu, I received tribute of teams of horses from the people of the lands/mountains Ḫargu, Ḫarmasa, Sirišu, Ulmānu, and Simerra.

Annals of Shalmaneser III, King of Assyria (Fort Shalmaneser, 857 b.c.)


“Recent Considerations About the Origin of Nuzi Ware in the Light of Its Archaeological Contexts”, in H. Kühne, R.M. Czichon, F. Janoscha Kreppner (eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 29 March – 3 April 2004, Freie Universität Berlin, Vol. 2, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2008, pp. 245-258.



The increasing number of the archaeological expeditions in the Khabur region and its neighbourhood, and the recent publication of studies about pottery and material culture of many sites from the Syrian and Iraqi Jazirah, offer an opportunity to consider a good quantity of data about material culture in the Mitanni heartland in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. These archaeological information are particularly remarkable because of the accurate stratigraphical analysis reported by modern archaeologists and the almost complete sequences of material culture representing this period.

It is worth to stress that the sites of northern Syria and Mesopotamia belong to the core of the region of the Mitannian kingdom, and this is particularly noteworthy for the steps towards a documentation geographically more balanced. It has been frequently noted how much of the materials concerning Mitannian culture come from ‘peripheral’ sites, such as Tell Atchana/Alalakh and Yorghan Tepe/Nuzi (Mellink 1975: 518). New excavations in the Khabur and neighbouring regions are thus providing a good chance to set all the possible information about Mitannian culture in the very centre of its heartland.

“Nuzi Ware” plays a special role in this sense, as its strict relationship with the Mitannian milieu has been always confirmed (Stein 1984: 30), from the old excavations in Nuzi where the pottery has been found in association with tablets of the king of Mitanni Shaushtatar (Speiser 1933-34: 48), until the most recent works in Tell Brak, where the same sealing has beenfound on a tablet from the so-called “Mitannian Palace” (Matthews 1997: 49).

Nuzi Ware, with its peculiar light-on-dark decoration, is a distinctive trademark of thematerial culture of Late Bronze Age I in northern Syria and Mesopotamia, and it is still one of the most easily recognizable items among the archaeological levels belonging to this period.


See map of Assyrians and Mandaeans below. Nuzi is the "1" marker. Excavations were not carried out at Nuzi.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Nuzi.jpg



The question about the existence of a “transitional” pottery between Old Babylonian andMitannian ceramic typologies, and the related question of the origin of “Nuzi Ware”, has been debated since the beginning of the first classification of Nuzi and Khabur Ware in upper Mesopotamian excavations. Max Mallowan discussed it from the point of view of his work in Tell Brak, Tell Chagar Bazar (Mallowan 1947: 79; 239-242) and the sites of the Balikh valley, especially Tell Jidle (Mallowan 1946: 120-121); Ephraim Speiser dealt with it in thedocumentation of Tell Billa (Speiser 1932-33: 258-259) and Sir Leonard Woolley in Alalakh(Woolley 1938: 7-10).

Records from recent excavations in northern Syria and Mesopotamia add new information to the question. Two excavations of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq, in Tell al Rimah and Tell Brak, offer new data concerning transition phases from Old Babylonian to Mitannian period. In Tell al Rimah, in northern Iraq, evidence of Sites A and C, in particular levels 2-4 in the former and 5-6 in the latter, is of striking importance because they display a nearly complete sequence of materials from Old Babylonian to Mitannian periods.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Nuzi_strat.jpg



Recent excavations in Tell Brak, conducted by David and Joan Oates, reveal from Area H.H. new data from the Late Old Babylonian and Mitannian periods. Tell Brak was for sure one of the main cities in upper Syria at the middle of the second millennium, probably corresponding to ancient Nawar (Oates et al. 1997: 152), and the building of the Mitannian palace and temple on the highest part of the mound testifies the main role of Brak in the surrounding area. New stratigraphical sequence has completed and integrated the previous Mallowan’s one: he identified Mitannian levels in the first three levels of Site H.H., all characterized by the presence of Nuzi Ware (Mallowan 1947: 77-78). In Level 3 Nuzi Ware overlaps with “Late” Khabur Ware (Ibid.). The new sequence is divided in 10 levels, from Old Babylonian to Middle Assyrian, identifying old Lev. 3 with new Lev. 6-5, marked by the overlapping of Khabur and Nuzi Ware (Oates et al. 1997: 37). The archaeologists outline the passage Late Old Babylonian – Mitannian as a very gradual change, with the permanence of the same pottery features: no break in material culture is recorded for this transition and it’s not easy to recognize the assemblages of the different levels (Id.: 67).

Shapes of previous tradition continue their production; gradually beakers and grain measures get more painted decorations, not only with parallel horizontal dark bands, but also with bird designs (Fig. 4). Geometrical motifs which will be featured on Nuzi Ware are now painted in dark-on-light, and the footed beaker makes its first gradual appearance (Fig. 5). In the successive levels, 4-2, the footed beaker with vertical thin walls, will be the main shape for Nuzi Ware (Fig. 6), leading to the standardized production which characterizes the major part of sites in the Khabur area: not only Tell Brak, but similar features are recorded in Tell Barri and Tell Hamidi, a few kilometres north of Brak, and Tell Beydar, in the western part of the Khabur triangle. In all of these sites fine exemplars of Nuzi ware, with footed beakers and shouldered jars with rich naturalistic motifs, have been found.

Even Max Mallowan, in his previous excavations in Brak, found in Levels 3 and 2 sherds with bird decorations, which bore at the same time a light and dark decorations, giving the vessels their typical black-and-white effect, which Hrouda and Kantor considered one of the more characteristic features of the Nuzi as well as the possible transition pottery (Fig. 7). Mallowan also identifi ed similar kind of vessels in the Level 2 of Tell Jidle, in the Balikh Valley (Fig. 8). Vessel shapes are the footed beaker and the carenated cup, frequently attested in Nuzi Ware style. In these two fragmentary exemplars they display the bird motifs and geometrical patterns in a dark-on-light painting.

The study on the pottery from the first campaigns made by Xavier Faivre (1992) is very clear about the great difficulty of isolating proper Mitannian material from that of the preceding and succeeding periods. Nevertheless he hypothesizes that the “transition” period already suggested by Mallowan and Kantor is evident in the overlapping of Habur and Nuzi Ware, and in a certain infl uence of the second type on the first (Id.: 61; 68).

Also in Tell Barri the transition between Old Babylonian and Mitannian period seems to be characterized by continuity. The archaeologists of the Italian Mission of the University of Florence did not record any sensible interruption in the occupation in Area G, where the buildings seem to maintain the same functional destination and same building technique. The appearance of Nuzi Ware together with the fi ner Khabur Ware, in its “late Khabur Ware” kind, are the most characteristic features of the passage from Old Babylonian to Mitannian periods (Pecorella 1998: 83).

One last site which is worth to mention in this issue is Tell Hamida, in the Iraq’s North Jazirah, where Paul Zimansky and Elizabeth Stone conducted a limited excavation in two part of the mound (Zimansky 1990: 271). The Late Bronze Age evidence at the site shows levels featuring a continuity of pottery sequence. Whether in “Operation 2” Nuzi Ware was found (Id.:272; Zimansky 1995: 79; Fig. 6, a), in “Operation 1” it didn’t come to light but the painted pottery showed many features similar to those of Nuzi Ware (Id.: 82). Zimansky supposes that all the typical elements of Nuzi Ware, i.e. the bird decorations and the vessels shape were already there, but the fully developed Nuzi pottery wasn’t there yet. Still, he states that some white painting decoration was in use, so it’s likely to suppose that all the features of Nuzi Ware were already in place.

This last statement takes us back to the main question: is it possible to distinguish a transitional typology in the early Mitanni phases, and can it offer us some useful chronological data?

The evidence shown from the sites of northern Syria and Mesopotamia gives a positive answer for the first question. Although material culture, and specifically pottery production, continues without any break between Late Old Babylonian and early Mitannian, it is possible to distinguish some specific materials which mark the passage between the two periods. Not only, as it is already known, Khabur Ware and Nuzi Ware overlap, but also distinctive features of painted pottery, such as motifs and shapes, mark this moment all over the region. They individually come to light slightly before Nuzi Ware itself, and are still there with the early Nuzi, till they gradually disappear, as Nuzi pottery becomes a more standardized fine product. Diagnostic features for this trend is the association of the bird motif design, especially in its low crouched running style, and the “grain measure” shape, typical elements for the Late Old Babylonian and early Mitannian assemblages. Decoration usually occurs in dark painting on a light background, although this should not be taken as a definite rule of chronological development8. Although these features seem to characterize an intermediate phase of the early Late Bronze Age, likely in the second half of the XVIth century, some of them can also be found in later assemblages, and continue in archaeological evidence as a sort of persistence of conventional characteristics during the Mitannian period. Unfortunately we cannot assume the result of this hypothesis as a paradigm for attributing a strict chronology to the materials: we can indeed follow the lines of a complex development which gets through our designation of Old Babylonian and Mitannian periods in relation to their material assemblages.

In the early stages of definition of a proper Nuzi Ware style, we gain the impression of a wide range of experimentations, where it is not witnessed only a one-way trend in developing of painted pottery. This “evolution” has more to do with a gradual change in the taste of the forthcoming Mitannian period, where the percentage of painted pottery increases from the preceding pottery of Old Babylonian period. It is hard to establish if new “clients” are involved in this subtle changing, because all the evidence of archaeological records show great continuity in all the aspects of material culture, and no violent interruption in the archaeological stratification is recorded. All the features displayed in the pottery of this intermediate phase show the gradual diffusion of a new taste, which will soon lead to the fully developed Nuzi style, one of the clearest marks of material culture of the Mitanni period through XVth-XIVth centuries.


Yes. I do believe there may be some sort of connection. After all, Assyria first became a power after the demise of Mitanni. It was not even known as "Assyria" before this time.


Posted previously:



The way the horses are depicted on Assyrian baw-reliefs differs greatly from the ways they are presented in Egyptian, Mycenaean, or Scythian reliefs, and each of these differs also from all others. The design of the horse with its rider on the stone plate in the Bologna collection from the Memphite tomb of Haremhab is not Egyptian, but clearly Assyrian. the prancing horse under a rider with one of the front legs raised from the ground, and also its mane arrangement, and the way the artist generally treats the horse, are eminently Assyrian. The Egyptian steed, never for horseback riding and regularly drawing a chariot whether in war or in hunt, has traditionally two forelegs raised, thus charging in gallop, differs in every detail from the horse under the rider on the Bologna fragment from Haremhab’s bas-relief. The Assyrians are credited with the development of cavalry; in the words of a Hebrew prophet, “Assyrians . . . horsemen riding upon horses.” (16)

Ezekiel 23:12

The "she" here is Israel. Same passage. Different versions.

New International Version (1984)


She too lusted after the Assyrians--governors and commanders, warriors in full dress, mounted horsemen, all handsome young men.


English Standard Version (2001)


She lusted after the Assyrians, governors and commanders, warriors clothed in full armor, horsemen riding on horses, all of them desirable young men.


New Living Translation (2007)


She fawned over all the Assyrian officers--those captains and commanders in handsome uniforms, those charioteers driving their horses--all of them attractive young men.

Humanist
2012-06-11, 03:35
Neo-Assyrian provinces in the seventh century BCE

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/provinces.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-10 at 21:43 ----------

Between Mitannians and Middle Assyrians

Anacleto D'Agostino, Florence

Proceedings of 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 3-8 April 2006), UAM Ediciones, Madrid, 2008, 525-548.



In terms of political geography, the territorial state referred to for the first time during the Middle Assyrian period as “Land of Ashur,” was largely composed of upper Mesopotamian territories previously occupied by the Mitanni.

newtoboard
2012-06-11, 16:31
Neo-Assyrian provinces in the seventh century BCE

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/provinces.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-10 at 21:43 ----------

Between Mitannians and Middle Assyrians

Anacleto D'Agostino, Florence

Proceedings of 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 3-8 April 2006), UAM Ediciones, Madrid, 2008, 525-548.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Near_East_1400_BCE.png

The orange area? Firmly within Northern Iraq and Southern Turkey it seems.

Ardi
2012-06-11, 20:46
Thanks, Ardi. Very interesting!

Have you read Parpola's "The Assyrian Tree of Life: Tracing the Origins of Jewish Monotheism and Greek Philosophy? (http://www.atour.com/education/pdf/SimoParpola-TheAssyrianTreeOfLife.pdf)" It is an interesting read.

Can you refer me to any links related to Hurrian/Urartian/Armenian tree worship?

Thanks for the fascinating paper!

As a visually conspicous symbol of regenration, the tree has embodied the cycle of life since times immemorial. This basic archetypal concept has subsequently evolved to include a nexus of related semantic catagories, including the sacred space of trees, or the ‘holy grove’. The ethnographic implication of this thematic variation becomes quite intrigiung once we expand our focus on the Armenian cultural corpus.

Unlike certain other cultural ‘leitmotifs’, the veneration of trees is one of the most demonstrably continous mythical traditions of the Armenian Highlands. Manuk Abeghian, the great scholar of Armenia folkore, said the following about the surviving costums at the turn of the last century:


Many old and large trees in densely forested parts of Armenia are considered holy and are worshipped the same way as water sources. Before them candles are lit, incense is burned, roosters and sheep are slaughtered as sacrifices, the trees are kissed, people squeeze through their split portions or a slender child is sent through their holes to remove any influence of evil spirits. People believe (57) that [59] upon such holy trees light descends from heaven, or that saints dwell on them.

Trees also bestow health. Some cure all ailments, others, only particular ones, especially fever. To receive healing from a tree, one must cut a piece from one's clothing and wrap it around the tree or fasten it with a nail. Folk believe that in this way the disease is transferred to the tree. This is usually done at the same time they are going to bathe in the holy waters. However, when there are no trees around the holy waters, then people cut a piece of their clothes, wrap it around a stone, and leave it by the water. Often when passing by a sacred tree, people leave their walking sticks there to free them from their ailments (AH, II, 200). Sap taken from these trees is smeared on diseased skin. Such trees continue to be worshipped after they dry up, while the rotted wood is used as medicine.

Trees and fountains also cure animals. The sick animal is made to walk around the sacred tree three times and then a stick is cut and left near the tree (AH, II, 198 ff.).
Fountains and flowers may even bestow immortality, but not knowingly on humans. It is believed that snakes will live forever, if they are not killed. There are "fountains of immortality" whose waters are surrounded by various flowers and plants. Old, sick, and wounded snakes recognize such fountains and plants. They come to such springs and change their skins by eating the petals of a particular flower. Then they immediately slither close to the water source, bathe in it, and drink three gulps of water. After this the snakes crawl out healed and young again. If a person recognizes the fountain and the flower, drinks three handfulls of the water and eats the flower, then he too will become immortal (SGB, pp. 37, 86).

In Azgagrakan handes II, pp. 198 ff. some [60] 37 different types or species of trees are mentioned which are considered holy in the distrcit of Varanda. Mentioned with the majority of these trees are alsoxach'k'ars [carved crosses] which have such names as "apple cross," "golden cross," "green cross," etc.*

Although these names do not have any particular significance, since the word xatch' [cross] designates a holy site, they are nonetheless considered Christian. There are beyond these some eleven other sites which are regarded as having a pagan origin. Such a large number in one district clearly shows how strongly the pagan worship of trees survived among the Armenians.

It is considered a sin to cut down a sacred tree or to cut its branches. It is believed that the trees themselves have the power of punishing the malefactor with disease. Sometimes the punishment is extended to include the malefactor's entire family. A universal human idea, that plants are sentient, naturally is found among the Armenians. People often behave as though those trees are alive, treat them as people, and talk to them. For example on the feast of Palm Sunday, Tsaghkazard [Adorned with Flowers], which the people call Tsar'zardar [Decorated with Trees], peasants will take an axe and and tap on a tree which does not give fruit, saying: "If you don't yield fruit, I will cut you down."**

Bryonia Alba, [Armenian] loshtak is considered king of the plants (AHH, p. 73). It is not merely an animate being but one with a human-like form. The fruit and roots of this plant are regarded as a magic wand which can give wisdom and strength to humans and animals. They also cure numerous diseases and ward off evil spirits. As a result, everywhere people try to possess any part of this plant. Loshtak is gathered only in the month of May. When harvesting it, certain prayers are recited, and when the root is removed, [61] with the aim of assuaging the plant's anger a goat kid or chicken is tied to the plant—probably originally as a sacrifice. There are also some plants which, though they lack souls and are not worshipped, are nonetheless powerful defenses against evil spirits. Examples are the wild rose and plants with thorns. As among other peoples, thorns are affixed to the door of a house to stay free of evil influences. An especially efficacious defense against the evil eye is provided by the European Nettle tree,Celtis austrailis which people plant in their yards, gardens, and elsewhere, and also by the bush Viburnum Opulus. Along with other prophylactic devices, pieces of these plants are kept by people and are also tied to the necks of animals.

*The thoroughly Armenian tradition of cross-stones is in itself a testament to the persistence of tree sacricy in the psyche of the Armenian people. These monuments are often decorated with vegetative motives, which in essence “factor” the religious symbol of the cross by one-degree, back to the primary archetype of the Sacred Tree.

http://www.tacentral.com/khachkars/images/cross11-small.jpg

Khachkar from the 7th century

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Khatchkar_at_Goshavank_Monastery_in_Armenia.jpg

One of the finest specimens, the khachkar at Goshavanq, carved in 1219 by the artist Poghos

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/%D4%BD%D5%A1%D5%B9%D6%84%D5%A1%D6%80_%D4%B5%D6%80% D5%A5%D6%82%D5%A1%D5%B6%D5%AB_%D4%B2%D5%AA%D5%B7%D 5%AF%D5%A1%D5%AF%D5%A1%D5%B6_%D5%80%D5%A1%D5%B4%D5 %A1%D5%AC%D5%BD%D5%A1%D6%80%D5%A1%D5%B6%D5%AB_%D5% B4%D6%85%D5%BF.JPG

Modern example

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Modern_Khachkar_at_Yerevan_park.jpg

Note the rams

**The tzarzardar of tzaghkazard (a better rendering of Palm Sunday in Armenian would be “adorned in bloom”) may very well refer to the practice of decorating trees with prayer handerchiefs, which takes places to this day during several different holidays.

http://armenien.drbstrohmenger.net/am115.jpg

https://encrypted-tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTtpya3EXus0TEygrbANsNMP0PHXDyfJ sj9wtcmyq7wIhK66cnl

http://www.tinekevangeel.nl/site/images_content/armenia2007_may/%27Wishing%20tree%27%20near%20Geghard%20monastery_ 1.JPG

http://spyurkblog.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/dsc00437.jpg?w=300&h=225


Aside from its mythologically archaic foundation, the antiquity of this living tradition is explicitly attested in both the archeological record and the earliest of Armenian texts. In his invaluable History of Armenia, the father of Armenian historiography Moses of Khoren (Movses Khorenatsi) refers to the significance of tree divination in designated ritualistic areas for pre-Christian Armenians:

The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the Oral Tradition to the Golden Age, Volume 1 (http://books.google.com/books?id=uvA-oV0alP8C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=snippet&q=armavir&f=false)


A much more interesting tradition is that of Anushavan Sosanver, which gives us a glimpse of paganism among ancient Armenians. Anushavan, the grandson of Ara the Fair (handsome- A.) had been dedicated to the cult of plane (sosi in Armenian), of which there was a grove in Armavir. The intensity of the rustling (sosaviun) of their leaves and the direction in which they moved as they were blown by gentler or stronger winds were made the bases of divination. The play on sosi, sosaviun and Sosanver are to be noted.


Furthermore, the identical continuity between of the practice in Urartu and Classical Armenia is remarkable:

The Inscription of Ishpuini and Meinua at Qalatgah, Iran, Maurits van Loon, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3, Jul., 1975 (www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/544649)


The mention of divine trees, perhaps in connection with the thunder god Teisheba, recalls both the common iconographical feature of the spear-shaped leaf, and the Armenian tradition of tree oracles in pagan times. On the relief from Adilcevaz, for instance, a beardless god mounted on a bull is shown holding such a pointed leaf which he has picked from the trees that surround him. The fifth century A.D. historian Moses of Khoren reports that in pre-Christian times the priests at Armavir, Armenian SSR, used to consult the sound and motion of windblown sos trees as an oracle.The German translation renders sos as "plane tree,"and the Russian translation gives "cypress" as the equivalent. The correct translation, however, seems to be "a tree of the poplar (Populus) family," including-to judge by derivatives with meanings like "rustling"- "the aspen (Populus tremula)".

The Adilcevaz relief, portraying the chief Hurro-Urartian diety Teshub (Teisheba)

http://rbedrosian.com/Ref/Piot/uap065.png

Urartian diety (Khaldi?) annointing with a leaf, possibly in a grove

http://www.cliolamuse.com/IMG/jpg/urartu_cun.jpg

Decoration on a bronze helmet of Sarduri II. The relief includes 2 rows of 10 “doorways” with a Sacred tree in each, and an eleventh at the very top. (Armenian Historical Museum)

http://rbedrosian.com/Ref/Piot/uap046.png

The helmet

http://www.sacvoyage.am/images/attractions_image/501298704750.jpeg

Detail of doorway

http://lh4.google.com/srivastava.sunil/RtJlq8IW_MI/AAAAAAAAANY/WpmR2jojRvQ/s400/Urartu_Helmet_Fragment_1.jpg


Note the typically Mesopotamian winged guardians of the tree, echoed in the Genesis account of the Garden of Eden

http://www.globeweeklynews.com/great_3.gif


Steatite jar with decorated lid. Karmir Blur (Teishebaini). (Armenian Historical Museum.)

http://rbedrosian.com/Ref/Piot/uap069.png

Stone seal (bottom)

http://rbedrosian.com/Ref/Piot/uap073.png

Moreover, the very location of Armavir in Caucasian Armenia and its vicinity to the Urartian city of Teishebaini (“Teshub-built”) is significant for two reasons: not only does the establishment of Armavir as the first capital of the state thenceforth called ‘Armenia’ point to the sacral importance of the region, it may also shed light on the Pre-Urartian precursors of the tree rite, and, considering the Early Trans-Caucasian (Kura-Arax) connection, the very origins of the ‘Hurro-Urarto-Armenian’ cultural sphere.


'Pre-Urartian Armavir', Inessa Karapetyan and Amina Kanetsyan, Armavir Expedition, Republic of Armenia (http://digitool-uam.greendata.es//exlibris/dtl/d3_1/apache_media/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS8yNDYyOQ ==.pdf)



The unifying idea behind all of these hypotheses (regarding stylized artifacts and pictograms) is one of fertility, the plenty and the related concepts of fertilizing Mother-earth and the farm animals, the blossoming of the creative forces of nature, reestablishment of well-being, continuation of a human race.



It is well known that a depiction in the form of concentric circles, known from the Neolithic era, serves as a sign for heaven, whereas the break is interpreted as the entrance to heaven. This symbol of heaven in all of its analogues is encountered on horizontal rocks and stones with a slight slant, where the break-entrance is pointed south', which gave rise to the theory that it depicted the passage for the Sun, by means of which it entered the skies and descended to the underworld. Our first rock presents the same picture for interpretation, by which we can identifier the depiction with the "god of heaven".

Many of the above-mentioned depictions with concentric circles contain carvings of ladders situated in the passage leading to their center. Ladders are also depicted on our rock. Here, in contrast to the analogues we've described, they are located in the central, eastern and western parts of the rock on the slope leading towards the depiction of the &'god of heaven". Such ladders are also found on the third, "ram-like" rock from Armavir, in combination with various graphemes

A ladder in the ritual and mythological texts of various ancient peoples symbolizes a world tree, analogous to the world mountain. At the same time a "ladder" is a mytho-poetic image of the connection of the two worlds - the upper and the lower-, connecting the world of gods, humans and the dead38. Thus, in the Hittite ritual and mythological texts the Sun at night descends into the underworld, and in the morning rises to heaven - the upper world – up a "ladder". It seems that the depictions of ladders on our stone reflect the same idea. The mythological image of a ladder as the connector of the two worlds - upper and lower - was widespread among the ancient population of Armenian in the IV-1st mill. BC. Rock-cut staircases leading to sacred places (platforms, caves) on the temtory of Armenia can serve as a confirmation for this theory. The smaller sacred hill in Metsamor contain staircases'. The gorge of river Amberd near thevillage of Biurakan contains staircases carved on the especially constructed pyramidal cultic In Elpin (district of Eghegnadzor) starcases rise up the mountain to the upper cultic platform above the cave, whereas in Azhdahak-yurt (mountains of Gegham) they lead down the slope towards a vishapakar. In Agarak (district of Ashtarak) the south-eastern part of the sacred mountain contains numerous ladder-like carvings. The staircases cut in various parts of the Rock of prove that these mythological ideas were in full force in the Urartian times as well. At the same time, the carving of the Greek motive inscriptions on the first rock testifies to the continuation of these ideas into the classical era.

All over the ancient world sacred rocks-stelae were placed in sacred groves, by sources of water or on the mountain, thus representing the connection of the tree, rock stele and the mountain with the idea of the center (axis) of the world. The Hittite texts talk about the stele of the god of Thunder placed in a sacred grove, in Phoenicia a conical rock (bet-il- house of god) dedicated to Astarte, stood in a sacred grove, in Etruria a stele was placed near the mountain of Sarakta, in a sacred grove. Thus it seems logical that the sacred rocks discovered in Amravir must have stood among a sacred grove as well. This is further corroborated by the writing of the Armenian historical Moses of Khoren, who mentioned the existence of a sacred grove there", as well as the data provided by A.D. Eritsov. The latter states that during his excavations in Armavir he found "deep inside the earth, by the southern slope of the hill, the trunks of poplar trees'.

Sacred groves with sacred rocks represented high deities which were in charge of destinies and at the same time acted as fortune-tellers, oracles. Assyro-Babylonian sources mention the existence of Assyrian and Urartian oracles"; such oracle texts were plentiful in the Hittite worlds. The Nemean priestess' dwelling was inside a sacred grove". In Abkhazia the cult of the goddess Kodosh was expressed in the veneration of a sacred grove dedicated to her, and we may also mention here the well-known example of the Delphic oracle".

The sacred grove in Armavir with sacred rocks was a place of divination as well. Moses of Khoren informs us not only about the divination by reading the whisper of the leaves, but also that by divining the direction in which the leaves of sacred planes point. He further talks about the high priest Anushavan, "highly pifled and most skillful in business and speech", dedicated to the planes of Armaneak . We should note here that the plane trees were dedicated to Armaneak, the son of Haik, thus the grove must have existed seven generation before Anushavan. Possibly Aramais, after building a city, planted the grove in honor of his father Armaneak. K.V. Trever and other researchers.


Considering the irrefutable ethno-linguistic kinship between the Urarttians and the enigmatic Hurrian, it would not be hard to imagine the gestation of this notion among the Hurrians themselves. In fact, Gernot Wilhelm the preeminent Hurrian scholar stresses that the transfer of statues of deities into a sacred grove is a Hurrian rite (“The Hurrians”,1982).Even though the record has not retained any direct references tree divination, various forms of divination were common among the Hurrians, and I would not be surprised if the hundereds of thus-far undeciphered tablets from Emar say a thing or two about tree worship.



Against this background, we may retlect on questions we have had in mind since the beginning of our excavations concerning the existence of relations with the north and the nature of such relations. To the north in eastern Anatolia, Armenia and Georgia for most of the third millennium the material culture is characterized by burnished or polished black and red ceramics, hearths and andirons decorated with anthropomorphic or geometric decorations and a settlement pattern centered for the most part around villages and small towns. This culture.called the Early Transcaucasian culture. is well documented from Georgia to eastern Anatolia and into northwestern Syria with extensions north of the Caucasus and to the southwest into Palestine. Many cultural patterns link Urkesh with the north.



In Hurrian mythology Ulkesh occupies a central role. It is preserved in Hurrian tests from Hittite times that are much later than the heyday of Urkesh, but two considerations are in order. First, by the time they were written, Urkesh had lost all its importance: still specifically Hurrian in nature, it was reduced to the status of a small and marginal shrine with a limited service support system. It could therefore be curious to assume that it was "invented" at that time as the seat of the father of the Hurrian pantheon. Second, the myths retain a very distinctive archaic tone, which may reasonably be assumed to reflect a much earlier tradition. one that goes back to the inoovative periods of the mythology itself. It is interesting to note that the Mesopotamian ideological landscapes in the third millennium block out altogether the northern region. While ample mental space is given to the East, the South and the West, it is as though the North did not existeven though it is geographically closer than any of the other landscapes. We interpret this to mean that the North had a strongcultural consistency of its own, which is precisely reflected in the rich Hurrian mythological world. There was no opportunity for the Sumerians to appropriate an empty landscape, because it was not empty. And there was no opportunity to adopt any of the Hurrian mythology because it was too foreign and well developed. This, at least, is our hypothesis. It seems further supported by the most recent discoveries at Tell Mozan, which seem to push back into the fourh millennium the full blossoming of Urkesh as a major urban and religious center.

'Urkesh and the Question of the Hurrian Homeland', Giorgio Buccellati, Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati (http://www.science.org.ge/2007-vol2/buchelatti-n.pdf)



I'd say it's widespread in the whole world, but certainly too in Anatolia/Mesopotamia. Wishing trees are also apparant among Kurds, and tree veneration especially with Yezidis.

Sure. It makes sense for it to be universal, considering how commonplace trees are. However, I think the tree in the context of the myth of death and rebirth is specifically tied with agricultural societies. Joseph Campbell had noticed the utter similarity of most “resurrection” myths in West Asia and Europe and had suggested the possibility of a single, common origin for for the “Western” variety of this universal motif.

Humanist
2012-06-12, 02:43
From a previous post:


In the Dur-Sharrukin cylinder inscription, the task of linguistic unification is given to the Assyrian monarch Sargon II, who ruled from 722 to 705 B.C.:

"Peoples of the four regions of the world, of foreign tongue and divergent speech, dwellers of mountain and lowland, all that were ruled by the light of the gods, lord of all, I carried off at Assur, my lord's command, by the might of my scepter. I made them of one mouth..."

William M. Schniedewind
Kershaw Chair of Ancient Eastern Mediterranean Studies
Professor of Biblical Studies & Northwest Semitic Languages
University of California, Los Angeles



----------------------------------------------------------------------



Simo Parpola suggests that the Neo-Assyrian Empire can be differentiated from its predecessors by a determination to found its imperial enterprise upon an expanded national core, unifying peoples from diverse ethnic background into a new nation, held together by linguistic and cultural ties imposed by the Assyrian elite. For Parpola, the mass deportations of defeated populations were a key instrument in achieving this.

Parpola argues that these deportations served a radical new project of nation building. He sees the Assyrian kings of this period as deliberately forging a national consciousness in the core provinces of their ever-expanding realm out of disparate ethnic elements. He links the deportations with the promotion of Aramaic, rather than the Assyrians’ own native dialect of Akkadian, as the “Imperial” lingua franca, and argues that the intention was to create one “Land of Aššur” in the home provinces; to fashion a state in which the ethnic differences between what had been a diverse population were increasingly blurred into a common Assyrian identity.

"The intense acculturation process thus started continued for a period of more than two hundred years. It was boosted by intermarriages, participation in common military expeditions, building projects and business ventures, and continuous interaction between all segments of population in all aspects of daily life. As a result, at the same time as Aramaic developed into the lingua franca of the empire and the use of the Aramaic alphabet in its administration steadily increased, its originally heterogeneous population became progressively homogeneous socially and culturally."

“Age After Age…”
The Old Testament and Empire
Peter Hatton
2011


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




The Assur ostracon was written by an individual named Bel-eṭir, who is known from contemporary texts in cuneiform as a military, and specifically as a cohort commander (rab kiṣir) of king Assurbanipal, active in southern Mesopotamia (Fig. 3), presumably during the years in which the Assyrian ruler was engaged in warfare against his brother, Šamaš-šum-ukin, king of Babylonia (645-640 BC). An Assyrian letter indicates that the king had dispatched 200 horsemen under Bel-eṭir and Arbaya — who is also mentioned in the ostracon (l. 2), in the region of Uruk (see l. 3), to assist the local pro-Assyrian governor, Nabûušabši — who might be the same person as the Nabû-zer-ušabši mentioned in l. 19 of our text. We may at this point tackle the actual contents of the text. Bel-eṭir should have been in retirement from the battlefield in his city of birth, Assur, when he wrote this letter to a former army crony of his, Pir-Amur(ru).

[T]he most interesting feature of this text is also the most obvious one. The Assur ostracon written by and to individuals also known in the contemporary Neo-Assyrian correspondence as officials of the Empire; due to their rank, these people must have absolutely been expected to speak/read Assyrian [Akkadian] on official matters, but this private letter was thought out and written in Aramaic. We are not dealing here with a family letter, in which private ideas and were exchanged among members of a tight-knit foreign community — as, e.g., in a number the letters in Aramaic from Achaemenid Egypt — but with a letter traded between “army buddies”, endowed with fully Assyrian names. These people chose to chew the fat, to set forth their private problems, and to ask for present support, in the vernacular, not in the official language of “work”.

New Light on Assyro-Aramaic Interference: the Assur Ostracon, in F.M. Fales – G.F. Grassi (Eds.), CAMSEMUD2007. Proceedings of the 13th Italian Meeting of Afro-asiatic Linguistics, Padova 2010, 189-204.



What were the effects of...Aramaicization on the Assyrians? The spread of the Aramaic language could apparently provoke adversarial reactions among the Assyrian ruling classes. Expression of such resentment occurs in an oft-quoted letter sent probably by Sargon II to the scribe Sin-iddina of Ur, who had previously asked the king if he could send him letters in Aramaic. The royal answer was "why do you not write and send me messages in Akkadian?"

[C]onversation reported in 2 Kings 18:26, between one of the officials sent by Sargon's successor, Sennacherib, to besiege Jerusalem, and Eli-akim, the head of Hezekiah's household, in which the latter asks the Assyrian to speak Aramaic: "Then Eli'akim the son of Hilki'ah, and Shebnah, and Jo'ash, said to the Rab'shakeh, -- Pray, speak to your servants in the Aramaic language, for we understand it; do not speak to us in the language of Judah [Hebrew] within the hearing of the people who are on the wall."

P.-A. Beaulieu 2006, “Official and Vernacular Languages: The Shifting Sands of Imperial and Cultural Identities in First Millennium B.C. Mesopotamia”, in S.L. Sanders (Ed.), Margins of Writing, Origins of Cultures, Chicago 2006, pp. 187-216.



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


If you have an interest in our history, and in particular, our vernacular language, please watch the clip below. :)


Link to some bits (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9kpOHmt4Pg) from the May 10, 2012 lecture by Cambridge professor Geoffrey Khan, on the Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular of today.


The Jeremiah and Helen James Lecture

presented by Geoffrey Khan

The Language of the Modern Assyrians and its Historical Background

Thursday, May 10, 7 PM, Harris Hall, Rm 107, 1881 Sheridan Road, Evanston Campus [Northwestern University)

Humanist
2012-06-12, 05:37
From Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular of Barwar:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suraya_sureth.jpg


The Assyriologist Simo Parpola on Assyrian identity (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4) (bits pertaining to Asurayu --> Surayu, and Asureth --> Sureth).

Humanist
2012-06-12, 09:48
http://www.cliolamuse.com/IMG/jpg/urartu_cun.jpg[/IMG]

Decoration on a bronze helmet of Sarduri II. The relief includes 2 rows of 10 “doorways” with a Sacred tree in each, and an eleventh at the very top. (Armenian Historical Museum)

http://rbedrosian.com/Ref/Piot/uap046.png

The helmet

http://www.sacvoyage.am/images/attractions_image/501298704750.jpeg

Detail of doorway

http://lh4.google.com/srivastava.sunil/RtJlq8IW_MI/AAAAAAAAANY/WpmR2jojRvQ/s400/Urartu_Helmet_Fragment_1.jpg

Great material. Thanks, Ardi. :) Reminded me of something I read from a thesis, a while back. Please see below.

Are conical caps a part of traditional Armenian dress?



The most definitive of the extant Assyrian helmets is the British Museum example (fig. 6.1) with its distinctive bronze inlaid pattern. This, along with examples from Hasanlu, Zinçirli, and countless examples from Urartu clearly show Madhloom‟s Type A pointed conical helmet as illustrated in the Late Assyrian reliefs. The reliefs frequently show the repoussé bands around the rims and the frontal arches, but they never illustrate the figural images as incised or inlaid upon the surviving helmets. Dezsö suggests that it is possible that paint might have been used on the reliefs to indicate this more detailed decoration (2001: 56).

A great deal of variation over time seems to appear in the reliefs. Especially in the reign of Tiglath-pileser III when there is much innovation. The eighth century seems to reflect a period of experimentation and mutual exchange between Assyria and her neighbours at least in military matters. Growing conflict led to adopting new military innovations, a transfer which went both ways, particularly between Assyria and Urartu. The Assyrians borrowed the earflaps depicted as worn by the Urartians on the bronze reliefs from Balawat. Urartu in turn borrowed the Assyrian conical helmet but appears to have chosen to decorate it with motifs from a very early period. The Assyrians replaced their early plain helmets with decorated ones which eventually became quite elaborate. At Hasanlu, it is the early plain tradition of conical helmet that appears to be adopted, leading Dezsö to believe that they are one of the earliest groups to borrow this helmet type from Assyria (2001: 73).

The artifactual record supports some of the chronology based on the reliefs, but the small quantity of provenienced material makes this comparison difficult. Furthermore, in Urartu, as in Assyria, materials found in palace storage areas or as temple offerings cannot be assumed to be contemporary with the building‟s destruction. Offerings may go back for generations, and the items in storage could be materials captured as booty or being saved to melt down. Only a larger corpus of stratigraphically excavated materials can begin to solve problems such as the transition from crested helmets to pointed ones in ninth century Urartu, the seemingly contemporary Assyrian use of both types of helmets but for various units, and the validity and origin of certain helmet shapes such as those posed as the basis for the Nimrud crested helmet.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical_helmet2.jpg


LATE ASSYRIAN ARMS AND ARMOUR: ART VERSUS ARTIFACT
by Amy E. Barron

A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada



Felt and other varieties of conical caps worn by Assyrians today, and a drawing from 1845, by Henry Layard:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/IMG_0146.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical_helmet.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/layard_assyrians.jpg

Zert
2012-06-12, 11:35
Heh, those hats kinda resemble the ones Scythians and Kurds wore:

http://www.payvand.com/news/03/mar/nyimg10.jpg
http://www.teenwitch.com/magick/supplies/pict/scythians.jpg

Scroll through this site:
http://www.saradistribution.com/eightenthcenturykurdish.htm

Humanist
2012-06-12, 16:08
The Assyrian median point from David's most recent SPA run:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrians_euphrates.jpg

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-06-12, 16:36
What historical significance does Southeastern Iraq have for Assyrians? Because that's where I plotted on the DNA Tribes Shared World Grid.

Humanist
2012-06-12, 17:13
Whether this is the only "White Mountain" in the area, I do not know. What I do know is that there are a good many things that appear to point in the direction of a possible past relationship between Mandaeans and Assyrians.


George V. Yana


What is sure, Fiey writes, is that the diocese of Ba Nuhadra had existed for a long time when the catholicos Isaac organized the Syrian Church of the East in 410, and placed this diocese among the affiliates of Arbil.

The administrative center of Ba Nuhadra, the seat of the bishop, was most probably at a place presently called Tell Khishaf, six kilometers from Alqosh, and that is where the legend places the first Episcopal seat.


See "A," on the map below:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tell_khishaf.jpg


The Haran Gawaita and the Baptism of Hibil-Ziwa:
The Mandaic Text Reproduced Together with Translation, Notes, and Commentary
translated and edited by E. S. Drower


... Then... when the boy was born Anus'-'Uthra came by command of the great Father of Glory and they came before Hibil-Ziwa by command of the great Father of Glory and travelled over deserts towards Mount Sinai and proceeded ... towards a community called Ruha's that is situated near the place where the Ark was built (...?) and she will be a deliverer (midwife) to the child ... into Parwan, the white mountain, an earthly place. And (in?) that place the fruit and sky are large. There ... (groweth?) the Tree which nourisheth infants . And they took back Sufnai the lilith to a (?) place so that when they should perform a living baptism to purify the child, the apostle of Kusta, Yahia-Yuhana[John the Baptist]...

... And they did not alter the order or commands which emanated from the presence of the great Father of Glory... Sufnai the lilith took him (the child) before the eyes of his mother fell upon him... at the order of Anus'-'Uthra. And they mounted up towards Parwan, the white mountain... (a place where) fruit and sky is (are?) large. There they set down Yahia near the Tree which nourisheth nurslings...


From an Assyrian site:

Assyrian Nohadra = modern Dohuk:


The center is the city of Nohadra, which is at the same time the center of the governorate. It lies in an extended and wide valley, to the north of the city there is the White mountain and to the south there is the great Dahkan (Shindokha) mountain, two small rivers flow in the city the first is called Nohadra river which gushes from the north near the village of Khaziava and flows to the south, an irrigation duct was built on it in the Nohadra narrow passage (Geli Nohadra) in 1990. The second tributary is smaller than the first one and is called Hishkarow River which gushes from the north- east near Barebuhar village and flows to the south- western, both rivers meet in the south- west of the city. The water of both rivers is used for watering the fruit orchards spread on their banks.

The remains which can be seen close to the city show that it had a significant location from the dawn of history to the present time. Nohadra is an important historical city because of its strategic position between the narrow passages (Geli Nohadra, Kashafer) which lead to the (Dargala Sheikhan) narrow passage where there were roads and paths which connected the Assyrian state in Nineveh and the kingdoms of Urartu, Kutians and Meetanians

Nohadra is famous for having many fruit fields and celebrated grapes...

Duhok is also near the area of the Assyrian "genetic center," if one goes by Dr. McDonald's spots on the map, and when mapping Assyrian points using a few different ADMIX runs (e.g. Dodecad).


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/white_mountain.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-12 at 11:40 ----------


The Assyrian median point from David's most recent SPA run:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrians_euphrates.jpg


What historical significance does Southeastern Iraq have for Assyrians?

Assyrians were supposedly, at least originally, a mix of Akkadians and other peoples. I have said many times that I do not know if there remains any Akkadian element in us, today. It may have been extinguished a very long time ago, during one of the "dark" periods in Assyrian history.

Have you viewed the Geoffrey Khan clip I posted a link to last night? If not, you really should. You will enjoy it. :)

Wikipedia


Sargon [of Akkad] survives as a legendary figure into the Neo-Assyrian literature of the Early Iron Age. A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess. The Neo-Assyrian account of Sargon's birth and early childhood are described thus:


My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu, which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and ... years I exercised kingship.[39]


Akkad (historical region, Mesopotamia) -- Britannica Online


Akkad, ancient region in what is now central Iraq. Akkad was the northern (or northwestern) division of ancient Babylonian civilization. The region was located roughly in the area where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers are closest to each other, and its northern limit extended beyond the line of the modern cities of Al-Fallūjah and Baghdad. The early inhabitants of this region were predominantly Semitic, and their speech is called Akkadian. To the south of the region of Akkad lay Sumer, the southern (or southeastern) division of ancient Babylonia, which was inhabited by a non-Semitic people known ...

Wikipedia


The precise archaeological site of the city of Akkad has not yet been found.[citation needed] The form Agade appears in Sumerian, for example in the Sumerian King List; the later Assyro-Babylonian form Akkadû ("of or belonging to Akkad") was likely derived from this. The etymology and meaning of Akkad (written a.ga.dèKI or URIKI) are unknown. Centuries later, the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus mentioned in his archaeological records[6] that Ishtar's worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit, whose shrine was at Sippar—suggesting proximity of Sippar and Agade. Despite numerous searches, the city has never been found. One theory holds that Agade was situated opposite Sippar on the left bank of the Euphrates, and was perhaps the oldest part of the city of Sippar. Another theory is that the ruins of Akkad are to be found beneath modern Baghdad.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/e/ec/20090501215646!Akkadian_Empire_Map.gif

Humanist
2012-06-12, 19:12
Reading the Story of Miriai on Two Levels:Evidence from Mandaean Anti-Jewish Polemic about the Origins and Setting of Early Mandaeism

James F. McGrath

Butler University


In short, no group that was simply in close proximity to the Jews would have reason to identify so closely with their traditions, and yet at the same time so adamantly repudiate them. The identification of leaders of the Mandaean community and copyists of its texts with the title Rabbi also indicates the community’s Jewish connection. For a group that was anti-Jewish, without also being in some sense Jewish, to adopt a distinctively Jewish title would be quite surprising.

The title Rabbi may have its origin in Akkadian. At least in Mandaic. Mandaeans and Assyrians do not attach any particular religious significance to the word. In Assyrian-Aramaic, it means professor/teacher, or learned one.

My grandfather was a "Rabbi."

Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, Volume 14, R (1999)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rabi.jpg

-------------------------------------------------
Reading Akkadian Prayers & Hymns
An Introduction
Edited by Alan Lenzi


So-called prayer names, that is, names of people that express petition, praise, or lament (e.g., Nabû-kudurrī-uṣur, “O Nabu, guard my firstborn,” Aššur-rabi, “Ashur is great!


-------------------------------------------------



Sumerian


pab, pap, pa4: father; brother; man; leader [PAP archaic frequency: 501; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

rib: to be higher in rank; to go away (Akk. rabbu).

rib-ba: enormous, supreme (Akkadian rabbu).

Humanist
2012-06-14, 01:28
Ardi. Have you had an opportunity to read this paper?

Hurro-Urartian from the lexicostatistical viewpoint

Alexei Kassian

UGARIT-FORSCHUNGEN
Internationales Jahrbuch für die Altertumskunde Syrien-Palästinas
Herausgegeben von Manfried Dietrich • Oswald Loretz
Band 42
2010


The Hurro-Urartian (hence: HU) linguistic family consists of two closely related
languages: Hurrian (with several dialects)2 and Urartian.3 Despite the
chronological distance between the attested Hurrian and Urartian, it seems clear
that the latter is not a direct descendant of the former, but the two languages
represent two separate branches of a common proto-language (Proto-Hurro-
Urartian).4 For the preliterate period, it is natural to associate the HU people
with the Kura-Araxes (Early Trans-Caucasian) archaeological culture (Kassian,
2010a, 423 ff. w. lit.).

External connections of the HU languages are not clear yet. The most natural
assumption, in view of the geographical distribution and typological similarity,
would be to include HU into the East Caucasian (Nakh-Dagestanian) stock of
the North Caucasian linguistic family. [I]n the last few decades, as
compared to the 1980s, there has been some substantial progress in North Caucasian linguistics, on the one hand,5 and in Hurritological studies on the other. As a result, the East Caucasian – HU hypothesis began to look much less attractive (cf., e.g., the criticism in Patri, 2009), currently it has no strong proponents.6

An alternative theory discussed by some authors connects HU to the Indo-
European family, i. e., treats HU as a member of the Nostratic macro-family with
a specially close relationship between HU and IE. The IE-HU theory, which
originates from certain ideas of Holger Pedersen, has been developed by the Armenian author G. Jahukyan (see, e. g., Jahukyan, 1961; Джаукян, 1967) and
then followed by Fournet/Bomhard, 2010. For the criticism of this theory, see
Kassian, 2010b; Kassian, 2011a.

Because neither East Caucasian nor, a fortiori, Indo-European attribution of
HU appears to be likely at the current stage of research, it seems reasonable to
undertake a more formal analysis of HU linguistic data.

...

If we extrapolate these data to the full 110-item or 100-item wordlist, we shall
come up with ca. 28–30 discrepancies in the basic lexicon between Hurrian and
Urartian, which suggests 2500 BC as an approximate date of the split of the HU
proto-language. Of course, due to its extrapolative origin, this result is not reliable,
although such a dating does not contradict our expectations either.

[T]he number of the assumed HU–Yeniseian isoglosses (7×) or HU–North Caucasian ones (6×) stands in sharp contrast with a couple of hypothetical HU–Indo-European or HU-Semitic matches...

...

As one can see, these data could theoretically testify that HU is a third member
of the Yeniseian-Burushaski stock within the Sino-Caucasian macro-family.92
On the one hand, such a result is intuitively surprising because of the geographical
remoteness of modern Yeniseian languages (see the map in Kassian, 2010a,
418)*. On the other hand, a similar situation is observed with another extinct language of Asia Minor – Hattic, which also possesses some exclusive isoglosses
with Proto-Yeniseian (Kassian, 2010a), although there is no specific visible relationship between HU and Hattic.

A fact that could be interesting for future discussion is the number of phonetic
coincidences between HU and Sumerian Swadesh items:

18. dog: Hurr. erwi ~ Sum. UR ‘dog’.
37. hand: HU *šu- ~ Sum. ŠU ‘hand’.
48. liver: Hurr. ur=mi ~ Sum. UR5 ‘liver’.
53. meat: Hurr. uzi ~ Sum. UZU ‘meat’.
65. rain: Hurr. išena ~ Sum. ŠEŊ3 ‘to rain; rain (n.)’.

The genealogical affiliation of Sumerian remains so far an open question and it
is not a goal of the present paper.93 It should be emphasized explicitly, however,
that these words cannot be treated as borrowings between HU and Sumerian.94
Typology of language contacts indicates that non-basic vocabulary is always
borrowed first (see, e. g., Thomason/Kaufman, 1988, 74 ff.; Haspelmath, 2008,
50 ff.). It means that, if we assume that Sumerian loanwords are indeed present
in the HU Swadesh list (or vice versa: HU loanwords in the Sumerian list), one
should expect a great number of Sumerian cultural terms in HU (or HU cultural
words in Sumerian), which is certainly not the case: there are no recognizable
direct borrowings from Sumerian in the known HU lexicon95 and, likewise, only
one HU cultural loanword in Sumerian has been revealed so far.96

The last phenomenon I would like to state here is several phonetic matches
between HU and Proto-Nakh Swadesh lists. As I noted elsewhere (Касьян,
2011), three HU terms possess phonetic similarity with the corresponding Swadesh
items of the Proto-Nakh language,97 namely:

39. to hear: HU *haš- ~ Nakh *χa- ‘to hear’.
78. smoke: Hurr. hiuri ~ Nakh *ḳur ‘smoke’.
91. two: Hurr. šini ~ Nakh *ši [dir. stem], *šina- [obl. stem] ‘two’.98
The Nakh words listed above are isolated within the NCauc. family, i. e., have
no reliable comparanda in other NCauc. groups99 and, secondly, there exist
valid candidates for the corresponding Swadesh terms in Proto-NCauc. other
than the Nakh roots: Common NCauc. *=ĭĒ ‘to hear’, Common NCauc.
*wnħV ‘smoke’ and Common NCauc. *Hwǟ ‘two’.

In such a situation several scenarios can be discussed:
• A null hypothesis: three HU-Nakh phonetical matches are accidental.
• HU belongs to the East Caucasian stock of the NCauc. family and has a
special genealogical relationship with Proto-Nakh. Three aforementioned
isoglosses represent hereby innovations of the HU-Nakh proto-language
after its separation from the East Caucasian trunk. As was demonstrated
above, however, the North Caucasian attribution of HU contradicts both
traditional and formal (lexicostatistical) criteria.
• HU and Nakh terms were separately borrowed from a certain, still unknown,
language. Such a hypothesis involves assumptions way beyond
reasonable. Firstly, for the 3rd–2nd millennia BC, one should postulate a
culturally dominant ethnos, whose influence on neighboring tribes was so
significant as to make the borrowing of such basic terms possible, on the
one hand, though no actual historical traces of this hypothetical people
can be found, on the other. Secondly, the probability of separate borrowing
of the same set of terms into two different languages (HU and Proto-
Nakh) is obviously too low.
• Three aforementioned isoglosses are HU loanwords in Proto-Nakh.

The last scenario seems the most productive one,100 but note that, in this case,
we must presume a very strong influence of the Hurro-Urartians on the Proto-
Nakh tribe(s). There are no, however, direct contradictions to such an assumption
so far, though–according to the typology of linguistic contacts – a great
number of HU cultural loanwords in Proto-Nakh is to be expected.101 Hurro-
Urartian–Proto-Nakh linguistic interaction remains to be investigated.


*

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassian_hattic.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-14, 07:07
Having some fun with the data.

Points for some Assyrian capitals and Sumerian sites, along with the Assyrian and Mandaean SPA points.

a Assur
b Nimrud
c Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta
d Nineveh
e Harran (unofficial capital before eventual demise of Neo-Assyrian empire)
-- Dur-Sharrukin (no marker)

f Iraqi Mandaean
g Assyrian

h Babylon (N Babylonia)
I Kish (Sumer)
j Sippar (Sumer)
k Eridu (Sumer)
l Uruk (Sumer)
m Ur (Sumer)
n Lagash (Sumer)
o Eshnunna (Sumer)
p Borsippa (Sumer)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumer_assyria_spots.jpg


Some bits from Wikipedia

Sumer's Kish:


The Sumerian king list states that it was the first city to have kings following the deluge,[3] beginning with Jushur.

Sargon of Akkad came from the area of Kish. The city's patron deity was Zababa (or Zamama) in Akkadian times, along with his wife, the goddess Inanna.


Sumer's Borsippa:


The site of Borsippa is in Babylon Province, Iraq and now called Birs Nimrud, identifying the site with Nimrod*.

The local god was Nabu, called the "son" of Babylon's Marduk, as would be appropriate for Babylon's lesser sister-city.


*

Nimrod:


The first mention of Nimrod is in the Table of Nations.[2] He is described as the son of Cush, grandson of Ham, and great-grandson of Noah; and as "a mighty one on the earth" and "a mighty hunter before God". This is repeated in First Book of Chronicles and the "Land of Nimrod", used as a synonym for Assyria, is mentioned in the Book of MicahMicah 5:6:. "Nimrod, who was the first to be a warrior on the earth" First book of Chronicles, 1:10.

And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders.

Genesis says that the "beginning of his kingdom" (reshit memelketo) was the towns of "Babel, Uruk, Akkad and Calneh in the land of Shinar" (Mesopotamia) — understood variously to imply that he either founded these cities, ruled over them, or both. Owing to an ambiguity in the original Hebrew text, it is unclear whether it is he or Asshur who additionally built Nineveh, Resen, Rehoboth-Ir and Calah (both interpretations are reflected in various English versions). (Genesis 10:8–12) (Genesis 10:8-12; 1 Chronicles 1:10, Micah 5:6). Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World (c. 1616) to reciting past scholarship regarding the question of whether it had been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria.[3]

In the Recognitions (R 4.29), one version of the Clementines, Nimrod is equated with the legendary Assyrian king Ninus, who first appears in the Greek historian Ctesias as the founder of Nineveh.

However, Ephrem the Syrian (306-373) relates a contradictory view, that Nimrod was righteous and opposed the builders of the Tower. Similarly, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (date uncertain) mentions a Jewish tradition that Nimrod left Shinar and fled to Assyria, because he refused to take part in building the Tower — for which God rewarded him with the four cities in Assyria, to substitute for the ones in Babel.

George Rawlinson believed Nimrod was Belus based on the fact Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions bear the names Bel-Nimrod or Bel-Nibru.[17] The word Nibru comes from a root meaning to 'pursue' or to make 'one flee', and as Rawlinson pointed out not only does this closely resemble Nimrod’s name but it also perfectly fits the description of Nimrod in Genesis 10: 9 as a great hunter. The Belus-Nimrod equation or link is also found in many old works such as Moses of Chorene and the Book of the Bee.[18]

Ardi
2012-06-14, 07:48
Ardi. Have you had an opportunity to read this paper?

Hurro-Urartian from the lexicostatistical viewpoint

Alexei Kassian

UGARIT-FORSCHUNGEN
Internationales Jahrbuch für die Altertumskunde Syrien-Palästinas
Herausgegeben von Manfried Dietrich • Oswald Loretz
Band 42
2010

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassian_hattic.jpg



An alternative theory discussed by some authors connects HU to the Indo-
European family, i. e., treats HU as a member of the Nostratic macro-family with
a specially close relationship between HU and IE. The IE-HU theory, which
originates from certain ideas of Holger Pedersen, has been developed by the Armenian author G. Jahukyan (see, e. g., Jahukyan, 1961; Джаукян, 1967) and
then followed by Fournet/Bomhard, 2010. For the criticism of this theory, see
Kassian, 2010b; Kassian, 2011a.

Because neither East Caucasian nor, a fortiori, Indo-European attribution of
HU appears to be likely at the current stage of research, it seems reasonable to
undertake a more formal analysis of HU linguistic data.




Yes I have. Despite the diminished plausibility of a stably-reconstructed genetic link between Hurro-Urartian and Nakh-Daghestanian in recent yeas, I think the lexostatistical approach regarding the common vocabulary in HU move in the right direction. What I can more confidently attest to, however, is the value of certain insights contained in Jahukyan's research. While a direct, retractable kinship between Hurro-Urartian and Indo-European -as Kassian notes- is difficult, nonetheless, early contact between the protoforms of the two language families is detectable not only through deep comparative linguistic, but the investigation of the undefined stratum in the Armenian vocabulary, which easily makes more than half of the un-borrowed linguistic capital. The 'top' portion that layer consists of certain characteristics which may be the remnants of a lost, transitional Indo-European language, which may have hace interacted with a number of possible (even unattested) language families, including Hurro-Urartian. I have yet to find the English translations of his work, as the translation of the Armenian originals would require much technical expertise, and I don't speak Russian.

Although Hurro-Urartian is not technically seen as Sino-Caucasian yet, Kassian's theory is noteworthy. Among the proposed languages, our neighbor Hattic (http://rggu.academia.edu/AlexeiKassian/Papers/447060/Hattic_as_a_Sino-Caucasian_language) would especially merit further analysis with respect to Hurrian. What I find most fasinating, however, is Kassian's proposal for the urheimat of not only Sino-Caucasic, but Nostratic and Afro-Asiatic in the Levant-Near East corridor, which he associates (albeit hypothetically) with the Natufian cultural complex.

Humanist
2012-06-14, 09:16
Thanks very much for lending your insight, Ardi. As always, it is much appreciated.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Northern Exposures: Third to Second Millennium BC Transformations in Upper Mesopotamia

Glenn Schwartz
2012


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/schwartz_mesopotamia.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-14, 10:30
From another thread.

The below map is from a lecture given by Dr. Mario Fales a few months back:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_intervention.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-05 at 20:17 ----------

I do not believe sufficient consideration is given to the resettlement and deportation policies instituted by the Neo-Assyrians. It may contribute to the genetic landscape now observed among Near Eastern minority populations (see list of populations below). They were on a scale never-before-seen in the history of man, and unparalleled in the pre-Roman era. The Babylonians (e.g. Judea) and others did the same, but on a scale not closely approaching that seen during the Neo-Assyrian era. One Dodecad component that I suggest may in part be a remnant of this past mixing of peoples, is the "Caucasus" component.

^^ Please note the "may" and "part."

Source: Dodecad K12b population sheet values.

52 Assyrian_D
52 Azerbaijan_Jews
52 Georgia_Jews
50 Druze
50 Iranian_Jews
49 Samaritans
48 Iraq_Jews

Wikipedia:



The above list, is only a partial list of the deportations carried out during the Neo-Assyrian era.

Not the Assyrians. Here, the Babylonians. This does not establish anything. Just a bit from a paper. It should be noted that this paper is nearly a decade old. There is, in all probability, more recent scholarship on the subject.


Social and Cultural Changes in Judah during the 6th Century BCE and their Implications for our Understanding of the Nature of the Neo-Babylonian Period, Ugarit Forschungen 36(2004): 157-176

Avraham Faust

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/faust.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-14 at 04:58 ----------

An Elite Akkadian Grave on the Acropolis at Tell Beydar

by Joachim Bretschneider

Bretschneider J. & Cunningham T., An Elite Akkadian Grave on the Acropolis at Tell Beydar, in: Lebeau M. & Suleiman A. (eds.), Tell Beydar, The 2000-2004 Seasons of Excavation. A Preliminary Report (Subartu XVIII), 2007, 99-158.



Group 4: objects associated with ritual action

The most interesting group in many ways, the main features of this group were two piles of roughly fist-sized stones located in the central portion of the tomb (fig 3, photo 16). The eastern pile sat atop the bones from a large animal – probably bovid or equid, though for reasons addressed more fully below the latter is preferred. This animal had been butchered. The western pile of stones held a large dagger (c.27 cm long) (M-1/ fig. 14) inserted at approximately a 30 degree angle (photo 25-28). Unlike the two other daggers in the tomb (M-14/ fig 18, M-22/ fig 20) this dagger had no trace of organic material on the blade (there was wood on the tang however), and was probably unsheathed. Associated with this group were several drinking vessels, two ceramic (C-1 and C-2/ fig 25) and one bronze (M-2/ fig 14) right next to the stones and several other ceramics and another bronze (M-23/ fig 21) just to the west. C-1 and C-2 rested atop a fair amount of poorly preserved organic residue, perhaps wood.

What is significant about this dagger and animal sunk into stone piles is that unlike a simple grave gift – such as a dagger or even a large animal could be, here these items are themselves interred symbolically in the stone heaps, whose stones were carefully chosen for being roughly the same size and brought to the tomb. The insertion of the dagger into the pile of stones might be understood as „burying‟ the weapon in order that it accompany the deceased – however this is unconvincing as none of the other weapons are so „buried‟; would not the dagger in the deceased‟s own hand be just as likely to accompany him? We must consider the visual impact of this embedded dagger which when excavated was quite striking. The angle of insertion and the fact that only about half the dagger was embedded made it very clear that this represented a dagger stabbed into a mound of stones and not a mound of stones placed over a dagger. The focus was the action, the insertion, not merely the dagger itself. In light of the broken staff of the adze, this may be a similar „ritual retiring‟ of a weapon never to be used again. It is perhaps significant that this dagger is larger than the other two found in the tomb, and it is certainly significant that it was unsheathed. We suspect that the animal buried below the other pile of stones will turn out to be an equid – a tactical animal to be retired as well, and not a food offering. A further aspect to consider regarding the embedded dagger and noted during the excavation was a strong sense of apotropaic magic – that somehow this dagger stabbed into the stones might protect those concerned from the dead himself. Though somewhat counter-intuitive we do know of course of many examples of people being afraid of the spirits of their own people – especially in Mesopotamia when the burial could not be carried out properly and in the correct place.9

...

What is most striking about this burial is indeed not the grave goods themselves – though indicative of elite status and certainly wealth (21 bronze objects, 2 silver (?) and 65 ceramic) they are not unusual. Indeed the lack of more jewelry or gold objects is perhaps notable.10 But the indications of ritual actions performed in conjunction with the burial is highly significant and offers substantial clues to the identity of the individual therein. The adze was carefully broken just below the head; the broken staff placed in the dead man‟s hand, the adze head placed just to the side of where it would have been if unbroken. The largest of the daggers (the most likely to have been an actual, used weapon) was stabbed into a carefully made pile of stones. A large animal, possibly equid11, was butchered and placed beneath a similar pile of stones. A figurine, perhaps representing the ‘spirit‟ of the man, was cut in two. Except for the last of these, whose meaning is uncertain, these actions relate not simply to the cessation of life but to the cessation of office or role. The adze is a symbol of power; the dagger and equid (?) the tools of a warrior. The personal ornaments though silver were simple – the diadem perhaps may indicate high status, but there was no jewelry besides the bracelet, and even the beads found were not from a necklace worn by the deceased. Indeed the diadem and possibly the bracelet are themselves probably functional – indicative of a particular rank and not simply general wealth.

[Footnote] 11 Equids frequently accompany warrior burials – see Phillip 1995: 149 citing examples from Tel Madhur and Tel Razuk.

The location:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tell_beydar.jpg

newtoboard
2012-06-14, 15:19
Yes I have. Despite the diminished plausibility of a stably-reconstructed genetic link between Hurro-Urartian and Nakh-Daghestanian in recent yeas, I think the lexostatistical approach regarding the common vocabulary in HU move in the right direction. What I can more confidently attest to, however, is the value of certain insights contained in Jahukyan's research. While a direct, retractable kinship between Hurro-Urartian and Indo-European -as Kassian notes- is difficult, nonetheless, early contact between the protoforms of the two language families is detectable not only through deep comparative linguistic, but the investigation of the undefined stratum in the Armenian vocabulary, which easily makes more than half of the un-borrowed linguistic capital. The 'top' portion that layer consists of certain characteristics which may be the remnants of a lost, transitional Indo-European language, which may have hace interacted with a number of possible (even unattested) language families, including Hurro-Urartian. I have yet to find the English translations of his work, as the translation of the Armenian originals would require much technical expertise, and I don't speak Russian.

Although Hurro-Urartian is not technically seen as Sino-Caucasian yet, Kassian's theory is noteworthy. Among the proposed languages, our neighbor Hattic (http://rggu.academia.edu/AlexeiKassian/Papers/447060/Hattic_as_a_Sino-Caucasian_language) would especially merit further analysis with respect to Hurrian. What I find most fasinating, however, is Kassian's proposal for the urheimat of not only Sino-Caucasic, but Nostratic and Afro-Asiatic in the Levant-Near East corridor, which he associates (albeit hypothetically) with the Natufian cultural complex.

Its grasping at straws and reeks of an agenda to move PIE out of Central Europe or the steepe.

Ardi
2012-06-14, 16:38
Its grasping at straws and reeks of an agenda to move PIE out of Central Europe or the steepe.

Nonsense. Let me categorically spell it out for you yet again:

For argument's sake, let's assume that by the confirmation of some perfect, infallible source ('*Dyēus ph2ter', a time-traveling "Proto-Indo-European", an ancient audio recording,...your choice, really), the Indo-European urheimat was proven once and for all to be "Central Europe or the steppe", and that we are here right now discussing its historic past. To eliminate any remaining doubt, I'll even throw in an absurdist hypothesis, namely that Armenian people are really Australian Aborigines who somehow happened to acquire an IE dialect and speak it until it was inscribed in the 5th century AD. Even then, it wouldn't change the fact that the essential nature of the Armenian language merits a more meticulous analysis of its initial, developmental and demographic history in the region where it came to be predominantly spoken.

The only thing I'm interested is the substantiated understanding of historical processes, and every single point of the comment which so apparently "reeks" of an agenda fit neatly within the boundaries of unbiased academic pursuit (I recommend you look into the early work Soviet Nostratic school, just to the inform the point). For some reason, you always see a politicized intent behind any comment made by any Armenian in online fora. The above-quoted lines are my independent thoughts, and I alone stand by them, irrespective of any ethnic, national or political ideological end. So, whenever you don't have anything intellectual to contribute to a topic at hand, please keep your bizarre Pan-Iranist paranoia out of unrelated, unsuspecting threads- it's getting really tired.

Humanist
2012-06-14, 19:06
The Barwar, N Iraq dialect (cyan "X"), according to Geoffrey Khan, is most closely related to the dialects in the SW area (red "x"), and the dialects in the northeast periphery (red "x"). Not much can be said for areas such as Arbil, since those dialects do not reflect the ancient vernaculars of those regions. The continuous Christian presence in Arbil, and other locations in Mesopotamia, came to an end, several centuries ago.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_nena_language_map_barwar_aramaic_.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-14 at 13:42 ----------

This bit from Khan's recent lecture, reminded me of something I had posted a few months back.

The Khan bit I am referring to:


In several cases Assyrians and Jews inhabited the same town, but spoke related but very different, and in many cases mutually incomprehensible dialects.

....

As can be seen there are substantial differences between these [Assyrian and Jewish] dialects in phonology, morphology and lexicon...This communal dialectal cleavage has apparently been brought about by different migration histories of the two religious communities and serves as a source for the reconstruction of the historical backgrounds of the communities. Like the typology of artifacts in archeological excavations.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

And the previous post:


Eleanor Coghill, University of Cambridge

FOUR VERSIONS OF A NEO-ARAMAIC CHILDREN’S STORY

INTRODUCTION

The texts presented here are four different versions of a children’s story passed down the generations orally. The versions vary not only in the actual story, but also in the dialect in which they are recounted, all of which are members of the North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic family (henceforth NENA). It is hoped that the comparison of different versions of one story will give some idea of the variation that oral folktales undergo, and will also facilitate a comparison of the narrative devices used in different dialects.

All versions come from Christian communities in the NENA area. The first two versions are told respectively in the dialects of the villages of Alqosh and Telkepe situated in the Mosul Plain in northern Iraq. The third version is told in the dialect of Hamziye, a village in the apna region further north. These versions were recorded by the author during face to-face interviews with the narrators. The fourth version was recorded in a telephone interview with a lady who was born in the small village of Tazakand south of Urmia in Iran. Her dialect is related to, but distinct from, standard Christian Urmia.

The story is a children’s story. According to the Hamziye speaker, the story is told to children at bedtime to help them sleep. The origins of the story are not known to the author, nor how it travelled from village to village. The four stories are clearly versions of the same story, but show significant variation.

VARIATIONS IN THE LANGUAGE

The dialects of these four versions are quite diverse. Alqosh and Telkepe are relatively closely related dialects, yet there are still quite obvious differences between the two. Hamziye is a little further removed, both geographically and linguistically, while the dialect of the Tazakand version is quite distinct from all the others. There is not space here to go into the many grammatical differences between the four dialects. Of more relevance is the variation in some of the lexical items playing an important role in the story, as in shown in the table below. The dialects are ordered geographically, from south to north. Note that words in {} brackets are not actually found in the text but are sourced from other fieldwork and added for completeness.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/four_versions.png

There was a "?" in the box, under the Tazakand (Iran) column for "yoghurt." Assuming it is the same, I added "masta," as that is the word for yogurt in the Urmia dialect (a dialect related to Tazakand).

Alqosh and Telkepe: Chaldean Catholic
Hamziye: Perhaps birko knows
Tazakand: "Nestorian"

Humanist
2012-06-14, 21:50
Here are the SPA points again for the Assyrians. This time, with church affiliations listed (if known).* All Assyrian points fell inside the borders of modern Iraq, save for the one unknown Assyrian individual.

Directions are rough (e.g. Elamites were a bit southeast, not due south). Populations representing those that may have contributed to the Assyrian gene pool in ancient times are not exclusive. Modern populations (e.g. Iranians) are not included.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1b.png


* Ancient Church of East = "Nestorian" for our purposes.

Humanist
2012-06-14, 23:03
Further possible links between Mandaeans and Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Akkadian) traditions of old.

Prof. Scott B. Noegel
Chair. Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization
University of Washington
"Job iii 5 in the Light of Mesopotamian Demons of Time."
First Published in: Vetus Testanzentum 57 (2007), 556-562.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandaic_magic.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-15, 07:31
One of the distinctive features of Syriac liturgical poetry is the dialogue poem where two characters, usually biblical, conduct an argument in alternating verses. The genre can be traced back in the Ancient Near East to the Sumerian and Akkadian formalised dispute literature, of the second and first millennium BC; a few examples are also to be found in Jewish Aramaic, and it was later adopted in Arabic and Persian, where it has proved very popular, continuing into modern times when dispute poems in Modern Arabic, employing alternating verses for the speakers and dealing with secular topics, have been collected from the Gulf area. We are thus dealing with an extremely long-lived literary genre that has remained popular for over 4000 years! Some fifty examples of these dialogue disputes are at present known in Syriac, and for the most part they are based on particular points of tension in the biblical narrative, such as the dispute between Cain and Abel (Genesis 4), or between Joseph and Potiphar’s wife (Genesis 39). New Testament topics include Zacharias and the Angel (Luke 1), the Two Thieves on the Cross (Luke 23:39-41), as well as four in which Mary is one of the protagonists.

Mary in Syriac Tradition
Dr Sebastian Brock
2007

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/brock.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-15, 09:39
The Median “Empire”, the End of Urartu and Cyrus’ the Great Campaign in 547 B.C. (Nabonidus Chronicle II 16)
Robert Rollinger (Innsbruck)



In 1988, 1994 and in 1995, the late Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg questioned with arguments of considerable weight, the existence of a Median “Empire” as a political entity possessing structures comparable to those of the so called Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian or the Achaemenid “empires”. She pleaded for a methodologically fresh approach by not only casting doubt on the general validity of our most important source, i.e. Herodotus’ Medikos Logos, and pointing to gaps in the non-classical sources, i.e. primarily for the first half of the sixth century B.C., but also taking into consideration anthropological models of state formation and conceptual systems of the social sciences.

Independently from each other Burkhart Kienast and I adduced arguments calling into question the presumed vassal status of the early Persians vis à vis the Medes. Amélie Kuhrt has recently shown that the Assyrian heartland as well as its eastern fringes (the region around Arrapha) were part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Both regions stayed under firm Babylonian control after the downfall of its Assyrian predecessor. In 2001 an international conference held in Padova focussed on the problem of the Median “Empire” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint taking into consideration historical, archaeological and philological perspectives. Though it became clear that even modern reconstructions of the so called Median language do not rest on too firm ground there remained disagreement concerning the existence of a Median “Empire”. Whereas some scholars questioned the existence of such a structure others still believed that a Median “Empire” played an important role in the history of the Ancient Near East. In any case it became clear that modern views of this “empire” are heavily built upon the picture Herodotus presents in his Histories written around 420 B.C. Cuneiform sources dealing with the Medes from the 9th century B.C. onwards do not support this view. This is also true for the archaeological remains the interpretation of which is often dependent on the picture the written sources offer.

Humanist
2012-06-15, 13:08
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/four_versions.png




Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted hereditary warrior nobility which dominated many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age. The term is attested in the Amarna letters written by Haapi. Robert Drews writes that the name 'maryannu' although plural takes the singular 'marya', which in Sanskrit means young warrior, and attaches a Hurrian suffix. He suggests that at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age most would have spoken either Hurrian or Aryan but by the end of the 14th century most of the Levant maryannu had Semitic names. Maryannu was also an alternate Egyptian name for Mitanni, where the word undoubtedly originated.

Did not notice that "shepherd" was included in the chart above. The Telkepe dialect is one of the dialects more closely related to the Barwar dialect, according to Khan, so, the similarity makes sense. I presume it was the same in the Alqosh dialect before the Kurdish loan entered its lexikon.

Telkepe has the ignominious distinction of being the birthplace of one Mikhail Yuhanna. Better known to the world as Tariq Aziz.

Humanist
2012-06-16, 05:12
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/scan2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/scan3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/scan1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubaidmap.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/1239219_com_sumer3.jpg


Some more on the Assyro-Babylonian (Sumero-Akkadian) god Oannes/Dagon/Ea/Enki.

http://www.finaltrump.com/wp-content/uploads/Dagon.jpg


From a post in another thread.



At first they led a somewhat wretched existence and lived without rule after the manner of beasts. But, in the first year appeared an animal endowed with human reason, named Oannes, who rose from out of the Erythian Sea, at the point where it borders Babylonia. He had the whole body of a fish, but above his fish’s head he had another head which was that of a man, and human feet emerged from beneath his fish’s tail. He had a human voice, and an image of him is preserved unto this day. He passed the day in the midst of men without taking food; he taught them the use of letters, sciences and arts of all kinds. He taught them to construct cities, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and showed them how to collect the fruits; in short he instructed them in everything which could tend to soften human manners and humanize their laws. From that time nothing material has been added by way of improvement to his instructions. And when the sun set, this being Oannes, retired again into the sea, for he was amphibious. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes.

Berossus


Berossus (also Berossos or Berosus; Akkadian: Bēl-rē'ušu, "Bel is his shepherd" Greek: Βήρωσσος[1]) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk[2] and astronomer writing in Greek, who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Versions of two excerpts of his writings survive, at several removes.

If one believes in the southern Mesopotamian location of "Ur of the Chaldees," Oannes' supposed origin is not far removed, based on the accounts of Berossus:


At first they led a somewhat wretched existence and lived without rule after the manner of beasts. But, in the first year appeared an animal endowed with human reason, named Oannes, who rose from out of the Erythian Sea, at the point where it borders Babylonia.

And when the sun set, this being Oannes, retired again into the sea, for he was amphibious. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes.


Wiki, on Abraham:


Abraham, whose birth name was Abram, is the eponym of the Abrahamic religions, among which are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. According to both the Hebrew Bible[1] and the Qur'an, through his sons Ishmael and Isaac, Abraham is the forefather of many tribes, including the Ishmaelites, Israelites, Midianites and Edomites.[1] Abraham was a descendant of Noah's son, Shem.[2][3] Christians believe that Jesus was a descendant of Abraham through Isaac, and Muslims believe that Muhammad was also descendant of Abraham through Ishmael.[4]

http://www.ccg.org/_domain/abrahams-legacy.org/images/abrahams-journey-map.gif

Humanist
2012-06-16, 07:00
Sennacherib's Northern Assyrian Canals: New Insights from Satellite Imagery and Aerial Photography

Jason Ur

Iraq
Vol. 67, No. 1, Nineveh. Papers of the 49th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Part Two (Spring, 2005), pp. 317-345


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_settlement.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-16, 10:07
Vladimir EMELIANOV (St.Petersburg State University)

The Ritual of Water-Consecration in Sumerian Texts.
Analysis of its materials and structure.


As is known, the medicine in ancient Mesopotamia was business of healers (asû) and exorcists (āšipu), and it is not casual: in cultures of the Ancient East illness and damage are to the same extent connected to loss of the true status by the person. It is well visible according to languages: in Akkadian language the verbs indicating illness and impurity, differ on only last consonant (marās,u and mar āš u), and in Sumerian for two these conditions one word GIG (ideographically "darkness") is used.


From another thread:

Sumerian
kud-kud-rá: a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative).
nam...kud/ku: to curse (often with -ta-); to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut').

Sureth
qutra : hunchback ← not in available sources. But, my grandmother calls me this all the time. :)
qəṭrana adj. : hunchbacked
qt': to cut; to be cut; to finish; to decide

Humanist
2012-06-16, 12:15
Felt and other varieties of conical caps worn by Assyrians today, and a drawing from 1845, by Henry Layard:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical_helmet.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/layard_assyrians.jpg

http://www.annourbis.com/ancient-civilizations/Assyria/images/plate131.jpg

http://www.annourbis.com/ancient-civilizations/Assyria/images/plate098.jpg

http://www.annourbis.com/ancient-civilizations/Assyria/images/plate100.jpg


This fella too:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/AshitaWarrior.jpg


The traditional headdress of our women is also interesting:

http://www.lasierra.edu/typo3temp/pics/70be60f0ee.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/6812516397_227777684f_b.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/6812507065_51627edf14_o.jpg

http://www.christiansofiraq.com/headwear.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/IMG_0146.jpg


I do not know if there is any connection, but these examples from Assyria and Sumer come to mind (from a previous post):

Neo-Assyrian

BBC History:


Around 1990, Iraqi archaeologists found three very rich tombs, dating to about 750-700 BC, under the floors of rooms in Ashurnasirpal's harem. One contained this extraordinary gold crown: it has a trellis vine on top, with bunches of lapis-lazuli grapes hanging below it, supported by four-winged robed figures, standing on rows of pomegranates and rosettes.

http://www.christiansofiraq.com/crown.jpg


Sumerian


Queen Pu-Abi's gold and lapis-lazuli headdress is here seen in two views: as it was excavated by Woolley, and in his reconstruction. This headdress is currently on display in the Ur Gallery on the third floor of the University of Pennsylvania Museum.

http://www.bible-archaeology.info/images/4.Jewe27.jpg

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/522/puabi/images/headdress2.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-16, 13:21
Vladimir EMELIANOV (St.Petersburg State University)

The Ritual of Water-Consecration in Sumerian Texts.
Analysis of its materials and structure.


As is known, the medicine in ancient Mesopotamia was business of healers (asû) and exorcists (āšipu), and it is not casual: in cultures of the Ancient East illness and damage are to the same extent connected to loss of the true status by the person. It is well visible according to languages: in Akkadian language the verbs indicating illness and impurity, differ on only last consonant (marās,u and mar āš u), and in Sumerian for two these conditions one word GIG (ideographically "darkness") is used.

From another thread:

Sumerian
kud-kud-rá: a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative).
nam...kud/ku: to curse (often with -ta-); to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut').

Sureth
qutra : hunchback ← not in available sources. But, my grandmother calls me this all the time. :)
qəṭrana adj. : hunchbacked
qt': to cut; to be cut; to finish; to decide

Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, E.S. Drower, Leiden, 1962


Mandaeans who come of priestly families, who are strict as to unblemished pedigree, and look for perfect health when they take a wife. The priestly families have two distinct types, one wiry, tanned, and black-eyed; the other tall, white-skinned, or slightly bronzed, and with a proportion of blue eyes to dark of about three persons in twelve. The poorer Mandaeans of the marsh districts and Southern Persia are darker-skinned and smaller-bodied than the priestly caste, who are almost invariably of good physique. As a rule, Mandaean features are strong and handsome, the nose big, curved, and long.

A screenshot from a clip of a couple of Mandaean priests, discussing some of their rituals (here, their most important ritual, baptism). Babylonian priests also wore white. Though, the source at bottom refers only to turbans.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandaean_priests.jpg


The Babylonian Priesthood in the Long Sixth Century BC, BICS 54/2 (2011), 59-70

Caroline Waerzeggers
Institute of Classical Studies University of London


Qualification depended on the candidate’s physical, mental, social, and legal status. Most requirements derived from purity concerns and involved the demand to be whole, without blemish. Physically, the candidate had to be well-formed, showing no bodily defects, no signs of skin disease or illness.

....

At this point, the candidate was free of physical and mental impurity, and ready to undergo the process of investiture. He received a special turban, made of white sheep’s wool and duly purified. The new priest was now invited to walk the streets and expose himself to possible contamination. After a further number of purification rites, apparently held on a river bank, the priest was finally led towards the temple, with his head covered by a veil (?).37 The final part of the ritual shows numerous parallels to the mouth-washing ritual that was performed at the induction of the cult image, and it would seem that the body of the priest was associated with that of the god whom he served. As pointed out by A. Löhnert, the initiate now ‘reaches the stage of ritual purity: he can contact the deity orally (purity of the mouth), perform ritual acts (purity of the hands) and walk around in the temple without endangering its cultic purity (purity of the feet)’.38

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

On the Initiation of Babylonian Priests, Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte 14 (2008), 1-38. (With a contribution by Michael Jursa)

Caroline Waerzeggers
Institute of Classical Studies University of London


The inquest texts all pertain to successful candidacies. Important additional information on access regulations can be found in a group of texts that show persons whose candidacies have not been successful, or who temporarily have had to refrain from using their access rights. This group consists of manzaltu contracts of the oxherd prebend in Borsippa. The aim of these contracts was to transfer the service duty attached to the prebend from the owner to a third party. The contracts were drafted in the format of a dialogue text and often mentioned the reason why the owner could not perform his duties in the request. Here follows an overview of the reasons found in the dialogues.

BM 26513/no. 3 “I am the son of an unmarried woman (nartu),20 I am not initiated (ul gu-ul-lu-ba-ka), I can not perform my service”.
BM 8269621 “I do not have sons and I am not able to perform my service duty of
all the 40 days of the oxherd prebend in Ezida, the temple of Nabû, in my possession”.
BM 2648022 “I am disabled23 and I am sick and my sons are little. I can not wash
with water and I can not perform my service duty”.
BM 8268624 “I am disabled and I am sick and my sons are little”.
BM 10198225 “I am disabled and my sons are little”.

The rules of admission according to the practical texts
a. Body and age

None of the inquest texts pays any attention to the physical condition of the candidate under scrutiny. This is surprising because the need of bodily perfection is stressed so strongly in the ritual texts. The reason must be that illnesses and other physical disorders were detected when the candidate undressed during the ceremony in the bathhouse and thus did not warrant additional inquests. Indeed, the manzaltu texts from Borsippa show that in practice prebendaries quite often found themselves unable to carry out their duties because of health problems. Illness is mentioned in at least two manzaltu contracts, and it may also have been the reason why others said they were “disabled” (samû). If there were no sons available (yet) who qualified to replace them, such prebendaries were left with only one, costly solution: finding and paying an interim to take over the temple service.

Humanist
2012-06-16, 16:52
Posted before, of course. But again relevant, in light of the autosomal plots recently created by David (Eurogenes).

Compare the beginning of the history of the Mandaeans (there is much more to it), with the end of the Assyrian Empire. The possible parallels are very interesting.

Lady Drower:


The manuscript [Harran Gawaitha] is broken, the beginning is missing, and it bears marks of shameless editing. Owing to this last, it is difficult to date it from internal evidence. Unlike the 18th book of the Ginza, it assigns 4,000 years to Arab rule before the advent of the 'lying Messiah', but, like the Ginza, says that 'the mud brick in the wall' will proclaim him. Bar Khuni in his 'Scholion' (A.D. 792) repeats the same legend.

On the other hand, tarmida is used in its ancient sense of 'disciple'. It is written after the Arab invasion, but the attacks on Islam are not so venemous as those on the Yahutaiia, which word is used throughout as meaning both 'Chaldeans' and 'Jews'.

The roll purports to be a history and prophecy combined, and is looked upon with the utmost reverence by the Mandaeans, though on account of its dangerously polemical character it has been always kept secret.



'The interior of the Haran (i.e. Harran) admitted them, that city which has Nasurai in it, so that there should not be a road (passage?) for the kings of the Yahutaiia (Chaldeans). Over them (the Nasurai) was King Ardban. And they served themselves from the sign of the Seven and entered the mountain of the Madai, a place where they were free from domination of all races. And they built mandis (mandia) and dwelt in the call of the Life and in the strength of the high King of Light.'

Still more inexplicable is the assertion that the Egyptians were co-religionists, and that the original ancestors of the Mandaean race went from Egypt to the Tura d Madai [Mountains of Madai]. Yearly, a ritual meal is eaten in memory of the Egyptian hosts who perished in the waters when following the wicked Jews.

The end of the Assyrian Empire:


Ashur-uballit II, was the last king of the Assyrian empire. He reigned in the last capital city of Harran from 612 BC to 609 BC, having fled Nineveh during the siege and capture of that city by the Babylonian[Chaldean]-Median army in 612 BC. In alliance with Egyptian forces, Ashuruballit's army was able to defend Harran from the combined Babylonian-Median attack for a brief period following the destruction of Nineveh; however, when the Egyptian army had to return their homeland in 610 BC, the Babylonians and Medians swept into Harran and sacked it. Assyria again called upon Egypt, who came to their assistance. King Josiah of Judah allied himself with Babylon and tried to block the way of the forces of Egypt under Pharaoh Necho II. Josiah was defeated at Meggido, and was killed in the battle. Pharaoh Necho marched on together with Ashur-uballit II, to besiege Carchemish. They were defeated and the Egyptians retreated into northern Syria. Ashur-uballit II disappears from history, bringing an end to the Assyrian empire.


Came across the Babylonian (Chaldean) "Fall of Nineveh" chronicle (Livius.org). Note that the Babylonians referred to their country as "Akkad." Not Babylonia.


This is the text of a chronicle, also known as Chronicle 3 or ABC 3, that describes the final years of the Assyrian empire. This chronicle is the central part of one large text that began with the Early Years of Nabopolassar Chronicle (ABC 2) and ended with the Late Years of Nabopolassar Chronicle (ABC 4).

The fourteenth year [612-611]:

[T]he king of Akkad dispatched his army and they marched to Nasibina. Plunder and exiles [lacuna] and they brought the people of Rusapu to the king of Akkad at Nineveh. On the [lacuna] of the month [lacuna] Aššur-uballit ascended to the throne in Harran to rule Assyria. Up until the [lacuna] day of the month [lacuna] the king of Akkad set out and in [lacuna]

The sixteenth year [610-609]:

In the month Ajaru the king of Akkad mustered his army and marched to Assyria. From the month Simanu until the month Arahsamna he marched about victoriously in Assyria. In the month Arahsamna the Medes, who had come to the help of the king of Akkad, put their armies together and marched to Harran against Aššur-uballit, who had ascended the throne in Assyria. Fear of the enemy overcame Aššur-uballit and the army of Egypt that had come to help him, and they abandoned the city, and crossed the Euphrates. The king of Akkad reached Harran, fought a battle, and captured the city. He carried off the vast booty of the city and the temple. In the month Addaru the king of Akkad left his troops and their camp, and went home. The Medes, who had come to help the king of Akkad, withdrew.

The seventeenth year [609-608]:

In the month Du'ûzu Aššur-uballit, king of Assyria, with a large army from Egypt crossed the river Euphrates and marched against Harran to conquer it. They captured [a town on the road to Harran]. They defeated the garrison which the king of Akkad had stationed inside. When they had defeated it they encamped against Harran. Until the month Ulûlu they did battle against the city but achieved nothing. The king of Akkad went to help his army but did not join battle. He he went up to Izalla and the numerous cities in the mountains [lacuna] he set fire to their [lacuna]. At that time the army of [lacuna] march as far as the district of Urartu. In the land [lacuna] they plundered their [lacuna] The garrison which the king of [lacuna] had stationed in it set out. They went up to [lacuna]. The king of Akkad went home.


I had not read the Wikipedia article on Harran before. Or, at least not thoroughly. Here are the relevant bits:


Merchant outpost
By the 19th Century BCE, Ur established Harran as a merchant outpost due to its ideal location. The community, well established before then, was situated along a trade route between the Mediterranean and the plains of the middle Tigris.[6] It lay directly on the road from Antioch eastward to Nisibis and Ninevah. The Tigris could be followed down to the delta to Babylon. The fourth century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330–after 391) said, “From there (Harran) two different royal highways lead to Persia: the one on the left through Adiabene and over the Tigris; the one on the right, through Assyria and across the Euphrates.”[7] Not only did Harran have easy access to both the Assyrian and Babylonian roads, but also to north road to the Euphrates that provided easy access to Malatiyah and Asia Minor.

According to Roman authors such as Pliny, even through the classical period, Harran has maintained an important position in the economic life of Northern Mesopotamia.[8]

Assyrian period
In its prime Harran was a major Assyrian city which controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. Because Harran had an abundance of goods that passed through its region, it became a target for raids. In the 18th century, Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad I (1813 – 1781 BC) launched an expedition to secure the Harranian trade route.

After the Suppiluliuma I–Shattiwaza treaty (14th century BC) between the Hittite Empire and Mitanni, Harran was burned by a Hittite army under Piyashshili in the course of the conquest of Mitanni.

In the 13th century BC, Assyrian king Adad-Nirari I reported that he conquered the “fortress of Kharani” and annexed it as a province.[9] It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions as early as the time of Tiglath-Pileser I, about 1100 BCE, under the name Harranu (Akkadian harrānu, “road, path; campaign, journey”). Tiglath-Pileser had a fortress there, and mentioned that he was pleased with the abundance of elephants in the region.

Tenth century BC inscriptions reveal that Harran had some privileges of fiscal exemption and freedom from certain forms of military obligations. It had even been termed as the “free city of Harran”. However, in 763 BCE, it was sacked by a Harranian rebellion against Assyrian control that resulted in the loss of those privileges. Not until Sargon II restored order, in the late 8th century BCE, were those privileges restored.[10]

During the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its last king, Ashur-uballit II, who used Harran as a base for a failed attempt to retake Nineveh. Harran was besieged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon and his Median and Scythian allies in the same year that the Assyrian capital of Nineveh was being sacked in 608 BC.

Persian period
Harran became part of the Babylonian Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BCE. It became part of the Persian province of Athura, the Persian word for Assyria. The city remained in Persian hands until 331 BCE, when the soldiers of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great entered the city.


Some interesting bits from a Chuck Haeberl paper:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fancy_mandaean.jpg


[I]Flights of Fancy: A Mandaean Folktale of Escape from Persecution
Chuck Haberl
Published in ARAM 22 (2010): 549–72 (Oxford)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


I had read this individual's take on Mandaean origins previously, but failed to notice the possible significance in something that is mentioned.


Amadai is the Mandaean's temporary residence with which Mandaeans became familiar under the reign of Parthians between the 1st and the 3rd century. It is a land with temperate water and warm spring, which is in the eastern parts of Mesopotamia and Zagros Mountains.

Masoud Forouzandeh


And Wikipedia, on an Amadiya:


Amadiya (also spelled "Amediyah", "Amadia", "Amedi", "al-Amadiyah" or other variations), is a small Assyrian and Kurdish town along a tributary to the Great Zab in the Dahuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan.[1] The town is perched on a mountain, formerly only accessible by a narrow stairway cut into the rock. The history of this city goes back to...the time of ancient Assyria, since it has always been a strategic place as it is built on the flat top of a mountain.

The region in which the city rests is also believed to have been the home of the Magi or priests of Ancient Persia. Amedia is believed to be the home of some of the most significant Magi priests, the Biblical Magi or the "Three Wise Men", who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to see Jesus Christ shortly after his birth.[3]

Amadiya used to be the seat of a Diocese of the Chaldean Catholic Church. The Diocese originally existed under the Assyrian Church of the East, however many of the Aramaic speaking Assyrian Christians converted to Catholicism in the early 17th Century AD. At the turn of the 20th century it was split into three dioceses: Amadia, Zakho, and Akra. In 1895, the Dioceses of Amadia and Akra were provisionally united. [4]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Amedy.jpg



From a travel site:

Amadiya

Amadiya (dating from the Assyrian era) is located on a high promontory above a breathtaking landscape and fed by a geothermal spring originating far below the mountain. 90km northeast of Dohuk, about 1400m above sea level and surrounded by heights it was once an almost impenetrable fortress. The city Gate (Bab Zebar) is located in the eastern side of the City of Amadiya. Its width was 4 metres, built by Imaduddin Al- Zanki in 5-600 AD. A minaret is located in the middle of Amadiya. It is 30 metres high. The Islamic ornamentation (arabesque) is clearly seen on the minaret. It is said that it was built in the time of Sultan Hussein Wali Amadiya as part of an already existing ancient city.

Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining
Vol.7, No.1, 2011
p 93-98

THE ORIGIN OF AMADIYA PLATEAU,
DOHUK GOVERNORATE, NORTH IRAQ
INTRODUCTION


Amadiya is one of the largest and oldest towns in north Iraq, it is about 550 Km north of Baghdad, within Dohuk Governorate. It covers about one square kilometer, with almost circular shape, the southern edge being oval and slightly elevated from the northern side. It is located on a top of a plateau, with height of 1100 m (a.s.l.). The height of the plateau ranges from (85 – 100) m, with almost vertical cliffs, except the northern one, which is less steep than the others are. This special shape has given the town a natural defensive position through its history (Fig.1).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amadiya.jpg


From an Assyrian site:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amadiya-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-16, 19:23
The book under review was written by a scholar whose principal field is Indo-European (and in particular Iranian) comparative philology rather than Semitics, and this does not happen on a regular basis: most studies of contacts between Semitic and non-Semitic languages were done by Semitists. In the past three years, the book has become a standard tool for the students of Aramaic, and for a good reason. It is to be hoped that Claudia Ciancaglini will study Iranian loanwords in the remaining Middle Aramaic corpora and produce their equally thorough descriptions. The high value of Iranian lexical material in semitischen Nebenüberlieferungen for Iranian philology is well-known. As far as Aramaic studies go, when all the lexical Iranisms in Middle Aramaic are gathered and analyzed, these data will turn out indispensable for scholars of Aramaic: they will permit deeper insights into the history of Aramaic and its early medieval literary varieties, and into the history and culture of Aramaic speaking communities.

Ciancaglini notes that Turoyo “also shows features of western Neo-Aramaic dialects,” with reference to Macuch 1976:9 and n. 21. Genealogically, Turoyo is an Eastern Aramaic language simply because it developed out of another Eastern Aramaic language in historical times (like, say, both Italian and Romanian developed out of Latin beyond doubt, and this fact cannot be undone by whatever features they display now). Structurally, Turoyo has no conspicuously Western features, in particular less so than Neo-Mandaic: note that even Macuch or Tsereteli did not hold Neo-Mandaic to be a central or otherwise “intermediate” Neo-Aramaic idiom.

P. 169. An Iranian origin of  ‘basket’ is rather unlikely in view of the presence of zabbilu already in Neo-Babylonian Akkadian. The Akkadian word has been generally considered an Aramaism (CAD Z 6, AHw. 1501, DNWSI 301), no doubt because of its exclusively late attestation. Kaufman (1974:111) is nevertheless correct to observe that there is no genuinely Aramaic root from which such a noun could be produced, whereas Akk. zabalu ‘to carry’ is well attested throughout the history of Akkadian. It is thus tempting to suppose that we are faced with a late but genuinely Akkadian nominal formation subsequently borrowed into Aramaic and, then, spreading to Arabic and Persian (cf. SL 362). Still one cannot exclude that the nominal pattern C1aC2C2iC3, virtually unknown in Akkadian, is due to Aramaic influence.

P. 192. The author is undoubtedly correct to reject the Iranian etymology of  ‘cake,’ but does not mention the fact that this word is actually borrowed from Akk. kukku, as duly recognized by Kaufman (1974:65, cf. now SL 605 and already LSyr. 326).

P. 240. While it is not impossible that ‘purslane’ entered Syriac through an Iranian intermediary, the etymological priority of Akk. pappar¶û (CAD P 109, AHw. 824), in its turn possibly borrowed from Sumerian babbar.¶i (PSD B 31), must be acknowledged as certain in view of its broad attestation already in Old Babylonian (cf. now SL 1248).

P. 258. As seen already by von Soden,  ‘hematite’ is inseparable from Akk. šadânu with the same meaning, well attested since Old Assyrian and Old Babylonian on (CAD Š1 36, AHw. 1123).15 This circumstance does not necessarily exclude the possibility of an Iranian intermediary for the Syriac word, but almost certainly means that the emergence of Middle Persian šah-danag is due to meta-analysis by popular etymology.

L. Kogan, S. Loesov

C. A. Ciancaglini. Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2008 (Beiträge zur Iranistik 28). XLVII + 315 pp.

Humanist
2012-06-16, 20:32
Was the widespread diffusion of Aramaic within the general population of the empire fully accepted on the part of the Assyrian political authorities? I believe that, all said and done, this must, infact, have been the case, in consideration of the following well-known sets of data:

1. A group of fifteen bronze statuettes in the form of recumbent lions, of regularly decreasing size and weight, has come down to us from Nimrud, one of the main political centers of the empire. These lion weights bear, deeply incised on the animals’ metal bodies, Aramaic epigraphs indicating the ponderal measures of the statuettes, alongside fully parallel Assyrian texts, as well as numerical bars for the untutored. Since these objects also bear (only in the cuneiform version) the names of different Assyrian kings, there can be little doubt that they represent a fully official issue, destined for a bilingual audience.4

2. The large bas-reliefs on stone orthostats which decorated the Assyrian palace halls with their scenes of war and conquest, and which were by and large executed with the aim of public admirationfor the king and his deeds of conquest, show numerous scenes in which two scribes perform side byside the registration of war booty. The one nearest to the viewer bears a clay tablet or a wax-coveredwriting-board in one hand, and a stylus in the other; while the one farthest away bears a pliable scrollin one hand, and a brush. There can thus be no doubt that the first scribe was writing in Assyrian cuneiform script, and the other one in Aramaic alphabetic characters. These pictures match fully with a number of indications in the texts themselves, which speak of Aššuraya and Aramaya scribes working in pairs, for legal or administrative purposes.5

New Light on Assyro-Aramaic Interference: the Assur Ostracon, in F.M. Fales – G.F. Grassi (Eds.), CAMSEMUD2007. Proceedings of the 13th Italian Meeting of Afro-asiatic Linguistics, Padova 2010, 189-204. more
Mario Fales

Humanist
2012-06-17, 01:13
The Mandaeans are followers of a long-lasting Gnostic tradition. They affiliate themselves to achain of prophets starting from Adam the first man – as the first prophet- to John the Baptist(yahyā yohānā) – as the last Mandaic prophet. The Mandaean tradition names other prophetsbetween Adam and John the Baptist who some of them are also recognized in Judo-Christian andIslamic traditions, such as Noah (nū) and Shem (shūm), but others are specific Mandaean characters with no parallel in other traditions, such as the couple shūrbāy and sherhābiyyel.

No parallels? Well, I do not know if it is related, but this would certainly be an avenue to pursue. Please watch through the 25 second mark of the clip (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4).


The Mandaean Identity Challenge: from religious symbolism to secular policies
Mehrdad Arabestani

---------- Post added 2012-06-16 at 20:04 ----------

Folks in the UK, please let us know what the documentary reports. :) They appear quite confident that it is the DNA of a "Middle Eastern man." Of course, Middle Eastern man does not necessarily translate to John the Baptist. Too bad they are not airing it here.

Bones of John the Baptist (?) (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/06/bones-of-john-baptist.html)

Humanist
2012-06-17, 02:48
Syriac Christianity draws on three main cultural traditions, Jewish, Greek and ancient Mesopotamian. In the fourth century literature it is the first and third of these traditions that are most prominent, while from the fifth century onwards the prestige of Greek culture ensured that the influence of that tradition rapidly became the predominant one, at the expense of the other two. Nevertheless...Jewish tradition continued to exert an influence on Syriac literature well into the Islamic period.

Jewish Traditions in Syriac Sources
SEBASTIAN BROCK
ORIENTAL INSTITUTE, OXFORD

Humanist
2012-06-17, 08:59
This practice is maintained to this very day, in our churches:



http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YL7dOZkaxdk/Ti3XDxSxBVI/AAAAAAAAAZc/E6MwxXAaIeE/s1600/hamazor+handshake.jpg



The hamazor of the Parsees and the Kiss of Peace of some of the Bene-Israels of India and of the Early Christians.

I think, that the hamazor of the Parsees resembles the Kiss of Peace of some of the Bene-Israels of India, and the Kiss of Peace of some of the Early Christians. Rev. J. H. Lord thus describes the Kiss of Peace of the Bene-Israels:

“Emanating from the chief minister, who bestows it on the elders nearest to him, it passes throughout the congregation. Each individual seeks it, as far as possible, from his senior or superior. Extending the arms with the hands flattened out, and in the position of the thumbs being uppermost, the person [404] approached takes the hand between both of his own, similarly held, and the junior then probably places his remaining hand on the outside of one of those of the person already holding his other hand. The hands of each are then simultaneously released and each one immediately passes the tips of his fingers which have touched those of his neighbour to his mouth and kisses them. He then passes on to receive the same from, or to bestow the same on, another; and so on, till all in the Synagogue have saluted one another. Two or three minutes may be occupied in the process. A movement is going on all through the Synagogue, and a distinctly audible sound of the lips is heard through the building, till all is finished.”1 As to the occasions when the Kiss of Peace is observed among the Bene-Israels, he says: “It is, of course, not difficult to believe in the possibility of the practice having been handed down amongst the Bene-Israels, and having been without break used by them on occasions of their meeting together at circumcisions, and for such other communal meetings as they may have kept up amongst themselves from the first.”

The points of similarity between the hamazor of the Parsees and the Kiss of Peace of the Bene-Israels, when observed in congregations, are the following: (a) The movements of hands is similar. (b) In both, they emanate from the chief minister. (c) In both, each makes it with, or bestows it upon, the elders nearest to him. (d) In both, they pass throughout the congregation.

The only point of difference is this, that, while among the BeneIsraels the process ends with a kissing of the tips of the fingers of the hands, among the Parsees, it ends with the taking of the tips of the fingers to the forehead with a gentle bow. [405]

THE RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES AND CUSTOMS OF THE PARSEES

JIVANJI JAMSHEDJI MODI, 1937



---------------------------------------------------------------


The hamazor, 'a kind of Zoroastrian kiss of peace', is then exchanged by the zoti with his assistant, the fire priest. This means that the right hand of each is enfolded in turn by the hands palm to palm of the other, each man then raising his finger-tips to his mouth. The giving of kushta by the Mandaeans is the giving of the right hand only, and the hand-grasp is followed (like that of the Parsis) by each person kissing his own right hand. The Nestorian Christians give the hand-clasp followed by the kiss of finger tips in the Parsi fashion, at the mass and other services. The 'Bene-Israel' of India, as Modi relates, also have the hand-clasp followed by kissing, and, like the Nestorians, pass on the hand-clasp and kiss throughout the congregation.

"The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran; their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore"

Lady Drower

Humanist
2012-06-17, 22:52
Folks in the UK, please let us know what the documentary reports. :) They appear quite confident that it is the DNA of a "Middle Eastern man." Of course, Middle Eastern man does not necessarily translate to John the Baptist. Too bad they are not airing it here.

Bones of John the Baptist (?) (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/06/bones-of-john-baptist.html)


Bones that are theorized to be the bones of John the Baptist have recently been dated to the 1st century AD, confirmed as a male, and also found to be from an mtDNA haplogroup that is most common in the Middle East region he would have been from.

mtDNA haplogroup? If indeed the case, I certainly hope this is one exclusive subclade!

John The Baptist’s Bones May Have Been Found In Bulgaria (http://planetsave.com/2012/06/17/john-the-baptists-bones-might-really-be-the-bones-in-bulgaria/)

Ardi
2012-06-17, 23:14
mtDNA haplogroup? If indeed the case, I certainly hope this is one exclusive subclade!

John The Baptist’s Bones May Have Been Found In Bulgaria (http://planetsave.com/2012/06/17/john-the-baptists-bones-might-really-be-the-bones-in-bulgaria/)

Forgive me, but this just reeks of the all-too-familiar kind of cheap sensationalism that targets the adherent ignorance of the hyper-religious demographic. It's the same nonsense as saying that some rusty pin from 1st century Judea is the nail used to crucify Jesus, any triangular metal artifact is the Holy Lance and the given piece of cloth must have adorned Christ himself. The fact that the scientific method is utilized to propagate this bizarre, modern-day variation of medieval reliquary in the name of profit is unbearable.

But I digress...back to Assyrians. :)

Humanist
2012-06-17, 23:44
No parallels? Well, I do not know if it is related, but this would certainly be an avenue to pursue. Please watch through the 25 second mark of the clip (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4).


The Mandaeans are followers of a long-lasting Gnostic tradition. They affiliate themselves to achain of prophets starting from Adam the first man – as the first prophet- to John the Baptist(yahyā yohānā) – as the last Mandaic prophet. The Mandaean tradition names other prophetsbetween Adam and John the Baptist who some of them are also recognized in Judo-Christian andIslamic traditions, such as Noah (nū) and Shem (shūm), but others are specific Mandaean characters with no parallel in other traditions, such as the couple shūrbāy and sherhābiyyel.

The Mandaean Identity Challenge: from religious symbolism to secular policies
Mehrdad Arabestani

I forgot to add that the name of one of the "Lost Tribes" is also similar.

Wikipedia bit on the Tribe of Asher:


Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE,[1] Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. To Asher he assigned western Galilee, (Joshua 19:24-31) a region with comparatively low temperature, and much rainfall, making it some of the most fertile land in Canaan, with rich pasture, wooded hills, and orchards; as such Asher was particularly prosperous, and known for its olive oil.[2]

Origin

According to the Torah, the tribe consisted of descendants of Asher the eighth son of Jacob, from whom it took its name.

Critical scholars view this as an eponymous metaphor.[4] Asher is one of the two descendants of Zilpah, originally a handmaid of Leah, the other being Gad; critical scholars claim that the authors intended this to mean Asher and Gad were not entirely of Israelite origin.[6]

An Assyrian Patriarch once claimed that his family was descended from the Tribe of Naphtali.


http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/images/tribes/tribemap.gif

Humanist
2012-06-18, 02:10
Preface: I am not one to partake in national or ethnic aggrandizement. It does not mean much to me if I am descended from people who were the first or last to do this or that. What I am interested in is finding links between people. Links that may help explain our origins better, when the records (e.g. genetic, historical, archaeological, linguistic...) are examined in their totality.


This practice is maintained to this very day, in our churches:



http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YL7dOZkaxdk/Ti3XDxSxBVI/AAAAAAAAAZc/E6MwxXAaIeE/s1600/hamazor+handshake.jpg



The hamazor of the Parsees and the Kiss of Peace of some of the Bene-Israels of India and of the Early Christians.

I think, that the hamazor of the Parsees resembles the Kiss of Peace of some of the Bene-Israels of India, and the Kiss of Peace of some of the Early Christians. Rev. J. H. Lord thus describes the Kiss of Peace of the Bene-Israels:

“Emanating from the chief minister, who bestows it on the elders nearest to him, it passes throughout the congregation. Each individual seeks it, as far as possible, from his senior or superior. Extending the arms with the hands flattened out, and in the position of the thumbs being uppermost, the person [404] approached takes the hand between both of his own, similarly held, and the junior then probably places his remaining hand on the outside of one of those of the person already holding his other hand. The hands of each are then simultaneously released and each one immediately passes the tips of his fingers which have touched those of his neighbour to his mouth and kisses them. He then passes on to receive the same from, or to bestow the same on, another; and so on, till all in the Synagogue have saluted one another. Two or three minutes may be occupied in the process. A movement is going on all through the Synagogue, and a distinctly audible sound of the lips is heard through the building, till all is finished.”1 As to the occasions when the Kiss of Peace is observed among the Bene-Israels, he says: “It is, of course, not difficult to believe in the possibility of the practice having been handed down amongst the Bene-Israels, and having been without break used by them on occasions of their meeting together at circumcisions, and for such other communal meetings as they may have kept up amongst themselves from the first.”

The points of similarity between the hamazor of the Parsees and the Kiss of Peace of the Bene-Israels, when observed in congregations, are the following: (a) The movements of hands is similar. (b) In both, they emanate from the chief minister. (c) In both, each makes it with, or bestows it upon, the elders nearest to him. (d) In both, they pass throughout the congregation.

The only point of difference is this, that, while among the BeneIsraels the process ends with a kissing of the tips of the fingers of the hands, among the Parsees, it ends with the taking of the tips of the fingers to the forehead with a gentle bow. [405]

THE RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES AND CUSTOMS OF THE PARSEES

JIVANJI JAMSHEDJI MODI, 1937


---------------------------------------------------------------


The hamazor, 'a kind of Zoroastrian kiss of peace', is then exchanged by the zoti with his assistant, the fire priest. This means that the right hand of each is enfolded in turn by the hands palm to palm of the other, each man then raising his finger-tips to his mouth. The giving of kushta by the Mandaeans is the giving of the right hand only, and the hand-grasp is followed (like that of the Parsis) by each person kissing his own right hand. The Nestorian Christians give the hand-clasp followed by the kiss of finger tips in the Parsi fashion, at the mass and other services. The 'Bene-Israel' of India, as Modi relates, also have the hand-clasp followed by kissing, and, like the Nestorians, pass on the hand-clasp and kiss throughout the congregation.

"The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran; their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore"

Lady Drower


Wikipedia:

Bene-Israel Jews of India


The traditions of the community trace their descent to Jews who escaped persecution in Galilee in the 2nd century BCE, though the Bene Israel resemble the non-Jewish Maratha people in appearance and customs. The Bene Israel, however, maintained the practices of Jewish dietary laws, circumcision and observation of Sabbath as a day of rest.[citation needed]

Parsi


Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community.


Ahura Mazda


Ahura Mazda (Persian: اهورا مزدا; Ahura Mazdā), (Armenian: Արամազդ; Aramazd), (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Hurmuz, and Azzandara) is the Avestan name for a divinity of the Old Iranian religion who was proclaimed the uncreated God by Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is described as the highest deity of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked deity in the Yasna. The word Ahura means light and Mazda means wisdom. Thus Ahura Mazda is the lord of light and wisdom. Ahura Mazda is the creator and upholder of Arta (truth). Ahura Mazda is an omniscient (though not omnipotent) god, who would eventually destroy evil. Ahura Mazda's counterpart is Angra Mainyu, the "evil spirit" and the creator of evil who will be destroyed before frashokereti (the destruction of evil).

Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550–330 BCE) under Darius I's Behistun Inscription. Until Artaxerxes II (405-04 to 359-58 BCE), Ahura Mazda was worshiped and invoked alone. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda was invoked in a triad, with Mithra and Apam Napat. In the Achaemenid period, there are no representations of Ahura Mazda other than the custom for every emperor to have an empty chariot drawn by white horses, to invite Ahura Mazda to accompany the Persian army on battles. Images of Ahura Mazda began in the Parthian period, but were stopped and replaced with stone carved figures in the Sassanid period.

Ashur (later Shur)*


Ashur (also Assur, Aššur; written A-šur, also Aš-šùr) is the head of the Assyrian pantheon.

As the deified city Assur (pronounced Ashur), which dates from the 3rd millennium BC and was the capital of the Old Assyrian kingdom.[1] As such, Ashur did not originally have a family, but as the cult came under southern Mesopotamian influence he came to be regarded as the Assyrian equivalent of Enlil, the chief god of Nippur and one of the most important gods of the southern pantheon, and in time Ashur absorbed Enlil's wife Ninlil (as the Assyrian goddess Mullissu) and his sons Ninurta and Zababa - this process began around in the 13th century BC E and continued down to the 8th and 7th centuries.[2]



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ashur_ahura_.jpg


*Simo Parpola:


The variation [Assūr] ~ [Sūr] has a perfect parallel in the NA [Neo-Assyrian] forms of another important divine name, Ištar (NA [Iššār]), which was also realized as [Šār] in Neo-Assyrian, see PNA 1/I, xxv. As in the case of [Sūr], the short form [Šār] is effectively concealed behind the prodominantly logographic or ossified cuneiform spellings of the divine name ((d)15, dINNIN, dIŠ.TAR), but its existence is raised beyond any doubt by the NA spellings of the Urartian royal name Sarduri [Šārdūri], which is written varyingly as m(d)15-du-ri, mdINNIN-du-ri or msa-ar-du-ri in the Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions (see PNA 2/I 568f; note also the spelling URU.15-BÀD-a-ni = Sarduriani in ABL 147 = SAA 5 97 r.11). The “rebus” spellings m(d)15-du-ri and mdINNIN-BÀD/du-ri, implying the short form [Šār], are already attested in several inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III from c. 740 BC, and continue to be found in the letters and inscriptions of Sargon II (721-705) and Assurbanipal (668-630; for the latter, note m15-BÀD LUGAL KUR.ur-arţi in Streck 1916, 84:40, and mdI[Š.TAR-du-r]i LUGAL KUR.ú-ra-ar-ţi-im-[ma], ABL 1240:4-5). Like [Sūr], the short form [Šār] is also explicitly attested in Aramaic alphabetic spelling (cf. šrdrq’l = md15–BÀD-qa-a-li [Iššār-dūr-qāli], AECT 31) and in NB spellings of the Neo-Assyrian name Issār-tarība (mdiš-šar–ta-ri-bi, mdiš-šár–ta-ribi,mšar–ta-ri-bi, mdšár–ta-ri-bi, md15–ta-ri-bi, and mdIŠ.TAR–ta-ri-bi, all referring to the same person), see Zadok 1984, 4.

Humanist
2012-06-18, 04:45
I am not suggesting that this is the likely etymology of the word. I do not know enough about the history, linguistics, etc. For instance, I do not know if it is "Nasuraya" or "Nassuraya." When transliterated into English, the former appears much more frequently, from what I am able to gather.* Just "throwing it out there," as I often do.

From a Yahoo discussion group:


In the Syriac scriptures, Jesus is called 'Nassraya' or 'Natsraya', depending on whether you want to use 'ss' or 'ts' to represent 'tsade'. The town is called 'Nassrath' or 'Natsrath'. In both cases, that of the town name and that of the adjective, the first 'a' is long, and becomes an 'o' in the western Syriac pronunciation. The name 'Notsrath' is also found among some Jews from the Aramaic speaking communities near the borders between Iran and Iraq, although the local Christian Aramaic speakers use a pronunciation closer to 'Nassrat'.

For a case where a Hebrew Tsade is related to a Syriac Zain, the Hebrew Tsedeq becomes Zadiquta is Syriac. However Syriac and Arabic tradition unite in using Tsade in Nassraya.

Unfortunately too little is known of early Mandaean history for conclusions to be drawn from their usage, though it should be acknowledged in this context--Nassuraya referring to the highest Mandaean priesthood (destroyed in a cholera epidemic in the early 19th century).

----------------------------------------------------------------


mar’ē māt Aššūr (lit., “sons of Assyria”) and nišē māt Aššūr (lit., “people of Assyria”) were semantically equivalent terms, the former being the proper Neo-Assyrian term for “Assyrian citizens”, the latter a literary term used only in royal inscriptions.

....

Phonologically, Modern Assyrian Sūrāyā perfectly agrees with Neo-Assyrian Sūrāyu, while Syriac Sūryōyō displays an intrusive yod, which it shares with Greek Súrios and Suría. This intrusive yod surely is due to Greek influence, since in classical Syriac the word also occurs in the form Sūrōyō, in perfect agreement with the Modern Assyrian Sūrāyā.58 It is worth noting that Sūrāyā is reported to have a variant with initial A-, but this is avoided in careful speech, since it instinctively sounds incorrect in view of the classical Syriac Sūryōyō.59 Since omission of initial vowels is not a feature of Aramaic phonology, the lack of the initial A- in Sūrāyā/Sūr(y)ōyō cannot be due to internal Aramaic development but must go back directly to Neo-Assyrian.

Simo Parpola

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The ethnonym of one particular group of Jews originally from the northern Mesopotamian region is Naš Didan. It means, "our people."


naši: people, folk, mankind

Sureth Online Dictionary

----------------------------------------------------------------------------


naṣāru : [Army → Military] G. to guard, protect , to defend , to safeguard ; to watch , to beware of , to cherish , to preserve / conserve + , to prize , to treasure , to be careful ; to obey Gt. to be careful, on one's guard Š. to make guard Št. to be on the alert N. to be protected

nāṣiru : [Army → Military] 1) protective , watch- , defensive , preventive , benevolent (?) , patronizing (?) , affectionate (?) ; 2) (noun) : a guardian / guard , a protector / patron (?) / tutor (?) , a preserver , a keeper ;

Akkadian Online Dictionary

Based on my limited knowledge of Mandaeans, and Mandaeism, the above word(s) may be the more likely origin of the Mandaean term. At least when comparing the two. There very well may be a more likely origin than either "Naš-Sūrāyā" or "Naṣāru," of course. Some believe it is related to the term "Nazarene."


* Story of Compassion: Rabbi Brikha Nasoraia (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=le-kjGp1xxQ)

Humanist
2012-06-18, 07:07
Here is another reference to Mada and Athura. Unfortunately, it does not add anything new, it appears.


With the fall of Nineveh, the Empire was split in two, the western half falling into the hands of a Chaldean [Babylonian] dynasty, the eastern one into the hands of Median kings.* In 539 BC, both became incorporated in the Achaemenid Empire, the western one as the megasatrapy of Assyria (Aθūrā), the eastern one as the satrapy of Media (Māda).

Simo Parpola

* That bit is now contested by some scholars (e.g. Robert Rollinger (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=911246&postcount=295)).

Humanist
2012-06-18, 10:30
The early history of the Church of the East (Chaldean Catholic + "Nestorian"). There is no consensus regarding the church's earliest history. Here are two takes (not necessarily in disagreement):


Christianity took root in Iraq very early indeed. Christian tradition tells us that those who brought the good news to Mesopotamia were the apostles Toma, one of the twelve, Addai one of the seventy-two disciples of Jesus and his pupils Mari and Aggai. The source of this tradition comes mainly from the father of church history, Esabius of Caesarea who wrote at the end of the third century and the beginning of the fourth.

Although the very early beginnings are shrouded in mystery, there are many indications that the Christian message reached Mesopotamia in the first Christian century. The early Christians were Jews who worshipped in the Synagogues and had the Hebrew Bible as their book. They differed from their fellow Jews by faith in Jesus of Nazareth as the saviour in whom the promises of the prophets were fulfilled. They remained a sect within Judaism until the Jews expelled them from their Synagogues in 70AD. The Acts of the Apostles give the first indications of how his disciples preached the Christian message. Peter on Pentecost day told the crowds who were amazed at seeing the disciples speaking different languages that the Jesus who was crucified, God raised him to life and that he is the promised saviour (Acts 2:14-36).

Acts goes on to tell us that there were devout men living in Jerusalem from every nation under heaven, and among these were people from Mesopotamia (Acts 2:5- 13). After the preaching of Peter on Pentecost day 3000 were baptised in the name of Jesus.

Jews were exiled to Mesopotamia twice, in the eighth century BC by the Assyrians and in the sixth century by the Babylonians. When Cyrus allowed the exiled Jews to return to their land in 539BC, not all of them returned to Palestine, thus the big Jewish community in Mesopotamia and their presence on Petecost day. The Persian rulers were Zoroastrians while the majority of the population was pagans.

One of the earliest Churches of Iraq, the church of Kokhe, dates back to this period. Tradition attribute it’s building to the apostle Mari, who had established a community there. After curing the sister of king Artaban he was given a small site in Kokhe, an area south to Ctesiphone where the farmers and servants of the king of the capital lived, thus the name Kokhe which means huts. From a small original house church in which believers gathered, a big church was built early in the third century.

By Dr.Suha Rassam (a member of the Chaldean Catholic Church)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------


Addai asked Mari to christianize Babylonia, now under Parthian rule. Mari left Edessa his native city, along with some of his disciples, for missionary activities. On his way he converted the city of Nisibis to the East of the Tigris and its regions, then Arbela in Assyria (north of modern Iraq) and its surroundings, before reaching Babylonia. In the latter’s capital Seleucia-Ctesiphon he established what became later the cradle of Christianity in Mesopotamia.

Many later Christian sources acknowledge the missionary role of Mari in Babylonia: Babylonia is the seat of the East Syriac patriarchate (wrongly called Nestorian). In Babylonia, Kokhe witnessed the first Christian church-building. Many of these Christian sources consider Kokhe the “New-Seleucia” on the Tigris, and indeed Kokhe and Seleucia were close to each other, separated only by a dry valley, which was once the bed of the Euphrates. There is archaeological evidence that strongly suggests that the activities of Mari in Babylonia took place before A.D. 116 and if this is true, we would have the same date for Addai’s activities in Edessa. Certain Christian native sources claim that Mari came first to Ctesiphon where Kokhe was located, and this reflects the topography of Babylon before A.D. 116. After that date, the Tigris shifted its bed, not only separating Ctesiphon from Kokhe, but associating the latter with Seleucia.

ADMINISTRATIVE SYNODS OF THE CHURCH OF BABYLONIA

The isolation of the church in Babylonia strengthened its sense of autonomy, which in turn strengthened the administrative sense of the church in Babylonia. SYNODS aiming at managing the affairs of the church were held and their acts were published. The acts of 15 synods are known from two manuscripts dated to the 8th century. These are great sources of information about the history of the church in Mesopotamia after 410. They contain unique details about the development of eastern Syriac theology, chronological lines of patriarchs, lines of some 300 bishops with their sees, political, social and religious conditions in Mesopotamia between 399 and 790. Here are some Synods in short words:

A.D. 410: Synod of Mar Isaac
Initiated by bishop Marutha of Miapharqat (=also called Martyropolis, city in northern Syria), ambassador of the Byzantine king to Yazdgard I of Persia (399-420). Bishops came to Seleucia in January and the introductory session was held in the Great Church, the 6th of the month. The letter of “the bishops of the West” to Yazdgard I was read. First working session in February 1, began with prayers for the life of the Shahin-shah. The letter of “the bishops of the West”, containing the acts of the Council of Nicene (A.D. 325) was read, then endorsed by the bishops. Ecclesiastical administration was defined: One bishop for each city, ordained by at least 3 bishops, with the approval of the highest ecclesiastical administrator, the Metropolitan. The primacy of the Metropolitan of Seleucia-Ctesiphon was confirmed. He took the title “Catholicos” (see above). 21 canons were created dealing with church administration, relations between lay people and their bishops, and between the latter and their own superiors. Ecclesiastical provinces were defined:

Seleucia, see of the Catholicos
Gondishapur (Aramaic Beth-Laphat), 1st Metropolitan see
Nisibis
Furat-Maishan (modern Basrah in Iraq)
Ediabene
(the region of modern Erbil)
Karkh-Selokh (modern Kirkuk in Iraq)

By Dr. Amir Harrak (a member of the Syriac Orthodox Church)


Mapping the Assyrian point for the Church of the East members. It is basically Babylon. Not far removed from the original point (granted, it is heavy on the E Assyrians).


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Church_of_East.jpg



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If David's SPA points are bringing us back to, say, ~500 BCE, I think the Assyrian point has a good deal of historical support. Assyrians are an amalgam of various groups brought together during the Neo-Assyrian empire. The inhabitants of Assyria, before Assyria was "Assyria," were Subarians. Regarding Subartu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subartu): "Most scholars accept Subartu as an early name for Assyria proper on the Tigris, although there are various other theories placing it sometimes a little farther to the east, north or west of there." And the peoples deported and assimilated by the Assyrians, and perhaps later, the Babylonians. With later ancestry mediated through the Church of the East's expansion beyond the borders of Mesopotamia. However, our mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, Y-DNA haplogroup frequencies (coupled with our Y-STR values and specific subclades), and autosomal analyses do not suggest a significant infusion of "foreign" blood over the course of the last very long while. Recent generations have seen a significant increase in the number of Assyrian and non-Assyrian marriages. A linguistic analysis of our vernacular does not contradict the genetic findings. See Dr. Geoffrey Khan's recent lecture (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9kpOHmt4Pg). Not to mention, Dr. Simo Parpola's views on the question.


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Moving around Babylon: On the Aramean and Chaldean Presence in Southern Mesopotamia


This brief essay has the scope of touching upon the available evidence on these peoples of non-native origin who were, comprehensively, “moving around Babylon” between the 8th and the 7th century BC. But the notion, here propounded, of “moving around Babylon”, should not be understood as a mere historical geographical guideline; there is decidedly more to it than meets the eye. During this crucial historical period, in effect, Babylon functioned consistently as a political target or prize of excellence , per se and in antagonism with the invasive actions of the Assyrians. In a nutshell, Babylon – the city of cities of Mesopotamian tradition – needed to be taken and ruled, or at other times protected and defended to the hilt, against the powerful northern Mesopotamian neighbours, if it was ever to become the political and administrative “center of the world” for the originally non-Mesopotamian peoples of the southern alluvium, as it eventually would.

Moving around Babylon: On the Aramean and Chaldean Presence in Southern Mesopotamia, in Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva, Ess, Margarete van, and Marzahn, Joachim (Eds.), Babylon Wissenskultur in Orient und Okzident, Berlin, Boston (DE GRUYTER) 2011, 91–112




Wikipedia:


Sennacherib, 705–681 BC

Sennacherib launched a campaign against Elam in 694 BC and ravaged the land. In retaliation, the king of Elam attacked Babylonia. Ashur-nadin-shumi was captured and brought back to Elam and a new king called Nergal-ushezib was installed as ruler of Babylon (ABC 1 Col.2:36–45). The Assyrians returned the next year to Babylonia and plundered the gods of Uruk. Nergal-ušezib and his Elamite allies were defeated by Assyria, and he was taken prisoner and transported to Assyria (ABC 1 Col.2:46 – Col.3:6). Another native ruler, called Mushezib-Marduk, soon seized the throne of Babylon. He held on to it with help of his Elamite allies for four years until 689 BC, when the Assyrians retook the city (ABC 1 Col.3:13–24). Sennacherib responded swiftly by opening the canals around Babylon and flooding the outside of the city until it became a swamp, resulting in its destruction, and its inhabitants were scattered. In 681 BC, Sennacherib was murdered while praying to the god Nisroch by one or more of his own sons (allegedly named Adremelech, Abimlech and Sharezer), perhaps as retribution for his destruction of Babylon.[9][10]


Esarhaddon, 681–669 BC

As king of Assyria, Esarhaddon immediately had Babylon rebuilt, and made it one of his capitals. Defeating the Scythians, Cimmerians and Medes (again penetrating to Mt. Bikni), he then turned his attention westward to Phoenicia—now allying itself with the Nubian/Kushite rulers of Egypt against him—and sacked Sidon in 677 BC. He also captured King Manasseh of Judah and kept him prisoner for some time in Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11).

His elder son Shamash-shum-ukin became king of Babylon and his son Ashurbanipal became king of Assyria, with Ashurbanipal holding the senior position and Babylon subject to Nineveh; see ABC 1 Col.4:30–33 and ABC 14:31–32, 37. Bel and the gods of Babylonia returned from their exile in Assur to Babylon in the first year of Shamash-shum-ukin, and the akitu festival could be celebrated for the first time in twenty years; ABC 1 14:34–39 and ABC 1 Col.4:34–36.

Ashurbanipal, 669–627 BC

By 652 BC, this vassal king was able to declare outright independence from Assyria with impunity, particularly as Ashurbanipal's older brother, Shamash-shum-ukin, king of Babylon became infused with Babylonian nationalism, and tired of being subject to his brother began a major civil war in that year. However, the new dynasty in Egypt wisely maintained friendly relations with Assyria. Shamash-shum-ukin attempted to raise a huge rebellion encompassing many vassal peoples against Ashurbanipal, however this largely failed. This rebellion lasted until 648 BC, when Babylon was sacked, and Shamash-shum-ukin set fire to the palace, killing himself. Ashurbanipal then set about punishing the Chaldeans, Arabs and Nabateans who had supported the Babylonian revolt.


Deportations

The Jews were one of the many peoples deported by the Assyrians.
It is not known if the Assyrians were the first to deport people, although since none before had ruled the Fertile Crescent as they did it is likely that they were the first to practice it on a large scale. The Assyrians began to utilize mass-deportation as a punishment for rebellions since the 13th century BC.[33] The purposes of deportation included, but were not limited to:
1) Psychological warfare: the possibility of deportation would have terrorized the people;
2) Integration: a multiethnic population base in each region would have curbed nationalist sentiment, making the running of the Empire smoother;
3) Preservation of human resources: rather than being butchered, the people could serve as slave labor or as conscripts in the army.
By the 9th century BC the Assyrians made it a habit of regularly deporting thousands of restless subjects to other lands.[34] Re-settling these people in the Assyrian homeland would have undermined the powerbase of the Assyrian Empire if they would rebel again. As a result, Assyrian deportation involved removing one enemy population and settling them into another. Below is a list of deportations carried out by Assyrian Kings:[32]

744 BC Tiglath Pileser III deports 65,000 people from Iran to the Assyrian-Babylonian border at the Diyala river
742 BC Tiglath Pileser III deports 30,000 people from Hamath, Syria and into the Zagros mountains in the east.
721 BC Sargon II (claimed) deports 27,290 people from Samaria, Israel and disperses them throughout the Empire. However, it is likely that his ousted predecessor, Shalmaneser V ordered the deportation
707 BC Sargon II deports 108,000 Chaldeans and Babylonians from the Babylonian region
703 BC Sennacherib deports 208,000 people from Babylon

Humanist
2012-06-18, 12:03
Posted in another thread. Relevant here as well:

The Tushan dig is in the news.

Archaeologists discover lost language (http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/archaeologists-discover-lost-language/)


Possibilities
What then could the origins of these names be? Very likely we are dealing with a language isolate, and it may be that it is a language about which we have no other information or that may present traces in proper names that it has not yet been possible to reconstruct into a parent language. As regards the nature of such a proposed background language there are, in my appreciation, four possibilities:

(1) Shubrian
These names could be Shubrian, that is to say the indigenous language of the region prior to the arrival of the Assyrians (and Arameans). The existence of Shubria, and Shubrian, is well-established, but it is not known to what language group Shubrian belonged. On the basis of the names of some of the kings of Shubria, it has been suggested that the language was a relative of Hurrian, but, in reality, that dataset is too small to allow reliable conclusions...

(2) Pre-Hurrian substratum
An alternative could be that the region was host to some other pre-Hurrian language about which we have no other information.

(3) Iranian (non-Indo-European)
Another possibility is that the names belong to a population group originating in western Iran but speaking a tongue that did not belong to the Indo-Iranian language group. This strikes me as particularly plausible as it is certain that the Assyrians deported populations from Iran to other parts of the empire.

(4) Recent arrival
A final suggestion is that the language could belong to a new wave of population influx. One possibility would be the Mushki (Phrygians) who were moving into eastern Anatolia around this time. If this were the case, for the names to appear in an administrative list at Tušhan would mean that such people had either deliberately infiltrated the Assyrian empire (which might seem foolish) or that they had been captured on campaign. It may be that a mixture of the above sources is involved. The following general remarks may be made concerning features of these names:

(1) the overwhelming majority end in a vowel, -a, -a, -e, -e, -i, -i
(2) four begin in ši-
(3) five end in - ši/še
(4) all Akkadian phonemes are used in the representation of these names with the possible exception of /ṣ/ and (or) /z/.

The above will by now have amply emphasized the linguistic interest of this text. The names listed evidently come from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. The small number whose etymology can be identified include Assyrian, Hurrian, Luwian, and possibly Indo-Iranian, but in the case of the great majority the background cannot be identified. How did these people come to be under the palace administration of Tušhan? In principle there would seem to be three possibilities: descendants of the indigenous population, prisoners of war, and deportees. It may be pertinent to note that the phraseology ina pan PN occurring in our text is also characteristic of lists of deportees,17 but this is not the only use of the phrase, and it seems likely that it would equally have been used for prisoners of war and resident individuals under the palace authority. The group could in any case have comprised elements from all three sources. Until a convincing identification for the linguistic milieu is made, it is probably not possible to be more specific than this.18


Evidence for a Peripheral Language in a Neo-Assyrian Tablet from the Governor’s Palace in Tušhan

John MacGinnis

Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Vol. 71, No. 1 (April 2012), pp. 13-20

Humanist
2012-06-18, 14:19
Herodotus' accounts of "Babylonia, Chaldea, and Assyria" are suspect according to some scholars. With some even suggesting Herodotus never set foot in Babylon.

Herodotus appears to confuse Assyria and Babylonia. But, perhaps we are the ones who are confused. Or, rather, at least this non-academic. At least with regard to certain questions. See the second and third sources.

Herodotus: From The History of the Persian Wars, c. 430 BCE


Assyria possesses a vast number of great cities, whereof the most renowned and strongest at this time was Babylon, where, after the fall of Nineveh, the seat of government had been removed.

....

Many sovereigns have ruled over this city of Babylon, and lent their aid to the building of its walls and the adornment of its temples, of whom I shall make mention in my Assyrian history. Among them two were women. Of these, the earlier, called Semiramis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shammuramat), held the throne five generations before the later princess. She raised certain embankments well worthy of inspection, in the plain near Babylon, to control the river, which, till then, used to overflow, and flood the whole country round about...

....

The Assyrians went to war with helmets upon their heads made of brass, and plaited in a strange fashion which is not easy to describe. They carried shields, lances, and daggers very like the Egyptian; but in addition they had wooden clubs knotted with iron, and linen corselets. This people, whom the Hellenes call Syrians, are called Assyrians by the barbarians. The Chaldeans served in their ranks, and they had for commander Otaspes, the son of Artachaeus.


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Posted a few days back:

Robert Rollinger (Innsbruck)


Independently from each other Burkhart Kienast and I adduced arguments calling into question the presumed vassal status of the early Persians vis à vis the Medes. Amélie Kuhrt has recently shown that the Assyrian heartland as well as its eastern fringes (the region around Arrapha) were part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Both regions stayed under firm Babylonian control after the downfall of its Assyrian predecessor.


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The Role of Babylonian Temples in Contributing to the Army in the Early Achaemenid Empire

John MacGinnis McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research - Cambridge


In the early autumn of Darius year 4 (518 bc) a band of soldiers made their way back to Babylonia from duty overseas in the service of the Achaemenid army. Their home was the ancient city of Sippar and we know about their return from a brief entry in an administrative text—CT 57 82—now preserved in the cuneiform collections of the British Museum. Lines 6–8 read, laconically:

38 shekels of silver for ŠamaŠ-iddin and his horsemen who have come back from Egypt.

This is typical of the nature of the sources at our disposal—the texts do not deal with military matters per se but are accountancy documents generated by the temple bureaucracy. Who was ŠamaŠ-iddin, who were his men, and how did it come about that they found themselves doing a tour of duty in Egypt?

To address these questions we can start by taking a look at the Babylonian background of this scene. Babylonia was at the centre of the Achaemenid Empire and an immensely wealthy country. To a large degree this wealth was generated by a network of cities positioned along the river and waterways. Each of these had a temple complex at its heart: Babylon had Esagila, the temple of the supreme god Marduk; Nippur had the Ekur temple of the god Enlil; Borsippa housed the Ezida of the god of writing Nabû, and so on. There were many others—we will talk about two more shortly—not to mention the innumerable smaller settlements.

There are a few possibilities for comparing our finds with data from other sources. Pictorial representations of Babylonian soldiers are not common but they do exist, if admittedly from a period slightly earlier than the one under consideration. For instance, Babylonian soldiers may be seen in scenes from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh wearing kilts and headdresses, armed with bows, quivers and sometimes scabbards.6 In the record of Herodotus—slightly later than the period under consideration—the Assyrians (did this mean Babylonians?) wore linen corsets and were armed with bronze helmets, shields, spears, daggers and studded wooden clubs (Herodotus vii.60, 63; cf. Strabo xv.3.19). Attempting to correlate these descriptions with the data from the Neo-Babylonian texts results in a reasonable if not watertight fit. As Joannès (1982: 16) has pointed out, the record of Herodotus corresponds pretty well with what we know from the cuneiform texts, and suggests that the soldiers of Babylon were already “armée à la Perse” in pre Achaemenid times.7 One element missing in our temple documentation is the shields—unless this is the real meaning of the word ṣallu (otherwise translated as “skin”). There also seems to be no mention of scabbards and neither is there any mention of Herodotus’ clubs.

....

Lastly, I would stress that a number of sources contributed to the formation of the Babylonian wing of the Achaemenid army. In addition to the contingents from the temple/urban polities, contingents were also drawn from the Chaldean tribal structure, from subject dominions (e.g. the Assyrians) and from mercenaries. So our evidence from Sippar, interesting as it is, can only form a small part of the picture.

7 Of course, it might be more logical to say that the Persians were “armée à l’assyrien”!


This reminds me of something I have mentioned before, and shared with Dr. Roy King in an email exchange a little over one year ago:


A southern Mesopotamian origin, in my opinion, is now a possibility for the J1* found in the above Assyrian and Arabian men. For if it had persisted in the extreme northern regions (Nineveh and its environs) for many millennia, I believe some traces of its existence among Armenians, Turks, and other populations of the immediate areas beyond the northern Mesopotamian limits would likely have been found.

Since that time, DYS438=11 has been found in northern populations (a few groups in Dagestan, Balanovsky et al.). But, J1* has also been observed, since that time, in relatively significant frequencies among the Marsh Arabs of Iraq and individuals living in SW Iran (Al-Zahery et al.).

Ardi
2012-06-18, 17:23
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ashur_ahura_.jpg



Even though though my familiarity with the Mandaean faith is pretty sparse, I couldn't help but notice a remarkable 'thematic' similarity with Zoroastrianism. From the white garments to the the veneration of water as symbolic purity and the worship of an absolute, monotheistic deity with clear solar-luminous attributes, the parallels seem to point to a mythological prototype that transcends the boundaries between linguistic families and their respective cultural spheres. Once we take the prominence of the winged solar-disk motif in Hurrian artifacts into consideration, the ultimate antique origin of this abstraction -its subsequent belief-systems- in the region bordering Northern Mesopotamia and the Armenian Highland becomes increasingly more plausible.

http://www.maravot.com/Mitanni_shuttarna.gif

http://www.eutyun.org/RES/E/NYS/009.jpg

http://www.maravot.com/Mitanni_Winged.disk.gif

http://imagecache5.art.com/p/LRG/13/1348/DVCS000Z/relief-depicting-gilgamesh-between-two-bull-men-supporting-a-winged-sun-disk-fr-tell-halaf-syria.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-18, 18:45
Even though though my familiarity with the Mandaean faith is pretty sparse, I couldn't help but notice a remarkable 'thematic' similarity with Zoroastrianism. From the white garments to the the veneration of water as symbolic purity and the worship of an absolute, monotheistic deity with clear solar-luminous attributes, the parallels seem to point to a mythological prototype that transcends the boundaries between linguistic families and their respective cultural spheres. Once we take the prominence of the winged solar-disk motif in Hurrian artifacts into consideration, the ultimate antique origin of this abstraction -its subsequent belief-systems- in the region bordering Northern Mesopotamia and the Armenian Highland becomes increasingly more plausible.

Hey, Ardi. Yes. I do agree. The Mandaean faith may have some roots farther west (and east), in the Levant (the same may be said for us), but genetically, they appear to be principally Mesopotamian. However, I cannot help but think that they spent a considerable length of time in southern Mesopotamia. As you know, words and other elements of language are not borrowed (if that is even the appropriate term in the instant case) from extinct languages. Which brings me back to these few bits written by Dr. Christa Müller-Kessler:


Mandaic is the term for the Aramaic dialect of the last remaining non-Christian Gnostics from Late Antiquity, the Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran (Ḵuzestān). It belongs to the Southeastern Aramaic dialect group with Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic (Babylonian Jewish Aramaic) and Koiné Babylonian Aramaic. Mandaic and Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic have been formerly classified with Syriac as Eastern Aramaic, but this Southeastern Aramaic branch has now to be kept separate on account of clear isoglosses in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicography according to the latest insights on both dialects. The roots of the Mandaic language go back to the early Parthian period (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthian_Empire) (not Sasanian: Rosenthal, 1938, pp. 238-54). Its users and speakers, the Mandaeans, recruit from a former Babylonian Aramaean population.

So far no dialectal forerunners of Mandaic are known, since the Aramaic relics of the pre-Parthian times and Parthian period in Babylonia and neighboring Ḵuzestān are rather limited (a few scattered inscriptions, Middle Iranian ideograms, an incantation in syllabic cuneiform script and in Eastern standardized Aramaic from Uruk [Warka]). Nevertheless, Mandaic inherited abundantly phonetic, grammatical, and lexicographic features from Akkadian (Late Babylonian) that point to the fact that the Mandaeans’ origin cannot have been anywhere else than in Mesopotamia (Kaufman, 1974, pp. 163-64; Müller-Kessler, 2004). Only in the matter of loanwords Iranian had an impact on Mandaic.

In the area of loanwords, Mandaic inherited from Akkadian an abundance of termini technici concerning religion, but also many words inn other areas. Despite the limitation in its attested lexicon, due to the loss of texts, Mandaic shows more Akkadian borrowings than any other Aramaic dialect. The Mandaean gnostic sect recruited from a Babylonian population, and a stock of Akkadian words had belonged to the idiom of that geographical area for some centuries. Particular borrowings in Mandaic are: priest classes, cult, divination, and magic terms: brʾyʾ < bartū “diviner,” zʾbʾ 2 “esoteric priests,” gynyʾ “sacrifice,” ʿkwrʾ < ekurru “temple,” prykʾ < parakku “altar, shrine,” pyšrʾ < pišru “dissolving of a magic bond,” ʾšp < ašāpu “to bewitch,” šʾptʾ < šiptu “incantation”; terms concerning the gnostic doctrine and cult: gynyʾ < ginû “sanctuaries,” zywʾ < zīmu “brilliance,” nʾndbyʾ < nindabû “offering,” nʾṣwrʾyʾ “watcher of secrets,” nʾṣyrwtʾ “secrecy” < niṣirtu; architectional terms: ʾngrʾ < agāru “wall,”roof,” kšwrʾ < gušūru “beam, post”; body parts: gysʾ 2 “side”; ktʾ < qātu “hand, handle,” šʾyryʾnʾ < “vein, artery”; directions of the wind, name of winds, astronomical terms: šʾrʾ <šārū “direction of the wind,” stʾnʾ < ištānu north(wind), ywniʾ 2 <ūmu 3 “storm,” tʾlyʾ < attala “eclipse.”

Humanist
2012-06-18, 20:08
THE INSCRIBED STELE FROM TELL YEMTHA
(PLATE XXIV)

John MacGinnis
2008


Tell Yemtha lies a few miles east of Tell Kēf, itself a town 10 miles north of Nineveh. In the spring of 1989 excavations under the direction of Salim Younis uncovered a stele in situ in the uppermost layer of the site. A quantity of painted Nuzi ware was also found in this layer.

....

In shape this stele is most reminiscent of the Stelenreihe at Assur. However the content does not seem to be the same, and in fact the inscriptions to which the stele must be best compared are two foundation texts, one in Akkadian of Atal-^en from Samarra (Thureau- Dangin 1912), and one in Hurrian of Ti^-atal of unknown provenance (Parrot _Nougayrol 1948). Both these rulers are Hurrian and it seems likely that the Tell Yemtha stele must also be seen in the context of the Hurrian Kulturgebiet. Both those texts record the foundation of a temple to Nergal. The palaeography of the Tell Yemtha stele is quite close to these documents, cf. in particular the forms of the signs LI and LUGAL. Wilhelm dates the inscription of Atal ^en to the late Gutian or early Ur III period, that of Ti^-atal to the late Ur III period (Wilhelm 1989, pp. 9-11). We suggest that the new stele may be of approximately the same date.

....

Prof. Wilhelm was kind enough to have a look at the text. He noted that the beginning of line 2 might perhaps be read a-tal-mu-^a, which would be a perfectly plausible Hurrian name. However the language of the inscription itself would appear to be Akkadian if we are indeed to read i-nu-ma in line 1 and i-na in line 8; note also, with regard to the li- opening line 11, that Hurrian words do not begin with /l/.

---------- Post added 2012-06-18 at 14:26 ----------

Benjamin Jones

Brown University
15/05/2010

Exodus: The Hammurabi Code

The Relationship Between Mosaic Law and the Mesopotamian Legal Canon


In the history of literary conversation between the annals of Mesopotamian literature and the Hebrew Bible, the stories referenced in the Book of Genesis are probably the most immediately recognizable. Mesopotamian flood legends, like the tale of Atrahasis and the story of Ut-Napishti from the Gilgamesh epic, are reminiscent of the famous Biblical story of Noah’s ark. However, the conversation between the Bible and the Mesopotamian canon reaches beyond mythology; the two sources have remarkably similar approaches to jurisprudence. The Covenant Code, the set of laws given by Yahweh to Moses, who conveyed them to the Israelites, bears a marked similarity to the law codes of Mesopotamia, including, in particular, the Code of Hammurabi. Many of the same moral and legal issues are addressed, and both the presentation of themes and the narrative style of the two documents bear a strong resemblance to one another. This similarity begs the question: what was the inspiration for the Covenant Code? Do the similarities between the Law of Hammurabi and the Covenant Code reflect similarities between the legal systems of Babylon and Judah, with the two systems and records developing simultaneously? Or was the law in Exodus appropriated directly from the laws of Hammurabi, as a philosophical or scholarly exercise? Though it is impossible to know with any degree of certainty, both explanations may be partly true. The two sets of writing would seem to have been based on a code and practice of law common in the region, yet the similarities between the Covenant Code and the Code of Hammurabi are enough to suggest that the authors of Exodus were aware of, and inspired by, the Babylonian legal document. However, the two documents are sufficiently different that it seems more likely that the relationship was one of inspiration, rather than direct appropriation.

Ardi
2012-06-18, 21:10
Hey, Ardi. Yes. I do agree. The Mandaean faith may have some roots farther west (and east), in the Levant (the same may be said for us), but genetically, they appear to be principally Mesopotamian. However, I cannot help but think that they spent a considerable length of time in southern Mesopotamia. As you know, words and other elements of language are not borrowed (if that is even the appropriate term in the instant case) from extinct languages. Which brings me back to these few bits written by Dr. Christa Müller-Kessler:


Mandaic inherited abundantly phonetic, grammatical, and lexicographic features from Akkadian (Late Babylonian) that point to the fact that the Mandaeans’ origin cannot have been anywhere else than in Mesopotamia

There is absolutely no doubt that the Mandaeans are thoroughly Mesopotamian, be it linguistically, cultural or anthropologically. In fact, they're a proverbial window towards the antiquity of the region in their profile and practice- notwithstanding Assyrians, of course. :) My curiosity was more specifically about the the broader mytho-religious archetypes that are at the foundation of belief systems as disparate as two mentioned above. Moreover, the origins of Mandaeism further to the south only reinvigorates the possibility of extended ancient contact from the source of the Great Rivers in the north to the primordial city-states in the south, which is that much more interesting.

Humanist
2012-06-18, 22:47
The title Rabbi...In Assyrian-Aramaic, it means professor/teacher, or learned one.


rb, rbʾ (raḇ, rabbā) n.m. chief; teacher

1 chief Com. --(a) in compounds: chief of ..., chief X-er .
2 master Com. --(a) teacher Gal, PTA, Syr, JBA, Man. (a.1) in direct address: rabbī : my master, teacher, rabbi.

Dialect abbreviations:
Com Common Aramaic
Gal Galilean
JBA Jewish Babylonian
Man Mandaic
PTA Palestinian Targumic Aramaic
Syr Syriac

Source: The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Humanist
2012-06-19, 04:28
What emerges from the time of the later authors is that by 30 B.C. (Diodorus’ floruit), the city of Babylon had declined. Diodorus tells us that the temple of Belos was in ruins. He reports that the temple was once « exceedingly high » and that the astronomers made their observations from its top. The palaces and other buildings (which buildings ?) were in ruins. The city was inhabited and the walls were still there, but a great deal of the area was turned into arable land. If Pliny is to be believed, the temple of Bel was still standing in the first century A.D.. This building must have been Esagila, since all classical sources agree that the ziqqurat (pyramis ; taphos tou Belou) had been destroyed by the time of Alexander. The poor condition of the temple tower is confirmed by cuneiform tablets and archaeological research (Wetzel 1957, p. 30-31).

The cuneiform documents show the existence of the following temples in Hellenistic Babylon (cf Boiy 2004, p. 275-7).

— Esagila, temple of Marduk (passim). Cf. George 1993, p. 139, no. 967.
— Egišhurankia, temple of Belet Ninua (= the Lady of Nineveh), located on the Western side of the Euphrates (AD I, p. 226, no. −321 : r. 13’and 14’, a diary concerning month III of year 2 of Philip (August 322 B.C.) mentioning the fact that debris of Esagila was removed to the West Bank). Simply called temple of B™let Ninua (AD II, p. 454 sqq, No. −171 H obv. 12’ (SE 141). George 1993, p. 95, no. 409.
— Egißnugal, temple of Sin (ABC 11 : 6’, 7’, 9’ = BCHP 5 : 9, 10, 12 (SE 25¿) ; AD III, p. 216, no. −132 B r. 26 (SE 179 )). George 1993, p. 96, no. 419 = p. 114, no. 654.
— Enitenna, temple of Sin (ABC 11 : 6’, 7’, 9’ (not noticed by Grayson) = BCHP 5 : 9, 10, 12). George 1993, p. 132, no. 870.
— Eturkalamma, temple of Ishtar of Babylon = temple of Beltia (BRM I 99 : 26 ; CT 49 153 : 3 ; 155 : 3 ; 164 : 3 (= Van der Spek 1998, nos. 18, 8, 15 and 31 ; Rahimesu Archive, Parthian period, 94-93 B.C.) ; AD I, p. 190/1, no. −328, r. 24’ (25 Nov. 329 B.C.). George 1993, p. 151, no. 1117.
— Ehursagsikilla, temple of Gula, = Egalmah ? (BRM I 99 : 27 ; CT 49, 150 : r. 24 (= Van der Spek 1998, nos 18 and 13) ; AD III, p. 134, no. −140A obv. 22 (cf. Boiy 2004, p. 91). (cf. George 1992, p. 305-6 ; part of Esagila : George 1993, p. 102, no. 488.
— Ehursagkuga, temple of Gula (BRM I 99 : 28 ; CT 49, 150 : 25 = Van der Spek 1998, nos. 18 and 13). George 1993, p. 101, no. 485.
— Ehursagtilla, temple of Ninurta in Babylon ; Temple of Ninurta (AD II, p. 234, no −198 B r. 13 ; coll. George 1997, no. 18). George 1993, p. 102, no. 489.
— Esabad, temple of Gula on the west side of the Euphrates (Tuba district)
(BCHP 8 : r 17’ ; Rahimesu archive 94-93 B.C., passim, cf. Van der Spek 1998). George 1993, p. 137, no. 944.
— Enamtila, temple of Enlil in the Kumar district on the west side of the Euphrates (AD II, p. 94/5, no. −234 : 12 (SE 77). George 1993, p. 130, no. 849.
— Day-One-Temple = Akitu temple¿ (Van der Spek 1998, p. 225) ; first attestation: AD II, p. 202, no. −204 C : r 17 (204 B.C.) ; Rahimesu Archive, Van der Spek 1998, nos. 14, 16, 18, 21, 23 and 24 ; et passim.
— Temple of Anunitu (Text on Arses and Alexander : Van der Spek 2003, p. 300, no. 2 : 7’). George 1993, p. 124, no. 775 = p. 139, no. 965 s.v. Esaggašarra.
— Temple of Ea (dBE) (AD II, p. 426, no. −175 obv. 9’-10’ (SE 136) ; CT 49, 152 : 9 = Van der Spek 1998, no. 9). George 1993, p. 108, no. 569 s.v. Ekarzaginna (part of Esagila complex) or ibidem p. 85, no. 282 s.v. Eešmah, a temple of Ea in the Western city quarter Kumar (cf. Boiy 2004, p. 91).
— Temple of Madanu (CT 49, 157 : 6-8 = Van der Spek 1998, no. 10). George 1993, p. 137, no. 936.
— Temple of Nabu-ßa-Harê (AD III, p. 502/3, no. −77 B r. 16’). George 1993, p. 132, no. 878.
— Temple of Nergal (CT 49, 187 : 4’ ; AD III, p. 256/7, no. −126 B r. 10’ ; p. 320, no. 118A : 21). The existence of a temple of Nergal prior to the Hellenistic period is not attested (Boiy 2004, p. 92).
— Temple of Ninlil (BRM I 99 : 45 = Van der Spek no. 18). A temple of Ninlil is attested here for the fi rst time (cf. Boiy 2004, p. 92).
— Temple of Zababa and Ninlil. Two documents from the Rahimesu Archive record expenditures from the cashbox of the property of Zababa and Ninlil (CT 49, 156 : 3, BRM I 99 : 2 = Van der Spek 1998 nos. 14 and 18). A temple of Zababa and Ninlil is otherwise unknown, except the Akitu temple at Kish (OECT X 231 : 1-2 ; cf. George 1993, p. 171, no 1435.) Zababa was the main god of Kish (Hursagkalamma), which is located closely to Babylon. It should not be excluded that the authority of Rahimesu extended over Kish, as there are close administrative connections with Cuthah and Borsippa as well. A contract from Kish dated to 12. V. 7 Alexander IV = 29 August 310 B.C. concerning 26 jars of beer (Watelin − Langdon 1930, p. 20, nr. 159) testifi es to the fact that the temple of Zababa of Kish functioned in the early Diadochi period.

The Size and Significance of the Babylonian Temples under the Successors

Robartus J. van der Spek, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

La transition entre l’empire achéménide et les royaumes hellénistiques (vers 350-300 av. J.-C.)
Actes du colloque organisé au Collège de France par la « Chaire d’histoire et civilisation du monde achéménide et de l’empire d’Alexandre » et le « Réseau internationald’études et de recherches achéménides » (GDR 2538 CNRS), 22-23 novembre 2004,
sous la direction de Pierre Briant et Francis Joannès

Humanist
2012-06-19, 05:41
Before the coming of the Romans into the Near East, probably under the early Parthians, the term Asuristan*, Beth Aramaye in Aramaic, had been coined for old Babylonia, sometimes including northern Iraq, and at times not. It is difficult to identify Aramaic names under the Parthians with the Greek names of the Seleucids, and boundaries changed frequently. The area of the upper Diyala River basin was called Beth Garmai, while Arbela and the land between the Greater and Lesser Zab Rivers was called Adiabene or Hadhyab in Aramaic. The plain of ancient Nineveh was called Beth Nuhadra, but it is unknown whether it, as well as other regions, had independent rulers or were Parthian provinces. The name Assyria, in the form Asuristan, was shifted to ancient Babylonia, probably by the Parthians, and this continued under the Sasanians. This is the information we glean from literary sources and maps, especially from Ptolemy, where Assyria occupies his sixth book.

Richard Frye


-----------------------------------------------------

* Wikipedia:


Asuristan was a province under the Sassanid Empire (226–640 AD).

The Sassanid province of Asuristan produced several unique cultural contributions to the world (all using varieties of Mesopotamian Eastern Middle Aramaic for their original scriptures):

It was the center for the Church of the East, which at times (partially due to the vast areas the Sassanid empire covered) was the most widespread Christian church in the world, reaching well into Central Asia, China and India. It sees as its founders the apostle Thomas (Mar Toma), and Saint Thaddeus (Mar Addai), and uses the Syriac version of Aramaic for its scriptures. One of the central scriptures of the Church of the East, the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari, is one of the oldest Eucharistic prayers in the Christianity, composed around the year 200. The Church of the East went through major consolidation and expansion in 410 during the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sassanid capital (in Asuristan). Selucia-Ctesiphon remained the location of the Patriarchate of the Church of the East for over 600 years. (The Church of the East has been sometimes erroneously referred to as Nestorian, although the followers of Nestorius, AD 386-451, actually only relocated into the Persian Empire from the Roman Empire in the 5th century, after the Nestorian Schism.)

The religion of Manichaeism (founded by Mani, 216–276), another Syriac Aramaic phenomenon, originated in 3rd century Asuristan, shortly after the Church of the East, and also spread across vast geographical distances. In some instances, Manicheaism even surpassed the Church of the East in its reach, as it was for a time also widespread in the Roman Empire. While none of the six original Syriac scriptures of the Manichaeans have survived in their entirety, a long Syriac section of one of their works detailing key beliefs was preserved by Theodore Bar Konai (a Church of the East author from Beth Garmaï), in his book "Ketba Deskolion" written in about 792. Like the Church of the East, the traditional center of the Manichaean church was in Seleucia-Ctesiphon (with Abū Hilāl al-Dayhūri sitting there as its head in the late 700s).[5]

Beginning with the Sassanid Empire and up to the 11th century, Sassanid Assyria was the center of Judaism in the world. The major book defining Judaism, the Babylonian Talmud, was written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic in Asuristan between the 3rd and 5th centuries. The Babylonian Talmudic academies were all established relatively near to Seleucia-Ctesiphon. The first Talmudic academy was founded in Sura by Rav (175–247) in about 220. One of the most influential Talmudic teachers, Rava (270-350), who was influenced by both Manichaean polemic and Zoroastrian theology, studied in another Talmudic academy at Pumbedita.

The Mandaean religion, who according to their traditions are the original followers of John the Baptist, and who are considered to be the only surviving Gnostic group in the world, also originated in Asuristan at this time (or slightly earlier, perhaps during Parthian Assyria). Their language and script was the Mandaic form of Aramaic (closely related to the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud). Two of their central works, both written within the 2nd and 3rd centuries, are the Ginza Rabba and the Mandaean Book of John (preserving original traditions about John the Baptist).

The second king of the Sassanid Empire, Shapur I (215-272), personally knew both Mani (216–276), the founder of Manichaeism, and Shmuel (165-257), another famous contributor to the Babylonian Talmud (head of the academy at Nehardea). Mani dedicated his only Middle Persian writing, the Shāpuragān, to Shapur I. Shapur I is mentioned many times in the Babylonian Talmud, as "King Shabur".

Humanist
2012-06-19, 12:16
Simply some ideas, working off the data. And, the typical smorgasbord of sources. :)

The SPA points have a great deal of potential. However, they are presumably sensitive to both recent AND antique gene flow. If we adjust the Armenian point ("F") so that the Armenian coordinates are consistent with the latitude and longitude for Lake Van (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Van#Armenian_kingdoms), we observe the following, if the same adjustments are made to the Assyrian, Mandaean, and Iraqi Jewish points:

Point "H" - Assyrians are in the general area of Nohadra (Duhok), Adiabene (Arbil), etc. I have discussed the significance of these areas many times before.

Point "G" - Mandaeans are near the mountains of the "Medians." This part of Iraq is particularly rich in oil.* And, according to Lady Drower, the Zab rivers (among others) are of significance to the Mandaeans.***

Point "I" - Iraqi Jewish point. Please see comment below.


http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5035/7400392120_a18bba610f_b.jpg



Wikipedia


The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Mesopotamia from roughly 589 CE to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM). The key work of these academies was the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud, started by Rav Ashi and Ravina, two leaders of the Babylonian Jewish community, around the year 550. Editorial work by the Savoraim or Rabbanan Savoraei (post-Talmudic rabbis), continued on this text for the next 250 years; much of the text did not reach its final form until around 700.[1] The two most famous academies were located at Sura and Pumbedita; the Sura Academy was originally dominant, but its authority waned towards the end of the Geonic period and the Pumbedita academy's Gaonate gained ascendancy.[2] Major yeshivot were also located at Nehardea and Mahuza.

Sura is "A"
Pumbedita is "B"
Nehardea is "C"
Mahuza is "D"

There was also an important Jewish academy in Nisibis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nusaybin), in the north. It is not on the map.


There was also at Nisibis a celebrated college, at the head of which was R. Judah b. Bathyra. Its fame was so great that the words "That which is altogether just shalt thou follow" (Deut. xvi. 20) were interpreted by the Rabbis to mean "Follow the school of Judah b. Bathyra at Nisibis" (Sanh. 32b).


Wikipedia


The cumulative effect of the Mongol incursions is that most of the pre-existing Jewish community either died or fled, and the later Jewish community consisted largely of immigrants from other places, principally Aleppo.

Aleppo is "E"

It is difficult to accept that today's Iraqi Jewish populations (living in diaspora) are principally descended from Aleppo Jews. The Mongol invasions were only several centuries ago. Considering the fact that Jews are extremely endogamous, the only possible scenario I can imagine, where Iraqi Jews would be largely of non-Iraqi Jewish stock, would be if the Aleppo Jews mixed with Iranian Jews, or another Mizrahim group from Mesopotamia.

Going by the Iraqi Jewish point "I," one could argue that they are a mix between old Iraqi Jewish and Syrian (Aleppo?) Jewish stock. Assuming, of course, that the Iraqi Jewish populations were concentrated around the major yeshivot (~ Babylon).

The Iraqi Jewish related locations referred to above are marked in green.

When reading up on the yeshivot, I came across this bit of information:


Al-Mada'in ("The Cities") (Arabic Al-Mada'in, Aramaic Maḥuza or Madayn) is the name given to the ancient metropolis formed by Seleucia and Ctesiphon (also referred to as Seleucia-Ctesiphon) on opposite sides of the Tigris River in present-day Iraq.


A "terrain" map, with the Assyrian and Mandaean points:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/man_asy_61912.jpg


And one including only the Mandaean point (N=2):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Mandaean_little_zab.jpg



*

Lady Drower


Significant was the remark of another Subbi when speaking of baptism : 'the Subba of old time were with the Persians in a place where there were springs which were hot in winter and cold in summer.'** The Mountain of the Mandai described in one of the legends has an equable climate and hot springs. Less direct evidence is furnished by the references, so common in the texts, to 'black water' which 'burns like fire'. This can be nothing else but the black oil seepages and outcrops of burning oil and gas so common in oil-bearing districts.

PETROLEUM SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE UPPER JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCES OF THE SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIAN BASIN, SOUTHERN IRAQ

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kirkuk_oil.jpg


Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence
Peter Roger Stuart Moorey

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bitumen.jpg

**


Sarchinar spring is well known in the region by its very large discharge and great resort area formed around the spring. It is locally considered as one of the natural beauties, but in the same time it is the main source of drinking water of entire city of Sulaimaniya.

....

There are two other facts that confirm deeper circulation within karstic aquifer: First, relatively constant temperature of the spring water throughout the year (±17 C0), while air temperature varying from less than 0 C0 to more than 40C0. Second: seldom recorded increased turbidity values of the spring even after heavy rainfalls.

THE MECHANISM AND INFLUENCE ON KARSTIC SPRING FLOW OF THE SARCHINAR SPRING CASE EXAMPLE, SULAIMANIYA,NE IRAQ

Salahalddin Saeed Ali, Zoran Stevanovic and Igor Jemcov

Published in: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, Vol.5, No.2, 2009, p.87 -100.

Sarchinar Spring is "J." Mandaean point is "G."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Sarchinar_spring.jpg


Regarding Kirkuk:

Wikipedia


It stands on the site of the ancient Assyrian capital of Arrapha,[3] which sits near the Khasa River on the ruins of a 5,000-year-old settlement (Kirkuk Citadel). Arrapha reached great importance under the Assyrians in the 10th and 11th centuries BC. Because of the strategic geographical location of the city, Kirkuk was the battle ground for three empires—the Neo Assyrian Empire, Babylonia, and Media—which controlled the city at various times.[4]

The region around Kirkuk was known in Aramaic and Syriac sources as "Beth Garmai" (Syriac: ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ), which means the "place of bones" in a reference to bones of slaughtered Achaemenids which littered the plains after a decisive battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III.[13] It is also thought that region was known during the Parthian and Sassanid periods as Garmakan, which means the 'Land of Warmth' or the 'Hot Land'. In the modern Persian and Kurdish languages too "Garm" means warm;[14] the name is still used by the Kurds in the form Garmian with the same meaning.

***

Lady Drower


Ritual ablution, that is, ablution carried out with certain actions and prayers, is a ceremony which, as it were, brings all the properties of this heavenly water into action and makes the recipient capable of benefiting by them.

These conceptions are of the greatest antiquity, and argue continuity of idea and tradition. To the Mandaean, the waters of the Karun, Tigris, Euphrates, or Zab are of equal sanctity, because all contain this magic infusion of mia hiia 'living water', or, as one might call it, Water of Life.


There is one more thing I would like to mention. This is probably a bit OT, but, Kirkuk (Arrapha), is located very near ancient Nuzi (see point “K,” at bottom).


I mentioned last time William F. Albright, an American archaeologist. He believed strongly that archaeological findings were important external evidence for the basic historicity and authenticity of, for example, the patriarchal stories. And certainly some archaeological findings were quite remarkable. Scholars of the Albright school pointed to texts and clay tablets that were discovered in second millennium sites. So you see down on the bottom [of the blackboard] the second millennium BCE, obviously going down to 1000; first millennium: 1000 to 0. The second millennium really wasn't longer than the first millennium, it's just that I ran out of board! But specifically sites like Nuzi and Mari--I've placed them in their approximate places on the timeline--Nuzi and Mari are sites that are near the area that's identified in the Bible as being the ancestral home of the patriarchs in Mesopotamia or on the highway from there to Canaan. These texts and clay tablets were believed to illuminate many biblical customs and institutions. So in the Nuzi texts from about the middle of the second millennium, we learn of the custom of adoption for purposes of inheritance, particularly the adoption of a slave in the absence of offspring. Biblical scholars got very excited about this. They point to the biblical passage in which Abraham expresses to God his fear that his servant, Eliezer, will have to be the one to inherit God's promise because Abraham has no son.

Also according to the Nuzi texts, if a wife is barren, she is to provide a maidservant as a substitute to bear her husband's children. And this is something that happens with three out of the four matriarchs, who are afflicted with infertility: Sarah, Rachel and Leah. There are other parallels in family and marriage law that correlate with certain biblical details.

The Stories of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-36), Open Yale Courses (Transcription), 2006.

Christine Hayes, Professor of Religious Studies in Classical Judaica, Yale University

http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5446/7400330288_3d63c89a83_b.jpg



Mesopotamia (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymmqisvThhk) ;)

And this, after the aggrandizement bit of a couple of days ago. ;p JK, of course.

Humanist
2012-06-19, 16:18
A bit OT. Came across this entry on the Melammu project page. It reminded me of a past post.


The Mandaic word for “purification, rinsing or consecration” through water is halalata, which probably derives from the Akkadian word tēliltu.

Bibliography
Drower and Macuch 1963, 121 Drower, E. S. and R. Macuch. A Mandaic Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1963.


Sureth

1.
ḥalalta: washing , the act of one who washes , an ablution

2.
šyp (šay6p, šiple, šyapa) : to rub, to erase, to delete.

Sureth online dictionary and Geoffrey Khan


----------------------------------------------------

Hittite

1.
halali- clean - is a Luwianism, from a Semitic source as in Akk. ellum ‘clean’, Hebr. hll ‘shine’ (Laroche, DLL 38, RHA 23 [1965]: 45; Otten, Bestimmung 110-11; T 126).

2.
suppi-, suppiyant- ‘(ritually) pure’, with vbl. abstract suppiyatar, factitive suppiyahh- (> Arm. šphem ‘rub, cleanse’, Schultheiss, KZ 77 [1961]: 222); origin unknown.


Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck’s Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages.

"A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Indo-European Studies"

David Michael Weeks


Edit

Compare the Sureth words below to the Akkadian word, tēliltu:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_word.jpg

Ardi
2012-06-19, 18:52
A bit OT. Came across this entry on the Melammu project page. It reminded me of a past post.




Sureth

1.
ḥalalta: washing , the act of one who washes , an ablution

2.
šyp (šay6p, šiple, šyapa) : to rub, to erase, to delete.

Sureth online dictionary and Geoffrey Khan


----------------------------------------------------

Hittite

1.
halali- clean - is a Luwianism, from a Semitic source as in Akk. ellum ‘clean’, Hebr. hll ‘shine’ (Laroche, DLL 38, RHA 23 [1965]: 45; Otten, Bestimmung 110-11; T 126).

2.
suppi-, suppiyant- ‘(ritually) pure’, with vbl. abstract suppiyatar, factitive suppiyahh- (> Arm. šphem ‘rub, cleanse’, Schultheiss, KZ 77 [1961]: 222); origin unknown.


Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck’s Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages.

"A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Indo-European Studies"

David Michael Weeks



Arm. payl(el): (n., verbalized) shine, lambent, glisten, sheen, scintillate (Sem. 1, IE 1)

Arm. surb (> common 'surp'): holy, sanctified, saint, pure (Sem. 2, IE 2, 'šphem'?)

Arm. srp(el): (v.) wipe, broom, clean, cleanse, obliterate (Sem. 2, IE 2)


Even though I am uncertain of exact etymologies for the Armenian lexemes above, the Sureth and IE terms seem to reinforce the idea of a notable semantic correspondence between the physical act of cleaning and symbolic purity in PIE, as expressed through Armenian.




Edit

Compare the Sureth words below to the Akkadian word, tēliltu:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_word.jpg



Arm. tats (թաց-[tʰ][ɑ][tsʰ]): wet, moist

Humanist
2012-06-19, 21:32
Flickr < Photobucket.

Posting again two images from my second to last post.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/map_spa_61912-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuzi_.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-20, 01:31
Even though I am uncertain of exact etymologies for the Armenian lexemes above, the Sureth and IE terms seem to reinforce the idea of a notable semantic correspondence between the physical act of cleaning and symbolic purity in PIE, as expressed through Armenian.

I think you will enjoy these bits, Ardi. :)

2012 “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Musasir, Kumme, Ukku and Šubria – the Buffer States between Assyria and Urartu.” In S. Kroll et al. (ed.), Urartu-Bianili. Acta Iranica 51 (Leuven 2012) 243-264.

KAREN RADNER


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyria_ararat.jpg




None of the political and religious centres which we shall encounter in our survey has been excavated (with the possible exception of Ukku), but the conspicuous lack of written materials – monumental and archival may be more than just the result of archaeological fortunes: Subria, Kumme and Musasir can certainly be described as (linguistically and culturally) Hurrian states, and, as in Mittani before them, royal display of power may have taken other forms than the monumental inscriptions known from Assyrians, Urartians or Hittites. The bureaucrats, whom we expect to find in the shadow of a major temple such as the temples of the storm god of Kumme and of Haldi of Musasir, may have used other ways to keep their books than writing on clay tablets.

....

This first known depiction of the god would seem to strengthen the view that there is a conceptual link between Haldi and Mithra, a connection assumed by the traditional Armenian designation for the blind rock portal at Van, which the Urartians called ‘Door of Haldi’ 71, as Mheri dur ‘Door of Mher (Mithra), of which the more common name Meher Kapısı is but a translation into Turkish. This association may already have been established in the Achaemenid period when Urartian traditions played an important role in the shaping of royal ideology; Mithra appears from the reign of Artaxerxes II (404-359 BC) onwards in royal inscriptions 72 and perhaps before that in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets.73 Armen Petrosyan 74 has recently analysed the striking similarities between the two deities and argued, convincingly in my view, that they are part of the same stream of tradition.

To return to the special connection between Haldi, the city of Musasir and the Urartian royal dynasty,76 the crown prince of Urartu was appointed or at least confirmed as the future king under Haldi’s auspices in Musasir, and they and their top officials routinely visited the Haldi temple, apparently following a certain schedule. If we bear in mind that it was known to the Urartians as ‘The City’, we may be tempted to describe Musasir as the Holy City of the Urartians, and especially their kings. Is a comparison with Rome’s role for the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire too far-fetched? Musasir’s special role for Urartian kingship was obvious also to the Assyrians, and this is utilised in the narrative of the capture of the city by Sargon, as presented to Assur and the Assyrian public: after the lengthy enumeration of the spoils taken from temple and palace, the narrative suddenly jumps to the reaction of Rusa of Urartu who collapses in despair over the news, tearing his crown from his head in the process.77 Kathryn F. Kravitz has described this very appropriately as ‘Rusa’s symbolic de-coronation’, implying that ‘Rusa’s kingship was essentially disabled by Sargon’s Eighth Campaign’78 – in reality, Rusa was out of Assyrian reach when he learned of the sack of Musasir and the description given of his reaction in the Letter to Assur is rather more likely to reflect wishful thinking than the report of an eye witness in Assyrian service. But still, the fact that Musasir’s capture and the desecration of Haldi’s temple could be envisaged as a crippling blow not just against the kingdom and its inhabitants but also, and especially, against Assyria’s arch-enemy speaks clearly of its importance as Urartu’s ritual focal point. Yet we must bear in mind that this ‘holy city’, to use the words of Shalmaneser I, is already attested as a transregional centre of considerable cultural influence centuries before the dynasty founded by Ispuini in the late 9th century BC took control of Urartu.

....

In Middle Assyrian texts, Hurrian-speakers – whether they lived in Assyria or elsewhere – are designated as Subarû / Subrû145 and already this detail alerts us to the fact that first millennium Subria may also be termed a Hurrian state: the Subrian language required the assistance of interpreters to be understood by Assyrians146 (some Hurrian words, with translations, are preserved in a letter from Sargon’s correspondence).147 That the kingdom preserved the ancient heritage of the Hurrian tradition into the 8th and 7th century BC, when Assyrian sources offer us some insight, is clear from the fact that the members of the royal house bore Hurrian names, like Sargon’s ally Hu-Tessub, Esarhaddon’s contemporary Ik-Tessub and his son […]gi-Tessub. The Tigris Grotto, perhaps Subria’s most important sanctuary (see below), was a natural shrine, combining the attractions of a spring and a mountain cave, and this fits well with Hurrian concepts of the divine.148 Furthermore the scholars of Subria pursued Hurrian disciplines: they performed the ancient art of augury and the scapegoat rituals typical of the Hurrian tradition.149

....

Assyrian practice and the fact that the Tigris was considered a major deity in the Hurrian world lead us to conclude that the ‘Tigris source’ was as famous and important a sanctuary as the temples of Haldi at Musasir and of the storm god at Kumme. It may be significant, then, that Esarhaddon composed a Letter to Assur, detailing the invasion of Subria, just as Sargon had done after the capture of Musasir and the looting of Haldi’s temple, the only other well-known example of this text genre. Esarhaddon’s text is broken where we expect the account of the invasion of Subria, but the spoils taken from that country are later given to the gods of Assyria, and at least part of these riches must have originated from Subrian sanctuaries. Is it coincidence that both the sack of Musasir and the invasion of Subria are reported to Assyria’s divine overlord in a Letter to Assur, or is this the direct result of the underlying similarities between the cases – an existing alliance with Assyria, secured by a treaty, broken; a sanctuary sacred to and frequented by the Assyrians violated – that may have required the composition of such an account which one might then interpret as a defence statement forwarded to the divine court of law which decided the fate of all according to the Mesopotamian world view? How we see this matter influences how we judge the significance of Sargon’s and Esarhaddon’s actions in Musasir and Subria – and the importance of the ancient Hurrian cult centres in the wider world.

Humanist
2012-06-20, 03:27
From another thread. Note the Arabian samples.


Marko = Marko T. Heinilä

Marko's trees are back. And I did not even notice.

Segment of Marko's Y-DNA G 67 marker tree containing my G1 haplotype (167102). My closest match is a fellow Assyrian (~800 years).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/G1_marko.jpg


The Assyrian F3 (in green):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/F3_Assyrian.jpg


Birko's R2a haplotype:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Birko_R2.jpg



The Mandaean Y-DNA H (in green):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandaean_H.jpg




"In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq"


In the less frequent J1-M267* clade, only marginally affected by events of expansion, Marsh Arabs shared haplotypes with other Iraqi and Assyrian samples, supporting a common local background.

Al-Zahery et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:288


My mitochondrial genome ("AS") was included in a recent study of HV4a2. My best "match" is the Jordanian. We are both HV4a2a.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/HV4_Carballa_et_al.jpg

BENK
2012-06-20, 03:39
A bit OT. Came across this entry on the Melammu project page. It reminded me of a past post.




Sureth

1.
ḥalalta: washing , the act of one who washes , an ablution

2.
šyp (šay6p, šiple, šyapa) : to rub, to erase, to delete.

Sureth online dictionary and Geoffrey Khan


----------------------------------------------------

Hittite

1.
halali- clean - is a Luwianism, from a Semitic source as in Akk. ellum ‘clean’, Hebr. hll ‘shine’ (Laroche, DLL 38, RHA 23 [1965]: 45; Otten, Bestimmung 110-11; T 126).

2.
suppi-, suppiyant- ‘(ritually) pure’, with vbl. abstract suppiyatar, factitive suppiyahh- (> Arm. šphem ‘rub, cleanse’, Schultheiss, KZ 77 [1961]: 222); origin unknown.


Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck’s Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages.

"A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Indo-European Studies"

David Michael Weeks


Edit

Compare the Sureth words below to the Akkadian word, tēliltu:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_word.jpg

Very interesting, I didn't know "Halal" is pre islamic word, and even pre abrahamic notion maybe.

Humanist
2012-06-21, 00:35
Simo Parpola, Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today


[A]ssyrian traditions, and Assyrian religion persisted alongside Christianity in all its major cities until late Antiquity.

TABLE III. [Some] Assyrian theophoric personal names from Parthian Assur, Hatra* and Tūr-Abdīn. Beyer 1998

Name Year/CE
Addu-nūr
`Abd-Allāya
Garam-Allāt 235
`Awīd-Allāt
Tēm-Allāt
Ahī-Assur 221
Assur-ah-iddin
Assur-amar
Assur-dayyān 200
Assur-hananī
Assur-hēl
Assur-šama` 184
Assur-`a 221
Assur-natan 184
Assur-tariş 200
`Aqīb-Assur 220
‘Ēnī-`al-Assur
Re'ūt-Assur 112
Assur-Bēl-dayyān 222
Bēl-abī 192
Bēl-barak
Bēl-`aqab 97
Malā-Bēl 221
Sattar-Bēl 195
Šōzib-Bēl
`Abed-Iššār
Natun-Iššār
`Awīd-Iššār 141
Ba-Nabû-ehdet 112
Bar-Nabû
Nabû-banā
Nabû-dayyān 188
Nabû-yāb
Nabû-gabbār
Nabû-kātōb 235
Nabû-`aqab
`Abed-Nabû 195
Bar-Nanāya 195
Bar-Nērgol 108
Nērgol-dammar 195
`Abed-Nērgol
`Abed-Šalmā(n) 235
`Aqab-Šameš 217
Han-Šameš
Ilāh-Šameš
Meqīm-Šameš
Natūn-Šameš 195
Rapā-Šameš
Šamšāy
Šameš-`aqab 205
Šameš-barak 237
Šameš-yāb 162
Šameš-zabad 128
Ba-Serū 217



How to reach the Upper Tigris: The Route through the Tur Abdin.

State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 15 (2006) 273-305.

Professor Karen Radner (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/about_us/academic_staff/dr_karen)
Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History


In the 13th century BC, after the military triumph of the Assyrian kings Adad-nērārī I (1300-1270) and Shalmaneser I (1269-1241) over their weakened neighbor Mittani (called “Hanigalbat” by the Assyrians), the former Hurrian kingdom was swiftly integrated into the Assyrian Empire. Hence, the wide plain east of the Euphrates which is traversed by the rivers Hābūr and Balīh — the so-called Jezirah — became Assyrian, as well as the Upper Tigris region.

The Assyrians designated the Tūr Abdīn as Kāsiēri, hence adapting a locally used toponym that is also attested in the Hittite sources as Kāsiāri / Gāsiāri and refers to an area under Hurrian (Mittani) control. It is therefore well possible that the toponym is derived from the Hurrian language.

The last Assyrian campaign to Kāsiēri is recorded for 855 in the inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (858-824): “In my fifth regnal year, I ascended to Kāsiēri and captured eleven fortified cities”. After this, the Assyrian control over the Kāsiēri region seems to be firmly established — there is no more mention of fights (or any other activities for that matter) in the Assyrian royal inscriptions.

It is important to note that beyond the area where the Syriac language and culture has helped to preserve the ancient Aramaic toponymy, going back to the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, the old place names have rarely been retained and identifications on the basis of etymology are generally quite problematic. The changing toponymy is, of course, also an indication that the population has changed again and again — in contrast to the Tūr Abdīn region which, typically for a mountain region, has served as a retreat area.

The remains of an Assyrian Christian village, in Mardin, Turkey:

http://www.nationalturk.com/en/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/assyrian-people-village-mardin-turkey-nationalturk.jpg





2012 “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Musasir, Kumme, Ukku and Šubria – the Buffer States between Assyria and Urartu.” In S. Kroll et al. (ed.), Urartu-Bianili. Acta Iranica 51 (Leuven 2012) 243-264.

KAREN RADNER


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyria_ararat.jpg


The adjusted Assyrian and Mandaean points (with Armenians set at Ararat's Lake Van), and locations marked by Karen Radner as "Assyrian sites," in her "Between a rock and a Hard Place..." paper. Locations marked by Radner as "Assyrian rock relief or inscription" are not included. The Parthian site of Hatra, where Assyrian theophoric names were found, is also included. Tur Abdin region is southeast of Diyarbakir. It approaches the Syrian border.

From the Wikipedia article on Tur Abdin:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tur_abdin.jpg


Grey spots
A Assur
B Kalhu (Nimrud)
C Arbil
D Nineveh
E Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad)
F Tushan <-- Location of the unidentified language.
G Amidi (Diyarbakir)

EDIT: Hiptunu inadvertently omitted.


* Hatra page, at the UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre site:


Although there are few texts referring to the obscure beginnings of Hatra, it seems that a smallish Assyrian settlement grew up in the 3rd century BC becoming a fortress and a trading centre.

Yellow spot
H Hatra

Blue spot
I Average spot of Assyrians and Mandaeans (speakers of Eastern Aramaic dialects)

Red spot
J Iraqi Mandaean (very small sample, N=2)

Cyan spot
K Assyrian (majority E Assyrians)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spa_adjusted_spots.jpg


Map from paper by Bradley J. Parker, of the Neo-Assyrian empire at its greatest extent:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/parker_neo_assyria.jpg


Posted previously:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/1961_iraq.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-20 at 18:55 ----------

Rough spot for the Assyrian site of Hiptunu added:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spa_adjusted_spots_hiptunu.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-21, 03:09
Robert Rollinger and Wouter Henkelman, New observations on “Greeks” in the Achaemenid empire according to cuneiform texts from Babylonia and Persepolis. In: Pierre Briant und Michel Chauveau (Hg.), Organisation des pouvoirs et contacts culturels dans les pays de l´empire achéménide (Persika 14), Paris, 2009, 331-351


From the eighth century B.C. Greeks appear in Assyrian and Babylonian sources.4 In addition to the place name Yaman (pronounced Yawan), an ethnic name Yamanāya (pronounced Yawanāya), or Yamnāya (pronounced Yawnāya), which did not, of course, refer to the “Greeks” in the modern sense, but rather to a people from the far-removed Aegean region, where Greek-speaking elements are likely to have constituted an essential component.5

[Humanist: The surname Yonan is common among Assyrians. However, like the great majority of Assyrian Christian names, it likely has a Judeo-Christian (Biblical) inspiration. See the Wikipedia bit further below, on the prophet Jonah.*]

Even though the evidence clearly diminishes after the decline of the Assyrian Empire, similar evidence emerges during the time of the Achaemenid Empire, from Darius I to the fourth century. In the Old Persian and Elamite texts the Old Persian forms Yauna (pronounced Yawna) and Yaunā (pl.; pronounced Yawnā) as well as the Elamite Yauna and Yaunap (pl.) (pronounced Yawna / Yawnap) correspond to Babylonian Yaman and Yamanāya:6

....

Conclusion
Even though the evidence is still quite sparse, a coherent picture of a broad cultural fusion of the Greek world with those areas dominated by Persia emerges. Cuneiform texts from Babylonia as well as numerous texts from the Persepolis archives demonstrate, in combination with direct and indirect evidence from the archaeological record, the existence of intense and multifaceted cultural interaction which was able to prevail, largely unaff ected by geo-political friction. The geographical range of Greek activities within the empire is astonishingly large. It seems to have encompassed the empire as a whole, from the very far eastern fringes to the Aegean west and it also included the Achaemenid heartlands. Th e activities themselves sometimes remain a little bit shadowy, due to the nature of our sources. Many of these Greeks were engaged in working gangs whose defi nite tasks are not mentioned in the texts. In these contexts Greek families are attested in the cuneiform sources for the fi rst time: men, children and women. Moreover, Greek specialists played an important role within the Achaemenid empire. Th is is not only evidenced by written but also by archaeological sources. Th ey were engaged in naval projects as well as in building programmes. Some of them clearly had a military background though military and more profane activities seem to have been blended to a certain extent. At least in Babylonia some Greeks reached esteemed positions as land owners where they could also act as witnesses in contracts. Whether they also played a role within the Achaemenid administration depends on the interpretation of the personal name Yauna. This is still a matter of controversy. Th ough trading activities are not very prominent in our written sources it is clear that we face a continuous development that goes back as far as the sixth century B.C. Trade with metals and textiles, raw materials as well as refined garments, seem to have played a major role.


* http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/jonah.jpg

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Searching for ancient Greek/Roman ancestry in Mesopotamia.


From a post in the Dodecad thread. Data from the last Dodecad fastIBD run: fastIBD analysis of Italy/Balkans/Anatolia (http://dodecad.blogspot.com/2012/03/fastibd-analysis-of-italybalkansanatoli.html)



The Cypriots here are interesting.

Top 5 populations, based on z-scores, for my uncle and grandmother:

POP UNC
Asy 5.63
Krd 0.22 Kurd
Cyp 0.1 Cypriot
Arm 0.09 Armenian
Tus -0.1 Tuscan
Trk -0.12 Turk


POP GRM
Asy 5.44
Cyp 0.1 Cypriot
Geo 0.05 Georgian
Arm 0.02 Armenian
Grk 0.01 Greek
Krd -0.03 Kurd


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fastIBD_3512.jpg


A possible link to Cyprus:

North Cyprus Famagusta
Nestorian Church


This church was built by a Syrian [sic] merchant for the Syrians [sic] living in Famagusta in 1339. There are frescoes of camels and texts in Syriac - the language used by the Nestorians in their religious ceremonies. The belfry and the attachments are later additions. The entrance is very plain with a pretty rose window over it. The vaulted ceiling is supported by pillars with ornamented shafts.


This is a church of the Cypriot Nestorians who converted to Catholicism in the 15th century. One would not find images in a "Nestorian" Assyrian church.

George Percy Badger (19th century):


The Nestorians have no images or pictures in their churches, and are very much opposed to the use of them, even as ornaments, or as barely representing historical facts illustrative of sacred Scriptures. They will not even allow of a crucifix, and regard the mere exhibition of such an emblem, to say nothing of adoration, as a monstrous iniquity. I have knowledge of the fate of several crucifixes which were introduced among them by Roman missionaries: the cross, if possible, was spared; but the image was treated ignominiously and broken to pieces.


http://users.stlcc.edu/mfuller/cyprus/NestorianSaint9.JPG



The possible Cypriot link suggested by the fastIBD z-scores may also be, at least in part, of much greater antiquity.

Uniparental markers, of course, may also help to identify antique relationships.

Humanist
2012-06-21, 05:22
A terrific paper by Bradley J. Parker:



Assyria's annexation of the Upper Tigris River Valley took place during the reign of the Assyrian monarch Ashurnasirpal (883-859 B.C.). The history of this period is well known through Ashurnasirpal's detailed military annals, which come down to us in a number of copies.19 These texts reveal that the Upper Tigris River Valley was the target of Ashurnasirpal's second and fifth campaigns.20 The second campaign, which took place in 882 B.C., began at the source of the river Shubnat near the modern border between Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, where Ashurnasirpal set up a statue of himself to mark the occasion.21 From this point Ashurnasirpal 's annals narrate step by step his campaign through the Tur Abdin Mountains into the Upper Tigris River Valley in what is today southeastern Turkey.


....



The rapidity with which the settlement pattern is altered after Assyrian annexation of the region combined with the "unnatural"polarization of the settlement pattern, which almost completely lacks intermediate sized sites, suggests that the observed pattern is the result of Assyrian colonialism rather than the product of natural growth cycles.

....

The chosen site, Ziyaret Tepe [Tushan], was converted from a village to a city within a very short span of time. The artifacts and architecture of the new provincial capital emulate those of the Assyrian heartland. The end result was the creation of a military and administrative center from which to govern and protect Assyria's interests in this and neighboring regions. The site probably also acted as a "center of ideological diffusion" where Assyrian culture and propaganda could be disseminated into the surrounding countryside.53

The chronology of the Iron Age settlement at Boztepe supports the hypothesis that the Assyrians established this site as part of an effort to colonize the valley after its integration into the Assyrian provincial system. No Early Iron Age ceramics were discovered at Boztepe; instead, the corpus is composed of Neo-Assyrian Imperial period and standard Iron Age ceramics (similar to those in figs. 9 and 10). This corpus, combined with four carbon dates, confirms that Boztepe was established sometime after Assyrian annexation of the valley and the construction of the provincial capital at Tushhan.

Not all of the sites occupied during the Assyrian Imperial period were newly founded settlements. Several of the larger and more strategic sites like Ziyaret Tepe, Gre Dimse, and Giricano, all of which were occupied during the Early Iron Age, became important settlements during the Imperial period. Whether the inhabitants of these sites were indigenous peoples living under Assyrian rule or colonists brought into the valley to reoccupy sites in strategic positions is impossible to say. Finds from Gre Dimse suggest that the inhabitants of some sites imported or imitated Assyrian ceramic and architectural forms.

Two of the texts found at Ziyaret are letters, one of which appears to deal with deportation. Several references in the textual record support the argument that after the Assyrians established military control in newly conquered regions, the regions were populated through the mass deportation of hostile or otherwise vanquished peoples from other parts of the empire onto agricultural land around or between Assyrian strongholds. Deportation and resettlement thus had the dual function of diminishing the possibility of rebellion and ensuring an ample and steady grain supply for the imperial cities cities in the heartland.64 The archaeological record from the Upper Tigris River Valley not only confirms its full integration into the Assyrian provincial system, but also suggests some of the local social, economic, and political effects of imperial strategies of conquest and consolidation...Incorporation of the valley also saw a significant increase in the number of archaeological sites, specifically, agricultural villages in the flat fertile land along the banks of the Tigris River. There is a significant difference between the village economy before and after Assyrian colonization of the region. The sites established as part of Assyria's effort to colonize the valley are significantly more specialized than their Early Iron Age counterparts. In contrast to earlier periods, villages do not appear to have been deeply involved in the maintenance of large herds of sheep and goat. Instead the local economy is based on agriculture and domesticated pigs. The imperial authorities monopolized some parts of the local economy including ceramic, metal, and wool production, while radically reorienting others, like grain production, to fulfill imperial political and economic needs.

....
ASSYRIAN OCCUPATION OF THE CIZRE PLAIN

Assyria's intervention in the region around the Cizre Plain took a very different historical course than that in the Upper Tigris River Valley. Unlike the latter, the Cizre region was strategically important to the Assyrians because it is located only about 110 km north of the Assyrian capital...Early in the 10th century B.C., Assyria and Kumme appear to have entered into a mutual protection pact, suggested by the fact that the Assyrians came to the aid of the Kummeans when they were attacked by an invading seminomadic tribe (probably the Ahlameans discussed below)...

This balance of power came to an abrupt end with the accession of a series of weak and ineffective monarchs in Assyria between 823 and 744 B.C. The kingdom of Urartu, centered on Lake Van, saw this lull in Assyrian power as an opportunity to expand its interests and make a bid for hegemony over much of Assyria's sphere of influence.67 The textual record suggests that Urartian expansion included the creation of garrison centers in the mountains north of the Cizre Plain, what is known today as the Cudi Dagi. Urartian foreign policy also involved the manipulation of existing states by persuading them to join Urartu in its opposition to Assyria. Thus the period between 823 and 744 saw a fundamental shift in the geopolitical configuration of the northern frontier.

This was the situation that Tiglath-Pileser III faced when he took the throne in 744 B.C. With Urartian garrisons now stationed within striking distance of the Assyrian capital, and with the local inhabitants of the mountains north of the Cizre Plain in revolt, the northern periphery constituted a real threat to the Assyrian heartland.

The Cizre Plain before Assyrian Annexation

Sites dating to the Late Bronze Age were recognized in the survey collections through the identification of several ceramic types that are known to belong to the "Middle Assyrian" or "Mitannian" assemblages (fig. 12). 70 Wilkinson and Tucker have tentatively dated these ceramics to between 1400 and 1000 B.C.71

Several inscriptions provide an indication of the ethnic make-up of the Cizre region before Assyrian intervention. Tiglath-Pileser III states in a rock inscription left at Mila Mergi in northern Iraq that the people of this region were Arameans of the Ahlamu tribe.72 The Ahlameans are known from inscriptions of the Middle Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I (1114-1076), where they appear as seminomadic herdsmen who were infiltrating the settled lands of the Upper Euphrates.73 During the course of the upheaval at the end of the Late Bronze Age,74 it appears that the Ahlameans penetrated deep into Mesopotamia and became a military threat during the reign of Adad-nerari II (911-891), when they battled the Assyrian army on at least one occasion.75 Unfortunately, in this context the Ahlameans are only mentioned in a summary in scription, and it is not clear if they were the same foes that Adad-nerari II fought in defending the vassal state Kumme several generations before, although this probably was the case. Tiglath-Pileser Ill's inscriptions indicate that by the middle of the eighth century B.C., some members of this group had settled in the Cizre region. The seminomadic background of the Ahlameans is supported by a fragmentary line in the Mila Mergi inscription, in which Tiglath-Pileser III derisively states that they "roamed about in the mountains like deer and wild goats."76

The Cizre Plain during the Assyrian Imperial Period
The Assyrian monarch Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727 B.C.) writes in his annals that he invaded the Cizre region and annexed it to the empire during his seventh campaign. Tiglath-Pileser III consolidated his gains in the Cizre region. His decisive actions are reminiscent of Ashurnasirpal's policies in the Upper Tigris River Valley. First, Tiglath-Pileser III constructed a city called Ashur-iqisha to serve as the administrative center in the region. This city is said to have contained a royal residence77 in which he "set up the weapon of Ashur."78H e then repopulated the fertile valleys of the region, which had obviously suffered greatly during Assyria's invasion, with deported peoples from various parts of the empire.79 Unfortunately, the Mila Mergi inscription gives no other details on this matter. Tiglath-Pileser III mentions in his annals, however, that he settled 1,223 people in Ulluba.80 Although the pertinent passage is fragmentary, the context appears to indicate that the people settled in Ulluba were deported from the Phoenician coast and north Syria.81

Assyrian occupation of the Cizre Plain induced dramatic changes in the archaeological landscape of the region. The regional survey data indicate that a maximum of 10 sites were in use during the Late Bronze Age. This figure increases to a total of 38 sites and 107.55 estimated occupied hectares during the Iron Age (fig. 14 and table 4). The fact that all of the sites occupied during the Late Bronze Age were also active during the Iron Age attests to complete settlement continuity between these periods. The high number of settlements newly founded during the Iron Age (a total of 28) suggests that there was also a significant amount of infilling of the previous settlement pattern. Settlement size calculations indicate that all but one of the newly founded sites were small farmsteads or villages. As in the Upper Tigris River Valley, there is a distinct lack of intermediate sized sites. The distribution of settlements in the survey area during the Iron Age suggests that the plain was divided into distinct catchment areas around three or four major centers (Nerwan Hoyiik, Takyan Huyok, Basorin Hoyiik, and possibly Silope Hoyiik). Although we are lacking intensive survey and geophysical data from the Cizre Plain, the morphology of these centers suggests that each contained a walled central citadel.

Both the textual and archaeological data from the Cizre Plain thus suggest that during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III the Cizre region, like the Upper Tigris region, was incorporated into the Assyrian provincial system. This process brought about considerable shifts in the regional settlement patterns. At least three sites grew into large provincial centers during the Assyrian Imperial period, and the surrounding landscape between these sites was filled in with numerous small villages or hamlets. The textual record indicates that at least some of this increase in population was the result of Assyrian resettlement policies.

The Assyrian textual sources show that during the Assyrian Imperial period (ca. 900-600 B.C.) two of the regions considered in this study were brought under the direct administration of the empire: The Upper Tigris River Valley was converted into the province of Tushhan during the reign of Ashurnasirpal; and the Cizre Plain was annexed to the Province of the Mashennu during the reign of Tiglath-Pilesar III. In both cases the extant texts narrate how these areas were seized through ideologically charged military campaigns and describe the construction of Assyrian military and administrative centers and the colonization of the surrounding countryside by people forcibly resettled from various parts of the empire.

The effects of Assyria's conquest are clearly visible in the archaeological record. The regional survey data provide a macrolevel picture of Assyrian colonialism in both areas. In the Upper Tigris River Valley, where our chronological control of the ceramic sequence is somewhat tighter than it is for the Cizre Plain, excavations and intensive surveys at several sites in the valley as well as regional surveys in the surrounding area testify both to the collapse of the pre-Assyrian indigenous settlement system, and to a massive increase in the number of sites and the total occupied hectares from the Early Iron Age to the Assyrian Imperial period (ca. 1050- 900 and 900-600 B.C. respectively). In the Cizre Plain a clear increase in the number and size of sites is also visible, although across a broader stretch of time.

The resulting settlement patterns in these two regions have several characteristics in common. In both regions the Assyrians located their military and administrative centers at previously existing settlements that were located close to the Tigris River and the large tracts of productive agricultural land along its banks. In both cases the textual and archaeological records show that these centers were the focus of large building projects that included the construction of fortifications and provincial palaces. An additional site size category was needed in the regional settlement pattern to account for this infrastructural investment.

Recent research at Ziyaret Tepe (Assyrian Tushhan) in the Upper Tigris River Valley allows the evaluation of this policy on a small scale. The growth that took place at Ziyaret Tepe during the Assyrian Imperial period is unprecedented in the history of the valley. Excavation and magnetometry surveys have demonstrated a direct correlation between the Assyrian textual sources, which mention the construction of a palace and other imperial facilities, and the archaeological record, which has yielded a palatial building, gates, other imperial facilities, and the textual vestiges of colonial administrative activities.82

Other growth in the regional settlement pattern was restricted to small rural settlements. The pre-Assyrian settlement patterns in the Upper Tigris River Valley are characterized by a number of small sites with a rather loose internal organization evenly distributed on naturally defensible terraces. This pattern is replaced by one in which a large number of new villages and hamlets were established on flat agricultural land around the banks of the river. 83 In the Cizre Plain, newly established sites fall clearly within the catchment area of three or four larger sites evenly spaced through the center of the plain.

Assyria's policy of strategic deportation and resettlement, which is well documented in the textual record, is also manifested in the archaeological remains of these regions. Data from both the Upper Tigris River Valley and the Cizre Plain show not only that there was a huge increase in the total number of small agricultural villages in the survey areas during the Assyrian Imperial period,84 but also that the resulting settlement pattern included no intermediate sized sites. Various authors have argued that the intensification of production or the reorganization of the local economy is one of the possible consequences of imperial integration.85T he unnaturally skewed settlement pattern, is, I argue, indicative of an Assyrianp olicy of "agriculturalc olonization" in which large numbers of people were forcibly relocated to newly annexed regions for the purpose of increasing production on underdeveloped land.86B y moving people to an unfamiliar area that was under the strict military control of a network of Assyrian fortresses and garrisons, and assigning marginal or underutilized land to them, the Assyrians imposed a tense political stability on the newly colonized region. The resulting immobility of the agricultural population forced them into the Assyrian socioeconomic mold in which they were much more readily subject to Assyrian tax collectors, census takers, and corvee officers.87T he end result was to increase both the economic output and the stability of newly conquered territories.

Recent archaeological work in the Upper Tigris River Valley has enriched this overview of Assyrian colonialism with detailed data about social and economic life. Excavations at Kenan Tepe suggest that the Early Iron Age inhabitants of the valley practiced a mixed agropastoral economy. Sheep and goat were raised largely for secondary products such as wool and milk, while cereals were cultivated in the surrounding fields. The diet was probably supplemented by a variety of wild species. Excavations at Boztepe show that this pattern shifted in the Imperial period when the village economy increasingly specialized in agricultural production rather than animal husbandry. Pig becomes the most common domesticate and the relative proportion of sheep declines sharply.88A ccording to the textual record, the imperial authorities maintained large state-owned flocks, so the lack of faunal remains of sheep and goat at sites like Boztepe may be a result of the empire's control over certain aspects of the regional economy. The imperial authorities also engaged in the large-scale extraction of natural resources from the area. The textual and art historical records show that timber resources were heavily exploited, while references to straw imply that the imperial authorities oversaw the production and storage of agricultural surpluses. The discovery of what might be the office of a tax collector at Ziyaret Tepe supports this hypothesis.

Although there is very little data with which to evaluate pre- and post-conquest metallurgy in the region, some generalizations can be proposed. Excavations at Gre Dimse show that the Early Iron Age inhabitants were capable of producing high quality iron. The production facilities unearthed at Kenan Tepe during the same period suggest that metal production was small-scale and local.89 In contrast, metal artifacts discovered at Ziyaret Tepe are not only made of various materials, including silver and bronze, but are luxury goods produced for an imperial elite.90 The size and location of the metallurgical facilities at Ziyaret Tepe further suggest that the production of such goods here was both large-scale and centrally administered.

ASSYRIAN INTERVENTION IN THE MIDDLE UPPER TIGRIS

Unlike the Upper Tigris River Valley and the Cizre Plain, the Garzan and Boh tan River Valleys were never annexed to the Assyrian empire. In fact, only one Assyrian monarch is known to have conducted a military campaign in this region.

....

A total of 37 sites in the Bohtan River Valley and 42 sites in the Garzan River Valley were discovered during the original reconnaissance surveys.93 Of these, 9 sites in the Bohtan River Valley and 14 sites in the Garzan River Valley, occupying an estimated 8.39 and 26.57 ha respectively, were shown to date to the Iron Age through the presence of Standard Iron Age ceramic types (tables 5-6). Researchers revisited only a few of these sites in the recent survey of the region.94N one of the "Mitannian" or "Middle Assyrian" ceramics was recognized either during the original survey or during the more recent exploration of the region, making the Late Bronze Age extremely difficult to define.95 Early Iron Age Corrugated Wares are also only rarely attested here.96 All of the sites in the Bohtan survey area dating to the Iron Age yielded ceramics that belong to the assemblage I have previously referred to as the "indigenous assemblage" (fig. 15). 97

....

BUFFER ZONES
The regional archaeological survey data from the Bohtan and Garzan River Valleys reveals surprisingly little evidence of Assyrian involvement there. In fact, the only settlement that appears to have been overtaken by the Assyrians is on the Tigris River. There is no evidence of settlements on the Tigris tributaries. Instead the Garzan and Bohtan surveys yielded only a handful of small village or hamlet sized sites, which were recognized by the presence of ceramics belonging to the Indigenous ceramic assemblage. There is no evidence of a collapse of this system after the beginning of the Assyrian Imperial period, nor is there any evidence of an abrupt change in the size, orientation, or number of settlements in these valleys in the transition between the Early Iron Age and the Assyrian Imperial period (ca. 1100-900 and 900-600 B.C. respectively). Only one Assyrian king campaigned in this area, and this took place early in the history of Assyrian imperialism (in 879 B.C.). Textual and regional survey data suggest that these valleys were home to small loosely organized sub-state political formations. 106 The Assyrians easily routed these indigenous peoples and carried off what little wealth, in the form of sheep and goat, they possessed.

It is absolutely clear that the Assyrians had the means to colonize these valleys, but they chose not to. The reasons for the apparent neglect of this area by the Assyrians remain elusive, although the history and archaeology offer several possible explanations. First and foremost is the geopolitical configuration of this region during the Neo-Assyrian Imperial period. Both of these valleys were in close proximity to the southern provinces of Assyria's fiercest rival, Urartu. The rough mountain terrain surrounding these valleys insulated them from the Assyrian provinces to the west and southeast, and it would have been logistically difficult for the Assyrians to maintain a permanent presence there. Moreover, colonizing the valleys north of the Tigris River might have provoked Urartian retribution. After Ashurnasirpal's initial foray into the Bohtan and Garzan River Valleys, it became apparent to Assyrian officials that the sub-state political formations there constituted no real threat to Assyrian sovereignty in the adjacent provinces. Furthermore, if the list of booty (see above) taken during Ashurnasirpal's campaign is any indication, the Assyrians may have judged the possible economic benefits of annexation to be well below the cost of the colonization, maintenance, and defense of a new province in this remote area. For Assyrian military planners, the only part of this region that was of vital strategic importance was the Tigris River corridor itself, which directly linked the economically productive and strategically important provinces of the Upper Tigris to the Assyrian heartland. They also must have realized the importance of keeping the area just north of this important corridor out of the hands of their enemies. I suggest, therefore, that the Assyrians intentionally left the sub-state political structures in the Bohtan and Garzan River Valleys intact, effectively creating a buffer zone between their northern frontier and the rival state of Urartu in the highlands of eastern Anatolia.

....

Although an imperial core would almost certainly be made up of a series of adjoining provinces, as an empire expands into its periphery, transportation costs increase dramatically.112If we abandon the idea that an empire must be territorially unified and instead agree that imperial control is feasible outside of the imperial core, but only in limited pockets that offer enough political, military, economic, or ideological advantage to offset the cost of annexation, then the picture of the empire is not one of a contiguous territory, but one in which the landscape beyond the imperial core is dotted with "islands" of imperial control. For this reason, some provinces might be physically separated from the rest of the empire by vast areas where the empire holds little or no control. Instead of directly adjoining neighboring provinces, these islands in the imperial periphery can be linked to the imperial core by a network of fortified communication and transportation corridors. This discontiguous pattern of imperial control should be manifested through a diversity of archaeological imprints on the various landscapes that make up the empire.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/parker_tushan_other.jpg

American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 107, No. 4 (Oct., 2003), pp. 525-557


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The site of Ziyaret Tepe (Tushan), today (source: University of Cambridge):

http://www.ane.arch.cam.ac.uk/graphics/mound.jpg


A recent news bit, with Dr. John MacGinnis of the University of Cambridge McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research discussing the unknown language, with some exciting news of (tentative) plans for archaeological "exploration" in W Iran: Ziyaret Tepe [Tushan] tablet (http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=0gogL-Mffho)

Humanist
2012-06-21, 07:32
Evidence for a Peripheral Language in a Neo-Assyrian Tablet from the Governor’s Palace in Tušhan

The Tushan dig is in the news.

Archaeologists discover lost language


Possibilities
What then could the origins of these names be? Very likely we are dealing with a language isolate, and it may be that it is a language about which we have no other information or that may present traces in proper names that it has not yet been possible to reconstruct into a parent language. As regards the nature of such a proposed background language there are, in my appreciation, four possibilities:

(1) Shubrian
These names could be Shubrian, that is to say the indigenous language of the region prior to the arrival of the Assyrians (and Arameans). The existence of Shubria, and Shubrian, is well-established, but it is not known to what language group Shubrian belonged. On the basis of the names of some of the kings of Shubria, it has been suggested that the language was a relative of Hurrian, but, in reality, that dataset is too small to allow reliable conclusions...

(2) Pre-Hurrian substratum
An alternative could be that the region was host to some other pre-Hurrian language about which we have no other information.

(3) Iranian (non-Indo-European)
Another possibility is that the names belong to a population group originating in western Iran but speaking a tongue that did not belong to the Indo-Iranian language group. This strikes me as particularly plausible as it is certain that the Assyrians deported populations from Iran to other parts of the empire.

(4) Recent arrival
A final suggestion is that the language could belong to a new wave of population influx. One possibility would be the Mushki (Phrygians) who were moving into eastern Anatolia around this time. If this were the case, for the names to appear in an administrative list at Tušhan would mean that such people had either deliberately infiltrated the Assyrian empire (which might seem foolish) or that they had been captured on campaign. It may be that a mixture of the above sources is involved. The following general remarks may be made concerning features of these names:

(1) the overwhelming majority end in a vowel, -a, -a, -e, -e, -i, -i
(2) four begin in ši-
(3) five end in - ši/še
(4) all Akkadian phonemes are used in the representation of these names with the possible exception of /ṣ/ and (or) /z/.

The above will by now have amply emphasized the linguistic interest of this text. The names listed evidently come from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. The small number whose etymology can be identified include Assyrian, Hurrian, Luwian, and possibly Indo-Iranian, but in the case of the great majority the background cannot be identified. How did these people come to be under the palace administration of Tušhan? In principle there would seem to be three possibilities: descendants of the indigenous population, prisoners of war, and deportees. It may be pertinent to note that the phraseology ina pan PN occurring in our text is also characteristic of lists of deportees,17 but this is not the only use of the phrase, and it seems likely that it would equally have been used for prisoners of war and resident individuals under the palace authority. The group could in any case have comprised elements from all three sources. Until a convincing identification for the linguistic milieu is made, it is probably not possible to be more specific than this.18

John MacGinnis

Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Vol. 71, No. 1 (April 2012), pp. 13-20



The below map is from a lecture given by Dr. Mario Fales a few months back:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_intervention.jpg


From another post. A clue? You never know.

Discordant Patterns of mtDNA and Ethno-Linguistic Variation in 14 Iranian Ethnic Groups

Hum Hered. 2011 Sep 10;72(2):73-84.

Farjadian S, Sazzini M, Tofanelli S, Castrì L, Taglioli L, Pettener D, Ghaderi A, Romeo G, Luiselli D.
Source: Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.



Adding Assyrian ("As" N=63), and running some analyses on the data. It was necessary to combine some haplogroups, in order to include the Assyrian data.


ID A C D F1b G2a1 H HV I J K L M M/C M/G2a1 M1 M12 M4a N pre‐JT R R0 R2 T U V W X Y Z
Ab 0 0.022 0 0 0 0.156 0.044 0.044 0.089 0 0.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.089 0 0.044 0.156 0 0.089 0.088 0 0.022 0.044 0 0
Ar 0 0 0 0 0 0.231 0.096 0.019 0.134 0.076 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.115 0 0 0 0 0.095 0.21 0 0 0.019 0 0
As 0 0 0 0 0 0.2698 0.1587 0.0159 0.1429 0.0317 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0159 0 0 0 0 0.0794 0.254 0 0.0159 0.0159 0 0
Az 0 0 0 0 0.019 0.17 0.038 0 0.076 0.038 0 0.019 0 0.019 0 0 0 0.094 0 0.019 0 0.019 0.265 0.189 0.019 0.019 0 0 0
B 0 0 0 0 0 0.145 0.016 0.016 0.08 0.016 0.032 0.081 0 0 0 0 0.032 0.065 0 0.065 0.048 0.016 0.032 0.113 0 0.242 0 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 0 0.174 0.087 0.043 0.217 0.043 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.086 0 0 0.043 0 0.087 0.043 0 0.13 0.043 0 0
J 0 0 0 0 0 0.091 0.127 0 0.145 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.073 0 0 0.036 0 0.327 0.199 0 0 0 0 0
K 0 0.018 0.036 0 0 0.145 0.109 0.018 0.164 0.036 0 0 0.018 0 0 0 0 0.127 0 0.018 0.036 0 0.128 0.127 0 0.018 0 0 0
L1 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.133 0 0.199 0 0 0.033 0 0 0 0 0 0.199 0 0 0 0.033 0.033 0.133 0 0.033 0 0 0
L2 0 0 0.034 0 0 0.034 0.103 0 0.138 0.103 0 0 0 0 0.034 0 0 0.103 0 0.034 0.034 0 0.034 0.345 0 0 0 0 0
M 0 0 0 0 0 0.157 0.137 0 0.255 0.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0 0.098 0.138 0 0.078 0.02 0 0
P 0.017 0 0 0 0 0.172 0.034 0.017 0.051 0.034 0.017 0.017 0 0 0 0 0 0.051 0 0.052 0.069 0.017 0.155 0.205 0 0.034 0.034 0 0.017
Qa 0 0 0 0 0 0.304 0.109 0 0.173 0.022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.022 0.043 0 0.066 0.216 0 0.022 0.022 0 0
Qe 0.091 0.018 0 0 0 0.327 0.127 0.018 0.054 0.036 0.127 0.018 0 0 0 0.018 0 0.018 0 0.055 0.018 0 0.036 0.036 0 0 0 0 0
T 0.018 0.018 0.036 0.018 0.018 0.127 0.018 0 0.072 0.036 0.018 0.018 0 0 0 0 0.036 0.127 0 0 0 0.018 0.109 0.199 0 0.073 0 0.036 0
Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.225 0 0 0.184 0 0.367 0.183 0 0.02 0.02 0 0

Cluster, Neighbor Joining, and MDS analyses:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mtdna_cluster_iranian.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/neighbor_joining_Iranian_mtDNA.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/MDS_Iranian_mtDNA.jpg


Wiki, on Qashqai:


Qashqai are the largest group of nomadic pastoralists people of Azeri descent who mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan on the territory of modern Iran, especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars. They speak the Qashqai language which is a member of the Turkic family of languages and is very close to Azerbaijani language. The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mi south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, have now become partially or wholly sedentary. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s.


Photos of a few Qashqai:

http://i6.photobucket.com/albums/y237/aryamehr11/Iran%20-%20People/Pic91-Qashqai-Girl.jpg

http://www.qashqai.net/images/pics/arash8.jpg

http://www.allempires.com/Uploads/Qashqai_Nomad.jpg

http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_l9a2nh3Gp71qzu5fbo1_r1_500.png

http://altaic-wiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/800px-Qashqai_women_spinning.jpg/58110758/528x348/800px-Qashqai_women_spinning.jpg

http://www.irantravelingcenter.com/images/qashghae_qashqae_nomads_iran.jpg

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3229/3021985209_d96cb2bca7_z.jpg

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/97/250028320_e3d2a6971c.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-21, 13:47
Speaking of Greeks and Romans, I am looking forward to the results of this project:
Ancient Roman DNA (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php?t=26058)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/roman_dna_project.png

Humanist
2012-06-21, 16:09
Some bits on Mandaic and Syriac by Stephen Kaufman:

Mandaic:

The disparaging connotations attached to these words suggest that at one time they were part of the vocabulary of a competitive cult but do not necessarily prove that the Mandaean religion had its origins elsewhere than in Babylonia. Mandaic borrowed freely and apparently without prejudice from the astrological and magical terminology and traditions of the Babylonians.

Syriac:

The great influence of Babylonian Aramaic in grammar and lexikon, which probably began as early as the Neo-Babylonian period, when Harran held such an important position, also may have obliterated earlier Assyrianisms.

I believe he is referring to the liturgical language. Not necessarily the vernacular. However, I do not believe it matters. Based on a good number of Akkadian loans in Sureth I have come across, the situation appears to be no different. Well, at least as far as the lexikon is concerned.


------------------------------------------------------------------

Andrew George (University of London).

Babylonian and Assyrian: A history of Akkadian


The Neo-Assyrian scribal tradition lived on at Harran, one of the old imperial cities, to influence the monumental inscriptions of Nabonidus (555-539).

….

The vernacular form of the southern dialect, Neo-Babylonian, was also used at the imperial Assyrian court, for after the final annexation of Babylonia under Sennacherib in 689 BC, many Babylonian officials, scholars, and administrators employed it in their dealings with the government and received letters back in the same dialect.

….

From the time of Xerxes I (485-465) there is across Babylonia generally a marked decrease in the number of Neo-Babylonian archival documents now extant. It seems that increasingly more communication and record-keeping were being done in Aramaic alone. The great temple of Shamash at Sippar abandoned cuneiform writing early in Xerxes' reign, presumably in favour of the aternative technology. Private letters become very rare after about 450 BC, a development that signals for most scholars the final extinction of a vernacular Babylonian tongue, after a long decline.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/near_east_map.jpg


---------------------------------------------------


A very neat animation: Babylon 3D (begin at about the 1:00 mark) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EPc6Gn9-zs). Makes one wonder where the tens of thousands of Assyrians from the large cities destroyed during the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire relocated, in the aftermath of the demise.


-------------------------------------------

Water for Nineveh (by Karen Radner)


The new metropolis needed an enormous amount of water, not only to irrigate the fabulous royal parks but especially to increase the area which could be farmed. Additional fields, vegetable gardens and fruit groves were all needed to provide food for Nineveh's ever-increasing population. In his inscriptions, Sennacherib proudly claims that he allocated a garden plot to every Ninevite.

To provide the necessary volumes of water, the king embarked on a hydraulic engineering project to bring water into the city directly from the mountain springs north of Nineveh. It was the most ambitious ancient project of its kind. Aqueducts, subterranean canals, dams and reservoirs were built, all to the highest technological standards and often lavishly decorated with reliefs and inscriptions. Over the course of fifteen years, 702-688 BC, Sennacherib's engineers constructed a network of 150 kilometres of canals to transport the water from the mountains straight to Nineveh.

Like every irrigation system, these waterworks needed constant maintenance and repair. So when Nineveh fell to the Babylonian and Median armies in 612 BC the complex quickly ceased to function properly as no-one was financing or organising the regular upkeep that was necessary. This collapse contributed to the rapid abandonment of the city because without artificial irrigation it could not provide a home for its many inhabitants. Nineveh soon became a ghost town.

Humanist
2012-06-21, 19:31
The Mandaeans are followers of a long-lasting Gnostic tradition. They affiliate themselves to achain of prophets starting from Adam the first man – as the first prophet- to John the Baptist(yahyā yohānā) – as the last Mandaic prophet. The Mandaean tradition names other prophetsbetween Adam and John the Baptist who some of them are also recognized in Judo-Christian andIslamic traditions, such as Noah (nū) and Shem (shūm), but others are specific Mandaean characters with no parallel in other traditions, such as the couple shūrbāy and sherhābiyyel.

The Mandaean Identity Challenge: from religious symbolism to secular policies

Mehrdad Arabestani


No parallels? Well, I do not know if it is related, but this would certainly be an avenue to pursue.

Please watch through the 25 second mark of the clip (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4).


Note the name of Assur's consort.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assur_scherua.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-22, 00:28
My questions emerge out of a research project (my dissertation based at Princeton) which centers on a Syriac martyr's legend of the 7th century AD -- Mar Qardagh of Arbela, Sasanian marzban of northern Iraq under Shapur II in the 360's AD. The text has several interesting connections with traditions/memories of Assyria, beginning with Qardagh's genealogy traced from the royal house of "Athor" (Assyria) via Sennacherib on his mother's side and Nimrod on his father's side.

According to his hagiographer, Qardagh's cult began at a place called Melqi (MLQI) in the vicinity of Arbela, where there was a fire temple and church complex that was later converted into a church and market complex and eventually became a monastery. But the site appears to have declined (or changed names??) during the medieval period, and modern scholarship has been unable to locate it. The story of the saint's life and his travels in the highlands north and east of Arbela make a location immediately to the NE of Arbela an attractive hypothesis.

Is the cult site of Mar Qardagh at "Melqi" described in the Nestorian literary sources identical with "Milqia", site of an Ishtar temple, noted in the Assyrian sources? If so, we have a very interesting case of long-term continuity in the religious topography of north Mesopotamia.

Joel Walker , 4 Nov 1997/Melammu Project


------------------------------------------------

Also, from Lady Drower's "The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore." 1937


This, kneaded in the hand and baked in ashes like the fatira is a roll about 4 inches long. In a recent article ('The Kaprana' in Orient and Occident l , The Gaster Anniversary Volume, London, Taylor's Foreign Press, 1937) I have pointed out the similarity of the [Mandaean] sa to the Nestorian kaprana, a dough object of identical shape which plays a part in the Qurbana, and appears to be a relic of some ancient fertility and life cult. That the sa is a phallic emblem one would suspect from its form and size. The reference which puzzled Lidzbarski (Q. 107), pihla d *l shum hiia pla, obviously refers to it.


------------------------------------------------


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandaean_polemic.jpg

Mandaean Polemic
Lady Drower


------------------------------------------------


I do not know if a "gate of Venus" sect refers to anything in particular. But, Ishtar was associated with the planet Venus (Dilibat).


A love charm invoking Dilibat

Ištar (Venus) : Love charms

7th century CE

Incantation Bowl from Nippur (Aramaic):

In your name, O Lord of heaven and earth. Appointed is this bowl to the account of Anūr … bar Parkōi, that he be inflamed and kindled and burn after Aḥath bath Nebāzak. Amen. Everlasting presses which have only been pressed upon … a man of his heart. Take … and hot herbs which they cannot sunwort … ... and peppers … them and the rites of love which you have sprinkled upon … She shall sprinkle them upon this Anūr … bar Parkōi until that he be inflamed and burn after Aḥath bath Nebāzak. … ... and in lust and in the mysteries of love, in order that … ... take pieces from his heart and the charm … his name. In the name of the angel Raḥmiel and in the name of Dilibat the passionate, … the gods, the lords of the mysteries. Amen, Amen, …

Montgomery, James A. Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur. Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section 3. Philadelphia: University Museum 1913.


----------------------------------

A short bit on Ishtar from Wikipedia:


Ishtar was the god of love and war, above all associated with sexuality: her cult involved sacred prostitution;[2][3] her holy city Uruk was called the "town of the sacred courtesans"; and she herself was the "courtesan of the gods".[4]

Humanist
2012-06-22, 06:00
According to the Wikipedia article on Mandaeism, the four groups below are "possibly related." If we are speaking about the Mandaean faith, and not the principal genetic makeup of its people today, there is one group on the list that may stand out. I was not familiar with this particular group before recently reading a comment made by the Mandaean and Bible scholar James McGrath of Butler University.



Elcesaites
According to the Fihrist of ibn al-Nadim, the Mesopotamian prophet Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was brought up within the Elkasaites (Elcesaites or Elchasaite) sect, this being confirmed more recently by the Cologne Mani Codex. The Elkasaites were a Judeo-Christian baptismal sect which seem to have been related, possibly ancestral, to the Mandaeans (see Sabians). The members of this sect, like the Mandaeans, wore white and performed baptisms. They dwelt in east Judea and Assyria, whence the Mandaeans claim to have migrated to southern Mesopotamia, according to the Harran Gawaitā legend. Mani later left the Elkasaites to found his own religion. In a comparative analysis, Mandaean scholar Säve-Söderberg indicated that Mani's Psalms of Thomas were closely related to Mandaean texts [26]. This would imply that Mani had access to Mandaean religious literature, or both derived from the same source.

4th-century Nazarenes
The Haran Gawaita uses the name Nasoreans for the Mandaeans arriving from Jerusalem. Consequently the Mandaeans have been connected with the 4th-century Nazarenes (sect) described by Epiphanius[citation needed].

Dositheans
They are connected with the Dositheans by Theodore Bar Kōnī in his Scholion.

Mughtasila, baptizers
Ibn al-Nadim also mentions a group called the Mughtasila, "the self-ablutionists", who may be identified with one or the other of these groups. The members of this sect, like the Mandaeans, wore white and performed baptisms.

Wikipedia:
Dositheans
Dositheos was a Samaritan religious leader, founder of a Samaritan sect, often assumed to be a gnostic. He is reputed to have known John the Baptist, and been the teacher of Simon Magus.[1] He therefore counts as one of the supposed founders of Mandaeanism.


In the Dodecad Afroasiatic fastIBD run, Mandaeans and Assyrians clustered together. And, although these fastIBD runs may not be as refined as we would like them to be when it comes to detecting very distant (small) IBD segments, perhaps there are some bits that can be taken away from the following.

Something I wrote a while back, in an email:


I calculated the average values for each of the reference populations with the two Iraqi Mandaeans, and thirteen Assyrians, and then sorted based on the individual sample with the median value for each of the populations. The Mandaean population is tiny, that is for certain. But, there are some interesting patterns. For instance, the Samaritans appearing near the top for the Assyrians. And appearing at the very top for the Mandaeans.

# Population Assyrians
1 Azerbaijan Jews 0.117
2 Uzbekistan Jews 0.114
3 Iraq Jews 0.113
4 Samaritans 0.110
5 Georgia Jews 0.109
6 Mandaeans 0.104
7 Iranian Jews 0.103
8 Syrians 0.102
9 Sephardic Jews 0.098
10 Saudis 0.098
11 Druze 0.097
12 Ashkenazy Jews 0.096
13 Jordanians 0.095
14 Morocco Jews 0.095
15 Palestinian 0.095
16 Lebanese 0.094
17 Bene Israel Jews 0.092
18 Yemen Jews 0.090
19 Bedouin 0.081
20 Yemenese 0.078
21 Egyptians 0.076
22 Cochin Jews 0.076
23 Moroccans 0.054
24 Mozabite 0.050
25 Ethiopians 0.034
26 Ethiopian Jews 0.032



# Population Mandaeans
1 Samaritans 0.124
2 Georgia Jews 0.120
3 Syrians 0.113
4 Yemen Jews 0.112
5 Azerbaijan Jews 0.110
6 Cochin Jews 0.109
7 Saudis 0.105
8 Assyrians 0.104
9 Druze 0.101
10 Iraq Jews 0.096
11 Morocco Jews 0.094
12 Bene Israel Jews 0.093
13 Lebanese 0.092
14 Yemenese 0.091
15 Iranian Jews 0.089
16 Bedouin 0.088
17 Jordanians 0.088
18 Uzbekistan Jews 0.087
19 Palestinian 0.085
20 Sephardic Jews 0.084
21 Ashkenazy Jews 0.084
22 Egyptians 0.078
23 Moroccans 0.046
24 Mozabite 0.045
25 Ethiopians 0.037
26 Ethiopian Jews 0.030

Humanist
2012-06-22, 11:57
Several examples can be found by referring to a map of some Assyrian Christian settlements below. The map is obviously no longer current.

http://www.atour.com/news/assyria/images/VMAAB-lg.jpg

THE RURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE: A SURVEY

Frederick Mario Fales


Among Neo-Assyrian legal documents, conveyance deeds of real estate or of "mixed" type - essentially sales of land only or of land with other fixtures of the farm, as well as people - are the types of text that mainly concern the study of the rural landscape. As has been effectively shown by Postgate12, the distinctive item in this group of textual materials is represented by a description of the property being transacted.

Such a description was surely meant to be as accurate as possible against future litigations, and in fact adheres to a few basic standards. Thus we almost always find (1) listings of the components of the real estate complex, from land to orchards to houses to cleared plots for building; (2) notations of acreage/yield (with different units of measure according to the land type); (3) topographical indications concerning the estate, i.e. the mention of a minimum of two bordering plots or features of the landscape; (4) localizations of the estate in relation to greater or smaller sites or entities of administrative geography, from the nearby village to the outlying region or province.

Not a few of these descriptions regard elaborate holdings, in which many different plots or sectors are listed (cf. III. 1 , below): surely the largest and most famous of these lists is in NALK 127 (= ADD 414), a sale of 21 separate plots of land to the captain and landowner KakkulHinu, active sometime in the 620S13. Each of the plots, all located in the village of Bit-abu-ila'a near Sairu, is marked by two adjacent elements - from neighboring properties to waterways to roads - for a total of 20 emiirus: thus we gain a partial, but probably significant, view of the spatial links between landed holdings and natural/man-made topographic markers which c_onstituted the "landscape" of an Assyrian village 14.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_fales.jpg


....

Still different is the case of the "Harran census" , in which, as said above (1.1. b), a double localization for the listed holdings is often provided (= closest settlement + encompassing provincial or administrative unit). For the closest toponym, the "census" appears to prefer the simplest form, i.e. just qanni, reserving ina etc. for the outlying region when necessary, e.g. PAP URU.SE LUGAL / qa-ni URUDim-me-ti I ina Ki-pa-a-ni, "total: the village 'of the King', in the environs of the settlement Dimmeti, in (the region of) Q/Kipani,,60. And notice may be finally taken of a further variant, qa-an-ni sa, in a description for legal use: (a house sold) ina URuE-ISU-DINGIR I qa-an-ni sa URUER1MMES_ dIM, "in the town of Bit-Eriba-ili, in the environs pf the town of Sabe-Adad,,61.


....

Also in line with the previous definition of URu.~E/kapru, is a case of two almost parallel passages from Nimrud texts. In the first text, a plot to be sold is localized in the "valley of the town of Bit-Sasseri" (E 5- A.~A ina u-sa/-Ii / ina URUE.IM.DIR107), but is placed in the "k. of Bit-Sasseri, in the valley" in the second text (E 5-BAN A.~A ina URU.~E sa E-Sa-si-ri / ina u-sal-li108). The two passages, relevant to the same buyer, Giritu, but two years apart in time (7461744 B.C.), need not necessarily refer to the same plot: it is sufficient to notice that (a) Bit-Sasseri is well documented as a city or minimally as a large town109; (b) on the other hand, the kapru has no name of its own, and must hark back to the larger site for identification. In this case again, then, a meaning as "farmstead" or similar seems particularly apt.


....

bit zibli, "rubble, land for manure..."*

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziblu.jpg

....


The subdivision of the farm named [B]bit siqi is not often attested, but it always appears in very significant descriptions of the property. In one case, it is quoted as part of an estate also comprising cornland, "springs", and a plot of "bare ground,,275. In the deeds of Remanni-Adad, the chariot-driver of Ashurbanipal276, the bit siqi is attested once as part of an estate - in Syria - formed by various small plots not far from a river, comprising also 50 emiirus of land, a dwelling, a threshing-floor, and 2 orchards277; while a further text of this individual- referring to the province of, Arrapha - refers to the acquisition of an enormous estate, comprising 580 emiirus of cornland, 10 vineyards, and 6 GISSARMES r Sl-'-qi AMES 278. It could thus refer in general terms to a plot which received irrigation from the nearby sources, similarly to the siqu in the MA laws, explicitly connected to the digging of a well279.


* Sureth word: http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garbage.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-22, 13:37
"The Ramessides, Medes, and Persians"
Emmet Sweeney
2007


Pliny the Elder (c. AD 70), while utilizing the work of Strabo, already prefers the name Assyria for the Empire. His contemporary Flavius Josephus likewise consistently refers to the Empire as Assyria, and uses Syria in referring to the Seleucid Empire and the Roman province of Syria. This terminology anticipates the situation after the reign of Trajan, who after his campaign against the Parthians (AD 116) created a province called Assyria in the east, probably annexing the semi-independent state of Adiabene which the Assyrians had succeeded in establishing in their ancient homeland.


Wikipedia on Adiabene


Adiabene was an ancient kingdom in Assyria,[2][3][4][5] with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Arbil, Iraq). Its rulers converted to Judaism from Ashurism in the 1st century.[6] Queen Helena of Adiabene (known in Jewish sources as Heleni HaMalka) moved to Jerusalem where she built palaces for herself and her sons, Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II at the northern part of the city of David, south of the Temple Mount. According to the Talmud, both Helena and Monbaz donated large funds for the Temple of Jerusalem.


Wikipedia on Artabanus II of Parthia


Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty (and (according to the article of Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene) of Darius, Aratvasdes' son) who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads.[1] He was raised to the throne by those Parthian grandees, who would not acknowledge Vonones I, whom the Roman Emperor Augustus had sent from Rome (where he lived as hostage) as successor of his father Phraates IV.

....

We learn that he intervened in the Greek city Seleucia on the Tigris in favour of the oligarchs, and that two Jewish brigands, Anilai and Asinai, maintained themselves for years in Neerda in the swamps of Babylonia, and were acknowledged as dynasts by Artabanus.

In 35, he tried anew to conquer Armenia, and to establish his son Arsaces as king there. A war with Rome seemed inevitable. But that party among the Parthian magnates which was hostile to Artabanus applied to Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates. Tiberius sent Phraates's grandson, Tiridates III, and ordered Lucius Vitellius (the father of the emperor Vitellius) to restore the Roman authority in the East. By very dexterous military and diplomatic operations Vitellius succeeded completely. Artabanus was deserted by his followers and fled to the East. Tiridates, who was proclaimed king, could no longer maintain himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans; Artabanus returned from Hyrcania with a strong army of Scythian (Dahan) auxiliaries, and was again acknowledged by the Parthians. Tiridates left Seleucia and fled to Syria. But Artabanus was not strong enough for a war with Rome; he therefore concluded a treaty with Vitellius in 37, in which he gave up all further pretensions. A short time after-wards Artabanus was deposed again, and a certain Cinnamus was proclaimed king. Artabanus took refuge with his vassal, the king Izates of Adiabene; and Izates by negotiations and the promise of a complete pardon induced the Parthians to restore Artabanus once more to the throne. Shortly afterwards Artabanus died, and was succeeded by his son, Vardanes*, whose reign was still more turbulent than that of his father.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Maps_of_the_Armenian_Empire_of_Tigranes.gif

* Wikipedia
Vardanes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 40–45.[1] He succeeded his father Artabanus II, but had to continually fight against Gotarzes II, a rival claimant to the throne.

His coins show that he was in full possession of the throne from about 40 to 45 CE.[1] In 43 he forced the city of Seleucia on the Tigris to submit to the Parthians again after a rebellion of seven years. Ctesiphon, the residence of the kings on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite to Seleucia, naturally profited by this war; and Vardanes is therefore called founder of Ctesiphon by Ammianus Marcellinus. He also prepared for a war against the Roman Empire, with the aim of reconquering Armenia, but ultimately decided against facing the Roman legions.


Haran Gawaitha


When Anus'-'Uthra had done that by order of Hibil-Ziwa whom the great Father of Glory commanded, Anus'-'Uthra went to the T'ura d Madai' (Median mountains), called Haran Gawaita, and brought Bhira son of S'itil , a descendant of Artabanus king of the Nasoraeans and set him up in Baghdad (Babylon) and installed him in sovereign power (as its sovereign). And in his company there were sixty Nasoraeans, and the Nasoraeans in Baghdad (Babylonia) multiplied and became many. Some of the tribe of Bhira son of S'itil, Nasoraeans, came with him until there were four hundred mas'knia in Baghdad.

Humanist
2012-06-22, 16:53
We are either 100% Babylonian (not to be confused with the non-Mesopotamian ethnic Chaldeans) with an origin not far from the supposed birthplace of Sargon of Akkad, or we are a mix of different groups. I think most would agree on the latter. With our principal ancestry being native Mesopotamian (North and South), along with significant non-native Mesopotamian ancestry, such as Chaldean and Aramaean.

Again, the original SPA points:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumer_assyria_spots.jpg


The language material is not new. But, the other bits, from Mario Fales, are new. Well, at least mostly new.


Language

Neo-Assyrian (Akkadian) stratum

1.
Bits from THE LANGUAGE OF THE MODERN ASSYRIANS AND ITS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND by Prof. Geoffrey Khan Lecture, May, 10, 2012

Regarding a feature in Sureth (exclusive of those mentioned by S. Loesov, below) that may be from Neo-Assyrian (Akkadian):
Such linguistic convergence must have arisen through bilingualism. Indicating that the speakers of the ancestors of the modern Assyrian dialects, in the ancient period, must have spoken Akkadian...


To sum up, the spoken Assyrian dialects are a remarkable heritage, with considerable historical depth, having roots in the period of the ancient Assyrians, with a history that is independent of that of Syriac, and other literary forms of Aramaic...

2.
A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic

Part II (2011)

Sergey Loesov

Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow


As I have just mentioned, all Eastern Aramaic varieties display the decline of status, i.e. collapse of the Proto-Aramaic nominal definiteness paradigm, while it is fully alive in the whole of Middle Western Aramaic and even nowadays its vestiges hold on in Western Neo-Aramaic. I propose to relate this double-edged grammatical innovation of the Eastern Aramaic noun (vis-à-vis the Proto-Aramaic one) to the contact of Eastern Aramaic with the Neo-Assyrian variety of Akkadian. It follows from our historical records that Assyrian may have been a substrate language for Proto-Eastern-Aramaic. Assyrian (as the rest of Akkadian) did not have morphological means to encode definiteness, so the Eastern Aramaic loss of definiteness as a value of the nominal inflection could be attributed to the substrate influence. As I suggest, Assyrian masc. pl. suffix *-ē replaced (save for certain monosyllabic bases) the Aramaic masc. pl. definite ending *-ayyā: this may have been partly due to a putative Imālah pronunciation of *-ayyā (i.e., somewhat akin to *-ē), but mostly because *-ayyā is the only Proto-Aramaic inflectional marker of the noun that looks completely alien (in terms of phonological shape) to the Assyrian repertoire of nominal inflection in the plural (compare a table in Loesov 2011:439 with Hämeen-Anttila 2000:77 ff.), therefore it may have been unusual and difficult for the Akkadian-Aramaic bilinguals. This replacement, coupled with the insufficient sensitivity of Assyrian-Akkadian bilinguals to the morphological encoding of definiteness, will have triggered promotion of other “full” (i.e., definite) endings into the indiscriminate use and the consequent decline of morphological definiteness. That is to say, accepting Greenberg’s commonsense diachronic typology of definiteness markers, we can explain the speedier bleaching (i.e., desemanticization) of the Eastern Aramaic definite endings by the contact of Proto-Eastern-Aramaic with Akkadian.


The etymology of the -ē suffix

How does this evidence square with our ideas about the origin of the -ē suffix? There is no consensus about its etymology, except that it was not the masculine-plural-definite nominal ending in Proto-Aramaic (save perhaps for the nisba nouns). Three theories have been enjoying support since the late 19th century: 1) *-ayyāʔ > -ē; 2) generalization of the -ē that since prehistoric times had been used to the right of the nisba āy- in the whole of Aramaic; 3) borrowing of the Assyrian [Akkadian] masculine plural ending -ē.

….

Theory (3), shared by the present writer, is a strong claim, therefore it requires typological and historical justifications. The borrowing hypothesis will look more plausible if we relate it to the fact that the morpheme in question (i.e., the postpositive article of Proto-Aramaic) was going to forfeit its pristine discourse function in the whole of Middle Eastern Aramaic. It is natural to ask whether this shared loss had its beginnings in the immediate common ancestor of the Eastern Aramaic languages.

Aramaic (both Old and Middle) has two productive derivational morphemes almost certainly borrowed from Akkadian: the nominal abstract suffix -ū(t) and the causative verbal prefix š-/s-. The -ū(t) suffix is highly expansive, to the degree of becoming “parasitisch” (Barth 1894:415), while š-/s- is hardly attested with more than a dozen Aramaic roots (cf. Loesov 2009:490 f., a review of data gleaned from reference tools). Given this evidence and the above typological considerations, the borrowing of the plural nominal ending -ē from Akkadian into Proto-Eastern-Aramaic does not look as improbable as it would seem on first sight.

Neo-Babylonian (Akkadian) and Babylonian Aramaic stratum

Stephen Kaufman. Akkadian Influences on Aramaic

Syriac

The great influence of Babylonian Aramaic in grammar and lexikon, which probably began as early as the Neo-Babylonian period, when Harran held such an important position, also may have obliterated earlier Assyrianisms.

-------------------------------------------------------------

Culture/Society


Differently from the long-attested Arameans, the Chaldeans (Kaldu) are – quite surprisingly– not documented in the written sources before 878 BC. Their place names, and especially those of their vast territorial and political enclaves, were characterized by the noun Bıt, “household”, followed by the linguistically West Semitic personal name of an eponymic ancestor figure, exactly as in the case of the contemporary Aramean states of the Jezirah and Transeuphratene.15 This feature allows us to postulate a connection of the Chaldeans with the northern and western Arameans in the general perspective of a shared heritage of ethnicity; while some slight hints in the texts might more specifically point to political affiliations of long standing between the Chaldeans and the Aramean tribes of the Middle Euphrates area: e.g. as we shall see below, the rebel Chaldean leader Mukı¯n-ze¯ri had political contacts with the Arameans of Hindanu, some 300 kms upstream on the Euphrates.

On the other hand, it must be admitted that no straightforward structural similarities between the two main non-indigenous groupings present in the Babylonian area may be traced on the social, economic, and cultural level; quite the contrary is in fact true. This contrast is particularly evident if one observes the settlement patterns of the Chaldeans, and their general socio-economic profile. To be sure, the social structure of the Chaldeans was rigidly centered upon the tribal unit of which all subjects were jointly “members” (ma¯r, literally, “son” of the eponymic ancestor) – similarly to the Aramean tribal “households” of the northern Jezirah and inner Syria – but it would be more precise to state that such units represented in fact tribal confederations, which must have undergone a relatively long process of social coalescence, although the latter has left no trace in the written record.

….

But let us return once more to the main theme of this contribution, which is that of a view of non-indigenous groups “moving around Babylon”, with alternatively peaceful and hostile stances vis-à-vis Assyrian interference. The Mukı¯n-ze¯ri epistolary dossier shows once more the full cast of characters which was introduced in section § 1, above, albeit now endowed with movement and with complex reciprocal relations. In the first place, we are given to observe the inhabitants of the ancient cities of the southern alluvium – and especially the people of Babylon itself – as floundering in the political and military net that has been cast around them: deeply distrustful of the Assyrians, but no less terrified of the Chaldeans, they practice forms of passive resistance which seem to lead nowhere, and often become the helpless prey of raids and other forms of violence. The second group which stands out is that of the Aramean tribesmen: they seem to resent the military struggle taking place around them as much as the city-dwellers, but possibly only insofar as it impinges upon their freedom of movement and their socio-economic autarchy. Accordingly, they choose to side with one or the other opponent, but do not seem particularly bent on participating to the action in person – at least, not for the time being. And finally, we have the Chaldeans, whom the revolt of Mukı¯n-ze¯ri catches in the process of (re)defining their mutual political relations: in other words, this first major interference of the Assyrians in Babylonian affairs seems to represent a unique opportunity to measure the respective strength of the individual confederations and of their smaller camp-followers – but not without some personal and political qualms reflecting the tight gentilic structure among the groups, as in the case of Balassu of Bit-Dakkuri, who was the uncle of Mukı¯n-ze¯ri of Bit-Amukkani.

Mario Fales


Moving around Babylon: On the Aramean and Chaldean Presence in Southern Mesopotamia, in Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva, Ess, Margarete van, and Marzahn, Joachim (Eds.), Babylon Wissenskultur in Orient und Okzident, Berlin, Boston (DE GRUYTER) 2011, 91–112

Humanist
2012-06-23, 04:56
Marko's trees... (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=916889&postcount=329)

Wikipedia:


Dilmun, sometimes described as "the place where the sun rises" and "the Land of the Living", is the scene of some versions of the Sumerian creation myth, and the place where the deified Sumerian hero of the flood, Utnapishtim (Ziusudra), was taken by the gods to live forever. Thorkild Jacobsen's translation of the Eridu Genesis calls it "Mount Dilmun" which he locates as a "faraway, half-mythical place".[8]

....

As of 2008, archaeologists have failed to find a site in existence from 3300 BC (Uruk IV) to 556 BC (Neo-Babylonian Era) when Dilmun (Telmun) appears in texts. Despite the scholarly consensus that Dilmun encompasses three locations: (1) the eastern littoral of Arabia from the vicinity of modern Kuwait to Bahrain; (2) the island of Bahrain; (3) the island of Failaka east of Kuwait, the earliest known site is Qal'at al-Bahrain which is dated no earlier than c. 2200 BC according to Flemming Hojlund. Failaka was settled after 2000 BC following a drop in sea level.[9] No settlements exist in the Arabian littoral 3300-2000 BC according to Hojlund. Thus, despite Dilmun's appearance in ancient texts dating from 3300-2300 BC archaeologists have failed to find a site for Dilmun dating to this period. Hymns regarding the Sumerian god Enki of Eridu in Sumer speak of his assaulting and deflowering Dilmun's maidens as they stand by a river bank, he reaching out of nearby marsh to clasp them to his bosom. Of Bahrain, Failaka, and the eastern littoral of Arabia, none possess marshes and a riverbank. Dilmun, furthermore, is said to lie "in the east where the sun rises," a situation that does not apply to the eastern Arabian littoral, Failaka or Bahrain, all of which lie south of Sumer and Eridu.

Howard-Carter (1987) realizing that these three locations possess no archaeological evidence of a settlement dating 3300-2300 BC, has proposed that Dilmun of this era might be a still unidentified tell near the Shat al-Arab between modern-day Qurnah and Basra in modern day Iraq.[10] In favor of Howard-Carter's proposal, she noted that this area does lie to the east of Sumer ("where the sun rises"), and the riverbank where Dilmun's maidens would have been accosted aligns with the Shat al-Arab which is in the midst of marshes. The "mouth of the rivers" where Dilmun was said to lie is for her the union of the Tigris and Euphrates at Qurnah.

http://arabian-archaeology.com/images/ic-007.jpg

http://www.mega.nu/ampp/eden/edenmap.gif

Humanist
2012-06-23, 09:08
Wikipedia:

Sargon of Akkad


[E]arlier speculation by a number of scholars that Sargon was an inspiration for the biblical figure of Nimrod.[11] The Weidner Chronicle (ABC 19:51) states that it was Sargon who built Babylon "in front of Akkad."[12][13] The Chronicle of Early Kings (ABC 20:18-19) likewise states that late in his reign, Sargon "dug up the soil of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade."[13][14] Van de Mieroop suggested that those two chronicles may in fact refer to the much later Assyrian king, Sargon II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, rather than to Sargon of Akkad.[15]

....

The Assyrian and Babylonian kings who based their empires in Mesopotamia saw themselves as the heirs of Sargon's empire. Kings such as Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC) showed great interest in the history of the Sargonid dynasty, and even conducted excavations of Sargon's palaces and those of his successors.[31]

Humanist
2012-06-24, 03:50
A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic (Part I)

Sergey Loesov

Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow


From the point of view of this study, “Old Aramaic” ends with the emergence of those spoken Aramaic varieties that, with time, would become the vernacular foundations of the six “Middle Aramaic” literary idioms. Spoken “Middle Aramaic” ends with the appearance of a distinctly “neo-Aramaic” speech type.Linguistic features that justify this division will be discussed in the continuation of this study. No reliable absolute dating is now possible. Impressionistically, “neo- Aramaic” may turn out to have been the longest period in the documented history of Aramaic, while the classical “Middle Aramaic,” in reality, may have been(at least in the Eastern branch) a comparatively short transition period between the “Old” and the “New” epochs of the language.


---------------------------------------

Wikipedia, on Nebuchadnezzar II:


Nebuchadnezzar II (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/En-us-Nebuchadnezzar.ogg) (nɛbjʉkədˈnɛzər/; Aramaic: ܢܵܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ ‎; Hebrew: נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר‎‎ Nəḇūḵaḏneṣṣar; Ancient Greek: Ναβουχοδονόσωρ Naboukhodonósôr; Arabic: نِبُوخَذنِصَّر nibūḫaḏniṣṣar; c 634 – 562 BC) was king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC. According to the Bible, he conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and sent the Jews into exile. He is credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and also known for the destruction of the First Temple. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is also mentioned in several other books of the Bible. The Akkadian name, Nabû-kudurri-uṣur, means "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son". Nabu is the Babylonian deity of wisdom, and son of the god Marduk. In an inscription, Nebuchadnezzar styles himself as Nabu's "beloved" and "favourite".[2][3]

....

Nebuchadnezzar was the oldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, who delivered Babylon from its dependence on Assyria and laid Nineveh in ruins. According to Berossus, some years before he became king of Babylon, he married Amytis of Media, the daughter or granddaughter of Cyaxares the Great, king of the Medes, and thus the Median and Babylonian dynasties were united. There are conflicting accounts of Nitocris of Babylon either being his wife or daughter.


An engraving on an eye stone of onyx with an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II [1]:


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Nebukadnessar_II.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-23 at 22:36 ----------

Livius.org bits on the Babylonian Empire:


The Assyrians were the first to recover from the recession. Under king Aššurnasirpal II (883-859), their empire started to grow again, and this expansion continued during the reigns of his successors. One of the great challenges was the integration of Babylonia, which was Assyria's twin-culture and too highly esteemed to be reduced to the status of province. Tiglath-pileser III (744-727) sought a solution in a "double monarchy": he united the two countries in a personal union.

Soon, new measures had to be taken. Twice, the Babylonians claimed their independence under king Marduk-apla-iddin (721-710 and 703; the Biblical Merodach Baladan). The second revolt was punished harshly by the Assyrian leader Sennacherib, who sacked the city and deported its inhabitants to Nineveh. This new policy was soon regretted. Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon allowed the people to return. Yet, the relation between Assyria and the Babylonians remained tense. Aššurbanipal (668-631) thought he solved the problem by making his brother Šamaš-šuma-ukin viceroy of the southern part of Mesopotamia, but this turned out to be the wrong idea too: while the king of Assyria was involved in other wars, the Babylonian king revolted, and it took Aššurbanipal several years before he had restored order (648; ABC 15). It has been assumed that the man who is called the successor of Šamaš-šuma-ukin, Kandalanu, is in fact the same as the Assyrian king, although it is certain that the viceroy was still alive in 627, whereas no documents of Aššurbanipal are known after 631.

Humanist
2012-06-24, 06:01
THE DOCTRINE OF ADDAI

THE APOSTLE


Let this thought, therefore, be represented before your eyes, and let it not pass from your mind, because that if it pass from your mind, it passeth not from Justice.43 Seek mercies from God, that He may pardon the hateful infidelity of your paganism, for ye have forsaken Him who created you upon the face of the earth, and makes His rain to descend and His sun to rise upon you, and ye worship, instead of Him, His works. For the idols and graven images of paganism, and whatsoever of the creation in which ye have confidence and which ye worship, if there were in them feeling and understanding, for the sake of which ye worship and honour them, it would be right for them, which ye have engraven and established, and have firmly fixed with nails that they be not shaken, to receive your favour. For if the creatures were aware of your honours to them, they would cry, shouting to you, not to worship your fellows, which like yourselves are made and created; because that creatures made should not be worshipped; but that they should worship their Creator, and they should glorify Him who created them. And as His grace covers the wicked here,44 so His justice shall be avenged on the infidels there. For I saw in this city that it abounded greatly in paganism, which is against God. Who is this Nebo, 45 an idol made which ye worship, and Bel, 46 which ye honour? Behold, there are those among you who adore Bath Nical,47 as the inhabitants of Harran your neighbours, and Taratha,48 as the people of Mabug, and the eagle, as the Arabians, also the sun and the moon,as the rest of the inhabitants of Harran, who are as yourselves. |25 Be ye not led away captive by the rays of the luminaries and the bright star; for every one who worships creatures is cursed before God. For although there are among creatures such as are greater than their companions, yet they are fellow-servants of their companions, as I have said to you. For this is a bitter pain, for which there is not a cure, that things made should worship things made, and creatures should glorify their fellows. For as they are not able to stand by the power of themselves, but by the power of Him who created them, so they are not able to be worshipped with Him, nor to be honoured with Him; for it is a blasphemy against both parties, against the creatures when they are worshipped, and against the Creator, when the creatures, who are strangers to the nature of His existence, are made partakers with Him. For all the prophecy of the Prophets, and the preaching of us who are after the Prophets, is this, that creatures should not be worshipped with the Creator, and that men should not bind themselves to the yoke of corrupt paganism. It is not because of the creatures being seen, I say, that they should not be worshipped; but everything which is made is a creature, whether visible or invisible. This is a horrible wickedness, to place the glorious name of divinity upon it. For not creatures, as you, we proclaim and worship; but the Lord of creatures. The earthquake, which made them tremble at the Cross, testifies that everything which is made depends on and exists by the power of its Maker, who was before worlds and creatures, whose nature is incomprehensible, in that His nature is invisible, and, with His Father, is sanctified in the heights above, for that He is Lord and God from eternity. This is our doctrine in every country and in every region. And so |26 have we been commanded to preach to those who hear us, not violently, but by the teaching of the truth and by the power of God. And the miracles which were done in His name, testify concerning our faith, that it is true and to be believed. Be obedient, therefore, to my words, and receive that which I have said, and am saying before you; and that I may not require your death, behold, I warn you to be very cautious. Receive my words fitly, and do not neglect. Draw nigh to me ye my distant ones from Christ, and be near to Christ. And in the place Of erroneous sacrifices and oblations, offer now to Him the sacrifices of thanksgiving.


Wikipedia on Nebo:


Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.

Originally, Nabu was a West Semitic deity introduced by the Amorites into Mesopotamia, probably at the same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[1] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.

His power over human existence is immense, because Nabu engraves the destiny of each person, as the gods have decided, on the tablets of sacred record. Thus, He has the power to increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life.

Nabu is mentioned in the Nevi'im of the Tanakh as Nebo in Isaiah 46:1.

A statue of Nabu from Calah, erected during the reign of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III is on display in the British Museum.



Also: Belus (Assyrian) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belus_(Assyrian))

Humanist
2012-06-24, 09:30
Wikipedia, on Nebuchadnezzar II:


Nebuchadnezzar II was king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC.

He is credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon...


Herodotus appears to confuse Assyria and Babylonia. But, perhaps we are the ones who are confused. Or, rather, at least this non-academic. At least with regard to certain questions.

The Hanging Gardens of Nineveh?

Nineveh, Babylon and the Hanging Gardens: Cuneiform and Classical Sources Reconciled

Dr Stephanie M. Dalley
University of Oxford

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalley_hanging_gardens.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-24, 13:16
I am certainly not suggesting that there is even a modest probability of some sort of connection between the two. I am sure there are numerous depictions of the creatures below that can be found in various cultures around the world, from both modern and ancient times. If someone familiar with the Mandaean skandola, and what the creatures represent, would like to chime in, please do so.

From the site, essene.com


This is a talismanic seal ring and bears representations of a lion, scorpion, bee (or wasp) and serpent. The latter head to tail encircles the others, it is attached by an iron chain to a haftless iron knife. It is worn during exorcisms, and by those isolated for uncleanliness (e.g.. childbirth or marriage). It is also used to seal newborns navels and to seal the tomb at the funeral.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/skandola_small.jpg


--------------------------------------------------------------

By Dr. Karen Radner. Further reading: Sennacherib, king of Assyria (704-681) (http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/essentials/sennacherib/)

1.

Depictions of the Assyrian state god Aššur from the time after Sennacherib's destruction of Babylon in 689 portray him as the master of the Babylonian god Marduk's powers too. In this new double role, Aššur is shown standing on two holy animals: his own traditional lion-dragon and Marduk's snake-dragon (mušhuššu). Sennacherib is praying before him. Detail of a rock relief at Maltai (also known as Halamat) above the city of Dohuk in Northern Iraq, near one of Sennacherib's irrigation projects. Photo by Karen Radner.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Sennacherib.jpg


2.

The seal of queen Tašmetu-šarrat, showing the king and queen approaching the goddess Ištar in prayer. Above the scene hovers a scorpion, symbol of the Assyrian queen. British Museum, ME 2002-05-15, 1. Photo by Dick Hodges.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Tametu-arrat.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-25, 11:44
Before the coming of the Romans into the Near East, probably under the early Parthians, the term Asuristan*, Beth Aramaye in Aramaic, had been coined for old Babylonia, sometimes including northern Iraq, and at times not. It is difficult to identify Aramaic names under the Parthians with the Greek names of the Seleucids, and boundaries changed frequently. The area of the upper Diyala River basin was called Beth Garmai, while Arbela and the land between the Greater and Lesser Zab Rivers was called Adiabene or Hadhyab in Aramaic. The plain of ancient Nineveh was called Beth Nuhadra, but it is unknown whether it, as well as other regions, had independent rulers or were Parthian provinces. The name Assyria, in the form Asuristan, was shifted to ancient Babylonia, probably by the Parthians, and this continued under the Sasanians. This is the information we glean from literary sources and maps, especially from Ptolemy, where Assyria occupies his sixth book.
Richard Frye

-----------------------------------------------------
* Wikipedia:


Asuristan was a province under the Sassanid Empire (226–640 AD).

The Sassanid province of Asuristan produced several unique cultural contributions to the world (all using varieties of Mesopotamian Eastern Middle Aramaic for their original scriptures):

It was the center for the Church of the East, which at times (partially due to the vast areas the Sassanid empire covered) was the most widespread Christian church in the world, reaching well into Central Asia, China and India. It sees as its founders the apostle Thomas (Mar Toma), and Saint Thaddeus (Mar Addai), and uses the Syriac version of Aramaic for its scriptures. One of the central scriptures of the Church of the East, the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari, is one of the oldest Eucharistic prayers in the Christianity, composed around the year 200. The Church of the East went through major consolidation and expansion in 410 during the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sassanid capital (in Asuristan). Selucia-Ctesiphon remained the location of the Patriarchate of the Church of the East for over 600 years. (The Church of the East has been sometimes erroneously referred to as Nestorian, although the followers of Nestorius, AD 386-451, actually only relocated into the Persian Empire from the Roman Empire in the 5th century, after the Nestorian Schism.)

The religion of Manichaeism (founded by Mani, 216–276), another Syriac Aramaic phenomenon, originated in 3rd century Asuristan, shortly after the Church of the East, and also spread across vast geographical distances. In some instances, Manicheaism even surpassed the Church of the East in its reach, as it was for a time also widespread in the Roman Empire. While none of the six original Syriac scriptures of the Manichaeans have survived in their entirety, a long Syriac section of one of their works detailing key beliefs was preserved by Theodore Bar Konai (a Church of the East author from Beth Garmaï), in his book "Ketba Deskolion" written in about 792. Like the Church of the East, the traditional center of the Manichaean church was in Seleucia-Ctesiphon (with Abū Hilāl al-Dayhūri sitting there as its head in the late 700s).[5]

Beginning with the Sassanid Empire and up to the 11th century, Sassanid Assyria was the center of Judaism in the world. The major book defining Judaism, the Babylonian Talmud, was written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic in Asuristan between the 3rd and 5th centuries. The Babylonian Talmudic academies were all established relatively near to Seleucia-Ctesiphon. The first Talmudic academy was founded in Sura by Rav (175–247) in about 220. One of the most influential Talmudic teachers, Rava (270-350), who was influenced by both Manichaean polemic and Zoroastrian theology, studied in another Talmudic academy at Pumbedita.

The Mandaean religion, who according to their traditions are the original followers of John the Baptist, and who are considered to be the only surviving Gnostic group in the world, also originated in Asuristan at this time (or slightly earlier, perhaps during Parthian Assyria). Their language and script was the Mandaic form of Aramaic (closely related to the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud). Two of their central works, both written within the 2nd and 3rd centuries, are the Ginza Rabba and the Mandaean Book of John (preserving original traditions about John the Baptist).

The second king of the Sassanid Empire, Shapur I (215-272), personally knew both Mani (216–276), the founder of Manichaeism, and Shmuel (165-257), another famous contributor to the Babylonian Talmud (head of the academy at Nehardea). Mani dedicated his only Middle Persian writing, the Shāpuragān, to Shapur I. Shapur I is mentioned many times in the Babylonian Talmud, as "King Shabur".


A possible Y chromosome link that dates back to at least the period of Adiabene/early Asuristan:


Based on Marko's 67 STR R tree.

Five of the Assyrian R-L584 men are tested through 67 markers. Two L277 men (one speculative), are also tested through 67 markers. A number of the Assyrian men are not tested through 67 markers.

The year estimates are not necessarily precise.

R1b1a2a1b (L584)

Assyrian #1, kit # 205749: TMRCA of 1848 years with Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men.

Assyrian #2, kit # 213562: TMRCA of 2239 years with Assyrian #1 and Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men. Another 1011 years (3250 years), connects him to four men. One of the men lists France as an origin.

Assyrian #3*, kit # 147979: TMRCA of 3293 years with two men of unknown origin. One of the two men lists "Strickland" as a surname.

Assyrian #4, kit # 184027: TMRCA of 1505 years with three men. At least two appear to be Armenian. Further removed from present, this branch appears dominated by Armenians.

Assyrian #5, kit # 90492: TMRCA of 1735 years with a man listing Ireland as an origin. Another 2025 years (3760 years), connects him with a number of what appear to be Armenian and European men.

L277 (23andMe)

Assyrian #6, kit # 213878: TMRCA of 2293 with an Armenian man. Another 278 years (2571 years), connects him with a number of men, including a man listing Qatar as an origin, a man with a listed surname of "Hussein," an Assyrian from Iraq (Assyrian #7), and an Armenian man. Another 854 years back (3425 years), connects him with a number of Armenian men, a man from Russia (Jewish?), a man from Kazakhstan, a man from Qatar, a man from Georgia, and a man of unknown origin.

Assyrian #7*, kit # 190249: See details for Assyrian #6, above.

* Not SNP confirmed.


I understand that TMRCA estimates are not always that reliable, but I am confident that this is not a recent connection. Refer to my 23andMe "Declared Ashkenazi" percentage:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paul_ashkenazi_.jpg


One of the few identified L-584 men (presumed, based on 23andMe results), is an individual from Khuzestan, Iran.

http://geocurrents.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Khuzestan_Iran_Map.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-25, 16:50
I am not a linguist, so, I have no idea if this is of any significance.

Wikipedia:


These five planets were identified with the gods of the Babylonian pantheon as follows:

Jupiter with Marduk,
Venus with the goddess Ishtar, [ <-- Also in Assyria]
Saturn with Ninurta (Ninib),
Mercury with Nabu (Nebo),
Mars with Nergal.

The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon. A search for "betrothed" returns the following:


Looking for "betrothed" in the CAL database of entries

ʾrws, ʾrwsʾ n.m. betrothed (m)

1 betrothed (m) Gal, CPA.
)rws A --> )rws N
ʾrwsh n.f. betrothed (f.)

1 betrothed (f.) Gal, PTA.
2 bride CPA.
ʾrys adj. betrothed

1 betrothed Man, LJLA.
ʾrs vb. to betrothe
G
1 to betrothe a woman JLAtg, Gal, CPA, Man.

D
1 to betrothe Gal, CPA, Sam. --(a) p.p. fem. מְאָרְסָא : betrothed (f.) JLAtg, PTA, LJLA.

Dt
1 to be betrothed Jud, CPA, JBA, LJLA.

mkr vb. to acquire property for a price; to betrothe
G
1 to acquire property for a price . --(a) p.p. in the expression אטיר מכיר : paid off and transferred .
2 to betroth Syr.
3 to be betrothed Syr.

C
1 to betroth Syr.

Gt
1 to be betrothed Syr.

Ct
1 to be betrothed Syr.

nqp vb. #2to adhere to; to knock together
G
1 to adhere to Syr. --(a) to follow Syr. --(b) to agree with Syr.
2 to strike (esp. of a limb, to make someone [or the limb] fall) JLAtg, LJLA. --(a) (of limbs) to knock together .
3 to temper Syr.
4 to use Syr.

D
1 to stub, knock a limb into something JBA.

C
1 to append Syr. --(a) to add Syr. --(b) to adduce Syr. --(c) to conjoin Syr. --(d) to knock together Jud, JBA.
2 as a co-verb: to begin to do something Syr.
3 to proceed to the next item Syr.
4 to join to oneself Syr.

Gt
1 to adhere Syr.
2 to be betrothed to someone Syr.

Dt
1 to apply oneself Syr.

qdš vb. u/u to become sanctified
G
1 to become sanctified JBA.

D
1 to sanctify Com. --(a) to consecrate Palm, Jud, Syr, JBA. (a.1) to proclaim the new moon Gal, PTA. --(b) to invite to a holy observance Syr. --(c) to cry 'holy' Syr. (c.1) to recite the Qiddush JBA. --(d) to wash hands and feet prior to a sacred act PTA, JBA.
2 to take in marriage Jud, Syr. --(a) to betroth a woman JLAtg, Gal, JBA.

C
1 to dedicate as untouchable sancta JLAtg, PTA, LJLA.

Dt
1 to consecrate oneself JLAtg, Syr. --(a) to wash hands and feet PTA.
2 to be consecrated JLAtg, Syr, JBA.
3 to be betrothed JBA.
4 to be proclaimed (of new moon) Gal.

Ct
1 to be sanctified Syr.


The word from our vernacular, Sureth (see below), does not appear in our liturgical tongue, Syriac.


Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ishtar_dilibat_venus.jpg


Sureth

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_betrothed.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-25, 19:58
A few more bits from: Neo-Assyrian Astronomical Terminology in the Babylonian Talmud

The Journal of the American Oriental Society 130.2 (2010)
Jonathan Ben-Dov
Haifa University


[T]he present statement by Rav Nahman can also be taken in a more literal sense, with the l construed as simple accusative: “ the moon completes the day.” This rendering of the phrase resembles closely a standard term from Neo-Assyrian astronomical reports to the king, as collected and interpreted by Simo Parpola.

....

These formulae only make sense in relation to the thirtieth day of the month. However, in the quotation from the Babylonian Talmud the phrase “completes the day” refers, probably mistakenly, to the middle of the month at full moon. Most interestingly, a quite similar mistake appears already in the Neo-Assyrian letter SAA 8:160 (RMA 135), as noted by Parpola...

....

The possibility that Jewish Babylonian sages of late antiquity practiced typical Babylonian astronomy was discussed by Stern, who came to the conclusion that it is “not implausible.” The present case supports this possibility. Just as the Babylonian sages used medical terms from Akkadian literature, they seem to have used earlier astronomical terms as well.

Humanist
2012-06-26, 06:31
From Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular of Barwar:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suraya_sureth.jpg


The Assyriologist Simo Parpola on Assyrian identity (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4) (bits pertaining to Asurayu --> Surayu, and Asureth --> Sureth).

Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (Volume 1, A, Part II)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_suraya_.jpg


Sureth
Assyrian (man) : Suraya (as in the bit from Khan, above).
Assyrian (woman) : Suraita

Humanist
2012-06-26, 08:15
Adding the original SPA points for Iranians and Syrians, to go along with those for the Mandaeans and Assyrians.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spa_man_asy_syr_irn__.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-26, 11:43
Mandaeism in Antiquity and the Antiquity of Mandaeism
Charles G. Häberl
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Religion Compass Volume 6, Issue 5, Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012

A bit more from the Mandaean scholar, Chuck Häberl (http://www.amesall.rutgers.edu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99&Itemid=141) (emphasis added):


t is nonetheless likely that they [Mandaeans] are one of several groups identified as ‘‘Sabians’’ by Muslim historians. The eleventh-century scholar Abu Rayhan al-Bırunı mentions two such groups in his Book of the Remaining Signs of Past Centuries:


Again, others maintain that the Harranians are not the real Sabians, but those who are called in the books Heathens and Idolaters. For the Sabians are the remnant of the Jewish tribes who remained in Babylonia, when the other tribes left it for Jerusalem in the days of Cyrus and Artaxerxes. Those remaining tribes felt themselves attracted to the rites of the Magians, and so they inclined...towards the religion of Nebukadnezzar, and adopted a system mixed up of Magianism and Judaism like that of the Samaritans in Syria.

The greatest number of them are settled at Wasit, in Sawad-al‘irak, in the districts of Jafar, Alja-mida, and the two Nahr-alsila. They pretend to be the descendants of Enos the son of Seth. They differ from the Harranians, blaming their doctrines and not agreeing with them except in few matters. In praying, even, they turn towards the north pole, whilst the Harranians turn towards the south pole (translated by Sachau 1879, 188).


A couple of comments. Significant Jewish influence on both Mandaeism and Syriac Christianity is difficult to argue against. I believe that both Mandaeans and Assyrians (likely) carry non-negligible amounts of genuine Israelite and Judean ancestry. However, genetic analyses suggest that it is the Mizrahim who are similar to Mesopotamian populations. More so than Mesopotamian populations are similar to Levantine populations. The Eastern affinities of Mandaeans and Assyrians extend beyond what the genetic analyses appear to suggest. For example:


[I]Predicate Nominals and Related Constructions in Neo-Mandaic

Chuck Häberl

Published in Rebecca Hasselbach and Na'ama Pat-El. 2012. Language and Nature: Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 67. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, pp. 91-110.

FN 6:
[T]he Mandaic language is clearly related to the Eastern Aramaic dialects of Mesopotamia rather than the Western Aramaic dialects of the Levant.

Humanist
2012-06-26, 13:52
Nabu

Suffice it to recall that the peculiar character of the god as the patron of wisdom placed him beyond the reach of any jealousy on the part of the other members of the pantheon. So Ramman-nirari III. extols Nabu as the protector of the arts, the all-wise who guides the stylus of the scribe, and the possessor of wisdom in general. He is not merely the originator of writing, but the source of all wisdom, and for this reason he is spoken of as the son of Ea. Attributes of mere brutal force are rarely assigned to Nabu, but as befits a god of wisdom, mercy, nobility, and majesty constitute his chief attractions. By virtue of his wisdom, Sargon calls him ‘the clear seer who guides all the gods,’ and when the last king of Assyria Saracus, as the Greek writers called him invokes Nabu as the ‘leader of forces,’ he appears to have in mind the heavenly troops rather than earthly armies. Such patrons of learning as Sargon and Ashurbanabal were naturally fond of parading their devotion to Nabu. The former significantly calls him the ’writer of everything,’ and as for Ashurbanabal, almost every tablet in the great literary collection that he made at Nineveh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Ashurbanipal) closes with a solemn invocation to Nabu and his consort Tashmitum, to whom he offers thanks for having opened his ears to receive wisdom, and who persuaded him to make the vast literary treasures of the past accessible to his subjects.

The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria
Morris Jastrow

Humanist
2012-06-26, 20:24
Mandaeism in Antiquity and the Antiquity of Mandaeism
Charles G. Häberl
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Religion Compass Volume 6, Issue 5, Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012


He [Theodore bar Konay] identifies their homeland as Bet Aramaya (i.e. upper Mesopotamia, a territory that encompasses the Auranitis of Claudius Ptolemy), and mentions that they were still known in that region as ‘‘Nazarenes’’...


When I read Bet Aramaya this was the first thing that came to mind. Though, I am not certain of the territories it actually encompassed:

Wikipedia


The Province of the Patriarch was an ecclesiastical province of the Church of the East attested between the fifth and thirteenth centuries. As its name entails, it was the province of the church's Patriarch. The province consisted of a number of dioceses in the region of Beth Aramaye, between Basra and Kirkuk, which were placed under the patriarch's direct supervision at the synod of Yahballaha I in 420.

The seat of the Patriarch was Seleucia-Ctesiphon. For convenience, Baghdad will serve as Seleucia-Ctesiphon. The areas marked with the black and yellow are the locations between Basra and Kirkuk situated within some proximity to all of the following: a river, oil-rich region, Iran, and mountainous terrain at least as far north as Baghdad.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramaya.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-27, 07:39
The covers for the volumes of The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire are neat.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pna1-150.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pna1-250.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pna2-150.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pna3-150.jpg




[T]he Akkadian onomasticon of the Neo-Assyrian period should offer many attractions to the scholar. One of the most interesting problems would be the interference of Assyrian and Babylonian names which have been used side by side, even or especially in the Assyrian homelands. The tradition of the Akkadian names would also deserve some work: while a number of names have clearly Middle-Assyrian forerunners, others seem to have been adopted from Middle-Babylonian.


1998-1999 The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, volume 1 (= part 1: A and part 2: B-G). Helsinki 1998 and 1999. ISBN 9514581636 and ISBN: 951458645X.

Karen Radner

Humanist
2012-06-27, 13:50
May be relevant to questions pertaining to the various "North European" components, and haplogroups, such as Y-DNA R1a1, and perhaps Y-DNA I1/I2:



[T]he Persian kings occasionally resided in the royal palace in Babylon, the core of the empire was established in Persis (Fars) in present-day south-western Iran. Persian functionaries appeared in Babylonia, but [B]the Persians never carried out an extensive colonisation programme.

....

Alexander the Great took over Mesopotamia (Iraq) in 331 BC and the result of his conquest was the immigration of large groups of Greeks and Macedonians. This resulted in the foundation of new cities, such as Alexandria on the Persian Gulf, Seleucia on the Tigris, Seleucia on the Euphrates. In the older Mesopotamian cities Greeks made their entry. It is very likely that Greeks entered Babylon, Nippur, Uruk and other cities (fig. 1). I say ‘likely’, since our main evidence for the presence of Greeks are Greek names occurring in cuneiform documents, but, as such documents from Uruk show, it is certain that many of the people mentioned with a Greek name were in fact Urukeans of a pure Babylonian origin.

....

What we can say is that there was a kind of ‘apartheid’ between the community of politai ('citizens') and the rest of the city’s inhabitants. The Babylonians and the Greeks each had their own institutions and the central government communicated with both communities. This state of affairs continued into the Parthian period and is evidenced until one hundred years after the introduction of it by Antiochus IV, when, in 77 BC, the cuneiform record ends.

....

In my earlier publications, I defended the idea that the Babylonian and Greek population groups each had their own political organisations and institutions. I even used the word ‘apartheid’.28 The Babylonians were governed by the temple authorities, who were simultaneously the main city authorities. The head of the Babylonian community was the shatammu; the governing body was the kinishtu, which met in the bīt milki, ‘the house of deliberation’.29

If the central government wanted to communicate with the Babylonians, they wrote their letters to this institution, as is evident from the Astronomical Diary of August 94 BC: ‘[… Letters of the king, which] were written to the shatammu of Esagila and the Babylonians, were read in the house of deliberation in the Juniper Garden.’ 30 From the context we may deduce that the king, the Parthian king Mithridates II, imposed heavy work obligations upon the Babylonians.


'Multi-ethnicity and ethnic segregation in Hellenistic Babylon,' in: Ton Derks & Nico Roymans eds., Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity. The Role of Power and Tradition (Amsterdam University Press) 101-115. 2009
Dr. R.J. van der Spek (http://www.let.vu.nl/en/about-the-faculty/academic-staff/staff-listed-alphabetically/staff-l-s/prof-dr-r-j-van-der-spek/index.asp)

Humanist
2012-06-27, 18:08
Links? I do not know. But, it is possible, I think.





TABLE III. [Some] Assyrian theophoric personal names from Parthian Assur, Hatra* and Tūr-Abdīn. Beyer 1998

Name Year/CE
Addu-nūr
`Abd-Allāya
Garam-Allāt 235
`Awīd-Allāt
Tēm-Allāt
Ahī-Assur 221
Assur-ah-iddin
Assur-amar
Assur-dayyān 200
Assur-hananī
Assur-hēl
Assur-šama` 184
Assur-`a 221
Assur-natan 184
Assur-tariş 200
`Aqīb-Assur 220
‘Ēnī-`al-Assur
Re'ūt-Assur 112
Assur-Bēl-dayyān 222
Bēl-abī 192
Bēl-barak
Bēl-`aqab 97
Malā-Bēl 221
Sattar-Bēl 195
Šōzib-Bēl
`Abed-Iššār
Natun-Iššār
`Awīd-Iššār 141
Ba-Nabû-ehdet 112
Bar-Nabû
Nabû-banā
Nabû-dayyān 188
Nabû-yāb
Nabû-gabbār
Nabû-kātōb 235
Nabû-`aqab
`Abed-Nabû 195
Bar-Nanāya 195
Bar-Nērgol 108
Nērgol-dammar 195
`Abed-Nērgol
`Abed-Šalmā(n) 235
`Aqab-Šameš 217
Han-Šameš
Ilāh-Šameš
Meqīm-Šameš
Natūn-Šameš 195
Rapā-Šameš
Šamšāy
Šameš-`aqab 205
Šameš-barak 237
Šameš-yāb 162
Šameš-zabad 128
Ba-Serū 217


Assyrian and Mandaean points adjusted consistent with adjustment made to Armenian point, in order to put Armenians at Lake Van.

Grey spots
A Assur
B Kalhu (Nimrud)
C Arbil
D Nineveh
E Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad)
F Tushan
G Amidi (Diyarbakir)

Hiptunu inadvertently omitted.


* Hatra page, at the UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre site:

Although there are few texts referring to the obscure beginnings of Hatra, it seems that a smallish Assyrian settlement grew up in the 3rd century BC becoming a fortress and a trading centre.


Yellow spot
H Hatra

Blue spot
I Average spot of Assyrians and Mandaeans (speakers of Eastern Aramaic dialects)

Red spot
J Iraqi Mandaean (very small sample, N=2)

Cyan spot
K Assyrian (majority E Assyrians)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spa_adjusted_spots.jpg

1.

In the final years of Hatra's existence, two brothers, Elkud and Yahbarmaren, erected a statue of the city's ruling monarch, Sanatruq II., in the so-called Shrine XI. The shrine is one of 13 small-sized sanctuaries in the dwelling area discovered so far. All of them are erected in the style of a Babylonian "Breitraumtempel": two rooms of different size arranged in the shape of a "T".

Between Rome and Parthia: The desert city of Hatra
D B Campbell

Ancient Warfare magazine, Vol. II, Issue 5, pp. 42-46.


2. Wikipedia:


The city was famed for its fusion of Greek, Mesopotamian, Syrian and Arabian pantheons, known in Aramaic as Beiṯ Ĕlāhā ("House of God"). The city had temples to Nergal (Babylonian and Akkadian), Hermes (Greek), Atargatis (Syro-Aramaean), Allat and Shamiyyah (Arabian) and Shamash (the Mesopotamian sun god).[2] Other deities mentioned in the Hatran Aramaic inscriptions is the Aramaean Ba'al Shamayn, and the female deity known as Ashurbel, which is perhaps the assimilation of the two deities Ashur and Bel, despite them being individually masculine.

Rulers of Hatra
Worod
Ma’nu
Elkud
Nashrihab
Naṣru *
Wolgash I
Sanatruq I - ruled together with Wolgash I
Wolgash (II?), son of Wolgash (I.)
Abdsamiya - Supported the Roman emperor Pescennius Niger
Sanatruq II


*

Wikipedia:
Naṣru carried the enigmatic title mry', which might translate as master, governor or administrator.

From a previous post:


Akkadian
martianni [Army → Military]: (Nuzi [Hurrian-Akkadian] dialect) : men , warriors , braves , fighters

mār damqi , mār banî , rubû , bir kabti ° (?) (feminine : mar'at damqi *): a nobleman , an aristocrat , a high official in the kingdom , a titled person

marru : spade , shovel

rā'i immeri : a shepherd

Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
mâṛiya: pasture place

mâṛiyana: grazer, pasturer

ṛiya : shepherd

Checked the Sureth online dictionary for my dialect:

ܡܲܪܥܘܼܝܹܐ
Eastern phonetic : maruyi
[Country → Agriculture]
English : (transitive verb) : to pasture , to put out to pasture , to feed (animals) on growing grass , to tend cattle in a pasturage , to let animals graze in a pasture land , to act as a shepherd

maṛa: metal spade

mara : master, owner

Mar: The title received by Assyrian men consecrated as Bishops of the different Assyrian churches in Mesopotamia, for the better part of the last two millennia.


Annals of Shalmaneser III, King of Assyria (Fort Shalmaneser, 857 b.c.)


Shalmaneser, king of all people, prince, vice-regent of Aššur, strong king, king of Assyria, king of all the four quarters, sun(god) of all people, ruler of all lands, the king who is the desired object of the gods, chosen of the god Enlil, trustworthy appointee of Aššur, attentive prince, who gives income and offerings to the great gods, pious one, who ceaselessly provides for the Ekur, faithful shepherd who leads in peace the population of Assyria, exalted overseer who heeds the commands of the gods, the resplendent one who acts with the support of Aššur and Šamaš, the gods his allies, and at the beginning of his reign conquered the upper sea and the lower sea, who has no rival among the princes of the four quarters, who indeed has seen remote and rugged regions and trodden upon the mountain peaks in all the highlands; son of Ashurnasirpal (II), appointee of the god Enlil, vice-regent of Aššur, son of Tukultī-Ninurta (II), appointee of the god Enlil, vice-regent of Aššur, son of Adad-nārārī (II) who was also appointee of the god Enlil, vice-regent of Aššur:

When Aššur, the great lord, chose me in his steadfast heart and with his holy eyes and named me for the shepherdship of Assyria, he put in my grasp a strong weapon which fells the insubordinate, he crowned me with a lofty crown, and he sternly commanded me to exercise dominion over and to subdue all the lands insubmissive to Aššur. At that time, in my accession year and in my first regnal year, after I nobly ascended the royal throne, I mustered my chariots and troops. I entered the pass of the land Simesi and captured the city Aridu, the fortified city of Ninnu. I erected a tower of heads in front of the city. I burned ten cities in its environs. While I was residing in the same city Aridu, I received tribute of teams of horses from the people of the lands/mountains Ḫargu, Ḫarmasa, Sirišu, Ulmānu, and Simerra.

Humanist
2012-06-27, 21:54
Posted before, of course. But again relevant, in light of the autosomal plots recently created by David (Eurogenes).

Compare the beginning of the history of the Mandaeans (there is much more to it), with the end of the Assyrian Empire. The possible parallels are very interesting.

Lady Drower:


The manuscript [Harran Gawaitha] is broken, the beginning is missing, and it bears marks of shameless editing. Owing to this last, it is difficult to date it from internal evidence. Unlike the 18th book of the Ginza, it assigns 4,000 years to Arab rule before the advent of the 'lying Messiah', but, like the Ginza, says that 'the mud brick in the wall' will proclaim him. Bar Khuni in his 'Scholion' (A.D. 792) repeats the same legend.

On the other hand, tarmida is used in its ancient sense of 'disciple'. It is written after the Arab invasion, but the attacks on Islam are not so venemous as those on the Yahutaiia, which word is used throughout as meaning both 'Chaldeans' and 'Jews'.

The roll purports to be a history and prophecy combined, and is looked upon with the utmost reverence by the Mandaeans, though on account of its dangerously polemical character it has been always kept secret.


'The interior of the Haran (i.e. Harran) admitted them, that city which has Nasurai in it, so that there should not be a road (passage?) for the kings of the Yahutaiia (Chaldeans). Over them (the Nasurai) was King Ardban. And they served themselves from the sign of the Seven and entered the mountain of the Madai, a place where they were free from domination of all races. And they built mandis (mandia) and dwelt in the call of the Life and in the strength of the high King of Light.'

Still more inexplicable is the assertion that the Egyptians were co-religionists, and that the original ancestors of the Mandaean race went from Egypt to the Tura d Madai [Mountains of Madai]. Yearly, a ritual meal is eaten in memory of the Egyptian hosts who perished in the waters when following the wicked Jews.

The end of the Assyrian Empire:


Ashur-uballit II, was the last king of the Assyrian empire. He reigned in the last capital city of Harran from 612 BC to 609 BC, having fled Nineveh during the siege and capture of that city by the Babylonian[Chaldean]-Median army in 612 BC. In alliance with Egyptian forces, Ashuruballit's army was able to defend Harran from the combined Babylonian-Median attack for a brief period following the destruction of Nineveh; however, when the Egyptian army had to return their homeland in 610 BC, the Babylonians and Medians swept into Harran and sacked it. Assyria again called upon Egypt, who came to their assistance. King Josiah of Judah allied himself with Babylon and tried to block the way of the forces of Egypt under Pharaoh Necho II. Josiah was defeated at Meggido*, and was killed in the battle. Pharaoh Necho marched on together with Ashur-uballit II, to besiege Carchemish. They were defeated and the Egyptians retreated into northern Syria. Ashur-uballit II disappears from history, bringing an end to the Assyrian empire.


Wikipedia:


At some point during his Syrian campaign, Necho II initiated but never completed the ambitious project of cutting a navigable canal from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile to the Red Sea. Necho's Canal was the earliest precursor of the Suez Canal.[3] It was in connection with this new activity that Necho founded a new city of Per-Temu Tjeku which translates as 'The House of Atum of Tjeku' at the site now known as Tell el-Maskhuta,[4] about 15 km west of Ismailia. The waterway was intended to facilitate trade between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Necho also formed an Egyptian navy by recruiting displaced Ionian Greeks. This was an unprecedented act by the pharaoh since most Egyptians had traditionally harboured an inherent distaste for and fear of the sea.[5] The navy which Necho created operated along both the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts.[6]


*
Megiddo ("A"):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Meggido.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-27 at 16:25 ----------


George Percy Badger (19th century):


The Nestorians have no images or pictures in their churches, and are very much opposed to the use of them, even as ornaments, or as barely representing historical facts illustrative of sacred Scriptures. They will not even allow of a crucifix, and regard the mere exhibition of such an emblem, to say nothing of adoration, as a monstrous iniquity. I have knowledge of the fate of several crucifixes which were introduced among them by Roman missionaries: the cross, if possible, was spared; but the image was treated ignominiously and broken to pieces.

1.
Reading the Story of Miriai on Two Levels: Evidence from Mandaean Anti-Jewish Polemic about the Origins and Setting of Early Mandaeism

James F. McGrath (http://blue.butler.edu/~jfmcgrat/cv.htm), Butler University


Canonical Prayerbook #3518 includes the words “For you open doors of truth and reveal mysteries and show forth mighty deeds in Jerusalem”.19 Intriguingly, earlier in the same prayer it refers to the congregation whom the speaker represents as having “forsaken pictures, images and idols of clay, gods (made) of blocks of wood, and vain rites...” 20 This statement is as interesting for its implication that the Mandaeans included people who had once done these things, as for the fact that it affirms the sort of aniconic outlook found in the Jewish Scriptures.21


2.
The Nestorians: or The lost tribes

Asahel Grant (1841)


The Armenians are the only people in this vicinity with whom they can have intermixed; but, as they have images or pictures in their churches to which the Nestorians have a great abhorrence, they are considered by the latter little better than idolaters.

Humanist
2012-06-28, 00:48
I have mentioned Dr. James McGrath a number of times. The same goes for Dr. Charles Haeberl.


Friday, June 18, 2010

Butler University Associate Professor of Religion James McGrath has been awarded a $130,000 National Endowment for the Humanities grant for a project to translate the Mandaean Book of John from Mandaic into English. The Mandaeans are a Gnostic group, the only one to have survived continuously from the ancient world to the present day.

McGrath’s main collaborator will be Charles Häberl of Rutgers University, an expert in ancient and modern Semitic languages, whose first book is on a modern spoken dialect of Mandaic. April DeConick of Rice University, well known for her work on Gnostic texts such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Judas, will also be involved as a consultant.

“The Mandaeans’ sacred texts are in a dialect of Aramaic,” McGrath said. “Some of them mention John the Baptist and Jesus. John the Baptist gets a positive mention; Jesus, not so much. Two of their most important sacred texts have never been translated into English in their entirety. One, the Ginza Rba, or Great Treasure, several people are working on that. But the second most important text is the Book of John. To my knowledge, no one was working on a translation of the whole thing into English. It caught my interest and I said, ‘Let me see if I can get some funding to remedy this.’”

McGrath and his collaborators plan to spend the next two years on the first stage of this project: producing a typed version of the text in the original language and translating the more than 200 pages of handwritten text. In addition to previously published copies of the Mandaic text and manuscripts in libraries, they will also make use of scans of privately owned copies of the Book of John.

Some such manuscripts have already been identified. McGrath said he hopes the publicity the NEH grant award creates will draw this project to the attention of others who may have manuscripts among their family’s possessions and be willing to allow them to be scanned or photographed.

The long-term goal is to publish the text and translation together with a commentary.

“The discovery, translation, and publication of manuscripts like the Nag Hammadi texts and the Dead Sea Scrolls has certainly helped us understand that period of several centuries in history that gave rise to early Christianity, rabbinic Judaism, and Gnosticism, among other religious movements,” McGrath said. “Yet we have these texts that have been known for far longer and yet have never been translated into English. I’m glad that the time has come to remedy this situation.”

The money from the NEH will cover numerous research expenses and free those involved in the project from certain teaching and other responsibilities, allowing them to devote the necessary time to working on the translation.

“I’m delighted to get this grant,” McGrath said. “I feel very privileged to have the opportunity to be involved in such an important project.”

Source: Butler University


The Mandaic Book of John project blog (http://rogueleaf.com/book-of-john/).

---------- Post added 2012-06-27 at 19:03 ----------

Multi-ethnicity and ethnic segregation in Hellenistic Babylon

R.J. van der Spek

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahrain.jpg


A bit about the Euphrates (Wikipedia):


The site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an oblong area roughly 2 kilometers by 1 kilometer, oriented north to south.[citation needed] The site is bounded by the Euphrates River on the west, and by the remains of the ancient city walls otherwise. Originally, the Euphrates roughly bisected the city, as is common in the region, but the river has since shifted its course so that much of the remains on the former western part of the city are now inundated.

Humanist
2012-06-28, 02:47
1.
Slavery between Judah and Babylon: The Exilic Experience

Cornelia Wunsch
co-authored with F. Rachel Magdalene

In: L. Culbertson (ed.), Slaves and Household in the Near East (Oriental Institute Seminars, vol. 7) Chicago, Illinois: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 2011, pp. 113–134.


The deportation policies of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires have been extremely consequential to the history of Israel and to biblical studies as a scholarly field. When the Neo-Assyrians conquered the Northern Kingdom in 722–721 B.C., they deported population groups from Israel to other areas of the Neo-Assyrian empire. Similarly, the Babylonians conquered the Southern Kingdom in 587–586 B.C. and also engaged in a series of major deportations of the population. This second episode, the so-called Babylonian captivity, figures prominently in the Hebrew Bible.

....

CONCLUSION
Seven texts among the corpus of Neo-Babylonian documents relating to the Judean population of rural Babylonia include some reference to slavery. Nothing in these texts reflects the Pentateuchal laws concerning slavery; clearly, these exiles did not use biblical law precepts in regard to slavery. Thus, we cannot determine the status of the pre-exilic law of slavery in Israel on the basis of these texts. It is quite possible, however, that post-exilic biblical law was shaped, at least in part, by the exilic experience.

Further, the exiles in rural Babylonia seem to possess none of the normal attributes of those in chattel slavery. From our brief study of these texts, we have learned that these Judeans were treated much like Babylonians and other non-Judean deported communities.They were given land with the same expectation of taxes and service as common Babylonians. Many integrated well into Neo-Babylonian society, and some were able to prosper in rural Babylonia, becoming affluent farmers, businessmen, and local officials, who might own their own chattel slaves of diverse ethnic backgrounds. All, in fact, were assigned a status that afforded them protection from being sold into chattel slavery. In sum, they apparently used the social, economic, legal, and political systems in place to advance themselves in the situationin which they found themselves. Over four generations, these Judeans became much like those Babylonians who were not from the most privileged urban families.


2.
Mass deportation: the Assyrian resettlement policy, Assyrian empire builders (2011)

Karen Radner
University College London


[C]ontemporary text sources support the notion that the deportees were treated well, as attested for example in a letter from an Assyrian official to his king Tiglatpileser III (744-727 BC):

"As for the Aramaeans about whom the king my lord has written to me: 'Prepare them for their journey!' I shall give them their food supplies, clothes, a waterskin, a pair of shoes and oil. I do not have my donkeys yet, but once they are available, I will dispatch my convoy." (NL 25)

That the state continued to support the deportees once they had reached their destination is clear from another letter of the same author:

"As for the Aramaeans about whom the king my lord has said: 'They are to have wives!' We found numerous suitable women but their fathers refuse to give them in marriage, claiming: 'We will not consent unless they can pay the bride price.' Let them be paid so that the Aramaeans can get married." (NL 26)

Humanist
2012-06-28, 09:23
The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire


Numerous languages are represented in the Neo-Assyrian onomastic material. While the majority of the names are Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian), names from other Semitic languages represent another large part of the onomasticon: the Northwest Semitic names, i.e. Aramaic, Phoenician, Moabite and Hebrew, dominate but there are also a number of Arabic names. Surprisingly, many Egyptian names are attested in Assyria proper, especially in the 7th century material from Assur.

Humanist
2012-06-28, 13:20
I doubt the memory of the conical shaped helmets/caps survived through the centuries. But, as with everything, you never know, I suppose.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical_headgear.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-28, 15:06
Some ways to say "Jesus" in Sureth and Syriac. Not sure about Ṣurayt.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/jesus.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-28, 17:25
On the Hatrene ruler titles, "mlk" and "mry":

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatra_mlk_mry.jpg


The desert and the sown. Imperial supremacy and local culture in Partho-Roman Mesopotamia

Michael Sommer

Parthica 6 (2004), 236-246.

---------- Post added 2012-06-28 at 11:47 ----------

This is interesting:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maran_ourlord_shamash.jpg


The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East In the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World) by Ted Kaizer (Jun 15, 2008)


Now note the third entry for "Jesus" below:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/jesus.jpg


Shamash, and the star of Shamash (from the Assyro-Babylonian period):

http://www.historel.net/english/orient/shamash.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-28 at 11:55 ----------

The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexikon

Syr = Syriac

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maran.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-28, 19:40
Melammu Project:


Allat as Isharbel in Hatra


The cult of Allat at Hatra is well attested by various testimonia: theophoric names, dedicatory inscriptions, and by sculptural representations. There are about eleven representations of Allat from Hatra, from the various parts of the city. In all these representations, Allat appears clad in the military attire similar to that worn by her in the sculptures from Palmyra, Dura Europos, and throughout Syria. On the basis of inscriptions found in Cordoue and Palmyra, Allat was assimilated to Athena. In Hatra, Allat’s assimilation to Athena is evidenced by the similarity of her attributes: helmet, shield, spear, and the aegis with the gorgon. Four of the Allat’s sculptural representations were found during the excavations of Hatra Shrine V and its adjacent annexes in 1952.Three inscriptions on statue bases were also found from the same shrine, which contained the appellations of the goddess as ˀšrbl and ˀšrbl btlh, “Iššar-Bel” and “Iššar-Bel the virgin”. The first word is an epithet to Allat, deriving from the Mesopotamian Ištar, who was known as Bel in late antique Assur and Hatra. The deity Iššar-Bel in Hatra is probably the legacy of Ištar of Arbela. Two of the three inscriptions on the bases of statues are dedicated by a woman, one is the priestess Martabu. Probably the whole shrine and its annexes were dedicated to Allat as “Iššar-Bel the virgin”, for the use of priestesses and ordinary women.


An inscription relating to Šamaš in Hatra


SGYL derives from Mesopotamian Esagil.

Hatra No. 107:
[ … ] son of Abigad son of Gaddai son of Abigad son of Kabiru from the Beni Raphshamash have assisted Šamaš, the Great God, the Benefactor, with the elevated house of joy of the SGYL, the great temple, which Son of our Lord (Bar maren) has built for Šamaš, his father, for the life of myself and the life of whoever is dear to me, all of them.


Nergal in Hatra


Hatra No. 341:
Sanatruqu, the righteous, son of king Abdsimia has built this for Nergol and for our Lord Neshra for the victory of his father [ … ] of Aqiba.


Priestess of Isharbel in Hatra


Hatra No. 34:
In the month Adar of the year 546 (= March 235 CE). The statue of Martabu, priestess of Isharbel creatrix of the Universe, which has erected for her Bara, her son, son of Abdshalma son of Bara, the priest, and his brother has made the garment for the life of themselves and for the life of their sons and for the life of whoever is dear to them. Shabaz, the sculptor.


Temple of Nabû in Hatra


Hatra No. 403:
May Šamašaqab son of Hanina, the architect, be remembered for good, for he has built this temple for the god Nabû for the life of his sons [ … ] all of them.


Temple of Nergal in Hatra


Hatra No. 214:
In the year 409 (= 98 CE) the Beni Taimu and the Beni Belaqab have erected the temple to Nergol for the life of themselves and the life of their fathers at their own expense.


The Virgin Isharbel of Hatra


Hatra No. 35:
In Elul of the year 549 (= September 238 CE). The statue of Qaimi daughter of Abdsimia, the wine-seller, wife of Neshraqab, the scribe of the Son of our Lord (Barmaren), which the Virgin Isharbel has ordered her. And she herself has erected it for the life of herself and for the life of Neshraqab, her husband, and Absa, her brother and for the life of all personnel of Barmaren, both inside and outside, and whoever is dear to them, all of them.

-----------------------------------------------------------

Hatra Temple of Maran (Shamash)?

http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2603/3745438275_1c3925f66c_z.jpg?zz=1

Humanist
2012-06-29, 00:32
Assyrians, camels, and the original meaning of "Arab."


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arab_akkadian.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/camels.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-29, 01:49
Language

Neo-Assyrian (Akkadian) stratum

1.
Bits from THE LANGUAGE OF THE MODERN ASSYRIANS AND ITS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND by Prof. Geoffrey Khan Lecture, May, 10, 2012

Regarding a feature in Sureth (exclusive of those mentioned by S. Loesov, below) that may be from Neo-Assyrian (Akkadian):


Such linguistic convergence must have arisen through bilingualism. Indicating that the speakers of the ancestors of the modern Assyrian dialects, in the ancient period, must have spoken Akkadian...


To sum up, the spoken Assyrian dialects are a remarkable heritage, with considerable historical depth, having roots in the period of the ancient Assyrians, with a history that is independent of that of Syriac, and other literary forms of Aramaic...

2.
A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic

Part II (2011)

Sergey Loesov

Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow


As I have just mentioned, all Eastern Aramaic varieties display the decline of status, i.e. collapse of the Proto-Aramaic nominal definiteness paradigm, while it is fully alive in the whole of Middle Western Aramaic and even nowadays its vestiges hold on in Western Neo-Aramaic. I propose to relate this double-edged grammatical innovation of the Eastern Aramaic noun (vis-à-vis the Proto-Aramaic one) to the contact of Eastern Aramaic with the Neo-Assyrian variety of Akkadian. It follows from our historical records that Assyrian may have been a substrate language for Proto-Eastern-Aramaic. Assyrian (as the rest of Akkadian) did not have morphological means to encode definiteness, so the Eastern Aramaic loss of definiteness as a value of the nominal inflection could be attributed to the substrate influence. As I suggest, Assyrian masc. pl. suffix *-ē replaced (save for certain monosyllabic bases) the Aramaic masc. pl. definite ending *-ayyā: this may have been partly due to a putative Imālah pronunciation of *-ayyā (i.e., somewhat akin to *-ē), but mostly because *-ayyā is the only Proto-Aramaic inflectional marker of the noun that looks completely alien (in terms of phonological shape) to the Assyrian repertoire of nominal inflection in the plural (compare a table in Loesov 2011:439 with Hämeen-Anttila 2000:77 ff.), therefore it may have been unusual and difficult for the Akkadian-Aramaic bilinguals. This replacement, coupled with the insufficient sensitivity of Assyrian-Akkadian bilinguals to the morphological encoding of definiteness, will have triggered promotion of other “full” (i.e., definite) endings into the indiscriminate use and the consequent decline of morphological definiteness. That is to say, accepting Greenberg’s commonsense diachronic typology of definiteness markers, we can explain the speedier bleaching (i.e., desemanticization) of the Eastern Aramaic definite endings by the contact of Proto-Eastern-Aramaic with Akkadian.


The etymology of the -ē suffix

How does this evidence square with our ideas about the origin of the -ē suffix? There is no consensus about its etymology, except that it was not the masculine-plural-definite nominal ending in Proto-Aramaic (save perhaps for the nisba nouns). Three theories have been enjoying support since the late 19th century: 1) *-ayyāʔ > -ē; 2) generalization of the -ē that since prehistoric times had been used to the right of the nisba āy- in the whole of Aramaic; 3) borrowing of the Assyrian [Akkadian] masculine plural ending -ē.

....

Theory (3), shared by the present writer, is a strong claim, therefore it requires typological and historical justifications. The borrowing hypothesis will look more plausible if we relate it to the fact that the morpheme in question (i.e., the postpositive article of Proto-Aramaic) was going to forfeit its pristine discourse function in the whole of Middle Eastern Aramaic. It is natural to ask whether this shared loss had its beginnings in the immediate common ancestor of the Eastern Aramaic languages.

Aramaic (both Old and Middle) has two productive derivational morphemes almost certainly borrowed from Akkadian: the nominal abstract suffix -ū(t) and the causative verbal prefix š-/s-. The -ū(t) suffix is highly expansive, to the degree of becoming “parasitisch” (Barth 1894:415), while š-/s- is hardly attested with more than a dozen Aramaic roots (cf. Loesov 2009:490 f., a review of data gleaned from reference tools). Given this evidence and the above typological considerations, the borrowing of the plural nominal ending -ē from Akkadian into Proto-Eastern-Aramaic does not look as improbable as it would seem on first sight.

Neo-Babylonian (Akkadian) and Babylonian Aramaic stratum

Stephen Kaufman. Akkadian Influences on Aramaic

Syriac


The great influence of Babylonian Aramaic in grammar and lexikon, which probably began as early as the Neo-Babylonian period, when Harran held such an important position, also may have obliterated earlier Assyrianisms.
-------------------------------------------------------------

Culture/Society


Differently from the long-attested Arameans, the Chaldeans (Kaldu) are – quite surprisingly– not documented in the written sources before 878 BC. Their place names, and especially those of their vast territorial and political enclaves, were characterized by the noun Bıt, “household”, followed by the linguistically West Semitic personal name of an eponymic ancestor figure, exactly as in the case of the contemporary Aramean states of the Jezirah and Transeuphratene.15 This feature allows us to postulate a connection of the Chaldeans with the northern and western Arameans in the general perspective of a shared heritage of ethnicity; while some slight hints in the texts might more specifically point to political affiliations of long standing between the Chaldeans and the Aramean tribes of the Middle Euphrates area: e.g. as we shall see below, the rebel Chaldean leader Mukı¯n-ze¯ri had political contacts with the Arameans of Hindanu, some 300 kms upstream on the Euphrates.

On the other hand, it must be admitted that no straightforward structural similarities between the two main non-indigenous groupings present in the Babylonian area may be traced on the social, economic, and cultural level; quite the contrary is in fact true. This contrast is particularly evident if one observes the settlement patterns of the Chaldeans, and their general socio-economic profile. To be sure, the social structure of the Chaldeans was rigidly centered upon the tribal unit of which all subjects were jointly “members” (ma¯r, literally, “son” of the eponymic ancestor) – similarly to the Aramean tribal “households” of the northern Jezirah and inner Syria – but it would be more precise to state that such units represented in fact tribal confederations, which must have undergone a relatively long process of social coalescence, although the latter has left no trace in the written record.

....

But let us return once more to the main theme of this contribution, which is that of a view of non-indigenous groups “moving around Babylon”, with alternatively peaceful and hostile stances vis-à-vis Assyrian interference. The Mukı¯n-ze¯ri epistolary dossier shows once more the full cast of characters which was introduced in section § 1, above, albeit now endowed with movement and with complex reciprocal relations. In the first place, we are given to observe the inhabitants of the ancient cities of the southern alluvium – and especially the people of Babylon itself – as floundering in the political and military net that has been cast around them: deeply distrustful of the Assyrians, but no less terrified of the Chaldeans, they practice forms of passive resistance which seem to lead nowhere, and often become the helpless prey of raids and other forms of violence. The second group which stands out is that of the Aramean tribesmen: they seem to resent the military struggle taking place around them as much as the city-dwellers, but possibly only insofar as it impinges upon their freedom of movement and their socio-economic autarchy. Accordingly, they choose to side with one or the other opponent, but do not seem particularly bent on participating to the action in person – at least, not for the time being. And finally, we have the Chaldeans, whom the revolt of Mukı¯n-ze¯ri catches in the process of (re)defining their mutual political relations: in other words, this first major interference of the Assyrians in Babylonian affairs seems to represent a unique opportunity to measure the respective strength of the individual confederations and of their smaller camp-followers – but not without some personal and political qualms reflecting the tight gentilic structure among the groups, as in the case of Balassu of Bit-Dakkuri, who was the uncle of Mukı¯n-ze¯ri of Bit-Amukkani.

Mario Fales

Moving around Babylon: On the Aramean and Chaldean Presence in Southern Mesopotamia, in Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva, Ess, Margarete van, and Marzahn, Joachim (Eds.), Babylon Wissenskultur in Orient und Okzident, Berlin, Boston (DE GRUYTER) 2011, 91–112


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Untitled-1.jpg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fales2.jpg


Territorial and Historical Background, in : G. Wilhelm - C. Zaccagnini (Eds.), Tell Karrana 3 - Tell Jikan - Tell Khirbet Salih, Mainz am Rhein (Philipp von Zabern) 1993, 1-11

Mario Fales

BENK
2012-06-29, 03:03
Assyrians, camels, and the original meaning of "Arab."


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arab_akkadian.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/camels.jpg

We adopt many words from Arabs,
Such as "araba" araba means Car (mobile)
Arab=nomad=mobile

annihilus
2012-06-29, 03:14
We adopt many words from Arabs,
Such as "araba" araba means Car (mobile)
Arab=nomad=mobile

Seriously, I did not know that word came from that:D

Once a newspaper had: bir kupona, bir araba bir motosiklet. Turned out it was not a car and moped, but only a moped if you was an arab:lol:

BENK
2012-06-29, 03:17
Seriously, I did not know that word came from that:D

Once a newspaper had: bir kupona, bir araba bir motosiklet. Turned out it was not a car and moped, but only a moped if you was an arab:lol:

Lol! Very creative :)

Humanist
2012-06-29, 06:14
GENETIC AFFINITY OF ASSYRIANS LIVING IN ARMENIA TO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE NEAR EAST AND SOUTH CAUCASUS

Biolog. Journal of Armenia, 4 (63), 2011
A.S. HARUTYUNYAN
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Armenia


[T]he high frequency of Atlantic Modal Haplotype belonging to R1b lineage rather strongly demonstrates that the ancient Assyrians had significant genetic contacts with the peoples who migrated to North-West Europe, where the vast majority of Y-chromosomal lineages belong to R1b haplogroup.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------


Atlantic Modal Haplotype
13-24-14-11-11-14-12-12-12-13-13-29

Druze R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Shlush et al.)
13-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29
12-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29

Alawite R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Dönbak et al.)
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-14-13-30
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-13-13-29

Assyrian R1b modal haplotype (FTDNA)
13-24-14-10-11-14-12-12-12-14-13-30


What do Assyrians, Alawites, some Druze, and Indo-Europeans have in common, going back, say, 2500-3500 years? Perhaps NW Mesopotamia, and the Mediterranean coast of N Syria and S Turkey.

It is possible that the R1b modals observed in Assyrians, Druze, and Alawites, were at one time the paternal lines of Aramaic-speaking Luwians, Hittites, and/or other former IE-speaking peoples.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------


1.

Following the Late Bronze Age collapse around 1200–1175 bc, a constellation of regional polities emerged in the margins of former Hittite territories, with new ideological affiliations and socio-economic framework (Mazzoni 2000: 1048). Among these polities, fairly well known are Karkamıš in the Upper Middle Euphrates valley, Malizi/Melid in the Malatya and Elbistan plains, Tabal in Cappadocia, Kummuh near Adıyaman, Gurgum in the region of Maraş, Que in the Çukurova plain, Eastern Cilicia, Hilakku in Rough Cilicia, Patina/Unqi in the Amuq plain, and Hamath around Hama (Hawkins 1982; 1995a; 2000; Melchert 2003). These states featured Luwian, Phoenician and Aramaic speaking populations that formed a multi-lingual network of new rival states and shared various aspects of material culture, social practices and state ideologies (Harmanşah 2007a).

....

While cuneiform writing was largely abandoned after the collapse of the Hittite capital Hattuša (modern Boğazköy) in central Anatolia, hieroglyphic Luwian and alphabetic Phoenician and Aramaic were extensively used in monumental commemorative inscriptions, featuring an eloquent royal rhetoric, state ideology and cultic affiliations.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/figure1_uppMes.jpg

Moving Landscapes, Making Place: Cities, Monuments and Commemoration at Malizi/Melid
Ömür Harmanşah
Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, Brown University


2.


This point hints at the possibility that the Northwestern Mesopotamian form of OA [Old Aramaic] was one of the significant components of "Assyrian Aramaic" as used during the last century and a half of the Assyrian empire -- thus with a certain historical-linguistic continuity between OA and one of the varieties of IA [Imperial Aramaic], as maintained by Greenfield.

Fales, M.F., Old Aramaic, HSK 36 (2011), S. 555-573
FROM : S. Weninger et al. (Eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook (=Handbooks of Linguistics and communication Science, 36), Berlin 2011, 555-573


---------------------------------------------------------------

Humanist
2012-06-29, 19:59
GENETIC AFFINITY OF ASSYRIANS LIVING IN ARMENIA TO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE NEAR EAST AND SOUTH CAUCASUS

Biolog. Journal of Armenia, 4 (63), 2011
A.S. HARUTYUNYAN
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Armenia




----------------------------------------------------------------------------


Atlantic Modal Haplotype
13-24-14-11-11-14-12-12-12-13-13-29

Druze R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Shlush et al.)
13-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29
12-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29

Alawite R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Dönbak et al.)
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-14-13-30
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-13-13-29

Assyrian R1b modal haplotype (FTDNA)
13-24-14-10-11-14-12-12-12-14-13-30


What do Assyrians, Alawites, some Druze, and Indo-Europeans have in common, going back, say, 2500-3500 years? Perhaps NW Mesopotamia, and the Mediterranean coast of N Syria and S Turkey.

It is possible that the R1b modals observed in Assyrians, Druze, and Alawites, were at one time the paternal lines of Aramaic-speaking Luwians, Hittites, and/or other former IE-speaking peoples.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------


1.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/figure1_uppMes.jpg

Moving Landscapes, Making Place: Cities, Monuments and Commemoration at Malizi/Melid
Ömür Harmanşah
Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, Brown University


2.



Fales, M.F., Old Aramaic, HSK 36 (2011), S. 555-573
FROM : S. Weninger et al. (Eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook (=Handbooks of Linguistics and communication Science, 36), Berlin 2011, 555-573


---------------------------------------------------------------

Luwians in Aleppo?

Sanna Aro
Helsinki


In 2002, while finishing my chapter on art and architecture for the volume The Luwians, I had to make a difficult decision whether or not to deal with Aleppo as Luwian (Aro 2003, especially pp. 281-285). Despite the fact that a few Hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions already long known were considered as having originated from Aleppo (Hawkins 2000:388-397) and some of the recently found orthostats from the temple of the Storm-God bear Hieroglyphic Luwian captions (Kohlmeyer 2000), I was well aware that to label Aleppo as Luwian would get a chequered reception. Traditionally, Bronze Age Aleppo is thought to have had mainly Semitic and Hurrian ruling classes and population, whereas only a few scholars have so far addressed the important issue of the physical presence of the Hittites in this city or elsewhere in north Syria. For the Early Iron Age and especially for the period from the 8th century BCE onwards, Aleppo is mostly considered to have been part of the Aramaic state of Bīt Agūsi/Arpad, thus emphasizing the Semitic element of the city (see for example Lebrun 1993:13; Klengel 2000:27; Lipiński 2000:207). In this article I return to the question of whether we can claim any presence of Luwians in Iron Age Aleppo.

....

Conclusions
Luwians in Aleppo? I suppose the answer should be "Yes" despite the fact that my argumentation of 2002 was partly based on reasoning different from the present. To recognize the Luwians as actors in Aleppo or elsewhere in Early Iron Age north Syria and southern Anatolia opens up new possibilities for investigating the rich cultural dialogue in the ancient Near East. It is sometimes stated that the Luwians were politically not very prominent but nevertheless culturally they seem to have had an extraordinary ability to give and take – a fact that has so far gained too little attention. The role of these ‘Luwian speaking Hittites’ as the transmitters of the Hittite heritage is worthy of reconsideration in a wider perspective than has so far been done.

Wikipedia

"Region of the Luwian language; red: Luwian core land with many findings of inscriptions, light red: only sporadic findings of inscriptions. Data extracted from the book The Luwians (H. Craig Melchert, Brill 2003)"

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Luwian_language_region.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-06-29 at 14:39 ----------


This point hints at the possibility that the Northwestern Mesopotamian form of OA [Old Aramaic] was one of the significant components of "Assyrian Aramaic" as used during the last century and a half of the Assyrian empire -- thus with a certain historical-linguistic continuity between OA and one of the varieties of IA [Imperial Aramaic], as maintained by Greenfield.

Fales (see above)


--------------------------------------------------

Dienekes (October 16, 2009 (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2009/10/emergence-and-dispersal-of-haplogroup-j.html))


[T]he Assyrians are one of the few non-Arabic populations included in the study [Chiaroni et al. 2009]. It is also interesting that Assyrians are said to be derived from both Assyrian- and Aramaic-speaking ancestors, and hence to potentially have a complex (both East- and Northwest- Semitic) origin.


--------------------------------------------------


It is possible that those Northwest Aramaic-speaking people assimilated by the Assyrians were an amalgam of Aramaean, Hurrian, and Luwian/Hittite.

See below. My training is in law and accounting. Not linguistics. So, take the possible similarities below with a grain of salt.

1.
Ishara (išḫara) is the Hittite word for "treaty, binding promise", also personified as a goddess of the oath.

In Hurrian and Semitic traditions, Išḫara is a love goddess, often identified with Ishtar.

The word is attested as a loanword in the Assyrian Kültepe texts from the 19th century BC, and is as such the earliest attestation of a word of any Indo-European language. The name is from a PIE root *sh2ei "to bind (also magically)", char in Bulgarian "magical charming", also in Greek himas "strap" and Old Norse / Old High German seil "rope".

E Assyrian-Aramaic (Sureth)

isara: 1) to bind , to tie , to confine or make fast with a cord or band , to fasten ; 2) to append , to annex

'ṣara: to tie , to fasten by knotting , to form a knot in , to bind , to unite firmly

2.

Hittite

10.65 — DRIVE — penna- ‘drive away’ and unna- ‘drive hither’ are from nai- ‘lead’ (10.64), as is the reduplicated (iterative) nanniya- ‘drive’ (HWb. 148-49), generally used of animals.

‘To drive a chariot’ may be the meaning of Luw. tars(a)i- (DLL 94) or tarsyai- (Stammb. 383), source unknown.

10.71 — ROAD — itar (KASKAL, Akk. harrānu) is an ancient heteroclitic neut. *i-tr̥, matching Lat. iter and Toch. A ytār ‘way’ (Benveniste, Origines 10, 104; P 493-94).
Luwian

par(a)- 'drive, chase'

Akkadian

ṭarādu : G. to send, dispatch (s.o.) (for an object, šūbulu is used instead) ; to drive away D. to drive, chase away Dt. to be chasen away N. to be sent

Sureth

ṭra / ṭrata / ṭraia : 1) to drive , to impel or urge onward , to cause to move on ; 2) to plow , to plough , to turn up with a plow , to till the ground with a plow

ṭaṣa : to thrust , to shove , to push , to drive with force , to prick

3.

Hittite

The reduplicated arsarsur(a)- ‘stream, current’ is deverbative from ars- ‘flow’ < IE *E1er-s- (10.32), much as Gk. ῥεῦμα, OIr. sruth (but W. ffrwd < *sprew-; cf. Vendryes, Lexique S-189), NE stream, etc., from *srew- (DSS 41-42).

From 1.35: [S]eems to contain reduplication like other terms for natural phenomena, e.g. harsiharsi- ‘storm’, arsarsura- ‘stream’, wantewantema- ‘lightning’.

Sureth

šršr : to splash (sound made by flowing water)

4.
Hittite

1.36 — RIVER, STREAM — hapa- is cognate with OBrit. Ἄβος ‘the river Humber’ (Ptolemy, Geography, cf. P s.v.), while the more usual n-suffixed variant—Lat. amnis, OIr. aub, OBrit. Abona, W. afon, OPruss. ape, etc.—is matched by Pal. hāpna- and H. dat.-loc. sg. ÍD-ni (ibid.) The data point to a root *A1ebh- ‘river’, which should be kept separate from *āp- ‘water’ (contrast DSS 35, 42 and IEW 1, 51-52). Further Anatolian cognates include Luw. hapi-, Hier. RIVER-pi(a)- ‘river’, Hier. and H. hapat(i)- ‘river-land’ (see P s.v. and refs.)

hapai- ‘wet, moisten’ or similar is likely connected with hapa-‘river’ (1.36), as T 160.

Luwian
ḫapā(i)- 'irrigate, water' Attested in Hitt. borr. ḫapā(i)- 'make wet', as per Starke, StBoT 31.514. Contra Starke, Lyc. xba(i)- 'irrigate' IS cognate (Laroche FdX 6.68) and shows that stem is in -ā(i)-, surely denom. to ḫapa- 'river'. Thus ḫapi-/ḫapai- 'bind' must be kept separate, pace Starke. Cf. ḫapāt(i)- below.

Akkadian
ḫapapu (West Semitic origin) : to wash , to clean

Sureth
ḥapa : to bathe , to wash (by immersion) , to lave , to clean with water , to cleanse (?)

6.

Hittite

6.32 — SPINDLE — The origin of GIŠ huesa- remains a subject of debate, the most likely derivation so far being that (by Kronasser,in Studi … V. Pisani 2, p. 611) from IE *H1wes- ‘turn, wind’ (IEW 1173 [7. u̯es-]), comparing Skt. vedá- ‘bunch of Kusa-grass’ (< *veḍá-<*H1wosdo-), uṣṇī́ṣa- ‘turban’, ON vasask‘ be wrapped, mixed up in’, NHG dial. wasen, ME wase ‘faggot’ (the Engl. form also meant ‘pad on the head for carrying burdens’). Other suggestions T 268-69.The spindle is partnered with GIŠ hulali- ‘distaff’, a further deriv.from hul- ‘twist’.

Sureth

kuša : spindle

7.

Hittite

18.22 — SAY — The suppletive Hitt. verb te-/tar- ‘say’ preserves two ancient and sparsely attested usages within Indo-European. The stem te-, whose etymon IE *dheE1- is practically ubiquitous in the meaning ‘put; do’ (including Hitt. dai-), mirrors the semantic shift seen otherwise only in Slavic: OCS děti ‘put, say’,Slovene dem ‘I say’ (= Hitt. temi), ORuss. dě ‘he said’ (H. tet). tar-, on the other hand (1 pl. pres. tarweni, 3 pl. taranzi, part. tarant-, iter. taraski-, tarsik[k]i-), attests a basic verb ‘speak’, as shown by Lith. tariù, tarti ‘say’, tarmė͂ ‘utterance’, thus indicating an important Baltic-Anatolian isogloss. Cf. Puhvel, Gedenkschrift Kronasser 183-84).

Akkadian

tiniu : story , tale

Sureth

tmtm : to stutter

tny : to recount, to tell

8.

Hittite: 4.29 — THROAT — hurhurta-, hu(wa)hhurti- is probably non-IE, of foreign or onomatopoeic origin (T 263), and perhaps borrowed in Arm. xaxurt῾ ‘throat’.

Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
ḫarurtu : throat

Sureth
ḥarḥuri (ܚܲܪܚܘܼܪܹܐ): to snore
ḥarḥarta (ܚܲܪܚܲܪܬܵܐ) : snoring; gargling , rinsing one's mouth or throat; gurgle

9.

Hittite

4.25 — LIP — puri- is etymologically obscure. The Hitt. cognate of Lat. labrum, labium, OE lippa, etc. may appear in lip(p)- ‘lick’ (4.59).

4.26 — TONGUE — lala- (UZUEME) ‘tongue; speech’, also ‘(harmful) speech, slander, blasphemy’ (CHD 3.21-25), is undoubtedly onomatopoeic, precisely a “Lallwort”; cf. Gk. λάλη(μα) ‘(idle) talk, gossip, chatter’ (EHS 121).

4.27 — TOOTH — kaga- apparently matches OHG hāko, OE hōk (Laroche, RHA 31 [1973]: 90-91) < *k(o)ng-n-, to which Tischler (T 460) adds Lit. kéngė ‘hook’, Russ. kógot’ ‘claw’.

4.28 — Neck — kuttar (UZUGÚ) matches Lat. guttur ‘throat’ < *gut-r̥ (T 678-80). Puhvel (P 208) interprets the phrase GÚ-tar sarāappātarr-a as ‘self-assurance’, lit. a hendiadys ‘neck-lift’. Cf. kuttanalli- ‘necklace, collar’ (6.45).
A couple are very interesting.

Sureth

4.25
sipta (ܣܸܦܬܵܐ) : lip
puma (ܦܘܼܡܵܐ): mouth

4.26
lišana (ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ): the tongue (body part)
lala (ܠܵܐܠܵܐ): dumb , destitute of the power of speech , unable to utter articulate sounds , mute , silent

4.27
kaka, keka (ܟܵܟܵܐ) : tooth

4.28
qdala (ܩܕܵܠܵܐ) : the neck (human or animal)

10.

Hittite
6.11 — CLOTHE, DRESS — Inherited IE *wes- appears as Hitt. wes(s)-, Luw. was- ‘dress, wear, be clothed’, with middle inflection,while was(s)(iya)- (< *wos-), usually active, may express the transitive sense ‘clothe’. Conjugational details of these verbs are treated in depth in Oettinger, Stammb. 299-306.

Luwian
wašš(a)- 'wear'

Akkadian
labāšu : to clothe oneself , to get dressed

Sureth
lwš (lawəš, lwišle, lwaša) to put on clothes, to wear (clothes)

PIE (Wiktionary)
"[F]rom Proto-Indo-European *wes- (“dress, put on (clothes)”)"

11.

Hittite
6.22 — WOOL — hulana- (SÍG), Luw. i-stem SÍG-lani-, reflects the *H1wlH2-no-(A2-) seen in practically every branch of Indo-European (DSS 400, IEW 1139, T 278-79), and is also a likely source for Akk. hullānu ‘(woollen or linen) blanket’ (EHGl. 39-40, n. 53). A synonym huliya-, hulaya- is from an alternatively suffixed *H1wlH2-y- (P s.v.).
The river-name ÍDHulana- (ÍDSÍG-na-), together with GIŠhulali-‘distaff’ and the verb hulaliya- ‘wind around’, points to a verbal root *hul(a)- < IE *H1wel(-H2)- ‘wind, twist’ (IEW 1139-45), underlying the IE words for ‘wool’ (twisted, spun [material]) as well as
those for ‘turn, wrap, roll’, etc. (10.12-10.15, DSS 665). Cf. Laroche, AO 17.2 (1949): 13, n. 18; Friedrich, KZ 77 (1961): 257.

Akkadian
Ḫalāpu : (1) to slip in or through, to enter surreptitiously, (2) to cover, clothe

Sureth
ḥlaipa : a quilt , a bed cover made of two thicknesses of material with a filling of wool (cotton ...) and stitched through.


More here: Hittite and IE in Anatolia (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php?t=30057)

Humanist
2012-06-29, 22:03
An Aramaic Incantation Bowl from Khafaje [Iraq]

by Edward M. Cook
BASOR 285 (1992).
Hebrew Union College


An incantation bowl written in [Babylonian] Jewish Aramaic found at Tell Khafaje in lraq mentions "Sargon" and describes an angelic being as magical intercessor.

....

The incantation itself, though brief, is of particular interest because it contains a magical use of the name "Sargon" and describes an angelic being in terms very unlike the usual incantations of the same period. The language is typical Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Sasanian period (third-seventh century C.E.) with some conservative features in the orthography...

Humanist
2012-06-30, 12:04
It is probably a bit silly to speak of favorite Akkadian loan words, but, if I had one, it would probably be this:


I fought daily, without interruption against Taharqa, King of Egypt and Ethiopia, the one accursed by all the great gods. Five times I hit him with the point of my arrows inflicting wounds from which he should not recover, and then I laid siege to Memphis his royal residence, and conquered it in half a day by means of mines, breaches and assault ladders.

—Esarhaddon


Wikipedia:


The most common siege weapon and by far the cheapest was the ladder. However, ladders are easy to topple over and so the Assyrians would shower their opponents with arrows to provide cover fire. These archers in turn would be supported by shield bearers.

Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ladder_akkadian.jpg


Sureth

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/simalta.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-30, 13:51
Part of the R-M269 story?


Source: http://www.archatlas.dept.shef.ac.uk/workshop09/works09-akar.php



A particularly important phenomenon of the Middle Bronze Age period (already referred to in passing) was the foundation of the Old Assyrian trading centre at Kültepe-Kanesh in Central Anatolia, where the textual archive tells us of a network of larger and smaller trading stations (karums and wabartums) throughout central Anatolia and northern Syria. This must have some bearing, directly or indirectly, on the maritime centres of the northern Levant, but its effects on these have rarely been explored.

http://www.archatlas.dept.shef.ac.uk/workshop09/akar/Slide7.jpg



Strikingly, specimens of silver ore from Middle Bronze Age Kültepe and Assur in Assyria fit into the Taurus range, thus pointing to the exploitation of Taurus silver resources and their active role in long distance exchange in this period.

http://www.archatlas.dept.shef.ac.uk/workshop09/akar/Slide10.jpg



Whether it was a question of bulk or luxury commodities, Cilicia and the Amuq Plain seem to have played an important role in this Middle Bronze Age network.

http://www.archatlas.dept.shef.ac.uk/workshop09/akar/Slide12.jpg

Humanist
2012-06-30, 19:55
The preliminary results are encouraging. Scholars such as Abaye appear to have had a fairly good grasp of remedies and recipes strikingly similar to Akkadian medical texts, which may still have been legible during Abaye's lifetime. The Akkadian influences may also indicate the limits of Hellenisation, in the sense that neither Greek science in general nor medicine penetrated into Parthian Babylonia, since Talmudic medicine, preserved in Aramaic, appears to derive from local traditions, rather than from Greek medicine. Medicine in the Babylonian Talmud appears to be a legitimate descendant of ancient and venerable Babylonian medical knowledge. Fuller studies of medicine in Rabbinic texts, with references to contemporary systems of medicine, await scholarly attention.

AKKADIAN HEALING THERAPIES IN THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD
M. J. Geller

Humanist
2012-07-01, 00:31
The Acts of Mār Mārī the Apostle (Syriac)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhra.jpg



Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paharu_assembly.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-01, 23:32
Came across this link (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2011/02/online-mandaic-lexicon.html) on Dr. McGrath's blog to the Online Mandaic Lexikon.


Charles Häberl, my collaborator on the Mandaean Book of John translation project, has created an online Mandaic lexicon.

It is a work in progress, both in terms of content (lexemes will continue to be added as they are encountered) and in terms of formatting. But those interested in the language will certainly find it interesting and useful immediately!

Certainly interesting. :) I took a look at the Mandaic entries for "P," and attempted to find similarities in Sureth. My knowledge of Sureth is limited. So, the material below should not be taken too seriously.

Mandaic Sureth
pahir (flying), p-r-y (to fly...) praḥa (flying), prḥ (to fly)
apria (bird??) ṣipra (sparrow, small bird)
paiis ??????
palta ??????
palig (distributed, sharing) palga (half)
paria ??????
parid (breaking through) prr (to open up space, to widen)
pars ??????
parzla (iron) prizla (iron)
phat (opened) ptḥ (to open)
pilq (hatchet) pilqa (axe) Note from Dr. Haeberl: From Sumerian BA.LAG via Akkadian pilaqqu.
pira ??????
pisa (mottled) tipša (spot); poše (goat having a white spot on the head); spisa (worn out, rotten)
pitila (wick) ptilta (wick)
pkar ??????
plag ??????
plug ??????
pras (over-extended) prz (to spread out (bread))
puma (mouth) puma (mouth)

Humanist
2012-07-02, 18:34
I am going to begin posting possible "loan" words from Akkadian in Sureth, not found in Stephen Kaufman's "The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic." As always, let me preface this by stating that these are not to be taken too seriously. These words may not be exclusive to the Sureth dialect.


Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/near_akkadian.jpg



Sureth

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/near_sureth.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-02 at 13:19 ----------

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/singer_akkadian_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-02, 20:27
Neo-Babylonian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/button.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-02 at 14:55 ----------

Akkadian (left), Sureth (right)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/floor_stack.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-02, 21:29
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nose.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-02, 22:59
A few bits from the below paper:

Kuriki Höyük Archaeological Project 2010. A Preliminary Report.
by Anacleto D'Agostino

published in: 33.Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı - 2.cilt, International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys and Archaeometry, Turgut Özal Cultur and Congress Centre, İnönü University, 23-28 May 2011, Malatya (Turkey), Ankara 2012, pp. 463-479, co-authored with E. Genç., S. Valentini.


[T]he Kuriki Archaeological Project is conducted under the head of the Mardin Museum Directorate...

Kuriki Hoyuk is located near the modern village of Oymatas, in the central province of Batman, southeastern Anatolia, along the left side of the Batman River, on the confluence with the Tigris River.

....

A few fragments of fine bowls with ribbed rim, similar to specimens from other Late and post-Assyrian sites, and some folded rims belong to a different and earlier phase. However these types, in particular the specimens in fine fabrics, originated within the Late Assyrian manufacturing system, survive beyond the end of the empire and in the Achaemenid period, but probably also later, they are documented and result often indistinguishable from their Assyrian prototypes.

....

The shape of the painted fine beakers, although reminds some types attested from the Late Assyrian period as well as the profile of the blue and white glazed bowl with a pronounced interrupted rib on the outside of the rim, documented also in some fine ware sherds, continued to be produced in the post-Assyrian periods and are attested also in the repertoire dating slightly later. There are very few accurate Achaemenid, Hellenistic, and Parthian stratigraphies at our disposal in Northern Mesopotamia and South-East Anatolia.

Humanist
2012-07-03, 01:15
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cool_down.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-02 at 19:46 ----------

Adding this Akkadian entry to what is posted immediately above.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cool_off.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-03, 03:14
Wikipedia:

The Peshitta (Classical Syriac: ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‎) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.

The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated into Syriac from the Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century AD. The New Testament of the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become the standard by the early 5th century.

The name 'Peshitta' is derived from the Syriac mappaqtâ pšîṭtâ (ܡܦܩܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ), literally meaning 'simple version'. However, it is also possible to translate pšîṭtâ as 'common' (that is, for all people), or 'straight', as well as the usual translation as 'simple'. Syriac is a dialect, or group of dialects, of Eastern Aramaic, originating in and around Assuristan (Persian ruled Assyria). It is written in the Syriac alphabet, and is transliterated into the Latin script in a number of ways: Peshitta, Peshittâ, Pshitta, Pšittâ, Pshitto, Fshitto. All of these are acceptable, but 'Peshitta' is the most conventional spelling in English.

----------------------------------------


Shared Reflections of Early Jewish Exegetical/Targumic Tradition in the Peshitta Text of Job and the Targum from Qumran (11QTgJob)

Michael G. Wechsler
Le Muséon 115/1–2 (2002): 77–128

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/peshitta.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-03, 05:20
Online Mandaic Lexikon (Charles Haeberl)


etana nm. mesh. Note: From Akkadian itannu "mesh; interstices" akma šapir atana ḏetbẖ How beautiful is the mesh that is in it! latanak litbẖ humria There are no weights in your mesh. mpalgalun lšuhia uabaria batana ramia She will divvy up the rocks and throw the lead (weights) in the netting. etana etana ḏkadir minẖ mn alma The netting sighed that it is heavier than the world!

Sureth

Searched for a word in Sureth that could be related. Did not come across any term closer than this:


Eastern phonetic : ' tan tiš
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) sea fishing : a trawl ; 2) verb: to trawl

---------- Post added 2012-07-02 at 23:34 ----------

Online Mandaic Lexikon (Charles Haeberl)


qina nf. nest. Note: From Akk. qinnu. By extension it can also mean "family" or "brood." It would appear to be masculine in the plural. qainia dilan ḏagman ḏraṭnia hdadia utabria etbun palta ḏrugza The families of our marsh are the type that conspire and fragment.

Sureth


Eastern phonetic : ' qin na
[Animals → Birds]
English :1) a nest ; 2) birds : a brood / hatching (?) / clutch of eggs (?) , a rookery / breeding ground for birds

---------- Post added 2012-07-03 at 00:08 ----------

Online Mandaic Lexikon (Charles Haeberl)


talilia nm. mound. Gram: Attested only in plural Note: From Akkadian tillu "tel" lgiṣia gauaiia utalilia mbašqarnun I am familiar with their inner trails and mounds.

Sureth


Eastern phonetic : ' ti la
[Humanities → History]
English : a man-made hill , a mound , an artificial elevation of earth (rubbles of ancient cities) , a raised bank , a pile of earth


------------------------------------------------

Link to Online Mandaic Lexikon (http://www.mandaic.org/Mandaic/lexicon/main.htm). Maintained by Dr. Charles Haeberl.

---------- Post added 2012-07-03 at 00:18 ----------

Just realized I have been spelling lexicon with a "k," instead of a "c." Blame it on the unhealthy interest in WWII history (in German, it is lexikon). :)

Humanist
2012-07-03, 06:56
Online Mandaic Lexicon (Charles Haeberl)


šutapa nm. partner. Note: From šutāpum (OAkk ŠU.TAB) "associate, partner" generally in an commercial or agricultural context. hauit bšutapan rba umnata kḏ dilak nasbit You will be our major shareholder, and you will take a share (of our profits) as your own. eu šutapan lašamit mihla aklit If you don't listen to our shareholders, you will eat salt. šutapa ḏšalmania šutapkun dilkun lamitiqria Any associate of yours is not going to be called an associate of the righteous.


Sureth


Eastern phonetic : še: ' ta pa
[Industry]
English : a partaker , a sharer / shareholder , a participator / participant , a partner , an associate , a colleague / workmate (?) / fellow worker (?) / comrade

Eastern phonetic : šu: ' ta pa (?)
[Sport]
English : partaking , taking part / a share in common with others , sharing , association with others in a common objective , participation / participating / involvement , partnership , an engagement , complicity (?)

Humanist
2012-07-04, 14:35
A bit before Christianity arrived, Babylonian astronomy was thriving.


Science in Action: Networks in Babylonian Astronomy

M. Ossendrijver, 2011, in: E. Cancik-Kirschbaum (ed.), 'Proceedings of the Conference `Babylon - Wissenskultur zwischen Orient und Okzident'', Pergamon Museum, Berlin 26-28/6/2008, 229-237


Like no other cultural achievement, astronomy stands out as a legacy of Babylon...

Next to nothing is known about the astronomers of the Neo-Babylonian era, since we have only anonymous observational texts from that period.3 The earliest reference to astronomers is contained in an Achaemenid-era administrative document of the Esagila temple concerning food rations for 14 astronomers.4 This suggests that astronomers were by now – in surprisingly large numbers – employed by the temples. In spite of political upheavals, the observational program continued throughout the Achaemenid, Seleucid and Parthian eras (450 BC–50 AD), as evidenced by thousands of diaries and related texts, nearly all from Babylon. However, the Achaemenid era was also a time of fundamental innovations which led to mathematical astronomy and zodiacal astrology.

....

In my final remarks I want to reflect on the fact that the astronomical texts on which the reconstruction of the network in Fig. 1 is based are probably not representative for the astronomical corpus as a whole. As mentioned in the beginning, the evidence from Babylon suggests that observational texts constitute the bulk of the astronomical corpus. Although very few of these texts were found in Uruk,32 this is probably a coincidence. It can be assumed that the astronomers of the Res, like their colleagues in Babylon, carried out regular observations, and wrote astronomical diaries and related texts. Hence the actual number of collaborations (linkages) between the astronomers is certainly far greater than in Fig. 1. However, we can be confident that many of the astronomers in Uruk who carried out observations were also active in the field of mathematical astronomy, because this was expected from their colleagues in Babylon. Since the tablets of mathematical astronomy usually mention an ‘owner’ and a scribe, many of the astronomers who wrote observational texts may already be represented in the network of Fig. 1. We may therefore have some confidence that, in spite of the lack of observational texts, the actual size of the network of the astronomers in Uruk may not be fundamentally different from this reconstruction.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_astronomy.jpg


Yellow = Rough location of the Res temple in Uruk
Cyan = Rough location of the Esagila temple in Babylon

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_temples.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-04, 16:12
I am not a linguist, so, I have no idea if this is of any significance.

The word from our vernacular, Sureth (see below), does not appear in our liturgical tongue, Syriac.


Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ishtar_dilibat_venus.jpg


Sureth

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_betrothed.jpg

From: Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, E.S. Drower, Leiden, 1962


Venus, Libat, or Dilbat, is more favourably regarded. The form of the name is curious. The Sumero-Babylonian form Dil-bat had, Pallis suggests, long been obsolete at the period when the Mandaean scriptures were collected. He thinks that scribes, copying from earlier documents, took d for the genitive particle and omitted it as unnecessary. In the Ginza occurs a passage describing a matarta in which are found those who go into the house of Tammuz (Adonis), sit there twenty-eight days, slaughter sheep, mix bowls and make cakes, 'mourning in the house of Dilbat'. Other references in the Ginza are to 'Dilbat'.

I do not believe the underlined bit remains true.


-------------------------------------------------------------------

A bit about the significance of astrology in Mandaeism.


Every hour and every month has also its Zodiacal burj or house, the day being divided, as is said above, into two parts of twelve, twelve light hours and twelve dark hours. This brings me to the question of names, which are based on the numerical value of the signs of the Zodiac as given on this page (above). Every Mandaean has two names, Malwasha, or Zodiacal name, and his laqab or worldly name. The latter is usually a Muhammadan name and is used for all lay purposes, the former is his real and spiritual name and is used on all religious and magic occasions. This spiritual name is linked with that of the mother instead of the father, suggesting some period at which paternity was attributed to some ancestor on the female side, or a god. The religious name is of great importance, for if a man is drowned or burnt and the body not found, a man as a like him in circumstance as possible, and bearing a name falling under the same astrological influences, must impersonate him at the reading of the zidqa brikha, a ritual meal which atones for the lack of death rites and burial. A person chosen as sponsor for a child unable to reply for itself at baptism should have astrological conditions similar to those of the child, and his name will, therefore, fall into the same category of names.

....

When an infant is to be named, the priest takes the Zodiacal sign of the month in which its birth occured, counts from it round the Zodiacal circle, and calculates from it the sign of the hour. The sign of the day does not matter. From the numerical value which results, they subtract the value of the mother's name.

....

For all astrological information the priests consult the astrological codex Sfar Malwasha, the 'Book of the Zodiac'. Mandaeans say that Hibil Ziwa gave Adam Paghra the Sfar Malwasha so that he might be able to foresee coming events in its pages.

....

Most of the leading events in a Mandaean's life are decided by recourse to the priests, who tell him the astrologically auspicious day on which to marry, or send his child to school, undertake a new enterprise, or set out on a journey. In cases of illness, cures and herbs fall under the influence of certain planets and certain signs of the Zodiac, and a man should take only the medicament or cure which belongs to the sign under which he fell ill, i.e. the hour he sickened. In general the Subba refuse to drink any medicine, even when they have gone to a European doctor, though they have faith in ointments and do not object to subcutaneous injections. The community presents problems to the health authorities. During a recent cholera epidemic a Government order forbad people to drink anything but chlorinated water from the town supply. It was impossible to enforce this order as far as the Subba were concerned, for the only water that they regard as 'living' is water from the yardna, i.e. from a running river or spring, and water boiled or chlorinated has lost its 'life', so they will not drink it.

Humanist
2012-07-04, 21:43
A bit before Christianity arrived, Babylonian astronomy was thriving.


Science in Action: Networks in Babylonian Astronomy

M. Ossendrijver, 2011, in: E. Cancik-Kirschbaum (ed.), 'Proceedings of the Conference `Babylon - Wissenskultur zwischen Orient und Okzident'', Pergamon Museum, Berlin 26-28/6/2008, 229-237


Yellow = Rough location of the Res temple in Uruk
Cyan = Rough location of the Esagila temple in Babylon

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_temples.jpg


Wikipedia:


The Ésagila, a Sumerian name signifying "É (temple) whose top is lofty",[1] (literally: "house of the raised head") was a temple dedicated to Marduk, the protector god of Babylon. It lay south of the ziggurat Etemenanki, a memory of which has been perpetuated in Judeo-Christian culture as the Tower of Babel.

In this temple was the cult image inhabited by Marduk, surrounded by cult images of the cities that had fallen under the hegemony of the Babylonian Empire from the 18th century BC; there was also a little lake which was named Abzu by the Babylonian priests. This Abzu was a representantion of Marduk's father, Enki, who was god of the waters and lived in the Abzu that was the source of all the fresh waters.

The Esagila complex, completed in its final form by Nebuchadnezzar II (604–562 BC) encasing earlier cores, was the center of Babylon. It comprised a large court (ca. 40×70 sq. meters), containing a smaller court (ca. 25×40 m2), and finally the central shrine, consisting of an anteroom and the inner sanctum which contained the statues of Marduk and his consort Sarpanit.

According to Herodotus, Xerxes had a statue removed from the Esagila when he flooded Babylon in 482 BC, desecrated the Esagila and sacked the city. Alexander the Great ordered restorations, and the temple continued to be maintained throughout the 2nd century BC, as one of the last strongholds of Babylonian culture, such as literacy in the cuneiform script, but as Babylon was gradually abandoned under the Parthian Empire, the temple fell into decay in the 1st century BC.

Humanist
2012-07-06, 00:47
"In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq"


In the less frequent J1-M267* clade, only marginally affected by events of expansion, Marsh Arabs shared haplotypes with other Iraqi and Assyrian samples, supporting a common local background.

Top 10 J1*, in frequency, from Al-Zahery et al.

Quote:
# Country/Region (Population) N %
1 Iraq (Assyrian) 28 17.9
2 Turkey (Assyrian) 25 16.0
3 Ethiopia (Amhara) 48 10.4
4 Iran (Assyrian) 31 9.7
5 Iran [Khuzestan] 47 8.5
6 Iraq (Marsh Arab) 143 7.0
7 Turkey/Area 4 82 6.1
8 Turkey/Area 3 83 6.0
9 Algeria 20 5.0
10 Yemen 62 4.8

Al-Zahery et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:288

I created this image (map), and posted it on the forum a few months ago, before the 5 cases of S Caucasian J1* w/ DYS388=13 and DYS438=11 were published in Balanovsky et al. Too bad there is no data reported for DYS438 in the Sumerian paper. I contacted Nadia Al-Zahery several months ago, and shared the information regarding J1* with DYS438=11 with her. She did not respond.

[The green area was marked as a very rough center of the known cases up to that point (early Spring, 2011)]

http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=109793&d=1317869923


One of the few identified non-Assyrian and non-Armenian L-584 men (presumed, based on 23andMe results), is an individual from Khuzestan, Iran.

http://geocurrents.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Khuzestan_Iran_Map.jpg


Y-DNA also listed for women, if the Y-DNA of a male relative was known:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_ydna_b.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-06, 05:26
Doing the same for the mtDNA. I find it fascinating that similar haplogroups tend to group together. I have observed the same phenomenon with Y-DNA.

Our very own Sargon999 shares a possible maternal ancestor with an individual at a Sumerian site (Mari), dating back at least ~ 5000 years (see points "K" and "H").


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_mtdna_mesopotamia.jpg


A bit more about Mari, from Wikipedia:


Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria) was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city, located 11 kilometers north-west of the modern town of Abu Kamal on the western bank of Euphrates river, some 120 km southeast of Deir ez-Zor, Syria. It is thought to have been inhabited since the 5th millennium BC, although it flourished with series of superimposed palaces that spans a thousand years, from 2900 BC until 1759 BC, when it was sacked by Hammurabi.[1]

....

First Golden Age
The city flourished from about 2900 BC, since it was strategically important as a relay point between the Sumerian cities of lower Mesopotamia, and the cities of northern Syria. Sumer required building materials such as timber and stone from northern Syria, and these materials had to go through Mari to get to Sumer.

The Sumerian King List (SKL) records a dynasty of six kings from Mari enjoying hegemony between Adab and Kish, ca. 25th c. BC. Several names of kings from this period, including those from the kings' list, are also known from correspondence found elsewhere, including Ebla.

First destruction
After a period of eminence, Mari was destroyed in the mid-24th century BC. This destruction brought a period of relative decline in importance in the region, and the city was reduced to no more than a small village. Historians are divided as to who destroyed the city; some name Sargon of Akkad (who stated that he had passed through Mari on his famous campaign to the west), while others say it was the Eblaites, Mari's traditional commercial rivals.[9] [10]

Second Golden Age
The status of the city was revived again under an Amorite dynasty. Amorites, a Semitic people, also set up dynasties in Assyria and Babylon during this period. The second golden age commenced around 1900 BC. Two significant archaeological discoveries were made that dated back to this period. The royal palace of Zimri-Lim, a king of Mari, contained over 300 rooms. The palace was possibly the largest of its time, and its reputation in neighboring cities and kingdoms was well-known. The state archives were also built during this time. [11]

Final destruction
Mari was destroyed again around 1759 BC by Hammurabi, sixth king of Babylon. This is known from the numerous state archives tablets that recount Hammurabi turning on his old ally Zimrilim, and defeating him in battle. After this destruction, it was inhabited sporadically by Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians but the city remained a village until the arrival of the Greeks, and vanished from history thereafter.


Intendant Ebish-II, found in the temple of Ishtar at Mari, Archaic Dynasties (ca. 2400 BC), Louvre Museum

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/398px-Ebish-Il_Louvre_AO17551.jpg

Also, this was found at Mari (Sumerian):


Seated statuette of Urnanshe, from the Ishtar temple at Mari (modern Tell Hariri), Syria, ca. 2600–2500 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and lapis lazuli, 10 1/4” high. National Museum, Damascus.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/49961-87537-58506-7.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-06, 23:02
Another indicator of possible genetic continuity in Assyrian maternal lines:

HV4 in Assyrians (4 out of 67 samples)

1. HV4a2a (FTDNA FGS) 16209 <-- Humanist
2. HV4a2a (SMGF) 309.2C (no coding region mutation data)
3. HV4 (23andMe)
4. HV4b (23andMe - James Lick)


---------------------------------------------------------


Gómez-Carballa A, Olivieri A, Behar DM, Achilli A, Torroni A, et al. (2012) Genetic Continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian Region: New Clues from Autochthonous Mitogenomes. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032851


Sub-haplogroup HV4a2 is characterized by the sequence motif G7805A-G16129A; its geographic distribution suggests an origin somewhere in the Middle East about 9.3 kya (ΔT = 2.9).


---------------------------------------------------


The mtDNA haplogroup for only one Iraqi Mandaean is known. It is T2a1a. Ian Logan's page lists the following fully sequenced T2a1a genomes (not necessarily representative of actual T2a1a distribution):

AY495298(European) Coble
AY495301(European) Coble
AY495302(European) Coble
AY495304(European) Coble
AY714022(India) Palanichamy
FJ656215 (Emperor Nicholas) Rogaev
HM625704 Kloss
JN383991(Norway) FTDNA
JQ045864(Denmark) FTDNA


T2a1a - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nicholas_ii_tsar_russia.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-07, 00:28
[A]lthough there were multiple manifestations of Aššur in his temple in Aššur, there is no evidence of shrines of Aššur outside of the city in Neo-Assyrian times.78 In other words, Aššur’s cult was centralized. Since Aššur and Marduk are already national gods, whose power, especially in the empire periods, span international boundaries, adding local manifestations within the nation would not increase the divine range. Rather, they may threaten to contract it, diluting the deity and detracting from the central importance of Aššur and Babylon as terrestrial divine abodes and axes mundi.79


Divine Fluidity? The Priestly Texts in their Ancient Near Eastern Contexts
Michael Hundley
to be published in Reading Leviticus in Its Contexts (ed. Francis Landy and Leigh M. Travaskis; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, forthcoming).

Humanist
2012-07-07, 02:28
Perhaps another Mesopotamian-Indian/Pakistani-European nobility mtDNA link. This time, it is a possible aDNA connection. From a previous post:

Wikipedia:


[U7] was present in Northern Europe before the Middle Ages, and it was carried by a wealthy woman, perhaps of their Royal Clan, buried in the Viking Oseberg ship in Norway.

Dienekes' blog:


An ancient DNA perspective on the Iron Age “princely burials” from Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany.

Lee et al.

"We successfully obtained mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from seventeen individuals that showed different haplotypes, which were assigned to nine haplogroups including haplogroups H, I, K, U5, U7, W, and X2b."


---------------------------------------------------------------------


Assyrian mtDNA U breakdown:

U
U1a1
U1a3
U1a3
U2e1
U3
U3
U3b
U4
U5
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
K
K1b1


---------------------------------------------------------------------

In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

Al-Zahery et al.


On the maternal side, a significant (East/Southwest) Asian component (11.8%) is present among Marsh Arabs as testified to by Hgs B4, M, R2 and U7. The B4 mtDNAs carry control-region motifs observed in Iran, Kirghizstan, Western Siberia, Vietnam, Korea [51-53] attesting to contact with Central and East Asia. This observation is likely due to recent gene flow, although it is worth noting that the ancient Silk Road passed through the Iraqi region from Basra to Baghdad. On the other hand, the majority of M, R2 and U7 mtDNAs display control-region motifs observed in South West Asian and in particular in India [47,54-57].

Neither M nor R2 have been observed in Assyrians. U7, of course, has. Unfortunately, we have only one U7 sample tested at FTDNA. The one Assyrian sample that is tested has a transition at HVR1 locus 16093.

There is one U7 sample listed on Ian Logan's U7 GenBank page with this transition:

AY714004(India) Palanichamy

The FTDNA U7 project has three samples with the transition at 16093:

N96539 Punjabi (Lahore) U7 16093C, 16218T, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C
N12921 India U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16352C, 16519C
N12396 Nicolosi, Dagata, Italy U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

The HVR1 mutations for the Assyrian U7 sample match the Nicolosi, Sicilian sample, without either of the additional mutations (see underlined) found in N96539 and N12921.

62118 Assyrian Jacob U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

Humanist
2012-07-07, 05:08
"Křesťanské" mezopotámské magické texty pozdní antiky
Marek Vinklát
2012


I přes to, že je v křesťanství užívání amuletů klasicky zapovězeno, můžeme se setkat s případy, kdy se křesťané k takovéto magii uchylují. K potvrzení tohoto faktu svědčí rozličné archeologické nálezy, písemná svědectví i současná praxe. V předkládané práci se chci věnovat takovým dokladům, jež pocházejí z období pozdní antiky z oblasti Mezopotámie a mohly by odpovědět na otázku, zda křesťané této doby a místa užívali magických předmětů –konkrétně hliněných misek i dalších amuletů opatřených zaříkáváním v syrštině. Zároveň chci ukázat, že studium předmětů tak zdánlivě malé důležitosti může pomoci k ozřejmení života mezopotámských křesťanů.

....

I přes těchto několik dokladů nemůžeme s jistotou tvrdit, že každá miska, jež je psaná syrským písmem, je křesťanského původu. Finský semitista Tapani Harviainen (*1944) připomíná, že počátky syrského písma sahají až do předkřesťanského období, kdy bylo užíváno pohany. Ještě ve třetím století je užíváno syrské písmo estrangelo v textech, které Další dva případy jsou zaznamenány v GIGNOUX, Incantations magiques syriaques nenesou žádné známky křesťanství. V pátém století pak syrské písmo začalo být užíváno především pro křesťanské účely. Syrské magické misky by tak mohly být posledním pozůstatkem pohanského písemnictví, které pro svůj účel používalo tzv. proto manichejské písmo“.53 Všechny syrské magické misky tak nemůžeme paušálně označit za „křesťanské“, pouze některé jejich prvky. Opakem jsou pak syrské magické texty dochované z pozdější doby, především z novověku, které jsou zcela jistě psány křesťany pro křesťany.

....

Z textu je jasně znát starověká tradice, kterou v sobě moderní amulety zachovávají. Motiv svazování a vyhánění démonů a nemocí, stejně jako uvedení jména klienta ve vztahu k matce, se nevytratilo ani po tisícovce let. Snaha postihnout a eliminovat co nejvíce negativních vlivů i odvolat se na patřičný počet bytostí dobra a jejich jména, je z textu stále evidentní. Oproti hliněným miskám však novější amulety obsahují více konkrétních křesťanských témat i osobností. Nalezneme zde novozákonní postavy, jako je Ježíš, Marie i Mučedník zavražděný za vlády Jazdkarta II. Jan Křtitel, ale i lokální světce východní církve. Zajímavostí je pak i přítomnost starozákonních jmen božích.

Google translate:



"Christian" Mesopotamian magical texts [from] Late Antiquity


Despite the fact that Christianity is the use of amulets in the classically forbidden, we may encounter cases where Christians have resorted to such magic. To confirm this fact shows various archeological finds, written testimony and present practices. In my thesis I want to devote to such documents, which come from the period of late antiquity in the area of ​​Mesopotamia and could answer the question of whether Christians and this time took the place of magic items, namely clay bowls and other amulets bearing in Syriac invocation. At the same time I want to show that the study subjects as seemingly minor importance may help in giving prominence to life Mesopotamian Christians.

....

Despite these few documents, we can not say with certainty that every dish that is written Syrian letters, is of Christian origin. Finland's Tapani semitista Harviainen (* 1944) notes that the Syrian origins date back to the fonts pre-Christian period, when it was used by pagans. Even in the third century Syrian font is used in the texts estrangelo that other two cases are recorded in GIGNOUX, Incantations magiques syriaques no signs Christianity. In the fifth century the Syrian script began to be used primarily for Christian purposes. Syrian magical dish could thus be the last remnant of pagan literature that used for its purpose because the Manichaean writings "All Syrian .53 magical dish so we can not blanket described as" Christian ", only some of their elements. In contrast to the Syrian magical texts preserved from later times, especially in modern times that are surely written by Christians for Christians.

....

The text is clearly aware of an ancient tradition, which in itself preserve modern amulets. Feature binding and casting out demons and disease, as well as the name of the client in relation to the mother, did not vanish even after a thousand years. Efforts to capture and eliminate as many negative impacts as well as to refer to the appropriate number of beings and their good name, is still evident from the text. Unlike clay, however, newer miskám amulets contain more specific Christian themes and personalities. Here we find the New Testament figures such as Jesus, Mary and Martyr murdered during the reign of Yazdgard II. John the Baptist, as well as a local saint of the Eastern Church. An interesting feature is the presence of the Old Testament names of God.

Humanist
2012-07-07, 08:26
1.
A.Nestorians and their Rituals (1852)
George Percy Badger

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gezza_nestorian.jpg


B.Wikipedia, on the Mandaean Ginza Rba:


The Ginza Rba or Ginza Rabba (literally "The Great Treasure") or Siddra Rabba, "The Great Book" (rabba means great") is the largest of the many holy scriptures of the Mandaean religion, which reveres John the Baptist but rejects Jesus of Nazareth. It is also referred to as The Book of Adam.

2.
A.Nestorians and their Rituals (1852)
George Percy Badger

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/laying_of_hands.jpg

Consecration ceremony of Mar Paulus (Benjamin)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/P1010678a.jpg


B. The laying on of hands, with special reference to the reception of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (2008)
Clayton David Robinson

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/handlaying_mesopotamia.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/handlaying_mandaean.jpg


3.
Nestorians and their Rituals (1852)
George Percy Badger

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nestorians_chaldeans.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-07, 19:29
Prayer, Magic, and the Stars in the Ancient and Late Antique World


Scott B. Noegel, Joel Thomas Walker, Brannon M. Wheeler
2003

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syriac_pagan.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-07, 23:20
Searching Sureth for the word "priest," I came across a number of unfamiliar terms. Including "Kohen" (see #1). Terms I recognized are in bold. Some additional terms are also listed. Some possibly related terms in Akkadian follow. The Assyrian term for priest, interestingly, most closely resembles the Akkadian terms for "holy," "priestess," and "consecrated woman." There may also be a connection with the word for "status of priest" in Akkadian. The word for godfather/godmother, and the possible link to the Akkadian word "karibu" is also interesting.

Though, as always, these should not be taken too seriously.

1.
Eastern phonetic :' kah na
[Religion]
English : masculine : a priest , one who officiates rites (ceremonies and teaching) on an altar , a sacrificing priest ; feminine : ܟܲܗܢܬܵܐ : a priestess

2.
Eastern phonetic : ' kom ra:
[Religion]
English : a priest , one set apart or authorized to perform religious duties or functions

3.
Eastern phonetic : kro to ' ni: ia
[Religion]
English : ordaining (of priests) , the laying-on of hands

4.
Eastern phonetic : li ' va ia
[Religion]
English : a Levite , one of the tribe of Levi , one designated to aid the priests who were of the same tribe in the care of the tabernacle and sacred vessels or later of the temple

5.
Eastern phonetic : ' mgu: ša
[Religion → Magic]
English : 1) a magian (Mage or Magi, a priestly cast of Ancient Media and Persia probably of Median origin. Their religion was very similar to that of Zoroaster and included belief in the advent of a saviour) 2) a magician

6.
Eastern phonetic : mgu: ' ša ia
[Religion → Magic]
English : a Magian , a Zoroastrian , a fire-worshipper , a follower of Magi (a priestly cast of Ancient Persia and Media)

7.
Eastern phonetic : ' mop ṭa:
[Religion → Magic]
English : the Archmage , the chief Magi , the High priest of the order of the Magi

8.*
Eastern phonetic : šam ' ma: ša:
[Professions]
English : 1) a servant , an attendant , a footman , a valet , a manservant ; 2) a minister ; 3) religion, church : a deacon

9.
Eastern phonetic : per ia ' do: ṭa:
[Religion]
English : a visiting priest (especially one representing a bishop)

10a.
Eastern phonetic : ' qa ša
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a priest

10b.
Eastern phonetic : qa ' ši: ša
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person , a grandfather , an ancestor ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a priest

11.
Eastern phonetic : qaš ši: ' šu: ta
[Human being]
English : 1) seniority , being a senior / older / the elder , priority of birth / office / service , primogeniture / birthright (?) ; 2) the office of a presbyter , priesthood

12.
Eastern phonetic : ti vi ' la ia
[Humanities]
English : 1) universal , of / pertaining to all or to the whole universe , unlimited ; 2) ecumenical ; 3) a priest attending the Council of Nicae

13.
Eastern phonetic : qa ' di: ša
[Religion]
English : 1) holy , set apart for divine service , sacred , hallowed , sanctified , consecrated , blessed (?) ; 2) -noun- : a saint , a sanctified person , a holy / godly / god-fearing man

14.
Eastern phonetic : qa ' ri: wa
[Religion]
English : 1) a sponsor , a godfather ; 2) a best man , main groomsman at a wedding

15.
Eastern phonetic : qa ' riw ta
[Religion]
English : 1) a female sponsor / godmother ; 2) wedding : a bridesmaid , a maid / woman who attends a bride on her wedding

16.
Eastern phonetic : ' qud ša
[Religion]
English : holy , set apart for divine service , sacred , hallowed , sanctified , consecrated , blessed

17.
Eastern phonetic :' mašk na
[Religion]
English : 1) a tabernacle , a slightly built or temporary habitation , a black tent made of goat's hair ; 2) a place of worship , a synagogue , a temple ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac


*From another post:


Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu.

The name signifies perhaps "servitor," and would thus point to a secondary position occupied at one time by this deity.

Wikipedia defines deacon as, "[A] role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions."


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_holy_a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_holy_b.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 00:48
2.

Consecration ceremony of Mar Paulus (Benjamin)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/P1010678a.jpg


B. The laying on of hands, with special reference to the reception of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (2008)
Clayton David Robinson

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/handlaying_mesopotamia.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/handlaying_mandaean.jpg

I do not have any context to provide for the image of the Mandaeans posted below, but it is the closest thing I could find to what the "Nestorians," above, appear to be doing. I know little about Mandaeism, so they may be completely unrelated. We know they are at least somewhat unrelated, since the "Nestorian" ceremony captured in the image above is the consecration of a bishop.

Neat image, though. :)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Mandaeans.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-07 at 19:30 ----------


I am going to begin posting possible "loan" words from Akkadian in Sureth, not found in Stephen Kaufman's "The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic." As always, let me preface this by stating that these are not to be taken too seriously. These words may not be exclusive to the Sureth dialect.


Akkadian (left), Sureth (right)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rise.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 04:01
Akkadian (left), Sureth (right)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/vein_art.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 07:13
A bit of a rant. Apologies. But, I think most who have read through this thread would understand where I am coming from.

The Mandaean articles on Iranica.com are very well done, in my opinion. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for their articles on Syriac and Assyrians. The same goes for any "scholarly" work that continues to refer to us as "Syrians," despite the genetic, linguistic, geographical, and other data establishing, quite clearly to any person of sane and impartial mind, that such use is erroneous. We call ourselves Suraye. Not Syrian. Not Nestorian. Not Jacobite. The same goes for the Chaldeans, before they left the Church of the East a couple of hundred years ago. As Simo Parpola has shown, Suraya = Surayu.


SYRIAC LANGUAGE

ii. SYRIAC WRITINGS ON PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN

There are numerous chronicles in Syriac but since they use and repeat the same information they contribute little to our knowledge of Iran. We must distinguish between the sources that derive from the western Syrians or Jacobites, and those which originate with the eastern Syrians or Nestorians.

Originally Published: July 20, 2009

I will cut the article above some slack, since it was written three years ago, but going forward, there really is no excuse for it in scholarly works. If academics do not wish to refer to us as "Assyrians," for whatever reason, that is their choice. In that case, a transliteration of our self-appellation (i.e. Suraye) would be preferred.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syrians_masquerading_as_mesopotamians.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 08:47
The Politics of Marriage: Appeasement, Integration and Adaptation in the Church of the East

Thomas Lecaque


Ephrem the Syrian noted that “although Manichaeism and East Syrian Christianity proceeded from very different premises and basic beliefs, their goals and practice of the highest religious ideals were confusingly similar,” and in the Zoroastrian view both faiths hindered Ahura Mazda’s growth.

Ideologies as Intercultural Phenomena: Proceedings of the Third Annual Symposium of the Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project, Held in Chicago, USA, October 27-31, 2000

Antonio Panaino, Giovanni Pettinato, International Association for Intercultural Studies of the MELAMMU Project

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manichaeism_mesopotamian_.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 11:53
According to the archeological data of the written artifacts on clay and metal (4th-7th centuries), certain topographical, cultural, and historical information indicate that Mandaic was a spoken dialect in the Central Babylonian cities (Babylon, Borsippa, Kutha, Khuabir, Nippur, Uruk), in the South Babylonian localities (Abu Shudhr, el-Qurna, Kashkar, Kish, Mesene), and in the province of Khuzistān (Shush, Shushtar, Matiene), Gedrosia, Media, and Persia (Müller-Kessler, 1999a, p. 201).

Christa Müller-Kessler (2009)

Places in bold, above, were mapped, along with the two Iraqi Mandaean points. The city of Wasit was used for Kashkar* ("R"). Point "C" is the median of the 10 Babylonian/Khuzistān locations. The Iraqi Mandaeans are points "A" and "B." The median Assyrian spot is point "D." And point "E" is the average of the two Iraqi Mandaeans. The average Iraqi Mandaean spot (E) is 51.30 miles SW of the median Mandaic point C (based on the 10 locations). The median point C is 13.30 miles NE of point "O," the spot for the "Central Babylonian" city of Nippur.**



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandaean_mandaic_spa.jpg


* Wikipedia

According to legend, the diocese of Kashkar was the oldest diocese in Persia. It was said to have been founded by the apostle Mari in the first century, several decades before the establishment of a diocese in the Persian capital Seleucia-Ctesiphon.[3] Although a first-century foundation date is highly unlikely, the diocese of Kashkar was certainly one of the oldest dioceses of the Church of the East. The antiquity of the diocese and its claim to an apostolic foundation were recognised at the synod of Isaac in 410, when it was ranked second after the patriarchal diocese of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and its bishop was appointed guardian of the patriarchal throne (natar kursya).


** Wikipedia

Nippur was one of the most ancient of all the Sumerian cities. It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the "Lord Wind," ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. Nippur was located in modern Nuffar in Afak, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.

....

Later history
Under the succeeding Kassite dynasty, shortly after the middle of the 2nd millennium, Ekur was restored once more to its former splendour, several monarchs of that dynasty built upon and adorned it, and thousands of inscriptions, dating from the time of those rulers, have been discovered in its archives. After the middle of the 12th century BC follows another long period of comparative neglect, but with the conquest of Babylonia by the Assyrian king Sargon II, at the close of the 8th century BC, we meet again with building inscriptions, and under Ashurbanipal, about the middle of the 7th century BC, we find Ekur restored with a splendour greater than ever before, the ziggurat of that period being 58 by 39 m. After the fall of the Neo Assyrian Empire Ekur appears to have gradually fallen into decay, until finally, in the Seleucid period, the ancient temple was turned into a fortress. Huge walls were erected at the edges of the ancient terrace, the courts of the temple were filled with houses and streets, and the ziggurat itself was curiously built over in a cruciform shape, and converted into an acropolis for the fortress. This fortress was occupied and further built upon until the close of the Parthian period, about AD 250; but under the succeeding rule of the Sassanids it in its turn fell into decay, and the ancient sanctuary became, to a considerable extent, a mere place of sepulture, only a small village of mud huts huddled about the ancient ziggurat continuing to be inhabited. It appears that the city was the seat of an Assyrian Church of the East Christian bishopric as late as the 8th century AD.

Humanist
2012-07-08, 14:05
The Legend of Mar Qardagh

Joel Walker

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adiabene_walker2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adiabene_walker.jpg


---------------------------------------------------------------



Highlands of Asiatic Turkey (1901)

Earl Percy

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hakkari_nestorian.jpg


1900
-260
-140
-------
1500 CE


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nimrud.jpg


Mar Shimun XVIII Rubil

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marshimun.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 15:14
The Legend of Mar Qardagh

Joel Walker


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasraye_kristyane.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-08, 23:36
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/m_akkadian_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-09, 06:59
1.

I could not find the Sureth word "ai-ba" in the Sureth online dictionary. It means embarrassment, shameful.

Here is the Akkadian entry for "to come to shame" / "to put to shame."


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iba_shame-1.jpg




2.

The Sureth word for "where" may be from Akkadian.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/where.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-09, 09:08
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/water_maris.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-09, 11:22
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbara.jpg

newtoboard
2012-07-09, 18:27
Places in bold, above, were mapped, along with the two Iraqi Mandaean points. The city of Wasit was used for Kashkar* ("R"). Point "C" is the median of the 10 Babylonian/Khuzistān locations. The Iraqi Mandaeans are points "A" and "B." The median Assyrian spot is point "D." And point "E" is the average of the two Iraqi Mandaeans. The average Iraqi Mandaean spot (E) is 51.30 miles SW of the median Mandaic point C (based on the 10 locations). The median point C is 13.30 miles NE of point "O," the spot for the "Central Babylonian" city of Nippur.**



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandaean_mandaic_spa.jpg


* Wikipedia



** Wikipedia

Mandaic was spoken in Gedrosia?

Humanist
2012-07-10, 01:53
Mandaic was spoken in Gedrosia?

I had never read that before. Cannot really provide anything further. Sorry.



The title Rabbi may have its origin in Akkadian. At least in Mandaic. Mandaeans and Assyrians do not attach any particular religious significance to the word. In Assyrian-Aramaic, it means professor/teacher, or learned one.

My grandfather was a "Rabbi."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rabi_akkadian.jpg

An example from the Assyrian community:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rabi_example.jpg


-----------------------------------------------------------------



First, I need to thank the University of Chicago for making available, FREE OF CHARGE, the complete 21-volume Assyrian Dictionary. They have allowed me (and countless others) to access knowledge that would not have otherwise been possible (the print editions are cost prohibitive to non-academics, and ordinary folks).

After 90 Years, a Dictionary of an Ancient World (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/science/07dictionary.html?_r=1)


New York Times

By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD
Published: June 6, 2011

Ninety years in the making, the 21-volume dictionary of the language of ancient Mesopotamia and its Babylonian and Assyrian dialects, unspoken for 2,000 years but preserved on clay tablets and in stone inscriptions deciphered over the last two centuries, has finally been completed by scholars at the University of Chicago.

This was the language that Sargon the Great, king of Akkad in the 24th century B.C., spoke to command what is reputed to be the world’s first empire, and that Hammurabi used around 1700 B.C. to proclaim the first known code of laws. It was the vocabulary of the Epic of Gilgamesh, the first masterpiece of world literature. Nebuchadnezzar II presumably called on these words to soothe his wife, homesick for her native land, with the promise of cultivating the wondrous Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

"Martha Roth, dean of humanities at the University of Chicago, and Gil Stein, director of the Oriental Institute there."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2011/06/07/science/07assyrianspan/07assyrianspan-articleLarge.jpg


"A Babylonian grammatical text stone tablet used in the research and assembly of the ancient dictionary."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2011/06/07/science/07assyrian2/07assyrian2-articleInline.jpg


--------------------------------------------------------------------



The Acts of Mār Mārī the Apostle (Syriac)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhra.jpg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhra_.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-09 at 20:31 ----------


Searching Sureth for the word "priest,"...

10a.
Eastern phonetic : ' qa ša
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a priest

10b.
Eastern phonetic : qa ' ši: ša
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person , a grandfather , an ancestor ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a priest

11.
Eastern phonetic : qaš ši: ' šu: ta
[Human being]
English : 1) seniority , being a senior / older / the elder , priority of birth / office / service , primogeniture / birthright (?) ; 2) the office of a presbyter , priesthood

13.
Eastern phonetic : qa ' di: ša
[Religion]
English : 1) holy , set apart for divine service , sacred , hallowed , sanctified , consecrated , blessed (?) ; 2) -noun- : a saint , a sanctified person , a holy / godly / god-fearing man

16.
Eastern phonetic : ' qud ša
[Religion]
English : holy , set apart for divine service , sacred , hallowed , sanctified , consecrated , blessed


From the CAD's volume (8) for letter "K." :)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/priest_poss.jpg



------------------------------------------------------------------


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mouth_.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-10, 06:50
From Dr. McGrath's blog: Anush-Uthra vs. Jesus: Smackdown in Jerusalem (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2012/07/anush-uthra-vs-jesus-smackdown-in-jerusalem.html)

A bit from the (as usual) entertaining and thought-provoking entry:


An “Uthra” is a spirit being – an Aeon or angel – but because both those terms are loaded from other traditions, it seemed best not to render the term using either of those words. We may change our minds about that, and some of you may remember me blogging about this very translation issue before (http://mandaeanbookofjohn.blogspot.com/2010/10/translating-utras.html). Anush corresponds to the name Enosh or perhaps Enoch*.


I know this must get tiresome for folks who read this thread, but I feel it necessary to again preface what I am about to post by making clear I do not know a great deal about Mandaeans, and in particular their faith, Mandaeism.



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uthra.jpg


Two things caught my attention in the definition for the Akkadian word "atru":

1. The intercalary days have religious significance to the Mandaeans. What, if anything this has to do with Uthras I have no idea.

2. Atra-Hasis (see below)


Wikipedia:


Atra-Hasis ("exceedingly wise") is the protagonist and namesake of an 18th century BCE Akkadian epic. An "Atra-Hasis" appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before the flood. The Atra-Hasis tablets include both a creation myth and a flood account, which is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis[1] can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BCE), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BCE. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later fragmentary Assyrian version, having been first rediscovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but, because of the fragmentary condition of the tablets and ambiguous words, translations had been uncertain. Its fragments were assembled and translated first by George Smith as The Chaldean Account of Genesis; the name of its hero was corrected to Atra-Hasis by Heinrich Zimmern in 1899.

....

Tablet III of the Atrahasis Epic contains the flood story. This is the part that was adapted in the Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet XI. Tablet III of Atrahasis tells how the god Enki warns the hero Atrahasis (“Extremely Wise”) of Shuruppak, speaking through a reed wall (suggestive of an oracle) to dismantle his house (perhaps to provide a construction site) and build a boat to escape the flood planned by the god Enlil to destroy humankind. The boat is to have a roof “like Apsu” (a subterranean, fresh water realm presided over by the god Enki), upper and lower decks, and to be sealed with bitumen. Atrahasis boards the boat with his family and animals and seals the door. The storm and flood begin. Even the gods are afraid. After seven days the flood ends and Atrahasis offers sacrifices to the gods. Enlil is furious with Enki for violating his oath. But Enki denies violating his oath and argues: “I made sure life was preserved.” Enki and Enlil agree on other means for controlling the human population.

"Cuneiform tablet with the Atra-Hasis Epic in the British Museum"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/atra_hasis_epic_cun_.jpg


* Wikipedia


Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ, Modern H̱anokh Tiberian Ḥănōḵ; Arabic: إدريس‎ ʼIdrīs) is a character that appears in the Book of Genesis and a figure in the Generations of Adam. Enoch is described as the greatx4 grandson of Adam (through Seth) (Genesis 5:3-18), the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and the great-grandfather of Noah.

....

Enoch appears in Genesis as the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs. Genesis claims that each of the pre-Flood Patriarchs lives for several centuries, has a son, lives more centuries, and then dies. The exception is Enoch, who ascends into Heaven without experiencing death. However, Genesis 5:22-29 states that Enoch lived 365 years which is extremely short in the context of his peers.


The Wikipedia article on Atra-Hasis mentioned the Anunnaki.

Wikipedia:
The Anunnaki (also transcribed as: Anunna, Anunnaku, Ananaki and other variations) are a group of Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian) deities. The name is variously written "a-nuna", "a-nuna-ke-ne", or "a-nun-na", meaning something to the effect of "those of royal blood"[1] or 'princely offspring'.[2] Their relation to the group of gods known as the Igigi is unclear — at times the names are used synonymously but in the Atra-Hasis flood myth they have to work for the Anunnaki, rebelling after 40 days and replaced by the creation of humans.[3]

....

The Anunnaki appear in the Babylonian creation myth, Enuma Elish.[5] In the late version magnifying Marduk, after the creation of mankind, Marduk divides the Anunnaki and assigns them to their proper stations, three hundred in heaven, three hundred on the earth. In gratitude, the Anunnaki, the "Great Gods", built Esagila, the splendid: "They raised high the head of Esagila equaling Apsu. Having built a stage-tower as high as Apsu, they set up in it an abode for Marduk, Enlil, Ea." Then they built their own shrines.

According to later Assyrian and Babylonian myth, the Anunnaki were the children of Anu and Ki, brother and sister gods, themselves the children of Anshar and Kishar (Skypivot and Earthpivot, the Celestial poles), who in turn were the children of Lahamu and Lahmu ("the muddy ones"), names given to the gatekeepers of the Abzu temple at Eridu, the site at which the creation was thought to have occurred. Finally, Lahamu and Lahmu were the children of Tiamat (Goddess of the Ocean) and Abzu (God of Fresh Water).

Humanist
2012-07-10, 12:08
Babylonian speaking professor, Dr Martin Worthington poses in the library of School of Oriental and African Studies in London, Friday, Oct. 1, 2010. The ancient language of Babylonian can be heard for the first time in almost 2,000 years after Cambridge University scholars posted readings and poems online. The project of resurrecting the ancient tongue by discovering how the language was pronounced and spoken is the brainchild of Dr Martin Worthington. (AP Photo/Sang Tan)

http://nimg.sulekha.com/others/thumbnailfull/martin-worthington-2010-10-1-11-11-47.jpg

Gilgamesh at SOAS | University of London


The Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the masterpieces of world literature. Exploring mankind's universal longing for immortality, the poem tells the story of a Babylonian hero's quest for glory and flight from death.

It is the work of an anonymous Babylonian poet who lived in Iraq more than 3,700 years ago.

It was lost for 2000 years until, in the 1850s, archaeologists unearthed the clay tablets of the Assyrian royal libraries of Nineveh.

Buried since 612 BC, the Assyrian tablets were shipped to the British Museum, where the brilliant George Smith began the work of sorting them. He quickly identified the remains of a great epic poem about a legendary king called Gilgamesh.

In 1872 Smith gave a public lecture on the climax of the epic, the famous Babylonian Flood Story. He showed that the Biblical story of Noah had a close parallel in ancient Iraq.

We now know that the Babylonian legend of the Flood goes back to at least 1750 BC. It must have been the original source for the story recounted in Genesis.

Since the discovery of the tablets of Nineveh archaeologists have uncovered 250,000 more cuneiform tablets in Iraq and neighbouring countries.

A small fraction of them are literary compositions like the Epic of Gilgamesh.

The tablets of Gilgamesh have been collected in book form twice, in 1891 and 1930, but sources for the epic still keep turning up. From 1985 to 2001 Andrew George toured the museums of the world, gathering the cuneiform sources again, for a new, comprehensive edition of the Babylonian poem.


A few of the recordings:


The Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1500 BCE)

Atra-Hasīs, Old Babylonian Version, Tablet I
Lines i.1-iii.16, read by Claus Wilcke (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/atramass-ob-version-from-sippir-tablet-i-lines-i1-iii16-read-by-claus-wilcke.html)

The First Millennium BC

The Epic of Gilgamesh, Standard Version, Tablet XI
Lines 1-239, read by Karl Hecker (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/the-epic-of-gilgame-standard-version-tablet-xi-lines-1-163-read-by-karl-hecker.html)

The Babylonian Epic of Creation (Enūma elîš), Tablet I
Lines 1-16, read by Jan Keetman (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/the-babylonian-epic-of-creation-enma-el-tablet-i-lines-1-16-read-by-jan-keetman.html)



------------------------------------------------------------------


I have no idea what the origin of our word for fruit is. It may be a loan from another language. If it looks familiar to anybody out there, please consider replying to this post. :)

What I find interesting is the similarity between our word for fruit and a particular word/god in Sumerian.

Sureth

iaimiš: fruit

Sumerian


Emesh is a Sumerian god of vegetation. He was created, alongside the god Enten, at the wish of Enlil to take responsibility on earth for woods, fields, sheep folds, and stables. He is identified with the abundance of the earth and with summer. (Wikipedia)

Humanist
2012-07-10, 13:14
Atrahasis the wise man, who built an ark and save mankind from destruction, is a figure of immense prestige and antiquity to which various literary and really just traditions were attached... the story of the Flood was one of the most popular tales of ancient times, and is found in several ancient languages, reworked to suit different areas and cultures so that the different settings and details are found in each version...

According to one version of the Sumerian King list, in the years just before the Flood swept over the earth, Ubara-Tutu (who is named as the father of Atrahasis in Gilgamesh) was King of Shuruppak, modern Tell Fara in central southern Mesopotamia, where some of the earliest writings know in the whole world have been unearthed. According to a different version of the Sumerian king list, Atrahasis, called there by his Sumerian name Ziusudra, himself ruled the city Shuruppak, preceded by his father who was named like the city, Shuruppak and he was presumably regarded as the eponymous ancestor of the citizens there. A waste and composition known as the instructions of Shuruppak is now attested on clay tablets from the Early Dynastic period in their early third millennium BC, and contains sage advice given by Shuruppak to his son Ziusudra. Atrahasis was a notable figure at the dawn of history and literary tradition was attached to him at an extremely early period.

'Extra-wise' is the meaning of his name in Atrahasis, he is Ut-Napishtim and Uta-na'ishtim in Gilgamesh, a name which can mean 'He found life.' Sumerian Ziusudra is an approximate translation of Akkadian Ut-napishtim together with his epithet, in which the element sudra corresponds to Atrahasis' epithet ru_qu, 'the far distant.' The name used by Berossus for the survivor of the flood is Xisuthros, probably a phonetic rendering of Ziusudra....

Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, 1-2.


So, we have:

Ziusudra (Sumerian)

Atra-Hasis (Akkadian)

Xisuthros (Berossus*)

Anush-Uthra (Mandaic)


*
Wikipedia

Berossus (Akkadian: Bēl-rē'ušu, "Bel is his shepherd"; Greek: Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer writing in Greek, who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Versions of two excerpts of his writings survive, at several removes.

Wikipedia

Ziusudra and Xisuthros

Zi-ud-sura is known to us from the following sources:

From the Sumerian Flood myth discussed above.

In reference to his immortality in some versions of The Death of Gilgamesh[4]

Again in reference to his immortality in The Poem of Early Rulers[5]

As Xisuthros (or Xisouthros, Ξίσουθρος) in Berossus' Hellenistic account of the ancient Near East Flood myth, preserved in later excerpts.

Xisuthros was also included in Berossus' king list, also preserved in later excerpts.

Humanist
2012-07-10, 20:09
Not sure about this one. Well, more uncertain than usual.

The Sureth definition given is not consistent with what I am familiar with. If I had to define it, I would say "fool," "moron."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahlat.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-10, 23:43
The [Sureth] word for godfather/godmother, and the possible link to the Akkadian word "karibu" is also interesting.


The individual in the role of private worshipper in the first millennium BC has been detected in interpretations of the term kāribu. Linssen (2004 : 161), for example, explains the term as ‘perhaps not a priest but a citizen, a praying, private person, who offers on special occasions’. Offerings of the kāribu, frequently consisting of sheep, are often paired with offerings of the king (e.g. niqī šarri / niqī kāribi). However, the administrative texts indicate that the actual offerings were made collectively (Da Riva 2002), even if they derived ultimately from individuals, and so the identity of the individual was submerged in the process.

From street altar to palace: reading the built environment of urban Babylonia
Heather D Baker
In: K. Radner and E. Robson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford: OUP (2011) 533-552.

Humanist
2012-07-11, 01:33
The word for "wrestler" in Akkadian. And "fists," in the Sureth word for "boxing." :)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fists_akkadian_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-11, 07:43
Annus, Amar. “The Soul's Journeys and Tauroctony. On Babylonian Sediment in the Syncretic Religious Doctrines of Late Antiquity.” In: Manfried L. G. Dietrich and Tarmu Kulmar (eds.). Body and Soul in the Conceptions of the Religions. Forschungen zur Anthropologie und Religionsgeschichte 42. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag 2008



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/annusp1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/annusp2.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-11, 11:38
I have no idea what the origin of our word for fruit is. It may be a loan from another language. If it looks familiar to anybody out there, please consider replying to this post. :)

What I find interesting is the similarity between our word for fruit and a particular word/god in Sumerian.

Sureth

iaimiš: fruit

Sumerian


Emesh is a Sumerian god of vegetation. He was created, alongside the god Enten, at the wish of Enlil to take responsibility on earth for woods, fields, sheep folds, and stables. He is identified with the abundance of the earth and with summer.

(Wikipedia)

More on fruit

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumer_mes_fruit.jpg


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The words for "hair" in Sureth, with possible origins from Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hair_akkadian_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-11, 22:00
This is a stretch:

Sureth for "spittle." (http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spit_akkadian_sureth_spittle.jpg) (I say "ruqa." But, I may not be correct.)


Spittle

In witch lore this is the term meaning the spit of a witch. Witches caused their evil spells or curses to be effective against others by using their own saliva or spit when producing them. Some witches spit on stones while rubbing them when reciting curses.

Source (http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/s/spittle.html)


Attested as far back as Sumer, in Mesopotamia.

---------- Post added 2012-07-11 at 16:35 ----------

Apologies. The actual Akkadian word for "spittle" is rather similar to the word in Sureth. I did not see it the first time I searched the "R" volume of the CAD.

Akkadian and Sureth for "spittle." (http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spit_akkadian_sureth_spittle-1.jpg)

Humanist
2012-07-11, 23:11
Rev. Dr. Henryk Drawnel (http://www.kul.pl/rev-dr-henryk-drawnel-sdb,art_3966.html)

The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin


1.

Professional Skills of Asael (1 En. 8:1) and Their Mesopotamian Background

To be published in Revue biblique 2012

Summary

In 1 En. 8:1 one of the fallen Watchers, Asael, teaches humanity the elaboration of metals, precious stones, and the use of minerals and dyes. The article proposes to look for the cultural background of that Enochic tradition in the context of the Late Babylonian temple with its large and skilled workforce used for the upkeep of the cultic, economic and military activity. The Aramaic terminology found in 1 En. 6:8 and 8:1 properly corresponds to what we now know about the functioning of the artisans within the context of the Late Babylonian temple.

2.

The Punishment of Asael (1 En. 10:4-8) and Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Literature

To be published in RevQ 2012

Summary

The literary pattern of Asael’s punishment in the Enochic myth does not seem to stem from biblical literature or Greek mythology. It is far more probable that one has to look for its antecedents in Babylonian anti-witchcraft literature. The Jewish author who lived in Mesopotamia in Late Babylonian period treated Asael and other Watchers as warlocks against whom exorcistic rituals have to be applied. The elimination of Asael and other Watchers from the earthly realm paved the way for the Jewish context of knowledge transmission, exemplified by Enoch and his insight into the structure of the world, revealed to him by angels faithful to God of Israel.

Humanist
2012-07-12, 02:19
Akkadian Surpu (and Sarapu), Sureth Sarpa and Surapa, and English Seraph* (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seraph).


Mesopotamian medicine and religion: current debates, new perspectives
Eleanor Robson
Religion Compass 3 (2008)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surpu_robson.jpg


Akkadian and Sureth
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surpu.jpg


*
Wikipedia

The word seraphim, literally "burning ones", transliterates a Hebrew plural noun; translation yields seraphs. The singular, "seraph", is more properly rendered sarap. The word sarap/seraphim appears three times in the Torah (Numbers 21:6-8, Deuteronomy 8:15) and four times in the Book of Isaiah (6:2-6, 14:29, 30:6). In Numbers and Deuteronomy the "seraphim" are serpents – the association of serpents as "burning ones" is possibly due to the burning sensation of the poison.[2]

....

Seraphs appear in the 2nd century B.C. Book of Enoch[5] where they are designated as drakones (δράκονες "serpents"), and are mentioned, in conjunction with cherubs as the heavenly creatures standing nearest to the throne of God. In the late 1st century A.D. Book of Revelation (iv. 4-8) they are described as being forever in God's presence and praising him: "Day and night with out ceasing they sing: 'Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come.'" They appear also in the Christian Gnostic text On the Origin of the World, described as "dragon-shaped angels".[6]

Humanist
2012-07-12, 05:27
The Sureth entry "sqa ta," in my dialect, I would pronounce, "su-qi-ta." And, I do not draw distinctions between dogs and humans when using the term. Diacritical marks not displayed. Perhaps I mispronounce that word as well! Or, maybe it is just a matter of dialects. The second word is related to agriculture.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silence_wheat_.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-12, 07:48
Another possibility?

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seize_saqla_.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-12 at 01:49 ----------


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The Assyrian "Gagolta" probably (?) has a Christian origin (e.g. Matthew 27:33), but I still found the bit below, from the Melammu site, quite interesting:

The word for "skull," in Akkadian:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gulgotha_skull_gololta.jpg


--------------------------------------------

An image from a "Nestorian" church, including the "Gagolta." From George Percy Badger's "The Nestorians and their rituals," 1852.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/golgotha_gogolta_nestorian_church.jpg


--------------------------------------------


Melammu Project

The use of a skull in necromancy


The most remarkable element in the Mesopotamian necromantic texts is the use of a skull to house the conjured ghost and furnish him with the mechanical means for communication. Skulls are prescribed in rituals as a magic ingredient to be ground up with other materia medica. Whole skulls too are used as ritual appurtenances in medical and magical passages, e.g. in LKA 84, where the skull of a dog is used to pour a libation to dispel a ghost. In other contexts it plays a different role, e.g. in black magic, as cryptically revealed in Maqlû 4.18 and 32: “you (f. pl.) have handed me over to a skull” (ana gulgullati tapqidāinni). More relevant are the texts in which a skull is used as a deterrent against ghosts and demons. A particularly interesting text is BAM 30, partly duplicated by BAM 157, which describes the use of a skull in four rituals to prevent the grinding of teeth during sleep. In one ritual the sufferer is required to kiss the skull seven and seven times. In another, he is to kiss it seven times, and lick it seven times. The rationale behind such practices may be the idea that a dead member of the family is trying to communicate with somebody while they are asleep. A human skull is explicitly used in the exorcism of ghosts in the lengthy tablet KAR 227 (and dupls.), edited by E. Ebeling (1930: 124-133). After an exorcistic incantation adressed to the haunted person (eṭim kimti), he is instructed in line 52 to recite incantation beginning atta eṭim mār mammanāma “you, ghost of someone … “ before a skull (ana IGI gulgulli). No further details are given. It may be noted that the texts here referred to offer no information as to whose skull was to be used, or whence it was to procured. It would be interesting to know whether a ritual for exorcism or necromancy relying on a skull was held to be more effective utilising the skull of the person concerned. It seems reasonable that for necromancy more or less any skull would prove a suitable medium. One further text that should be considered is a Neo-Assyrian royal letter LAS 178 that asks after the usual introductory phrases “Shall we bring these skulls that are prescribed in the ritual?” It is perhaps worth asking whether the ritual in question might not be for necromancy. The use of skull as a vehicle for communication with ghosts, whether to summon them or dispel them is thus well attested in the Mesopotamian sources.

For the necromantic praxis there is an illuminating parallel from Jewish sources. In the Mishnah, the tractate Sanhedrin 7.7 mentions that “He that has a familiar spirit – such as the Python which speaks from his armpits –, and the soothsayer – such is he that speaks from his mouth –, these are (to be put to death) by stoning”. The corresponding tractate Sanhedrin of the Babylonian Talmud (65b) in its discussion of the passage preserves the following description of the two kinds of necromancer: “Our Rabbis taught: Baˁal ˁōb denotes both him who conjures up the dead by means of soothsaying, and one who consults a skull.” Mediaeval Jewish commentators provide further details to complete the picture, cf. e.g. the Mishnaic commentary composed by Bar-tenura (ca. 1450 CE): “He takes a skull of a dead person after the flesh has decomposed, and he offers incence to it, and asks of it the future, and it answers.” Maimonides in his commentary on the Mishnah describes a perhaps contemporary practice closely parallel to that of Bar-tenura, and there are rabbinic discussions on whether the skull really speaks or whether the voice just appears in the mind of the necromancer. It is open to question whether the testimony of such late commentators is to be afforded any weight in the interpretation of a simple Talmudic statement such as that of Sanhedrin 65b. Nevertheless, a remark such as is presented in a Baraitha or Tannaitic teaching of this kind may be dated to before 220 CE, and it is at least possible that the Talmud has preserved some trace of Babylonian ideas.

Sources
Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 65b
BAM 30
BAM 157
KAR 227
LAS 178
LKA 84
Maqlû 4.18
Maqlû 4.32
Mishnah, Sanhedrin 7.7

Bibliography
Finkel 1983, 13-15 Finkel, I. “Necromancy in Ancient Mesopotamia.” Archiv für Orientforschung 29 (1983) 1-17.

Humanist
2012-07-13, 03:13
Various sources. Sorry for the hodgepodge. Whether a link exists, I do not know enough to provide an educated opinion.


The Haran Gawaita and the Baptism of Hibil-Ziwa:
The Mandaic Text Reproduced Together with Translation, Notes, and Commentary
translated and edited by E. S. Drower


The number sixty appears often (as does seven):




And sixty thousand Nasoraeans abandoned the Sign of the Seven and entered the Median hills , a place where we were free from domination by all other races.

And he taught disciples and proclaimed the Call of the Life in the fallen House (Temple?). Forty-two years (he dwelt) therein, and then his Transplanter looked upon him and he arose with his Transplanter, praised be his name! ---and a time arrived, sixty years after Yahia-Yuhana had departed the body ... the Jews, just as their former strength (returned?) to Ruha and Adonai, who became arrogant...

Hence, after sixty years, Ruha and Adonai planned to erect... the fallen House (Temple?) and spoke to Moses the prophet and the children of Israel who had built the House (Temple)... Then they raised an idle cry against the tribes of Anus'-'Uthra, the Head of the Age, and shed their blood so that not a man of the disciples and Nasoraeans were left...

When Anus'-'Uthra had done that by order of Hibil-Ziwa whom the great Father of Glory commanded, Anus'-'Uthra went to the T'ura d Madai' (Median mountains), called Haran Gawaita, and brought Bhira son of S'itil , a descendant of Artabanus king of the Nasoraeans and set him up in Baghdad (Babylon) and installed him in sovereign power (as its sovereign). And in his company there were sixty Nasoraeans...

Then the said Zazai, one of the righteous elect , rose to the firmament and abode with Yurbas sixty-two days, and ascended to his fathers...

And so a Hardabaean (Sasanian) dynasty ruled for three hundred and sixty years...

(Even then), after this had happened and these events had taken place, sixty banners (still) remained and pertained to me in Baghdad.

Hibil-Ziwa expounded these interpretations and revealed and declared: " Any Nasoraean man in whose library these explanations are found should beware lest he reveal in the presence of foolish persons (mysteries) penetrated and revealed by deeply thinking theologians ; because he that revealeth anything that is weighty in this writing (book) in the presence of foolish and ill-conditioned 'uthras who would bring pure words into contempt, layeth up for himself sixty causes of stumbling and sixty sins . (But he that is silent before foolish persons concerning such interpretations) sixty offences and sixty sins shall be forgiven him and Abathur win grasp (his hand) in honourable kus'ta.

Then Hibil-Ziwa - praised be his name! - taught that every man who concealeth (the Great Reuelation?) it but observeth it, when his measure is full he will rise up without sin and (moreover) will loose and take with him sixty (souls) who are bound.


-------------------------------------------

Examples of instances of the number sixty in Mandaeism:


PRIESTHOOD 2ND STAGE: During the next stage, the would-be priest must remain isolated (with exception of the presence of the Ganzivra) in a newly built reed hut on the Mandi grounds and must remain awake for this period, which lasts for seven days (i.e.. Sunday to Sunday). On the following Sunday morning (i.e.. on the 7th day) the Shwalia baptizes the Ganzivra and thus ends the first stage of consecration . He now begins the sixty days of purity, in which he must live isolated from his family and if married must not cohabit. Once the sixty days are over, the Shwalia reads his first Masiqta (Mass) and consequently becomes a Tarmida.

source: essene.com


During this vigil the priests are not idle. They consult the Sfar Malwasha and make predictions about the New Year, its good or bad weather, its chances of disaster or good fortune. Laymen keep themselves awake by playing games and reciting stories. If a beast, bird, reptile, or large insect (such as a hornet) touches food or drink it cannot be consumed; and if a person is touched by beaat, bird, reptile, large insect, or Gentile, he is seriously polluted and must purify himself later by baptisms. Should he be bitten by a dog or reptile, or stung by a bee or hornet, he incurs sixty baptisms. Flies, mosquitoes, fleas, and lice are not, however, counted, as they are regarded as unavoidable and naturable conditions. It is possible that in earlier times there were regulations about these lesser evils, for I was told that the extremely pious sometimes retired for the period into a reed-hut covered entirely by mosquito-netting.

source: Lady Drower


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Looking for the origin of Anush, in Anush-Uthra. Of course, this may have no connection whatsoever.


The head of the Sumerian pantheon (at least nominally) was An, the primeval sky god. An was the head god in a very distant, impersonal kind of way - we have very little evidence for any temples to him or any actual worship of him, but in the mythology, though he is a very far away and blank kind of presence, he is officially head of the pantheon. (It may have been the case that he was a more prominent figure in religion and worship earlier, in prehistoric times, but that's speculation.) Anyway, this is his sign, and so means both "sky" and "god" in the generic sense. When it means "sky", it is read "an" (pronounced "ahn", like the first syllable of the name "Anya"), and when it means "god", it is read "dingir" (pronounced "ding-gear").

As well, it can also have the syllabic reading "an". And as if that wasn't enough, it is also very often used as a determinative before divine names - in that case we read it "dingir" and write it as a little superscripted 'd'. (So if you were reading a Sumerian transliteration and came across the god Enlil, his name would look like this: dEn-lil.)

So that's your Sumerian word of the day - "dingir" aka "an".

source: http://sumerianwotd.livejournal.com/?skip=20


-----------------------------------------------------


Old Babylonian Weights and Measures

The metrology of ancient Mesopotamia is very complicated, but key to understanding much of the mathematics as units are often silently converted in the middle of a problem. Units of length, weight, area, capacity and so on and the relationships between them changed frequently in both space and time. However, by the Old Babylonian period, the systems were much simpler than during the Sumerian period. For the large bulk of mathematical problem texts, there is a relatively standardized set of measurements, although there are plenty of exceptions. The tables below give the main units in this standard set, but are by no means comprehensive. For up-to-date and detailed references on the different systems, see the articles by Marvin Powell in RLA and Civilizations of the Ancient Near East.

Even in the Old Babylonian times, metrology had a rich collection of units. Most of the conversion factors are simple fractions or multiples of the base 60. Key units are the kush (cubit) for length, sar (garden-plot) for area and volume, sila for capacity and mana for weight. At the base of the system is the barleycorn, she, used for the smallest unit in length, area, volume and weight.

Akkadian made use of a letter š called a shin, pronounced as 'sh'. The barleycorn is a 'še', pronounced 'shay' and which we shall write as 'she.'

Length

Smallest unit of length is the she (barleycorn), of about 1/360 meter.
6 she = 1 shu-si (finger)
30 shu-si = 1 kush (cubit - about 1/2 m.)
6 kush = 1 gi / qanu (reed)
12 kush = 1 nindan/ GAR (rod - 6 m.)
10 nindan = 1 eshe (rope)
60 nindan = 1 USH (360 m.)
30 USH = 1 beru (10.8 km.)


---------------------------------------------------



"Where do the sacred numbers of the Sumerian Gods come from?"

It seems easy to understand some of them like the number of the moon.
The moons number is 30 as in 30 days in a lunar month, just as 20 the number of the Sun is 20 (20 days to a solar cycle).
But while these things do play a part in the numbers it is actually another factor that determines the God numbers. Recipricals of the numbers 60 and 360!

Cuneaform math was set up on a base sixty notation and in this notation, division and multiplication were difficult tasks. In order to ease this difficulty, they used tables of recipricals.

Recipricals are the 'reflective' numbers in division and multiplication.
For instance Anu was first among all the Gods, thus Anu's number was 60 or 360. (60 divided by 1 equals 60). Note that Enlil and Enki do not have perfect recipricals to 60 and are thus divided into 360.

Here are the numbers of the Gods and their reciprical order:
the table is laid out with the god name, the reciprical order, and then the math for 60 or 360. I.E

Anu 60, 1 (60/1=60), (360/60=6) (6+1=7 the number of the unknowable)

TABLE of recipricals to 360:
Anu 60, 1 (60/1=60), (360/60=6) (6+1=7 the number of the unknowable)
Enlil 50, 2 (60/50=1.2),(360/50=7.2)
Ea 40, 3 (60/40=1.5),(360/40=9) (9 the number of the desire to grow, and 3X3=9, the '3' are Anu, Enlil, and Enki)

The 60 of Anu notes his perfection and the numbers of Enlil and Enki being none reciprocal to 60 shows their greater Status in the order of the gods.

....

Note: Parpola gives the following numbers for the gods
1. 1 (Anu) (1 as reciprical of 60)
2. 60 (Ea) (1 as reciprical of 60)
3. 30 (Sin) (2 as reciprical of 60)
4. 50 (Ellil) (no reciprical of 60)
5. 20 (Shamash) (3 as reciprical of 60)
6. 15 (Ishtar) (4 as reciprocal of 60)
7. 40 (Nabu) (no reciprical of 60)
8. 10 (Adad) (6 as reciprical of 60)
9. 14 (Nergal) (reiprical is 4.2)
10. 3,600 (The King) (no reciprical to 60)

Ea/Enki
The god of the waters who decreed the fate of Sumer and Ur. Ea is the father of Uttu by Ninsar, Marduck by Damkina, and Ninsar by Ninhursag. He is the son of Anu and created Zaltu as a complement to Ishtar. He has been identified with the Greek God Poseidon. His sacred number is forty, his astrological symbols are the Pisces and Aquarius, his symbol is a ram's head or a goat-fish. Ea is depicted as a mythical creature with the body of a fish and the head of a goat.

Ea is designated as bel nimeqi ("lord of wisdom") and bel shipti ("lord of incantations"). He is regarded as the source of all secret magical knowledge. Ea was worshipped at a cult centre in Eridu at the temple Eengurra. Ea is also known as Nudimmud.


--------------------------------------------


Anu ("Heaven")

Anu was the high-god and consort of Innina/Ishtar (later replaced by Antu). Anu is the father of the Annunnaki and has a daughter named Lamashtu. He lived in the third heaven and has been identified with the Greek God Zeus. His symbol is a sacred shrine surmounted by the divine horned cap (found on Babylonian boundary stones) and his sacred number is sixty.

Anu was worshipped at six cult centres.

Der
Erech
Lagash
Nippur
Sippar
Ur

source: http://www.mingyuen.edu.hk/history/1baby/17nimrud/6nimrud-genie/Mesopotamian%20Mythology%20Listing.htm


Curiosities Regarding the Babylonian Number System

By 2000 BCE the Babylonians were already making signi cant progress in the areas of mathematics and astronomy and had produced many elaborate mathematical tables on clay tablets. Their sexagecimal (base-60) number system was originally inherited from the Sumerian number system dating back to 3500 BCE. However, what made the Babylonian number system superior to its predecessors, such as the Egyptian number system, was the fact that it was a positional system not unlike the decimal system we use today.

source: http://www.its.caltech.edu/~sdoroudi/BabNoSys.pdf


----------------------------------------------------



1 6 Semitic Lang.

*w'aHad *shiDaste Proto-Semitic

East-Central
*'aHad *shisha Proto-East

Canaanite
'-h-d sh-sh Phoenecian+
Moabite+
'ahat shêsh Classical Hebrew+
ehad shisha Modern Hebrew


Central
*wahadh *shitha:t Proto-Cent

Aramaic
xadh shitha:h Classical Aramaic+
ahd t-t Ugaritic+

Arabic
waahid sitta Iraqi
wa:hed sette Syrian (Levantine)
wähad setti Lebanese
wa:hid sittah Classical Arabic
waahid sitta Saudi (Najdi)
waahid sitteh Yemeni
wa:hid sitta Egyptian
'wahad 'sitta E Libyan
wa|ahid si|tta Sudanese
wa:hid sitte Nigerian
wa:hed sitta Algerian (Darja)
wahed setta Moroccan
?éxen sítte Cypriot
wa:hi sitte Zanzibari
wieh=ed sitta Maltese
fad Kashka-Darya (Uzbeki)

South Arabian
'-h-d s-d-th Old S. Arabian+
t'a:d 'hatteh South Arabian (Harsusi)
t'ad shet Sheri (Jibbali)
t'ad yha`T Socotra

Ethiopic
*'ahadu *seddestu Proto-Ethiopic

N Ethiopic
?ah=adu siddistu Geez+
hade shuddushte Tigrinya
worot ses Tigre
orot siss Beni Amir

S Ethiopic
ad seddest E Gurage
ajjä seddestä Gafat+

and siddist Amharic
ahad siddisti Harari
hand seddest Argobba
att seddest Soddo
quna seddest Goggot
at seddest Muher (W Gurage)
at seddest Masqan
at sedest CW Gurage
att sedest Ennemor


------------------------------------------------------------


Note the numbers for one, three, six, and sixty, in Sumerian:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumerian_numbers.jpg

The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum (2008)
Roger D. Woodard

---------------------------------------

Akkadian for one and six:


One

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_isten.jpg



Six

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_six.jpg

---------------------------------------



Sureth for six (the word for one is "xa"):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_six.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-12 at 21:16 ----------

The same applies here, regarding a link.


I doubt the memory of the conical shaped helmets/caps survived through the centuries. But, as with everything, you never know, I suppose.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/conical_headgear.jpg



The first column shows the shape of "pebbles" used for the various units of a Sumerian number.

The equivalent impression in clay tablets is shown in the centre column. Two round sticks of different diameter were used for the impressions. The symbols for 1 and 60 were produced by oblique impressions, those for 10 and 3600 by vertical impressions. Other numbers required a combination of impressions from both sticks.

Cuneiform writing started shortly after 3000 BC when the two sticks were replaced by a thin stylus. The Sumerians then simulated the stick impressions through stylus impressions. The right column shows the result: the Sumerian numbers in cuneiform.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cuneiform.gif

source: http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/science+society/lectures/illustrations/lecture4/cuneiform.html

Humanist
2012-07-13, 05:35
I should have also posted the word for "sixty," in Sureth. Sixty is represented by the letter Semkath. The equivalent in Hebrew is also shown.



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sixty_sureth-1.jpg

annihilus
2012-07-13, 05:43
Sorry for some bad news here

Turkey: Court Rules State Can Seize Assyrian Monastery's Land (http://www.eurasianet.org/node/65657)

But I am sure this just a glitch, am sure it will be rectified soon as it does not fit in the current policy, anyway my apologies.

Humanist
2012-07-13, 06:41
I should have also posted the word for "sixty," in Sureth. Sixty is represented by the letter Semkath. The equivalent in Hebrew is also shown.



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sixty_sureth-1.jpg


Note: Parpola gives the following numbers for the gods
1. 1 (Anu) (1 as reciprical of 60)
2. 60 (Ea) (1 as reciprical of 60)
3. 30 (Sin) (2 as reciprical of 60)
4. 50 (Ellil) (no reciprical of 60)
5. 20 (Shamash) (3 as reciprical of 60)
6. 15 (Ishtar) (4 as reciprocal of 60)
7. 40 (Nabu) (no reciprical of 60)
8. 10 (Adad) (6 as reciprical of 60)
9. 14 (Nergal) (reiprical is 4.2)
10. 3,600 (The King) (no reciprical to 60)


Ishtar was the patron deity of Nineveh and Arbil.

Semkath is the fifteenth letter in the Sureth alphabet.

Wikipedia, on Arbil:


Among historians, the most accepted terminology of the word Erbil is derived from the Assyrian language which means four gods (arba'ū ilū).[6] The city was a centre for the worship of the goddess Ishtar. In classical times the city was known by its Aramaic name, Arbela. In Old Persian the city was called Arbairā.[7] The name Erbil was mentioned in Sumerian holy writings (c. 2000 BC) as Urbilum, Urbelum or Urbillum.[8]


Ishtar

http://paganpages.org/content/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/ishtar_2.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-13 at 01:19 ----------

The Temple of Ishtar


In Babylon, Ishtar's temple was uncovered by archaeologists adjacent to the processional way used in the annual New Year Festival. Situated in the north east quarter of the city, the temple precinct was the resting place for flocks of white doves, the personal birds of the goddess. The doves were fed by worshippers who purchased sacred cakes from the temple confectioner then crumbled and left them for the birds. In temples of the late period, dovecotes were built on the tops of her temples.

source: The Goddess Ishtar: Babylonian Goddess of Love and War


Not sure if there is any connection here:


This particular word (a Sumerian term via Akkadian) does appear in Stephen Kaufman's paper, referred to a few times previously.



AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukku.jpg




SYRIAC/JEWISH BABYLONIAN/MANDAIC


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukka.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-13, 10:35
See also the word for the number 360, in Sumerian, below.


Note the numbers for one, three, six, and sixty, in Sumerian:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumerian_numbers.jpg

The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum (2008)
Roger D. Woodard

---------------------------------------


The first column shows the shape of "pebbles" used for the various units of a Sumerian number.

The equivalent impression in clay tablets is shown in the centre column. Two round sticks of different diameter were used for the impressions. The symbols for 1 and 60 were produced by oblique impressions, those for 10 and 3600 by vertical impressions. Other numbers required a combination of impressions from both sticks.

Cuneiform writing started shortly after 3000 BC when the two sticks were replaced by a thin stylus. The Sumerians then simulated the stick impressions through stylus impressions. The right column shows the result: the Sumerian numbers in cuneiform.



source: http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~matto...cuneiform.html


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cuneiform.gif






AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Untitled5.jpg




SURETH

(pronounced: shara)



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharra_saint_festival.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-13, 22:20
Came across this paper, from a link posted on Dienekes' page.

Using pigs as a proxy to reconstruct patterns of human migration
Larson, Greger


Even more intriguingly, domestic pigs in the Near East hung onto their Near Eastern ancestry until at least 700 BC, after which, they too were replaced by pigs derived from European wild boar.


If it is as far back as 700 BCE, this is what the Near East looked like. The Assyrian empire was followed by the Babylonian (~610 BCE) and Achaemenid empires (~540 BCE).


http://www.truthnet.org/Daniel/Introduction/Assyrian_Empire.gif

---------- Post added 2012-07-13 at 16:35 ----------

EDIT:

I need to add (despite my many prefaces) that I do not believe that a good deal of what I post has a high probability of being of any particular significance, as far as the question posed by the OP is concerned. The point of this non-academic attempt at understanding Assyrians, and in general, the peoples of ancient Mesopotamia, is to discuss, and to "throw" ideas out there. Some are very unlikely, and some, I believe, are not so outrageous. Anyway, please keep that in mind when reading this thread.

Humanist
2012-07-14, 02:17
These words may not be exclusive to the Sureth dialect of Aramaic, they may be common to more languages in the Semitic family, they may be loan words, and the usual bit about not taking these too seriously.



Akkadian ("minde"/"midde" and "mindanu") (disregard the word mindatu)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/minde_mindanu_akkadian.jpg



Sureth ("mindi"/"mdi"/"mindiyana") See this Wikipedia article, Placeholder name (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placeholder_name), to get an idea how "mindi" is used in my dialect of Sureth. Although the word "mindiyana" is listed simply as the plural of "mindi," as I understand it, it is used more often to say "thing," and "mindi" is used more often as a "placeholder name" word. At least in my dialect (well, by me). Sureth "mindi" is pronounced like the English feminine name "Mindy."


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mendi_mindyana_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 04:54
Wikipedia:


Akkadian is divided into several varieties based on geography and historical period:

Old Akkadian, 2500–1950 BC
Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian, 1950–1530 BC
Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian, 1530–1000 BC
Neo-Babylonian/Neo-Assyrian, 1000–600 BC
Late Babylonian, 600 BC–100 AD


-----------------------------------------------------

The word for "axe." This is listed in Stephen Kaufman's paper. But, he doubts that it is from Akkadian. The only question I have is regarding its distribution. The Aramaic dialects that it has been observed in share a Mesopotamian nexus. Well, at least three of them for certain. I do not know about the particular Targumic dialect ("JLAtg"). I should add that "The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic" was written nearly forty years ago, so perhaps some of it is no longer current, given the knowledge accumulated over the course of the intervening decades.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinu_axe_akkadian.jpg


SYRIAC/TARGUMIC/HATRAN (and ASSUR)/JEWISH BABYLONIAN (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/lexical.help.html) (in Syriac: ḥaṣṣīnā)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/axe_aramaic.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 08:38
Please see the caveats above, and on previous pages, regarding what is posted below.



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/flood_akkadian.jpg



Bits from Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Barwar dialect of Sureth (part of the recollection of an Assyrian informant):

Easter


They would have lined up all the food, each (item) placed beside the other. Whoever brought stew would make what we call a maqora ‘hole’ in the middle of it. He would put a small dish in it, like this, and a woman would bring, in another vessel, butter, which she would put in it. She would put butter, date syrup or cake paste in it. They call this g6räo. Then people would come. If a priest was there, they would pray and everybody would eat. This was a (sign of) respect. They did this on the second day of the Great Festival. (When) they finished (the festival), they enjoyed themselves, singing, making merry, dancing and so on also that (second) day. Afterwards, they went home. This is the Great Festival. This is the customary way of celebrating the Great Festival.


--------------------------------------------------------------------


Also from Khan's work on the Barwar dialect (part of the recollection of an Assyrian informant):

The Saint’s Festival ("shara") <-- See the post from yesterday.


A saint’s festival is a memorial, it is a day (of memorial). Many people gather. People gather for the saint’s festival. This is the memorial of the saint of the church, his memorial. At that time, many people come from outside. They would have dedicated themselves, dedicated some symbolic item to the church, a gift, something. In our (the church) of Mar Sawa, in En-Nune, people would have given what we call devotional gifts. What is a devotional gift? A sheep. They bring a sheep and slaughter it that day. Many people came from the villages and slaughtered sheep. Many people would have prepared themselves for that day. On many occasions they slaughtered ten head of sheep. We call it ‘head’ (of sheep), on many occasions thirty, twenty. This was a dedicatory sacrifice ["duxa"]. They would slaughter it (the object of this sacrifice).


----------------------------------------------------------



JoAnn Scurlock, "The Techniques of the Sacrifice of Animals in Ancient Israel and Ancient Mesopotamia."


The most typical animal for occasional sacrifice to any god in ancient Mesopotamia was a sheep, but virgin she-goats also appear with some frequency.



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_daku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/deku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/deku2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/diku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/diku1a.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/diku1b.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sacrifice_sureth.jpg


-------------------------------------------------


In Akkadian, this is the closest term I could find to what we call sheep:




AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu_akkadian.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu_akkadian2.jpg



SURETH


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sheep_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 10:26
Could not find the word I use for "corn," in the Barwar dialect of Sureth. The closest I could find in Akkadian were these two terms. Perhaps it is a loan from Persian, Kurdish, Turkish, Armenian, etc., in my dialect. Too bad the meaning is uncertain for the second Akkadian term.



SURETH


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/corn_sureth.jpg



AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/makku.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 13:20
Please see the previous post (the word for Corn in my Sureth dialect). Adding another term from Akkadian:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maqqu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maqqu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 15:58
This is again from Khan's volumes on the Barwar dialect. Certainly not suggesting a probable connection here. Came across something I did not know.


During the ‘Great Festival’ [Easter], Monday was a (time of) memorial, it was a (time of) memorial. What is this memorial? The people, all the families, each family cooks something. This is rice, duxwa, stuffed vine leaves, stew or gerdo—generally it is called gerdo. Gerdo is made of yoghurt. Yoghurt is made from milk, milk of sheep.

Gerdo and stew (bušala) are similar dishes consisting of rice cooked in yoghurt, but gerdo is the thicker of the two.


Does "gerdo" sound familiar to any of the Armenian, Turkish, Persian and/or Kurdish members here? When I searched the Assyrian dictionary, I came across this strange entry:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girdu.jpg


So, "eating penalties?" Read the bit below, and note the wool part.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/punishment.jpg

Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society: The ancient Near East
Elisabeth Meier Tetlow


The above bit about scraping the wool off the sheep, and the name of the meal, "gerdo," made me think of these Sureth words:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/grd.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gr.jpg

Of course, there is no reason why the Assyrian Christian dish cannot have a distinct origin, with no ties to what came before.



-------------------------------------------------



What may have a modest chance of coming from Akkadian is this word. Though, of course, it may still be a loan from Persian, Kurdish, etc., or shared by many other Aramaic dialects.


LTBA = Late Babylonian.




AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reed.jpg

Mesopotamian Marshlands

http://worldregionsproject.wikispaces.com/file/view/marsh.jpg/95272442/530x264/marsh.jpg




SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_gilla.jpg

shshmuk
2012-07-14, 17:30
Does "gerdo" sound familiar to any of the Armenian, Turkish, Persian and/or Kurdish members here?

I looked in some Armenian dictionaries and could not find a similar word.

Humanist
2012-07-14, 18:03
I guess there may be something here.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gananu_akkadian.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guilty_akkadian.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gnaya_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 20:55
In addition to the fact that some of these words look like they may be genuinely Akkadian in origin, the other factor that should be considered is that the Akkadian words I am posting in this thread are mostly of one variety. That, of course, would be Babylonian. The same thing Dr. Stephen Kaufman noted nearly forty years ago, in his paper on the "Akkadian influences on Aramaic." I doubt it is a coincidence.

Wikipedia:


Akkadian is divided into several varieties based on geography and historical period:

Old Akkadian, 2500–1950 BC
Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian, 1950–1530 BC
Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian, 1530–1000 BC
Neo-Babylonian/Neo-Assyrian, 1000–600 BC
Late Babylonian, 600 BC–100 AD



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patanu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patanu2.jpg



Both uses in Sureth remain. Although the second occurs more frequently.


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patanaA.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patanaB.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-14, 23:18
I guess there may be something here.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gananu_akkadian.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guilty_akkadian.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gnaya_sureth.jpg


Adding to Sureth:
(only includes first definition)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/annata_crime.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-15, 04:35
There is a word in my dialect that I think I may have come across. I could not find it in the Aramaic sources so I am a bit uncertain of its origin. I will probably butcher the transliteration, but it is something along the lines of "meš-meš-ookh." Basically, when you tell it to someone, you are saying that you will soon be "putting them in order." Would like to hear Birko's opinion. The spelling is not all that different from our word for apricot. :)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/exorcist.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-15, 07:28
Not sure about this one. Khan does not list it as a recent loan, so, I suppose it is a possibility. Originally from Nuzi (Hurrian ~ Kirkuk).



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pitchfork.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malhawa_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-15, 10:41
A bit from the Wikipedia article on the "Aramaic of Hatra."


In 1912, W. Andrae published some inscriptions from the site of Hatra, which were studied by S. Ronzevalle and P. Jensen. The excavations undertaken by the Iraqi Department of Antiquities brought to light more than 100 new texts, the publication of which was undertaken by F. Safar in the journal Sumer. The first four series were the subject of reviews in the journal Syria. The texts range in date from the 2nd or 3rd century BCE to the destruction of the city ca. 240 CE; the earliest dated text provides a date of 98 BCE.

For the most part, these inscriptions are short commemorative graffiti with minimal text. The longest of the engraved inscriptions does not have more than 13 lines. It is therefore difficult at the moment to identify more than a few features of the Aramaic dialect of Hatra which, all things considered, shows the greatest affinity to Syriac.

The stone inscriptions bear witness to an effort to establish a monumental script. This script is little different from that of the Aramaic inscriptions of Assur (possessing the same triangular š, and the use of the same means to avoid confusion between m, s, and q). The ds and the rs are not distinguished from one another, and it is sometimes difficult not to confuse w and y.


-----------------------------------------------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arrmp_akkad.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armp_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-15, 23:17
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batlu.jpg




SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batilaM.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batilaF.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 01:10
1.
A.Nestorians and their Rituals (1852)
George Percy Badger

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gezza_nestorian.jpg

[Adding to Sureth]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_gazza.jpg


B.Wikipedia, on the Mandaean Ginza Rba:


The Ginza Rba or Ginza Rabba (literally "The Great Treasure") or Siddra Rabba, "The Great Book" (rabba means great") is the largest of the many holy scriptures of the Mandaean religion, which reveres John the Baptist but rejects Jesus of Nazareth. It is also referred to as The Book of Adam.

I am certain Mandaean scholars are familiar with what is contained below, but it is the first time I have come across the Akkadian terms.

From the site Essenes.com:


Ganzibra - [Mandaean] Head Priest, or Bishop. Restricted to raw foods.


A loan word entering the "Late Babylonian" dialect of Akkadian from Old Persian (c. 525 BC - 300 BC):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_ganzabaru.jpg



Another Akkadian term (not necessarily having anything to do with the one above)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganzir.jpg


Sureth (coming from Akkadian or later through Persian?)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gzabra_sureth.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-15 at 19:35 ----------

I think the "gora" in "magora" may refer to butter? For butter, I would say something like "kyura."

Humanist
2012-07-16, 02:26
There may be no connection.


The Church of the East in Mesopotamia in the Mongol Period

Heleen Murre-van den Berg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/vegetarian.jpg



-------------------------------------------------------


Essenes.com, on Mandaean practices and beliefs:


DIET & PURITY: Food is also ritually cleansed, such as fruits and vegetables before consumption. Other items like the rasta (robes) and kitchen utensils such as pots and pans undergo frequent ritual purifications. Salt is the only exception. Ganzivri (Bishops) and priests must only eat of the food they prepare themselves and their bread may not be baked with that of lay persons. For Ganzivri (Bishops) wine, coffee and tobacco are forbidden to them and they must avoid eating hot or cooked food. All their fruits and vegetables must be eaten raw. Water is the only beverage of a priest and this must be taken directly from the river or spring. The Mandaeans also use other terms to differentiate amongst themselves on basis of ritual cleanliness, Suwadi is used for laymen, Hallali is applied to ritually pure men, who of their own will follow a high religious standard, and of course Nasurai used for priests. Only that grows from a seed is lawful for food (hence a mushroom is forbidden). In practice little meat is eaten, and the attitude towards slaughter is always apologetic, perhaps because all original Nasurai were vegetarians and meat eating only crept in after a departure from their original faith. All killing and blood letting is supposedly sinful and it is forbidden to kill female beasts. Flies, scorpions and all harmful stinging things may be slain without sin.


Our current patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IpI271WeUfw), does not eat meat (perhaps with the occasional exception of fish??). The patriarch's mother abstained from eating meat during the entire term of the pregnancy.

Humanist
2012-07-16, 03:34
A bit before Christianity arrived, Babylonian astronomy was thriving.

Science in Action: Networks in Babylonian Astronomy

M. Ossendrijver, 2011, in: E. Cancik-Kirschbaum (ed.), 'Proceedings of the Conference `Babylon - Wissenskultur zwischen Orient und Okzident'', Pergamon Museum, Berlin 26-28/6/2008, 229-237

Yellow = Rough location of the Res temple in Uruk
Cyan = Rough location of the Esagila temple in Babylon

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_temples.jpg

From Encyclopedia Iranica:


GANZABARA (treasurer), title of provincial and sub-provincial financial administrators in the Achaemenid empire, extended to workers attached to Achaemenid treasuries; title of financial administrators in Parthian and Sasanian provinces; title of temple administrators in post-exile Judaism and in Hellenistic Babylonia.

Title. The cluster -nz- (rather than -nd- or the unmetathesized -zn-) indicates that the common Old Iranian form was originally non-Persian, so-called Median. It does not occur in any Old Iranian text, but is reconstructed from loanwords and transcriptions in languages of the Achaemenid Empire and its successors: Achaemenid Elamite kanzabara (written ka4-an-za-ba-ra, ka4-in-za-ba-ra, kán-za-bar-ra, kán-za-ba-ra, ka4-za-ba-ra, all in texts from Persepolis); Aramaic gnzbr (in texts from Persepolis, both on tablets written in the vicinity of Persepolis itself and its inscriptions on stone utensils probably written in Arachosia, q.v.) and gzbr (Ezra 1:7, 7:21), Babylonian ganzabaru (written gan-za-ba-ru, gan-za-bar-ri, ga-an-za-ba-ra, gan-zu-bar-ra, in texts from Babylon and Uruk). A Persianized form, *ganδabara-, is reflected in Achaemenid Elamite kandabara (written kán-da-bar-ra, in texts from Persepolis) and perhaps also in Aramaic gdbr (Daniel 3:2, perhaps reflecting internal Aramaic developments rather than Old Iranian dialect variation; see Mancini, p. 49, n. 68). Forms of the title in later Iranian languages include Parthian gnzbr and gznbr, Middle Persian gnzwbr, Book Pahlavi gnčwbl, Turfan Middle Persian gnzwr, Sogdian γznbr, and New Persian ganjūr. It appears as a loanword, for example, in Armenian ganjavor, Sanskrit ganjavara-, Syriac gzbr and gyzbr, Mandaic gʾnzybr, etc. (Hübschmann, p. 126; Lipiński, 1978, p. 237; Mancini, p. 40; S. Shaked in EIr I, p. 261).

....

Temple Personnel. Two Babylonian texts from Hellenistic Uruk, in Babylonia, refer to “treasurers” in the temple administration, once specifically to a group of “treasurers of the temples” (LÚ ganzubarra meŠ ša bīt dingir.meŠ OECT 9 62:3. [155 B.C.E.]; see McEwan, 1981, p. 34)...


-----------------------------------

From the article, "Was the Tower of Babel a Ziggurat?"


"Ziggurat Locations in the Ancient Near East"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/GenZigLocations.jpg

A TOWER THAT REACHES UNTO THE HEAVENS (cf. constellation worship in the early ANE)

That the ziggurat symbolized the connecting link between heaven and earth is quite clear from cuneiform descriptions and reliefs. The biblical language describing “a tower that reaches to the heavens” is quite typical in comparison to the language used to describe the ziggurats (e.g. “Temple of the Stairway to Pure Heaven” (Sippar); “House binding Heaven and Earth” (Nippur); “Temple Linking Heaven and Earth” (Larsa); “Temple of the Foundation Platform of Heaven and Earth” (Babylon, also used of the Dilbat ziggurat); and so on). Mesopotamian ziggurats were typically given names demonstrating that they were intended to serve as “staircases” or “binding” locations between earth and heaven. So we see that a narrative about a tower whose top reached into the heavens fits the times quite well.

"Ur Nammu Atop the Ziggurat at Ur: “a Tower Unto the Heavens”
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/GenUr-Nammu2044-2007.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 07:23
These words may not be exclusive to the Sureth dialect of Aramaic, they may be common to more languages in the Semitic family, they may be loan words, and the usual bit about not taking these too seriously.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dainuta_akkadian.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasalu_akkadian.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasalu_akkadian2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duqququ_akkadian.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daianuta_akkadian.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasula_sureth.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daquqa_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 09:17
The Sureth/Syriac word for urine is no longer used in my particular dialect of Sureth.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/satanu_.jpghttp://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sinatu_akkadian.jpg


Stephen Kaufman:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkad_aram.jpg


SYRIAC/SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tynta_syriac.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tianni_sureth.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 12:06
The Akkadian entry was long for this one, so it is kept to a few relevant parts:


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taru1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taru5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taru4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taru3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tara3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarimu.jpg




SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tara1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tara2.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-16 at 06:23 ----------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asiputu_akkadian.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asuputa.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 14:46
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassa.jpg


AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/himmatu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamaita.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 21:37
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu.jpg



SURETH


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asa.jpg



--------------------------------------------------------


This one is in Stephen Kaufman's paper.

AKKADIAN

Nbk = Nebuchadnezzar II (604 BC – 562 BC)
Nbn = Nabonidus (556 BC – 539 BC)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginu2.jpg



SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginna.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kupru.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kupra.jpg



-------------------------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masitu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masyana.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-16, 23:43
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu2.jpg



SYRIAC



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadda.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-17, 01:45
1.

Mass deportation: the Assyrian resettlement policy, Assyrian empire builders (2011)

Karen Radner
University College London

[C]ontemporary text sources support the notion that the deportees were treated well, as attested for example in a letter from an Assyrian official to his king Tiglatpileser III (744-727 BC):


"As for the Aramaeans about whom the king my lord has written to me: 'Prepare them for their journey!' I shall give them their food supplies, clothes, a waterskin, a pair of shoes and oil. I do not have my donkeys yet, but once they are available, I will dispatch my convoy." (NL 25)

That the state continued to support the deportees once they had reached their destination is clear from another letter of the same author:

"As for the Aramaeans about whom the king my lord has said: 'They are to have wives!' We found numerous suitable women but their fathers refuse to give them in marriage, claiming: 'We will not consent unless they can pay the bride price.' Let them be paid so that the Aramaeans can get married." (NL 26)


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buntuA-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buntuB-1.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bnate-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bnateB-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bnateC-1.jpg



-----------------------------------------------------------------------



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtanu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtanu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtanu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtanu4.jpg


"OTHER" (SURETH/SYRIAC Dialect???)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtana.jpg



-----------------------------------------------------------------------



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/usu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/osa.jpg




-----------------------------------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hangaru.jpg



SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hangarta.jpg



-----------------------------------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ispatu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ispatha.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-17, 05:30
I have not checked these against Stephen Kaufman's list. The Akkadian descriptions contain some interesting info regarding the languages. I do not know how current they are, however.

1
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisru.jpg


SYRIAC AND/OR SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisra.jpg


2
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizzu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizzu2.jpg


SYRIAC AND/OR SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizza.jpg


3
AKKADIAN and SYRIAC AND/OR SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gubbu.jpg


4
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gubnatu.jpg


SYRIAC AND/OR SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gubna.jpg


5
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guhsu_patira.jpg


SYRIAC AND/OR SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patora.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patira.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-17, 06:47
The words for "hair" in Sureth, with possible origins from Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hair_akkadian_sureth.jpg

The ordinary preface applies:

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puberty.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mistana.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-17, 11:18
Somehow, I forget to thank Jean-Paul Sliva (http://www.premiumwanadoo.com/cuneiform.languages/syriac/). Thanks to him, we have the Sureth and Akkadian online dictionaries. Without the Sureth dictionary, the CAD would not have been as much use.


2-21-2011 (AINA) -- The Association Assyrophile de France has announced the completion of the first phase of the online Assyrian dictionary project. The dictionary is available to students, Assyrians and all others interested in the Modern Assyrian language. The project digitized Oraham's Assyrian-English dictionary, and also added French translations for all the words.

Having finished Oraham's dictionary, the project is now adding Maclean's Dictionary, Yoab Benjamin's dictionary and others. The dictionary is also being translated into Portuguese and German.

The next major task is to add audio to the dictionary, with each word being recorded for listening. The project is calling for Assyrian native speakers to volunteer for audio recording the words in the dictionary, and for working on other tasks in the project.

The project had its origins at a conference for foreign languages spoken in France. Mr. Jean-Paul Sliva, of Association Assyrophile, met Olivier Lauffenburger, a talented computer programmer whose many hobbies included the Akkadian and Hittite languages. Mr. Lauffenburger had developed a Hittite website and had thus acquired the skills of dealing with cuneiform characters on screen displays. Association Assyrophile, having quite a few documents about Akkadian (ancient Assyrian), suggested they join their effort. Mr. Lauffenburger agreed and wrote a program to create an Akkadian-English-French dictionary (Akkadian dictionary). Based on this work, Association Assyrophile and Mr. Lauffenburger were quickly able to begin the Assyrian dictionary project in 2006.



------------------------------------------------------------

1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baqqu.jpg


SURETH and/or SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baqa.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barari2.jpg


SURETH and/or SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/twilight.jpg

Also occurs as "bahrā" in Sureth/Syriac.



3
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gadu.jpg


SURETH and/or SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gidhya.jpg



4
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maskanu.jpg



SURETH and/or SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/miskana.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-17 at 05:56 ----------

A few things that should interest the Assyrians here:

1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hakkari.jpg


2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barkho.jpg


3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giwara1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giwara2-1.jpg

shshmuk
2012-07-17, 19:02
Somehow, I forget to thank Jean-Paul Sliva (http://www.premiumwanadoo.com/cuneiform.languages/syriac/). Thanks to him, we have the Sureth and Akkadian online dictionaries.

Good. Because I was wondering where you were taking all these definitions. But you seem to use other dictionaries too. Could you, please, present the list of all your sources (I mean only the dictionaries, as I'm interested in them)?

Thank you.

Humanist
2012-07-17, 22:05
Good. Because I was wondering where you were taking all these definitions. But you seem to use other dictionaries too. Could you, please, present the list of all your sources (I mean only the dictionaries, as I'm interested in them)?

Thank you.


Sure.

1. Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. Available for download in PDF format for free.

2. Sureth and Akkadian online dictionaries.

3. Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Barwar dialect of Sureth.

---------- Post added 2012-07-17 at 16:09 ----------

Forgot to add:

4. The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Humanist
2012-07-17, 23:46
This reminds me of something I have mentioned before, and shared with Dr. Roy King in an email exchange a little over one year ago:

A southern Mesopotamian origin, in my opinion, is now a possibility for the J1* found in the above Assyrian and Arabian men. For if it had persisted in the extreme northern regions (Nineveh and its environs) for many millennia, I believe some traces of its existence among Armenians, Turks, and other populations of the immediate areas beyond the northern Mesopotamian limits would likely have been found.

Since that time, DYS438=11 has been found in northern populations (a few groups in Dagestan, Balanovsky et al.). But, J1* has also been observed, since that time, in relatively significant frequencies among the Marsh Arabs of Iraq and individuals living in SW Iran (Al-Zahery et al.).


Very interesting new DNA results. DYS438=10. The GD should not be taken as an indicator of a very recent relationship, as DYS438=11 has plenty of diversity. For Assyrians, the link with the southern areas is now that much more probable.

Comparing the Saudi man with one of my J1* DYS438=11 ancestral lines:


KSA 12 23 14 10 13-21 11 13 11 14 11 31 19 9 9 11 11 27 14 20 29 15-15-16-18 11 10 20-22 15 13 17 18 34-36 13 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 22-22 19 10 11 13 17 8 12 27 20 15 12 11 14 10 12 12 11
ASY 12 23 14 10 13-20 11 13 11 14 11 31 19 9 9 11 11 27 14 22 27 15-15-16-16 10 10 20-22 16 13 18 18 33-36 13 11 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 21-22 20 10 11 13 16 8 12 28 20 15 12 11 13 11 12 12 11




"In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq"


In the less frequent J1-M267* clade, only marginally affected by events of expansion, Marsh Arabs shared haplotypes with other Iraqi and Assyrian samples, supporting a common local background.

Top 10 J1*, in frequency, from Al-Zahery et al.

Quote:
# Country/Region (Population) N %
1 Iraq (Assyrian) 28 17.9
2 Turkey (Assyrian) 25 16.0
3 Ethiopia (Amhara) 48 10.4
4 Iran (Assyrian) 31 9.7
5 Iran [Khuzestan] 47 8.5
6 Iraq (Marsh Arab) 143 7.0
7 Turkey/Area 4 82 6.1
8 Turkey/Area 3 83 6.0
9 Algeria 20 5.0
10 Yemen 62 4.8

Al-Zahery et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:288

I created this image (map), and posted it on the forum a few months ago, before the 5 cases of S Caucasian J1* w/ DYS388=13 and DYS438=11 were published in Balanovsky et al. Too bad there is no data reported for DYS438 in the Sumerian paper. I contacted Nadia Al-Zahery several months ago, and shared the information regarding J1* with DYS438=11 with her. She did not respond.

[The green area was marked as a very rough center of the known cases up to that point (early Spring, 2011)]


http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=109793&d=1317869923

shshmuk
2012-07-18, 00:11
Sure.

1. Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. Available for download in PDF format for free.

2. Sureth and Akkadian online dictionaries.

3. Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Barwar dialect of Sureth.

---------- Post added 2012-07-17 at 16:09 ----------

Forgot to add:

4. The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Thank you very much!

---------- Post added 2012-07-18 at 02:17 ----------


[B][U]Very interesting new DNA results.....

Humanist, what is known about the T and R2 Y haplogroups of the Assyrians? For example, representatives of which region have them. Or anything else that could shed some light on the relation of the Assyrians and the Armenians of Sasun. Unfortunately, no one of you paid attention on my thread (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php?p=943485#post943485) about it, while it can help understand the Assyrian and Armenian genetic relation.

Humanist
2012-07-18, 04:08
I know some folks likely poke fun (in whatever way) of these attempts at finding links with ancient Mesopotamian culture, and that is fine. Some (many?) are a bit off the wall. When I read similar material, elsewhere, I think the same! I absolutely understand that if one is looking for a link, they will find one, two, or several. I do not believe that many of the links I suggest have a decent chance of actually existing, but I think that a few may. Which ones, I do not know. Throw everything but the kitchen sink, and you are bound to get lucky, right? :) The links, if in the unlikely case they do exist, are certainly not want of ambiguity (I am to blame for some of that). Some links may even be with the ancient Levant (e.g. Galilean for piece of meat was "quppaḏ").

Some of what I post below (what is contained in one Akkadian definition in particular) may not be suitable for some folks.

A bit of background before I post the Akkadian and Sureth terms:

Wikipedia:


The Hoopoe ( /ˈhuːpuː/) (Upupa epops) is a colourful bird that is found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive 'crown' of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family Upupidae. One insular species, the Giant Hoopoe of Saint Helena, is extinct, and the Madagascar subspecies of the Hoopoe is sometimes elevated to a full species. Like the Latin name upupa, the English name is an onomatopoetic form which imitates the cry of the bird.


Hoopoes are distinctive birds and have made a cultural impact over much of their range. They were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt, so they were "depicted on the walls of tombs and temples". They achieved a similar standing in Minoan Crete.[15]

In the Bible, Leviticus 11:13–19, hoopoes were listed among the animals that are detestable and should not be eaten. They are also listed in Deuteronomy (14:18[20]) as not kosher.

Hoopoes also appear in the Quran in Surah Al-Naml 27:20–22 in the following context "And he Solomon sought among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent? (20) I verily will punish him with hard punishment or I verily will slay him, or he verily shall bring me a plain excuse. (21) But he [the Hoopoe] was not long in coming, and he said: I have found out (a thing) that thou apprehendest not, and I come unto thee from Sheba with sure tidings."

Hoopoes were seen as a symbol of virtue in Persia. A hoopoe was the leader of the birds in the Persian book of poems The Conference of the Birds.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hoop_hoop_hoop.jpg

Peacock:
In Babylonia and Persia the Peacock is seen as a guardian to royalty, and is often seen in engravings upon the thrones of royalty.

In Christianity, the peacock is a symbol of eternal life.[7] The Peacock symbolism represents the "all-seeing" church, along with the holiness and sanctity associated with it. Additionally, the Peacock represents resurrection, renewal and immortality within the spiritual teachings of Christianity. Themes of renewal are also linked to alchemical traditions too, as many schools of thought compare the resurrecting phoenix to the modern-day Peacock.

Melek Taus, the Peacock Angel, is the Yazidi name for the central figure of their faith. The Yazidi consider Tawûsê Melek an emanation of God and a benevolent angel who has redeemed himself from his fall and has become a demiurge who created the cosmos from the Cosmic egg. After he repented, he wept for 7,000 years, his tears filling seven jars, which then quenched the fires of hell. In art and sculpture, Tawûsê Melek is depicted as a peacock. However, peacocks are not native to the lands where Tawûsê Melek is worshipped.

A peacock:

https://encrypted-tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRJG5CpJPY81d2dw7JazsaS9JBBJc8Nl v6RXuZdTdlx2pydCtXc



Other various types of Assyrian soups/stews include..."Kipteh (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-il5PFyUOZc)" (Ground beef meatballs flavored with parsley, rice, onion, and spices in a tomato based stew) "Kuba (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qLSdW96ZII4) Hammouth" (Ground beef long meatballs that has an outer cracked wheat shell served in a sour tomato based stew)

Kipteh (Meatball Stew) Source: "Assyrian Food with Mabel Younadam (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-il5PFyUOZc)"

https://encrypted-tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT2iU6qSrhAN0IH1Vb8gtvT5MpRYqjoN 7Jc0ASFoYvqgNkbXrFtQQ

--------------------------------------------------------


This YouTube clip: "How to wear Assyrian Clothing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I)" (skip to around the 6:00 mark). Many of the items now have foreign names for them, unfortunately.

And this, for another view (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlquKpCxAt4) of the costumes.


--------------------------------------------------------

There are many images, so easiest to separate them by Akkadian, and Sureth/Syriac. There was a great deal more I could have posted (probably should have, but it takes a long time to do). Frankly, the possibilities are quite abundant. Hence, the "kitchen sink" comment above. That should not take away, however, from the possibility of something being there. However minute it may in reality be. Anyway, at least it is entertaining (and educational), if nothing else! :) And, of course, nobody is forced to read this thread.


AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusituA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusituB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusituC.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusituD.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusiu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubsu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubsu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubsu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubtu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubtu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubtu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubuttu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubsanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubu5.jpg



SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qopsina.jpg



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kepta.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kosita.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-17 at 22:34 ----------


In Akkadian, this is the closest term I could find to what we call sheep:




AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu_akkadian.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu_akkadian2.jpg



SURETH


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sheep_sureth.jpg


Searching the CAD's volume "I."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu4.jpg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irdu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-18, 09:47
Not a post for all...



More to come on this. For now, this is what I could find. I did not know if this bit from Wikipedia was true (I still do not), but this bit lends it some credence:

Wikipedia:
The famous felt cap worn by the Nochiyaye [Nestorian Assyrians from a specific area] is a white conical cap made of wool-felt material...known as a "Shashta", hence; the tribal nickname B'Shashtu. The Shashta can be worn either with or without a turban, known as a "Shashikta".


LJLA = Late Jewish Literary Aramaic


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/brsws.jpg

Stephen Kaufman, on LJLA:


(2) Late Jewish Literary Aramaic. This literary dialect, only recently recognized, served for the composition of Aramaic parabiblical and liturgical texts (the best known of them being Targum PseudoJonathan, Targum Psalms, and the canonical Targum of Job) and in some cases (Tobit and perhaps others) for the translation into Aramaic of works whose presumed Hebrew or Aramaic original had been lost. Like other literary dialects, it borrows heavily from its forebears, in this case Biblical Aramaic, Jewish Literary Aramaic, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Like most rabbinic materials, the texts have suffered greatly in transmission and often give the impression of massive inconsistency. Recent studies have revealed, however, that this is a real, albeit literary dialect with its own grammar and lexicon, whose lexical affinities point to a close relationship with the Syriac-speaking region.



----------------------------------------------------------


Mesopotamians ate not just when hungry. They ate wool, for example, as punishment for crimes. Here is another example:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/selebutu.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------

The Sureth word for the male specific organ:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_b.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bututtu.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------


"Enrich Your Love Life With Pistachios!" (http://www.medwonders.com/medblogs/general/enrich-your-love-life-with-pistachios--3300.htm)

Austin Scott
Wed, 08 Feb 2012


The importance of aphrodisiac foods was always ignored, till the time human beings actually felt the necessity of such foods to enhance their sex life. It is a fact that the food what you consume can have direct impact on your sex life, which affects your hormones, brain chemistry, energy and stress levels. Some foods have these psychoactive properties, others arouse because they are psychologically suggestive, and some can actually increase blood flow to the genitals. So now the question arises as to whether foods can help fight erectile dysfunction? Though the scientific answer to this is a big “NO”, but there are certain foods which have proved their aphrodisiac properties and they can certainly help you in setting up the energy and arousal to have a steamy session of sex. One such food is “Pistachios”. The pistachio is a member of the Anacardiaceae or commonly known as the cashew family. Archaeological findings indicate that members of the Pistacia genus were being consumed as far back as 6700 BC and today we refer to it as Pistacia Vera.

According to a study recently published in the International Journal of Impotence research; it says that a diet which is rich in pistachio improves sexual function in men and also known to reduce symptoms of erectile dysfunction(ED). A recent clinical study conducted by a researcher at the Atatürk Teaching and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, indicated that pistachios have been shown to improve erectile function in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). This emerging research adds to the list of other health benefits attributed to pistachios, including heart and blood vessel health, Cholesterol control, weight management and blood sugar control. In this study participants were given 100 grams of pistachio everyday for three weeks. To evaluate the findings of the study, a questionnaire was given to all the participants. The results were quite astonishing as the 17 subjects scored 50 percent higher on an erectile function questionnaire compared to their pre-diet scores. The men with an initial ED symptom saw improvements in erectile function, sexual intercourse satisfaction, orgasmic function, overall satisfaction, and sexual desire. More importantly the blood flow in the penis increased 22 percent, as measured by ultrasound devices.

....

The people from Arabic countries have been aware of these aphrodisiac properties of pistachios since ages and they have been consuming this nut since a very long time. And in Lebanon pistachio leaves were used to enhance fertility...



----------------------------------------------------------


The Condensed Encyclopedia of Healing Foods
Michael T. Murray, Joseph Pizzorno, Lara Pizzorno

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pistachio.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------


In Sumerian:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gis_ges.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-18 at 04:18 ----------

OK. I am even getting a chuckle out of this now.


Wikipedia, on the Pistachio:


Archeologists have found evidence from excavations at Jarmo in northeastern Iraq,[1] that pistachio nuts were a common food as early as 6750 BC.[1] The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were said to have contained pistachio trees during the reign of King Merodach-Baladan about 700 BC.[1] The modern pistachio nut P. vera was first cultivated in Western Asia, where it has long been an important crop in cooler parts of Iran and Iraq. It appears in Dioscurides as pistakia πιστάκια, recognizable as P. vera by its comparison to pine nuts.[3] Its cultivation spread into the Mediterranean world by way of Iran from Syria: Pliny in his Natural History asserts that pistacia, "well known among us," was one of the trees unique to Syria, and in another place, that the nut was introduced into Italy by the Roman consul in Syria, Lucius Vitellius the Elder (consul in Syria in 35 CE) and into Hispania at the same time by Flaccus Pompeius.[4] The early sixth-century manuscript De observatione ciborum (On the observance of foods) by Anthimus implies that pistacia remained well known in Europe in Late Antiquity. The pistachio is one of two nuts mentioned in the Bible. The pistachio is mentioned only once, in Genesis 43:11, while the almond is mentioned many times.

More recently, the pistachio has been cultivated commercially in the English-speaking world, in Australia, New Mexico,[5] and in California, where it was introduced in 1854 as a garden tree.[6] David Fairchild of the United States Department of Agriculture introduced hardier cultivars collected in China to California in 1904 and 1905, but it was not promoted as a commercial crop until 1929.[5][7] Walter T. Swingle's pistachios from Syria had already fruited well at Niles by 1917.[8]

The earliest records of pistachio in English are around roughly year 1400, with the spellings "pistace" and "pistacia". The word pistachio comes from medieval Italian pistacchio, which is from classical Latin pistacium, which is from ancient Greek pistákion and pistákē, which is generally believed to be from Middle Persian, although unattested in Middle Persian. Later in Persian, the word is attested in Persian as pista. As mentioned, the tree came to the ancient Greeks from Western Asia.[9]



------------------------------------------------------------


The Sumerogram for the male specific organ:

http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/dr_horrible/12542842/594/320.png



----------------------------------------------------------------



Pistachio

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/Pistachio_macro_whitebackground_NS.jpg/250px-Pistachio_macro_whitebackground_NS.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------------


Wikipedia on the Pine Nut:


Pine nuts are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus). About 20 species of pine produce seeds large enough to be worth harvesting; in other pines the seeds are also edible, but are too small to be of great value as a human food.[1][2][3]

Species and geographic spread

In Asia, two species are widely harvested, Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) in northeast Asia (the most important species in international trade), and Chilgoza Pine (Pinus gerardiana) in the western Himalaya. Four other species, Siberian Pine (Pinus sibirica), Siberian Dwarf Pine (Pinus pumila), Chinese White Pine (Pinus armandii) and Lacebark Pine (Pinus bungeana), are also used to a lesser extent. Afghanistan is an important source of pine nuts.

Pine nuts produced in Europe mostly come from the Stone Pine (Pinus pinea), which has been cultivated for its nuts for over 6,000 years, and harvested from wild trees for far longer. The Swiss Pine (Pinus cembra) is also used to a very small extent.

In North America, the main species are three of the pinyon pines, Colorado Pinyon (Pinus edulis), Single-leaf Pinyon (Pinus monophylla), and Mexican Pinyon (Pinus cembroides). The other eight pinyon species are used to a small extent, as are Gray Pine (Pinus sabineana), Coulter Pine (Pinus coulteri), Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana), Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) and Parry Pinyon (Pinus quadrifolia).

In the United States, pine nuts are mainly harvested by Native Americans, particularly the Uto-Aztecan: Shoshone, Paiute and Hopi, and Washoe tribes.[4] Certain treaties negotiated by tribes and laws in Nevada guarantee Native Americans' right to harvest pine nuts.[5]

Pine Nuts

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Shelled_pine_nuts.jpg/800px-Shelled_pine_nuts.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-18 at 04:23 ----------

Let us not forget the Indo-Europeans:

Proto-Indo-European Etyma


4. Body Parts & Functions

4.492. Penis

dumb- 'tail, penis' (3) (2) (1); reflexes: (3) (2) (1)
guozd(h)o- 'nail, penis' (3) (2) (1)
mut-o-s 'stunted; circumcised' (3) (2) (1)
3: pes- 'penis' (3) (2) (1); reflexes: (3) (2) (1)
pizda- 'vulva' (3) (2) (1); reflexes: (3) (2) (1)

Humanist
2012-07-18, 13:28
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emerald.jpg



SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barqa.jpg


--------------------------------------------------------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rimu.jpg


SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raima.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-18, 15:13
1

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ilqu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aluqa.jpg


2

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daqiqa_ta.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daqiqa.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-18, 17:18
I am very curious about the origin of our word for "tooth."


Sureth

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakaB.jpg


Strange similarity with Hittite:


TOOTH — kaga apparently matches OHG hāko, OE hōk (Laroche, RHA 31 [1973]: 90-91) < *k(o)ng-n-, to which Tischler (T 460) adds Lit. kéngė ‘hook’, Russ. kógot’ ‘claw’.


In Akkadian, these were the only terms that I found, with any sort of relationship to the mouth region/act of speaking, and having some similarity to the Sureth word for tooth:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eqequ.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uquqqu.jpg


This is another Akkadian word, but with no apparent relationship to the mouth.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakku.jpg


Joel 1:6


A vast army of locusts has invaded my land, a terrible army too numerous to count. Its teeth are like lions' teeth, its fangs like those of a lioness.


http://www.scienceandinventions.com/files/2011/04/strange-facts-09.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-18 at 11:40 ----------



AKKADIAN


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daqiqa.jpg

The image for the Akkadian word appears to have gone belly up in the post above. Posting again:

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daqiqa_ta_.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-18 at 12:11 ----------

The Melammu Project


Babylonian Empire as a continuation of the Assyrian Empire

Nabonidus calls Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal his royal predecessors.

VAB 4 2211.39-48:

I mobilized my extensive troops … to build Ehulhul, the temple of Sin my lord and supporter in Harran, which Assurbanipal, king of Assyria, son of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, my royal predecessor, had built.

Source
VAB 4 2211.39-48

Humanist
2012-07-18, 20:44
Not at all confident about these. But, posting anyway.

1
AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/diksu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daisha.jpg


2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dilitu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC (playing music, participating in athletic contests...) A sporting event would be "talta."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tauli.jpg


3
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dessu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/desu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/desu2.jpg


4
SURETH/SYRIAC

For the first word, below, I would say "dešu dešu." Meaning, "this place is jam-packed." Perhaps my particular form of the expression is a loan? My parents are Assyrians from Iran. Or, perhaps I am just saying it wrong.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dasdusi.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dusha.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-19, 02:10
AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/himmatu.jpg
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamaita.jpg


Akkadian Himmatu, Sureth Hamaita, and Zoroastrian (Persian) Humata, Haoma?


"The Role of Fire in Parsi Ritual"

E.S. Drower


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/humata.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-19, 05:51
2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dilitu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC (playing music, participating in athletic contests...) A sporting event would be "talta."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tauli.jpg

Adding to AKKADIAN, for the above entry:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalilu.jpg


-------------------------------------------------------------------



Again, not confident about these. But, then again, what do I know.

1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uggatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raibu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raabu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rgadta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ragughi.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibihu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibihu2.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iabi.jpg



3
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalapu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/diliptu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tl_tlb.jpg


MELAMMU PROJECT (Incantation Bowl)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dilibat.jpg



4
AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raazu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC (listed as suspected Arabic/Kurdish loan in Khan)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/razi2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/razi1.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-19, 08:48
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uggatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raibu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raabu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rgadta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ragughi.jpg


Adding to SURETH/SYRIAC, for the above entry:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rgd_rgrg.png



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




The traditional headdress of our women is also interesting:

http://www.lasierra.edu/typo3temp/pics/70be60f0ee.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/6812516397_227777684f_b.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/6812507065_51627edf14_o.jpg

http://www.christiansofiraq.com/headwear.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/IMG_0146.jpg


A residence of eight years in Persia, among the Nestorian Christians...

Justin Perkins
(1836-1843)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nestorian_3.jpg


Apologies. She was inadvertently guillotined.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nestorianA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nestorianB.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-19, 11:41
More to come on this. For now, this is what I could find. I did not know if this bit from Wikipedia was true (I still do not), but this bit lends it some credence:

Wikipedia:


The famous felt cap worn by the Nochiyaye [Nestorian Assyrians from a specific area] is a white conical cap made of wool-felt material...known as a "Shashta", hence; the tribal nickname B'Shashtu. The Shashta can be worn either with or without a turban, known as a "Shashikta".

LJLA = Late Jewish Literary Aramaic


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/brsws.jpg

Stephen Kaufman, on LJLA:


(2) Late Jewish Literary Aramaic. This literary dialect, only recently recognized, served for the composition of Aramaic parabiblical and liturgical texts (the best known of them being Targum PseudoJonathan, Targum Psalms, and the canonical Targum of Job) and in some cases (Tobit and perhaps others) for the translation into Aramaic of works whose presumed Hebrew or Aramaic original had been lost. Like other literary dialects, it borrows heavily from its forebears, in this case Biblical Aramaic, Jewish Literary Aramaic, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Like most rabbinic materials, the texts have suffered greatly in transmission and often give the impression of massive inconsistency. Recent studies have revealed, however, that this is a real, albeit literary dialect with its own grammar and lexicon, whose lexical affinities point to a close relationship with the Syriac-speaking region.

Count this as an improbable etymology.

Wikipedia (only certain paragraphs):


Sin (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: dŠEŠ.KI, dNANNA) was the god of the moon in Mesopotamian mythology. Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna's/Sin's worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north.

The pre-classical sign LAK-32 later collapses with ŠEŠ (the ideogram for "brother"), and the classical Sumerian spelling is dŠEŠ.KI, with the phonetic reading na-an-na. The technical term for the crescent moon could also refer to the deity, du4.SAKAR. Later, the name is spelled logographically as DNANNA.

He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means "lord of wisdom". During the period (c.2600-2400 BCE) that Ur exercised a large measure of supremacy over the Euphrates valley, Sin was naturally regarded as the head of the pantheon. It is to this period that we must trace such designations of Sin as "father of the gods", "chief of the gods", "creator of all things", and the like. The "wisdom" personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astronomy or the practice of astrology, in which the observation of the moon's phases is an important factor.

Nanna's chief sanctuary at Ur was named E-gish-shir-gal ("house of the great light"). It was at Ur that the role of the En Priestess developed. This was an extremely powerful role held by a princess, most notably Enheduanna, daughter of King Sargon of Akkad, and was the primary cult role associated with the cult of Nanna/Sin.[3]

Sin also had a sanctuary at Harran, named E-khul-khul ("house of joys"). The cult of the moon-god spread to other centers, so that temples to him are found in all the large cities of Babylonia and Assyria. A sanctuary for Sin with Syriac inscriptions invoking his name dating to the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE was found at Sumatar Harabesi in the Tektek mountains, not far from Harran and Edessa.

Sumatar Harabesi is indeed very near to Harran (9.61 miles north of it).


Some terrific material, including mention of Mandaeans and Syriac:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_A.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_B.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_C.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_D.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_E.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_F.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_G.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_H.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_I.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_J.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_K.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_L.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_M.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_N.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_O.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_P.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_Q.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_R.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_S.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sin_T.jpg


The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran
Tamara M. Green


---------------------------------------------------------------


Comprehensive Aramaic Lexikon. "Mar Lahe," Hatra:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mar_lahe.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-19, 16:19
Wikipedia:


The Peshitta (Classical Syriac: ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‎ for "simple, common, straight, vulgate", Arabic:"بسيطة", sometimes called the Syriac Vulgate) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.

The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated into Syriac from the Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century AD. The New Testament of the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become the standard by the early 5th century.

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/peshitta-1.jpg


The JBAg (Jewish Babylonian Gaonic period) definition comes close to the fifth Akkadian term down:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu9.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-19, 17:26
In addition to the fact that some of these words look like they may be genuinely Akkadian in origin, the other factor that should be considered is that the Akkadian words I am posting in this thread are mostly of one variety. That, of course, would be Babylonian. The same thing Dr. Stephen Kaufman noted nearly forty years ago, in his paper on the "Akkadian influences on Aramaic." I doubt it is a coincidence.

Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians

Published: July 18, 2012

Grugni et al.


The network of the M267* haplotypes (Figures 2 and S2) confirms the previously described non star-like substructure [43] enlightening a recent expansion (5.5±2.9 kya, Table S7) of the cluster characterized by the DYS388-13 and DYS390-23 repeats including North-East Turkish and Assyrian (from Turkey, Iraq and Iran) Y-chromosomes. This cluster harbours also virtually all the M267* Marsh Arab Y chromosomes supporting the previously proposed origin in northern Mesopotamia for the Iraqi Marsh Arabs [20]. However, only a further subdivision of this paragroup will allow a better understanding of times and ways of migrations marked by the M267* Y chromosomes.



J2-M172 is the main Iranian haplogroup (22.5%), almost entirely (92.9%) represented by J2a-M410 sub-clades.

The majority of the M410 chromosomes are J2a-Page55 and mainly represented by its main sub-clades M530, M47 and M67. In particular, the recently described J2a-M530 [46] shows high frequencies in the Zoroastrians of Yazd (17.6%) and Tehran (15.4%), and in the Persians of Yazd (17.0%). J2a-M47 reaches frequencies higher than 5% in the Zoroastrians of Yazd (8.8%), in Mazandaran, Khuzestan and Fars (~7%), while it is absent in the Assyrians of Azerbaijan Gharbi and Tehran, in Sistan Baluchestan and in Hormozgan (except for the Qeshm group).

Humanist
2012-07-19, 23:46
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puzru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puzru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puzru3.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puza.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puzana2.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paqaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paqaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paqaru3.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC (included in Kaufman's list of words, but not for Syriac)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buqara.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-19 at 18:39 ----------

First, recall this post: Qashqai (http://www.forumbiodiversity.org/showpost.php?p=918157&postcount=334).

Continuing a theme that has been seen before, regarding Assyrian and W Iranian uniparental affinities.


Dienekes:


UPDATE VII: I have also run MCLUST over the haplogroup frequency data over the MDS representation of the distance matrix. The maximum number of 10 clusters occurred with 5 MDS dimensions retained. Population assignments in the 10 clusters can be found in the table below:


Iran/Azerbaijan_Gharbi+Tehran_(Assyrian) 1
Iran/Lorestan_(Lur) 1

Among the three populations in cluster 1 were the Assyrians and Lurs.

Wikipedia on the Lurs:


Lurs (also Lors, Lori/Persian:لُر) are an Iranic people living mainly in south-western Iran. Their population is estimated at above four million. They occupy Lorestan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Khuzestan, Isfahan, Fars, Bushehr and Kuh-Gilu-Boir Ahmed provinces.[3] The Lur people mostly speak Lori, a Southwestern Iranian language, closely related to Persian.[4] "Luri and Bakhtiari are much more closely related to Persian, than Kurdish."[4]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/Span_of_lorish_language.png/220px-Span_of_lorish_language.png

Humanist
2012-07-20, 03:32
Not a post for all...

The Sureth word for the male specific organ:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_b.jpg


Some may not wish to read this post.

Virginity in Ancient Mesopotamia
JERROLD S. COOPER

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/virginity_mesopotamia.jpg

SYRIAC/SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/btuluta.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-20, 04:40
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sheep_sureth.jpg


On the Generation of Administrative Texts at the Eanna of Uruk
Michael Kozuh


The Eanna's Administrative Texts

Legal and administrative texts from the Eanna temple of Uruk date from the end of the time of Assyrian domination of Babylonia in the mid-650s BC until the reign of the Achaemenid king Darius I, with a clear break in his second year and sporadict exts thereafter. The majority of Eanna texts derive from both quasi-legitimate excavations and outright pillaging of the site of Uruk-modern Warka, in southern Iraq during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

....

Using these administrative texts, we find two temple departments or the managemento f sacrificial lambs: the fattening stable (Bab. btt uri) and the offering shepherd (Bab. re'i sattukki). The Eanna sent its all lambs either to one department or the other, yet what differentiates the two remains unclear. Robbins suggests that the departments fattened the lambs indifferent ways, referring to Seleucid era ritual texts f rom the Res- temple of Uruk, which distinguish between milk-fed and barley-feds acrificiall ambs.r0T his is quite plausible, but I am unable to establish a link between a feeding routine and either department of the Eanna with certainty.

....

For the first juncture, the Eanna generated texts when it received lambs from external sources and placed them under the responsibility of the offering shepherd The majority of these lambs came from outside animal breeders who delivered lambs to the Eanna under contract; others came from the royal administration or as irbu income. At this juncture, one assumes thet'the temple marked the receipt of lambs with a legal text, which served to formalize the completion of an outsider's payment or donation to the temple. The outside supplier would have kept these texts. so it is not surprising that we have no examples of them from Eanna archive.


....

[M]any genres of Mesopotamian texts make reference to the completion or absence of offerings as a way of expressing the condition of society. With this in mind, tabular sacrificer ecordsw orked as historical blueprints for judging the well-being of Uruk over a period of at least twenty-eight years, providing Babylonian scholars the opportunity to correlate the effect of particular historical events with the offering system of the Eanna. Finally to give a more pragmatic reason Beaulieu has argued that an increase in the daily offerings of the Eanna took place under Nebuchadnezzare, specially regarding what he calls "imperial gods."; Tabular sacrifice records may have given the Eanna a historical base point from which to work with the crown in increasing offerings.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zuza.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-20, 05:44
Parallels have been drawn between the Mandaean baptism ceremony and what is contained below. We do the same (?), as far as I know. The three points are in bold.


If she (Ishtar) will not grant thee her release,
To Tammuz, the lover of her youth,
Pour out pure waters, pour out fine oil;
With a festival garment deck him that he may play on the flute of lapis lazuli,
That the votaries may cheer his liver. [his spirit]
Belili [sister of Tammuz] had gathered the treasure,
With precious stones filled her bosom.
When Belili heard the lament of her brother, she dropped her treasure,
She scattered the precious stones before her,
"Oh, my only brother, do not let me perish!
On the day when Tammuz plays for me on the flute of lapis lazuli, playing it for me with the porphyry ring.
Together with him, play ye for me, ye weepers and lamenting women!
That the dead may rise up and inhale the incense."


Assyrian Baptism

By Yoab Benjamin


Baptismal rites (Rushma-d mamuditha) are usually performed when the child is forty days old, at the beginning of the "second period" of life. Sometimes the child is baptized earlier, especially if he is expected to die. Accompanied by his parents, grandparents, and godparents, the child, is taken to church. The godparents present the child, wrapped in a white cloth, to the deacon, along with the baptismal crown (klila -- a white silk ribbon).

The priest [qasha] alternates recitals of certain Psalms (mazmureh) and prayers (slawatha) with the deacon [shamasha], and then consecrates the baptismal water in the gurna (font). Holding the sliwa (cross) and the iwangaliyon (gospels), the priest makes the sign of the cross three times over the water, to which he adds three drops of sacred oil. The deacon then presents the child to the priest, who immerses him three times into the font, saying, "ebshim awa, wawra, w-rukha-d qudhsha" ("in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and the Holy Ghost"). The priest then anoints the infant's entire body, and makes the sign of the cross on his forehead. The deacon takes the child and hands him back to his godparents, who dress the child in his baptismal clothes and tie the crown around his head. The ceremony is followed by a feast at the parents' home.


A residence of eight years in Persia, among the Nestorian Christians...

Justin Perkins
(1836-1843)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baptism.jpg

shshmuk
2012-07-20, 11:09
Parallels have been drawn between the Mandaean baptism ceremony and what is contained below. We do the same (?), as far as I know. The three points are in bold.

....Pour out pure waters, pour out fine oil;
With a festival garment deck him....



These three actions are not peculiar to the baptismal rite of the Nestorian Church only. This is an all-Christian rite, done also both in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, for example, Greek, Armenian, Coptic etc, etc.

Besides, it would be more correct to think that Mandaeans took these baptismal customs from the Christians, not the contrary, because:


Suggestions that Mandaeism had a pre-Christian origin are rejected by most scholars.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandaeism#History)

Humanist
2012-07-20, 21:29
These three actions are not peculiar to the baptismal rite of the Nestorian Church only. This is an all-Christian rite, done also both in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, for example, Greek, Armenian, Coptic etc, etc.


Thanks. Did not know that.


--------------------------------------------------


The CAD referred to the Sureth/Syriac word in the definition.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akasu.jpg



SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kis.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-20 at 15:46 ----------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biritu.jpg



SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/berjata.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-20 at 16:02 ----------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu.jpg


SURETH

I cannot find it in the sources. There is a word "dulla," which means something similar to indifference.

Humanist
2012-07-20, 23:43
Posted previously:


The land most famous in the ancient Near East for its shepherds and sheep was Assyria. A bas-relief on the stairways of the Apadana at Persepolis portrays the subject peoples of the Achaemenid Empire delivering their tribute to king Xerxes. Each region brings the tribute upon which the economic strength of that nation is based. The Lydians, for example, with their long side-locks, deliver measures of gold-dust to the Great King. The Assyrians are there too. They bring fleeces and live sheep. (John Hicks, The Persians (Time Life, 1978) pp. 36-7) The Assyrian kings of the Neo-Assyrian epoch were regularly portrayed wearing robes trimmed with woollen fringes and grasping in their right hands the Assyrian symbol of royal authority and power — the shepherd’s crook. The pharaohs of Egypt also used the shepherd’s crook as a symbol of kingly authority, but its use in this context appears to have been unknown before the Hyksos Age.

Ages in Alignment by Emmet Sweeney

Humanist
2012-07-21, 01:02
Probably nothing of significance, but posting anyway.


A residence of eight years in Persia, among the Nestorian Christians
Justin Perkins

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hodra.jpg


------------------------------------------


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutra.jpg



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutara.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutara2.jpg

shshmuk
2012-07-21, 01:19
Yervand Lalayan has an ethnographic study on the Assyrians of Vaspurakan (Van's region). The study was published before the 1915 massacres, so I don't know what happened to those Assyrians. They were Nestorians.

Speaking about their dresses, Lalayan says that men wore high, cylindric and white head-dresses which resemble the old Assyrian head-dresses found on the bas-reliefs. He also speaks about the feathers that you have shown already. But he says those feathers were worn on festal occasions. Lalayan says that those Assyrian men didn't cut their hair, keeping it long and usually making 2 or 3 plaits. :)

I thought this could be interesting for you.

Humanist
2012-07-21, 01:29
Yervand Lalayan has an ethnographic study on the Assyrians of Vaspurakan (Van's region). The study was published before the 1915 massacres, so I don't know what happened to those Assyrians. They were Nestorians.

Speaking about their dresses, Lalayan says that men wore high, cylindric and white head-dresses which resemble the old Assyrian head-dresses found on the bas-reliefs. He also speaks about the feathers that you have shown already. But he says those feathers were worn on festal occasions. Lalayan says that those Assyrian men didn't cut their hair, keeping it long and usually making 2 or 3 plaits. :)

I thought this could be interesting for you.

Thanks, my friend. Yes, it most definitely is. :)


-------------------------------------------------------------------


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sogiotho.jpg

Monks of Mount Izla
Dale A. Johnson
2004

Humanist
2012-07-21, 03:01
Perhaps "back?"

1
AKKADIAN (Syriac is referred to)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hansatu_hassa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hansu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanasu2.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassa2.jpg


2
AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habita.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-21, 05:15
Another fair warning that what is contained below may not be suitable for all. But, it is necessary, as it is relevant to the Akkadian, Sureth/Syriac, and Mandaic words presented:






In ritual context, the appearance of this blood was insured by cutting the throat of the sacrificial animal (nakasu). One of Sennacherib's reliefs shows a slaughtering operation in progress. The animal, hind feet tethered, was laid on its back on a flat surface elevated above the ground so that the head hung down, exposing the neck. An assistant held the forelegs fast, while the slaughterer cut the throat over a waiting vessel, holding the animal's mouth with his free hand. The relief shows this operation being performed on what looks like an ordinary table. In cultic texts, the locus for slaughter is described as a maskittu.

The procedure by itself was adequate only for small, docile animals. Bulls, at least, had to be Med hrst before the throat could be safely cut. The actual slaughter of a bull was carried out with a special knife, with which the animal was stabbed, producing a characteristic bellow. Then the bull was ready to be laid out for the rest of the operation. While all this was being done, the name of the god(s) and/or goddess(es) who was (were) to receive the meat was (were) invoked to insure that uninvited guests did not share in the offering.

THE TECHNIQUES OF THE SACRIFICE OF ANIMALS IN ANCIENT ISRAEL AND ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA: NEW INSIGHTS THROUGH COMPARISON, PART 1

JOANN SCURLOCK


AKKADIAN (Syriac word mentioned.)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harurtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsitu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harasuta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hurasa.jpg


MANDAIC


Masiqta - The Masiqta , or raising up are primarely celebrated for the service of the newly departed, and food are eaten in the name of the departed, and a priest takes his position in the participation of the rite. The most important role this ritual serve are to bestow upon the departed a spiritual garment, clean and eternal nourishment, lustration in the holy water of life and praises sung in his name to the great counsel of heaven, to which the dead soul are transported by the help of the Sun-boat. The ritual in overall resemble also the Shamanic practises of certain peoples all over the world, which reach back into the very birth of our civilisations.

Masiqta is the Mandaean sacrament which is most resemblant of the Christian Mass, it involves anointment as well as the celebration of a certain sacramental meal which is symbolic to the distribution of the vitality and divinity of the Great Adam in his race, a saviour who primarely has his work through men and women, but most of all in the Elect priests - an observance and contemplation of being one with this great being, and it being one with oneself through the ingestion of the sacred foods. It is a ritual that is resemblant of the Christian obsevance of the Eucharist on the exterior, involving the distribution and ingestion of bread and wine, but also an interior - descriptive of the redemptive dimension of participation in the mysteries.




Edit: The Mandaic word may have nothing to do with this. As they do not sacrifice, as far as I know. We, however, do. Or, at least did, until not too long ago.

Humanist
2012-07-21, 09:50
I have no idea what the origin of our word for fruit is. It may be a loan from another language (e.g. Farsi). If it looks familiar to anybody out there, please consider replying to this post. It is from my dialect. I do not know if it is shared by many other dialects. It is not in the Barwar, Iraq dialect. That is why I suspect a relatively recent loan.

Sureth

iaimiš: fruit (I pronounce it "yemish")


The ordinary word for fruit in AKKADIAN:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fruit.jpg



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Some other terms from AKKADIAN (my likely futile attempt at finding an Akkadian etymology for "fruit" in my dialect :) ):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/essu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/essu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umsu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umasu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umisam.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ummu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ummu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-21, 13:08
Language Death and Dying Reconsidered: the Role of Late Babylonian as a Vernacular Language

Version 01 Juli 2011
Johannes Hackl (University of Vienna, Department of Oriental Studies)

Abstract:
This contribution intends to engage with the intricate question of whether Late Babylonian was a spoken language or merely a literary language, an issue that has been discussed at length by numerous scholars and from different points of view. It examines selected linguistic features drawn from Neo- and Late Babylonian letters and legal documents and argues that the development of these features throughout the history of Akkadian during the first millennium BC confirms the influence of native speakers. It may thus give fresh impetus to the underlying discussion as to when (Late) Babylonian ceased to be a spoken language.

....

The linguistic evidence presented here makes it difficult to escape the conclusion that such complex developments were propelled by the influence of native speakers. Although Aramaic was arguably the dominant vernacular in Babylonia, at least from the second half of the first millennium BC onwards, it does not seem to have played a decisive rôle in these developments. Especially the fact that Aramaic influence is quite limited at the time the linguistic features in question emerged, lends considerable support to the hypothesis that they are not encouraged by language contact.

....

To conclude then, in light of the linguistic developments outlined in section 3 and the external factors discussed in the present section, the entire Late Babylonian subphase can certainly not be described as a dead language. One fact appears indisputable, however. Babylonian was on the wane, slowly, but inevitably giving way to Aramaic which had, by that time, become the dominant vernacular in the Ancient Near East. After a period of prolonged language contact and transfer between the two vernaculars, it seems that Late Babylonian eventually ceased to be spoken by the second century BC. Aramaic filled that gap, if one existed, and Late Babylonian turned into a monolithic language that had merely limited literary status. As a written language it survived into the first millennium AD, until it disappeared entirely after its 2500 year history.


---------------------------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sungirtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapalginu.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-21 at 07:13 ----------


Sureth

iaimiš: fruit (I pronounce it "yemish")


This is the Sumerian word for summer:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emees.png


Wikipedia:


The Debate between Winter and Summer or Myth of Emesh [Summer] and Enten [Winter] is a Sumerian creation myth, written on clay tablets in the mid to late 3rd millennium BC.[1]

Seven "debate" topics are known from the Sumerian literature, falling in the category of 'disputations'; some examples are: the debate between sheep and grain; the debate between bird and fish; the tree and the reed; and the dispute between silver and copper, etc.[2] These topics came some centuries after writing was established in Sumerian Mesopotamia. The debates are philosophical and address humanity's place in the world. Some of the debates may be from 2100 BC.[3]

....

The story takes the form of a contest poem between two cultural entities first identified by Kramer as vegetation gods, Emesh and Enten. These were later identified with the natural phenomena of Winter and Summer.[12] The location and occasion of the story is described in the introduction with the usual creation sequence of day and night, food and fertility, weather and seasons and sluice gates for irrigation.[1]


If these were still being told in Mesopotamia in the late 1st millennium BCE, perhaps a Sumerian origin is not out of the question. Geoffrey Khan has suggested there may be words of Sumerian origin in our lexicon.

Humanist
2012-07-21, 14:53
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalab_me.jpg



SYRIAC/SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalbad_mia.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunu.jpg



SYRIAC/SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tqina.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-21, 16:36
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tepu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tepu2a.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC (Only "tapi." In this context it means to contract a disease/sickness.)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapi.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-21, 18:32
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halu.jpg




SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halu_sureth.jpg




2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halisu.jpg



SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xls_.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-22, 01:20
Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians

Viola Grugni et al.

Forgot to post this:

Assyrians, Iraqi Arabs, and Marsh Arabs in cyan. So, Assyrians are between Baghdad and West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, here. Points "B" and "A" respectively, on the second image below. Urmia is the default location from Wikipedia, for West Azerbaijan, Iran. It is the capital of the province.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/grugni_et_al_B.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iraq_azeri_baghdadi.jpg

Fereshte
2012-07-22, 01:29
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halu.jpg

In modern-day Levant, people still say 'khalu' for the maternal uncle, which most likely originates from the Akkadian word posted above? It would be interesting to have research done on the extensity of the influence Akkadian/Syriac has had on Levantine Arabic. :) I reckon there's substantial influence, especially grammar-wise.

Humanist
2012-07-22, 02:02
In modern-day Levant, people still say 'khalu' for the maternal uncle, which most likely originates from the Akkadian word posted above? It would be interesting to have research done on the extensity of the influence Akkadian/Syriac has had on Levantine Arabic. :) I reckon there's substantial influence, especially grammar-wise.

Thanks, Fereshte. Very useful information. Interestingly, the other Aramaic dialect (according to the CAL), with a similar form for maternal uncle ("hala"), is the dialect of Palmyra. This is extremely near to where Kitchen et al. suggested Semitic/Akkadian may have originated (second below).

Palmyra (not far from the Euphrates)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palmyra.jpg


Kitchen et al.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitchen.jpg


I am also curious whether it tells us anything about the society back then. The traditions surrounding Sargon of Akkad come to mind. Please see below:

Wikipedia


Sargon survives as a legendary figure into the Neo-Assyrian literature of the Early Iron Age. A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess. In the Neo-Assyrian account Sargon's birth and his early childhood are described thus:


My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu, which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and ... years I exercised kingship.

Humanist
2012-07-22, 03:12
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gusuru.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasora.jpg


2
AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gerista_garistu.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-22, 06:52
First one is from Geoffrey Khan's lecture on the Sureth language:


1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abullu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bila.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarammu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taranu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarama.jpg



3
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tibnu.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tebna.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-22, 11:16
From Geoffrey Khan's work on the Barwar dialects (albeit with different Sureth dialects).

1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adru.jpg



SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bidra.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikkatu-1.jpg



SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siktad.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-23, 00:28
From Razib's blog. You have to love the ignorance of some (not Razib, of course, as he called this individual out). You can certainly question the amount of genetic material that has survived through the generations, from that far back, but the use of the name in the form of Assurayu, Surayu, Suraya, etc. is attested. No need for the "Assyrians." Unless other groups wish to have their names enclosed in quotations. Such as "Palestinians," "Syrians," "Egyptians," "Greeks," etc., it is unfair to extend such practice in the case of the Assyrians.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/idurar-1.jpg



------------------------------------------------------------------------


Posted in the language thread, but not in this one, I do not believe.

From Geoffrey Khan's "Remarks on the Historical Background of the Modern Assyrian Language."


In Modern Assyrian the past verb is inflected by a series of suffixes that contain the preposition l-, e.g. grišle ‘he pulled’, grišli ‘I pulled’, qimle ‘he arose’, qimli ‘I arose’. In literary Syriac, by contrast, the past is normally expressed by a different form of verb, which has a different set of suffixes...The use of inflectional endings with the preposition l- on past verbs is already attested in Aramaic documents from the Achaemenid period datable to the 5th century B.C., e.g.



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/smyly.jpg


This verbal form is in origin a passive construction consisting of a passive participle and an agentive phrase. More examples of this passive type construction are occasionally found in later forms of Aramaic datable to the first millennium A.D. such as Mandaic and Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic. The construction is sporadically attested also in Syriac. In all these types of Aramaic, however, the past is far more frequently expressed by the active verbal form qṭal. The passive type forms are likely to be reflections of the contemporary spoken vernacular that have infiltrated the standard literary language. It has generally been assumed that the passive type of past verbal form with the inflectional suffixes containing the presposition l- entered Aramaic in the Achaemenid period under the influence of Old Persian, which contain similar passive constructions. However, there are some features of the examples of this construction surviving in Syriac that suggest that it developed with a life of its own in the spoken language.

Humanist
2012-07-23, 03:57
Originally Posted by Humanist

From Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular of Barwar:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suraya_sureth.jpg

The Assyriologist Simo Parpola on Assyrian identity (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4) (bits pertaining to Asurayu --> Surayu, and Asureth --> Sureth).


Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (Volume 1, A, Part II)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_suraya_.jpg


Sureth
Assyrian (man) : Suraya (as in the bit from Khan, above).
Assyrian (woman) : Suraita

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assuru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assuru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assuru3.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surith.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surith2.jpg


In my dialect (from Iran), we do not call the vernacular "Sureth." We call it "Sura." Diacritical marks not displayed.