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ZephyrousMandaru
2012-07-23, 03:14
I recently discovered a dialect of Neo-Aramaic called Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic. Like Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, it belongs to the Eastern branch of Aramaic. I think this was one of the dialects spoken by the Iraqi Jews.

From Wikipedia


The Jewish inhabitants of a wide area from northern Iraq, eastern Turkey and north western Iran mostly spoke various dialects of modern Aramaic. The turmoil near the end of World War I and resettlement in Israel in 1951 (when eight families from Bijil moved to the new Jewish state) led to the decline of these traditional languages. This particular and distinct dialect of Jewish Neo-Aramaic was spoken in the villages of Bijil, Barzan and Shahe. It was known as Bijili until recently.

The last native speaker of Bijil Neo-Aramaic died in 1998. The remaining second-language speakers are all related and over 70 years of age, and most from Barzan. The first language of these speakers is either Hebrew or Kurdish, and some also speak Arabic or another Neo-Aramaic dialect. Thus, the language is effectively extinct.

Not enough evidence about Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic has been gathered to establish a connection with other Neo-Aramaic dialects. It may be related to Lishanid Noshan, which has clusters around Arbil to the south east of Barzan. There may be some similarities between Barzani and the subdialect of Lishanid Noshan formerly spoken in the village of Dobe, 50 km north of Arbil. The Sandu dialect of Jewish Neo-Aramaic is quite similar to Barzani. However, studies suggest that it has more in common with Lishana Deni. There is evidence that the language was also spoken in the near-by village of Nerim, but no speaker from that village remains.

There are some rare texts written in Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic.

Humanist
2012-07-23, 04:32
Geoffrey Khan (6:15 of the video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9kpOHmt4Pg)):


Another way in which the morphology of the infinitive forms differ from Syriac in the modern Assyrian dialect is in the vowel pattern. For example, in most dialects, there is the vowel "o," in the infinitive of some of the verbal conjugations. Where, in Syriac, this is not found. This feature of the modern dialects, which distinguishes them from literary Syriac may have developed in antiquity due to contact with Akkadian. Since Akkadian, especially the northern Assyrian dialect of Akkadian had similar vowel patterns in infinitives.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/infinitives_khan.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-23, 05:56
I recently discovered a dialect of Neo-Aramaic called Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic. Like Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, it belongs to the Eastern branch of Aramaic. I think this was one of the dialects spoken by the Iraqi Jews.

From Wikipedia

Hey. Thanks. Yeah. This is true for the Jews in the north. Often referred to as Kurdish Jews. The Jews of the central and south regions of Mesopotamia, at least before the Mongols, would have spoken a dialect more similar to Mandaic (i.e. a SE Aramaic dialect such as Koiné Babylonian or Babylonian Jewish).

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-07-23, 08:14
Hey. Thanks. Yeah. This is true for the Jews in the north. Often referred to as Kurdish Jews. The Jews of the central and south regions of Mesopotamia, at least before the Mongols, would have spoken a dialect more similar to Mandaic (i.e. a SE Aramaic dialect such as Koiné Babylonian or Babylonian Jewish).

Neo-Mandaic is also listed as an endangered language here.

http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/4659

It seems the objective of this project, is to preserve languages in threat of dying out.

Humanist
2012-07-23, 08:39
Also, from Lady Drower's "The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore." 1937


This, kneaded in the hand and baked in ashes like the fatira is a roll about 4 inches long. In a recent article ('The Kaprana' in Orient and Occident l , The Gaster Anniversary Volume, London, Taylor's Foreign Press, 1937) I have pointed out the similarity of the sa [dough] to the Nestorian [Assyrian Christian] kaprana, a dough object of identical shape which plays a part in the Qurbana, and appears to be a relic of some ancient fertility and life cult. That the sa is a phallic emblem one would suspect from its form and size. The reference which puzzled Lidzbarski (Q. 107), pihla d *l shum hiia pla, obviously refers to it.

....

The Nestorian dukhrana with its distribution in the church of bread and other foods and of meat by the church door, its reciting of names of the dead, and the use of the kaprana (i.e. the sa [dough] or phallus) in the qurbana, is close to Mandaean ritual in many particulars. The word dukhrana is also applied to a love-feast, or public distribution of meat which follows the dukhrana in church. In this, every member of the community shares.

I should have quoted the above post when discussing the Sureth terms for the male specific organ. As well as discussion of the terms related to virginity, Ishtar, etc.

I am not sure if the "h" is an "ḥ." If it is the latter, in my very poor Mesopotamian Aramaic, perhaps it would translate as follows: "The dough has cooled (piḥla?), its life (ḥiya?) has fallen (pila?)."

Of course, that is only (an attempt at a) literal translation by an unqualified (illiterate) speaker of the language. And, much, I assume, would be lost in translation, as far as the meaning of the expression goes.

In the Barwar dialect of Sureth (Khan's volumes), I came across these words as well (the "x" = "ḥ")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pixla.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pl.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pila.jpg


As always, the below bit does not prove a thing. Simply sharing a fact.

Women of Babylon: Gender and Representation in Mesopotamia
Zainab Bahrani


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ishtar_phallus.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-23 at 03:50 ----------


Neo-Mandaic is also listed as an endangered language here.

http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/4659

It seems the objective of this project, is to preserve languages in threat of dying out.

Yes. As tragic as it is, it may be effectively extinct within a generation or two. The fate of our vernaculars will not be much different.

Humanist
2012-07-23, 10:07
Description
Found at Warka, the ruin city of the ancient city of Erech, mentioned in Genesis 10:10. This is a votive, cone-shaped phallic symbol, made by the priests of the temple of the Goddess Ishtar, the Goddess of Love, and sold to the visiting pilgrims who thrust it into a hole between the bricks of the temple wall as an offering to the welfare of the king. Thus a part of the temple income was derived.


Link (http://librarycollections.stevens.edu/archive/fullsize/86f1f27d58ad3411911b4ed66208f06e.jpg) (some may find this offensive)

Source: Archival collections at Stevens Institute of Technology

---------- Post added 2012-07-23 at 05:23 ----------

Not everyone, I reckon, will care to view this.



http://www.reweaving.org/images/marriage4.gif

The Marriage of INANNA [~Ishtar] & DUMUZI (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wcfl4ziB6s)


As found in the wonderful "Red Book" ~ INANNA, QUEEN OF HEAVEN AND EARTH: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer

by Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer.


Inanna spoke:
"What I tell you
Let the singer weave into song.
What I tell you,
Let it flow from ear to mouth,
Let it pass from old to young:

My vulva, the horn,
The Boat of Heaven,
Is full of eagerness like the young moon.
My untilled land lies fallow.

As for me, Inanna,
Who will plow my vulva!
Who will plow my high field!
Who will plow my wet ground!

As for me, the young woman,
Who will plow my vulva!
Who will station the ox there!
Who will plow my vulva!"

Dumuzi replied:
"Great Lady, the king will plow your vulva.
I, Dumuzi the King, will plow your vulva."

Inanna:
"Then plow my vulva, man of my heart!
Plow my vulva!"

At the king's lap stood the rising cedar.
Plants grew high by their side.
Grains grew high by their side.
Gardens flourished luxuriantly.

Inanna sang:
"He has sprouted; he has burgeoned;
He is lettuce planted by the water.
He is the one my womb loves best.

My well-stocked garden of the plain,
My barley growing high in its furrow,
My apple tree which bears fruit up to its crown,
He is lettuce planted by the water.

My honey-man, my honey-man sweetens me always.
My lord, the honey-man of the gods,
He is the one my womb loves best.
His hand is honey, his foot is honey,
He sweetens me always.

My eager impetuous caresser of the navel,
My caresser of the soft thighs,
He is the one my womb loves best,
He is lettuce planted by the water."

Dumuzi sang:
"O Lady, your breast is your field.
Inanna, your breast is your field.
Your broad field pours out plants.
Your broad field pours out grain.
Water flows from on high for your servant.
Bread flows from on high for your servant.
Pour it out for me, Inanna.
I will drink all you offer."

Inanna sang:
"Make your milk sweet and thick, my bridegroom.
My shepherd, I will drink your fresh milk.
Wild bull, Dumuzi, make your milk sweet and thick.
I will drink your fresh milk.

Let the milk of the goat flow in my sheepfold.
Fill my holy churn with honey cheese.
Lord Dumuzi, I will drink your fresh milk.

My husband, I will guard my sheepfold for you.
I will watch over your house of life, the storehouse,
The shining quivering place which delights Sumer—
The house which decides the fates of the land,
The house which gives the breath of life to the people.
I, the queen of the palace, will watch over your house."

Dumuzi spoke:
"My sister, I would go with you to my garden.
Inanna I would go with you to my garden.
I would go with you to my orchard.
I would go with you to my apple tree.
There I would plant the sweet, honey-covered seed."

Inanna spoke:
"He brought me into his garden.
My brother, Dumuzi, brought me into his garden.
I strolled with him among the standing trees,
I stood with him among the fallen trees,
By an apple tree I knelt as is proper.

Before my brother coming in song,
Who rose to me out of the poplar leaves,
Who came to me in the midday heat,
Before my lord Dumuzi,
I poured out plants from my womb.
I placed plants before him,
I poured out plants before him.
I placed grain before him,
I poured out grain before him.
I poured out grain from my womb."

Inanna sang:
"Last night as I, the queen, was shining bright,
Last night as I, the Queen of Heaven, was shining bright,
As I was shining bright and dancing,
Singing praises at the coming of the night--

He met me--he met me!
My lord Dumuzi met me.
He put his hand into my hand.
He pressed his neck close against mine.

My high priest is ready for the holy loins.
My lord Dumuzi is ready for the holy loins.
The plants and herbs in his field are ripe.
O Dumuzi! Your fullness is my delight!"

She called for it, she called for it, she called for the bed!
She called for the bed that rejoices the heart.
She called for the bed that sweetens the loins.
She called for the bed of kingship.
She called for the bed of queenship.
Inanna called for the bed:
"Let the bed that rejoices the heart be prepared!
Let the bed that sweetens the loins be prepared!
Let the bed of kingship be prepared!
Let the bed of queenship be prepared!
Let the royal bed be prepared!"

Inanna spread the bridal sheet across the bed.
She called to the king:
"The bed is ready!"

She called to her bridegroom:

"The bed is waiting!"

He put his hand in her hand.
He put his hand to her heart.
Sweet is the sleep of hand-to-hand.
Sweeter still the sleep of heart-to-heart.
Inanna spoke:
"I bathed for the wild bull,
I bathed for the shepherd Dumuzi,
I perfumed my sides with ointment,
I coated my mouth with sweet-smelling amber,
I painted my eyes with kohl.

He shaped my loins with his fair hands,
The shepherd Dumuzi filled my lap with cream and milk,
He stroked my pubic hair, He watered my womb.
He laid his hands on my holy vulva,
He smoothed my black boat with cream,
He quickened my narrow boat with milk,
He caressed me on the bed.

Now I will caress my high priest on the bed,
I will caress the faithful shepherd Dumuzi,
I will caress his loins, the shepherdship of the land,
I will decree a sweet fate for him."

The Queen of Heaven,
The heroic woman, greater than her mother,
Who was presented the me by Enki,
Inanna, the First Daughter of the Moon,
Decreed the fate of Dumuzi:
"In battle I am your leader,
In combat I am your armor-bearer,
In the assembly I am your advocate,
On the campaign I am your inspiration.
You, the chosen shepherd of the holy shrine,
You, the king, the faithful provider of Uruk,
You, the light of An's great shrine,
In all ways you are fit:

To hold your head high on the lofty dais,
To sit on the lapis lazuli throne,
To cover your head with the holy crown,
To wear long clothes on your body,
To bind yourself with the garments of kingship,
To carry the mace and sword,
To guide straight the long bow and arrow,
To fasten the throw-stick and sling at your side,
To race on the road with the holy sceptre in your hand,
And the holy sandals on your feet,
To prance on the holy breast like a lapis lazuli calf.

You, the sprinter, the chosen shepherd,
In all ways you are fit.
May your heart enjoy long days.

That which An has determined for you--may it not be altered.
That which Enlil has granted--may it not be changed.
You are the favorite of Ningal.
Inanna holds you dear."

Ninshubur, the faithful servant of the holy shrine of Uruk,
Led Dumuzi to the sweet thighs of Inanna and spoke:
"My queen, here is the choice of your heart,
The king, your beloved bridegroom.
May he spend long days in the sweetness of your holy loins.
Give him a favorable and glorious reign.
Grant him the king's throne, firm in its foundations.
Grant him the shepherd's staff of judgment.
Grant him the enduring crown with the radiant and noble diadem.

From where the sun rises to where the sun sets,
From south to north,
From the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea,
From the land of the huluppu-tree to the land of the cedar,
Let his shepherd's staff protect all of Sumer and Akkad.

As the farmer, let him make the fields fertile,
As the shepherd, let him make the sheepfolds multiply,
Under his reign let there be vegetation,
Under his reign let there be rich grain.

In the marshland may the fish and birds chatter,
In the canebrake may the young and old reeds grow high,
In the steppe may the mashgur-trees grow high,
In the forests may the deer and wild goats multiply,
In the orchards may there be honey and wine,

In the gardens may the lettuce and cress grow high,
In the palace may there be long life.
May there be floodwater in the Tigris and Euphrates,
May the plants grow high on their banks and fill the meadows,
May the Lady of Vegetation pile the grain in heaps and mounds.

O my Queen of Heaven and Earth,
Queen of all the universe,
May he enjoy long days in the sweetness of your holy loins."

The king went with lifted head to the holy loins.
He went with lifted head to the loins of Inanna.
He went to the queen with lifted head.
He opened wide his arms to the holy priestess of heaven.
Inanna spoke:
"My beloved, the delight of my eyes, met me.
We rejoiced together.
He took his pleasure of me.
He brought me into his house.

He laid me down on the fragrant honey-bed.
My sweet love, lying by my heart,
Tongue-playing, one by one,
My fair Dumuzi did so fifty times.

Now, my sweet love is sated.
Now he says:
'Set me free, my sister, set me free.
You will be a little daughter to my father.
Come, my beloved sister, I would go to the palace.
Set me free...'"

Inanna spoke:
"My blossom-bearer, your allure was sweet.
My blossom-bearer in the apple orchard,
My bearer of fruit in the apple orchard,
Dumuzi-abzu, your allure was sweet.

My fearless one,
My holy statue,
My statue outfitted with sword and lapis lazuli diadem,
How sweet was your allure...."

---------- Post added 2012-07-23 at 05:38 ----------


Not a post for all...

In Sumerian:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gis_ges.jpg

From "The Marriage of Inanna and Dumuzi" clip, linked to above

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rising_cedar.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-23, 12:43
This was one of the more interesting (in a terrifying way) Akkadian words I have come across. It may not be a legitimate candidate for a "loan," of course.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu4.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasita.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asita.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-23, 15:00
A new beginning? I think it is a possibility. I think this would go toward explaining the Assyrian and Babylonian strata in our vernacular. Not to mention, the same for the genetics.


As cultural capital of the ancient Near East, even a politically powerless Babylon was an important city, which created a problem to the Assyrian kings, who conquered Babylonia in the eighth century. From Tiglath-pileser III (744-727) on, they had themselves enthroned as kings of both Assyria and Babylon: by uniting the city in a personal union with their empire, they wanted to express their respect for the Babylonian civilization, institutions, and science. However, the Babylonians revolted under Marduk-apla-iddin (703; the Biblical Merodach Baladan), and king Sennacherib sacked the city in 689 - an act of terrible impiety, because he broke the "axis" between heaven and earth. Babylon's population was deported to Nineveh and the site was left alone for some time.

Finally, king Esarhaddon (680-669) allowed the people to return. A text says that the gods had decreed the Babylon was to be in ruins for seventy years, but that they regretted their harshness, turned the tablet of destiny upside down, and allowed the people to return after eleven year (in cuneiform, the numbers 70 and 11 relate to each other as our 6 and 9).

Livius.org


------------------------------------------------------------------



Neo-Babylonian Entrepreneurs
Cornelia Wunsch
In: D. Landes, J. Mokyr and W. Baumol (eds.): The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, pp. 40–61.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Neo_Babylonian_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Neo_Babylonian2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Neo_Babylonian3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Neo_Babylonian4.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-23, 16:04
From another thread. Note the Arabian samples (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php?p=916889&highlight=birko#post916889).

Lead isotope and chemical signature of copper from Oman and its occurrence in Mesopotamia and sites on the Arabian Gulf coast


Lead isotope data, together with an evaluation of previously published results for the chemical composition of Omani ores and copper-base artefacts are used to define a material signature of Omani copper. Absent from our group of Bronze Age metal (Umm an Nar and Wadi Suq periods) are the signature of ores from Masirah Island and also from the vast deposits in north Oman inland from Suhar. Contemporaneous copper from Bahrain and from Tell Abraq on the Gulf coast is consistent in its material signature with Omani copper; a derivation from Omani ores of this copper is highly likely. A few exceptions at Tell Abraq point to Faynan/Timna in the southern Levant as a possible source region. Among Mesopotamian artefacts the signature of Omani copper is encountered during all cultural periods from Uruk at the end of the fourth millennium BC to Akkadian 1000 years later. Oman/Magan appears to have been particularly important during Early Dynastic III and Akkadian when about half of the copper in circulation bears the Omani signature.

https://encrypted-tbn1.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQCPfV-VkelRcSVZpWID7TFNq5DK2iZ7OCWf2Sr5MdLW9vYeDN6

Humanist
2012-07-23, 22:16
The Mesopotamian deity, Nergal, at Hatra (1st century CE).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Nergal_Hatra.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-23, 23:20
This was one of the more interesting (in a terrifying way) Akkadian words I have come across. It may not be a legitimate candidate for a "loan," of course.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu4.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasita.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asita.jpg


A more likely origin?


AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isittu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isittu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isittu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isittu4.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-24, 01:31
Livius.org


On 1 October 331, the Macedonian king Alexander the Great (http://www.livius.org/a/2/alexander/alexander_mos_det.jpg) defeated a large Persian army at Gaugamela, commanded by king Darius III Codomannus. The only contemporary source describing the event is the Astronomical diary, a day-by-day account of celestial phenomena, written by the officials of the Esagila temple complex.

The diary mentions other events as well, e.g., the level of the Euphrates, the weather, the food prices, incidents concerning Babylon and its temples, and political events - after all, the celestial phenomena were omens of important political changes.

The following text, a cuneiform tablet now in the British Museum in London, is damaged, but the account is clear: there were terrible omens and the battle -which is described after the astronomical observations- was truly important.

....


That month, from the first to the [lacuna; 11], came to Babylon, saying: 'Esagila [will be restored] and the Babylonians to the treasury of Esagila [their tithe will give.']

On the eleventh, in Sippar an order of Alexander to the Babylonians was sent as follows: 'Into your houses I shall not enter.' [12]

On the thirteenth, the vanguard advanced to the Sikilla gate, to the outer gate of Esagila and [the Babylonians prostrated themselves].

---------- Post added 2012-07-23 at 20:46 ----------

Wikipedia:


The region around Kirkuk was known in Aramaic and Syriac sources as "Beth Garmai" (Syriac: ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ), which means the "place of bones" in a reference to bones of slaughtered Achaemenids which littered the plains after a decisive battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III.[13]

Humanist
2012-07-24, 03:25
There has been some discussion regarding crania on Dienekes' blog. I do not know how to reconcile the fact that, around ~2000 years ago, Georgians, Armenians (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=868277&postcount=193), Arabians, Levantines, Mesopotamians, and perhaps others in West Asia were relatively long-headed. Contrast that with the brachycephaly of today, observed in many West Asian populations (many in the northern latitudes, save for those who have migrated, such as the Druze).

Unless there was some sort of genocide of West Asians, and a repopulating of the area by a brachycephalic people in the relatively recent past (~ 2000 years), it is difficult to believe that the stimulus for the shift from relatively long-headed to relatively short-headed individuals was not (in significant part) of a non-genetic nature.

Mandaeans and Assyrians are a perfect example. Mandaeans are relatively long-headed. Assyrians are short-headed. And yet, language, ancient traditions, autosomally, etc., there are links connecting the groups deep into the past.


Mandaean (long-headed) example

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Iraqi%20Mandaeans/Mandaean10.jpg


Assyrian (short-headed) example

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/webasy2.jpg


An Evaluation of the Association Between Three-dimensional Cranial Morphology and Molecular Distances in Humans (2008)

Heather Frances Smith
Arizona State University

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lat_brachy.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-24, 06:12
Originally Posted by Humanist
A Sealed Double Cremation at Middle Assyrian Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=838064&postcount=147)

Peter Akkermans & E. Smits (2008)


Special attention is drawn to the presence of the (burnt) third phalange of a lion, which points to the inclusion of a lion-skin cloak on the funeral pyre. The dead may either have rested upon the skin or it may have covered them as a shroud. This find recalls the occurrence of bear claws in Neolithic cremation graves in northwestern Europe (see e.g. Parker Pearson 1999: 7; Smits 2000).


:)


Some Observations on the Image of the Assyrian and Babylonian Kingdoms within the Greek Tradition

By Reinhold Bichler

Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World. Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction. Melammu Symposia 5. Oriens et Occidens 6, eds. Robert Rollinger and Christoph Ulf (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004)


Concrete information concerning the Assyrians is scarce in Herodotus and their relationship to the Babylonians remains rather vague. Nevertheless, some aspects seem to be clear. Herodotus imagined that at one time the Assyrians dominated a widespread territory, including the region of Babylonia, and he calculated that their powerful empire lasted approximately 520 years until the Medes rebelled and the Assyrians lost a great number of their former allies (I 95). Finally, the Medes, ruled by King Cyaxares, defeated their former masters and conquered their capital Ninus, i.e. Nineveh. Herodotus had evidently no knowledge that the Medes were successful due to a coalition with the rising new kingdom of Babylonia. He regarded Babylon as the most important city of the Assyrians and as their royal city after the fall of Nineveh. He knew that the Babylonians (as part of the former Assyrian Empire) were ruled by sovereign kings until Cyrus conquered their famous metropolis. But there is no doubt that Herodotus had only vague ideas about the extent of the Neo-Babylonian Empire and even the kingship of Nebuchadnezzar is not clearly presented in the Histories.

There is also no king-list comparable to that of the Lydians or the Medes. Instead we find a loose series of remarks relating to the one or other prominent ruler over Assyria or Babylonia. To start with the concept of origins, Herodotus simply mentions a certain King Ninus, seen probably as an – eponymous – founder of the metropolis located on the river Tigris, and he considers Sardanapallus to be his son (II 150). And probably – but this is not the actually information given by Herodotus – this Ninus is the same person as Ninus, the son of Belus, grandson of Alcaeus and great-grandson of Heracles (I 7). On the other hand the last-mentioned Ninus is the father of Agron, the first king of the Heraclid dynasty in Lydia (I 7). Following this concept, the origins of almost all imperial power in Asia can be traced back to Heracles.

Humanist
2012-07-25, 00:17
AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elitu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elitu2.jpg


AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elitu3.jpg


AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/egu.jpg

Ardi
2012-07-25, 04:04
There has been some discussion regarding crania on Dienekes' blog. I do not know how to reconcile the fact that, around ~2000 years ago, Georgians, Armenians (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=868277&postcount=193), Arabians, Levantines, Mesopotamians, and perhaps others in West Asia were relatively long-headed. Contrast that with the brachycephaly of today, observed in many West Asian populations (many in the northern latitudes, save for those who have migrated, such as the Druze).

Unless there was some sort of genocide of West Asians, and a repopulating of the area by a brachycephalic people in the relatively recent past (~ 2000 years), it is difficult to believe that the stimulus for the shift from relatively long-headed to relatively short-headed individuals was not (in significant part) of a non-genetic nature.

Mandaeans and Assyrians are a perfect example. Mandaeans are relatively long-headed. Assyrians are short-headed. And yet, language, ancient traditions, autosomally, etc., there are links connecting the groups deep into the past.

Great comparison. The 'mass brachycephalization' of these populations is truly a curious matter, especially considering the otherwise certain continuity of the north West Asian autocthonous type. The traditional tendency has been the association of this change in cranial shape with a demographic shift caused by an intrusive element, but I for one have always entertained the possibility of a sudden selection of the gradually brachycephalized members of the extant element rather than an external population replacement.

Humanist
2012-07-25, 05:35
The traditional headdress of our women is also interesting:

http://www.lasierra.edu/typo3temp/pics/70be60f0ee.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/6812516397_227777684f_b.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/6812507065_51627edf14_o.jpg

http://www.christiansofiraq.com/headwear.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/IMG_0146.jpg


I do not know if there is any connection, but these examples from Assyria and Sumer come to mind (from a previous post):

Neo-Assyrian

BBC History:



http://www.christiansofiraq.com/crown.jpg


Sumerian



http://www.bible-archaeology.info/images/4.Jewe27.jpg

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/522/puabi/images/headdress2.jpg


Interesting paper. Was hoping to find a discussion of our headdresses as well, but did not find any reference to us. Would have been great to hear from an expert in the field.


"From Mesopotamia to Modern Syria: Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives on Female Adornment during Rites of Passage" in Ancient Near Eastern Art in Context," Festschrift Irene J. Winter, edited by M. Feldman and J. Cheng, Boston: Brill, 2007, pp. 449-83.
by Amy Rebecca Gansell



Commonly acknowledged but seldom scrutinized, traditional adornment in the modern Middle East displays striking formal continuity over millennia. A specific type of female headdress provides the most powerful example: it consists of a dorsal ribbon terminating in tassels and a central forehead ornament from which a fringe of pendants dangle (figures 1-5). Variations of this headgear occur in the ancient visual and archaeological records as early as the Late Bronze and Iron Ages (thirteenth to seventh century BCE) in the Levant and Mesopotamia, and again at the first through third century CE site of Palmyra in the Syrian desert (figures 1-3).1 Within the twentieth century CE, nearly identical headbands were still worn by women in greater Syria (figure 4), and related examples served as stock costume
elements in French studio portraits personifying the exotic odalisque (figure 5).

Tracking this remarkable case of continuity prompts several questions: How could this or any manner of adornment endure for over three thousand years? Was it consciously or unconsciously retained? Beyond formal properties, might any ancient meaning have remained intact? Could folk symbolism or even regard for the historic potency of this device have motivated adherence to the ancient form? In response to these queries ethnoarchaeology is our most valuable tool, for it offers living models for the interpretation of past cultural phenomena (David and Kramer 2001). When applied judiciously, knowledge of modern practice, regardless of direct continuity or formal affinities, can illuminate ancient life.

1 A similar headband illustrated in Neo-Assyrian art is worn by the ruler and crown prince, and one study compares the female diadem to male phylacteries in the Jewish tradition (Keel 1981; Reade 1967). This paper, however, focuses on the adornment of women.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fig1_headdress.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fig2_headdress.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fig3_headdress.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fig4_headdress.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-25, 10:30
Not a post for all...


The Sureth word for the male specific organ:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sureth_b.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------

Akkadian:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bututtu.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------

In Sumerian:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gis_ges.jpg


Link (http://librarycollections.stevens.edu/archive/fullsize/86f1f27d58ad3411911b4ed66208f06e.jpg) (some may find this offensive)

From "The Marriage of Inanna and Dumuzi" clip, linked to above

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rising_cedar.jpg


I understand that an etymological link with the antique languages (for this term) is improbable. I was unfamiliar with the Sureth term below before coming across it on the Sureth Dictionary page.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/butta.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-25 at 05:47 ----------

Source (http://www.westernpistachio.org/pdf/FactsUSPistachios.pdf)


NUTS AND BOLTS OF US PISTACHIOS
Pistachio trees have grown in the Middle East for thousands of years. Pistachios are mentioned in the Old Testament (Genesis 43:11). Evidence from excavations has shown that tribes in the Near East gathered pistachios as far back as 20,000 BC. Legend has it that pistachios were a favorite of the Queen of Sheba, who demanded all her land’s production for herself and her court. Prior to 1976, all pistachios consumed in the US were from the Middle East. American importers dyed the shells red to disguise staining caused by antiquated harvesting and processing methods.

....

HOW ARE PISTACHIOS HARVESTED?
Pistachios grow on trees in grape-like clusters. When it comes time to harvest, machines clasp the tree trunk and give it a hearty shake (approximately 15 seconds per tree). The pistachios fall into a bin without ever touching the ground, and then they are whisked off to the processing plant for hulling, sorting and drying.

Humanist
2012-07-26, 01:29
The Punishment of Asael (1 En. 10:4-8) and Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Literature
Henryk Drawnel
Published in RevQ 25 (2012) 369-394.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/drawnel.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-26, 10:15
I happened to come upon another Nabatean book which contained the explanation of the story of Tammuz. He called a king to serve the Seven and the Twelve, 42 and that king killed him but he returned to life after having been killed. Then the king killed him in many horrible ways but each time he returned to life. In the end he finally died. That story was indeed identical to the last with the story of Jurjis which the Christians know. The Sabians hold a memorial feast for Tammuz which they call the memorial feast of Tammuz and the Christians hold a memorial feast for Jurjis which they call the memorial feast and tadhkira of Jurjis.

The transmission of pagan material to Christianity is often obvious. The mechanisms of this transmission are also relatively clear but I cannot refrain from mentioning here that, according to al Maqdis (Bad’ IV:42), some Christians in the vicinity of Harran had adopted Harranian doctrines (madhhab). What he probably should have said, is that some Harranians had converted – sincerely or not – to Christianity, bringing along with them much of their religious lore and wisdom. Instead of weeping for Tammuz they were now weeping for St. George.

“Continuity of Pagan Religious Traditions in Tenth-Century Iraq”
JAAKKO HÄMEEN-ANTTILA (2002)


---------------------------------------------------------

Wikipedia on Tammuz (Dumuzi (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wcfl4ziB6s)):

Ritual mourning


In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar.

Beginning with the summer solstice came a time of mourning in the Ancient Near East, as in the Aegean: the Babylonians marked the decline in daylight hours and the onset of killing summer heat and drought with a six-day "funeral" for the god. Recent discoveries reconfirm him as an annual life-death-rebirth deity: tablets discovered in 1963 show that Dumuzi was in fact consigned to the Underworld himself, in order to secure Inanna's release,[2] though the recovered final line reveals that he is to revive for six months of each year (see below).

....

"O Dumuzid of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully, "O you of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully. "Lad, husband, lord, sweet as the date, [...] O Dumuzid!" she sobs, she sobs tearfully.[3]

....

Al-Nadim in his 10th century work Kitab al-Fehrest drawing from a work on Syriac calendar feast days [Feast of Saint George in our church, Mar Giwargis (http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/DSCN2732.jpg)], describes a Tâ'ûz festival that took place in the middle of the month of Tammuz.[10] Women bewailed the death of Tammuz at the hands of his master who was said to have "ground his bones in a mill and scattered them to the wind."[10] Consequently, women would forgo the eating of ground foods during the festival time.[10] The same festival is mentioned in the 11th century by Ibn Athir as still taking place at the appointed time on the banks of the Tigris river.[10]


-------------------------------------------------------


Third Person Possessive Suffixes as Definite Articles in Semitic
by Na'ama Pat-El

with John Huehnergard, in Journal of Historical Linguistics 2/1:25-51 (2012)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patel.jpg



When I saw the word, "kawran," the first thing that came to mind was the word "kawra," which I take to mean damnation. My mother, when she uses the term, attaches this meaning to it.


Sureth (not all the same dialect (in Iran w > v))

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qawra-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qora.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qivranaia.jpg



Hopefully Birko will contribute here, as he knows the language, whereas I am an illiterate. Here is my unlearned attempt at translating "Tammuz d-kawran aw-hy" (Tammuz, of the grave, he will be). I reckon I am way off.



AKKADIAN (not necessarily related)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ekur.jpg


---------------------------------------------------


If "kawrana" does indeed mean drought:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tammuz_vegetation.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-26, 12:26
Title Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia: The Gilgamesh Epic and Other Ancient Literature
Rivkah Harris
2000

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltu.jpg


------------------------------------------------


Birth in Babylonia and the Bible: Its Mediterranean Setting
Volume 14 of Cuneiform Monographs
Marten Stol, F. A. M. Wiggermann
2000

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltu1.jpg



-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamastu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/utukku.jpg


LILITH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lilu.jpg



SURETH/SYRIAC (not necessarily from Akkadian?)

Basement, downstairs, below.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltih1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltih2.jpg

---------- Post added 2012-07-26 at 08:18 ----------

The Sumerian origin of Akkadian "utukku?" It is a Sumerian loan, we know that much.

Sumerian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumerian_utug.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-27, 03:00
Akkadian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/utukku.jpg


---------- Post added 2012-07-26 at 08:18 ----------

The Sumerian origin of Akkadian "utukku?" It is a Sumerian loan, we know that much.

Sumerian

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumerian_utug.jpg

Apologies. We know more than that. It is the origin, as can be seen by referring to the CAD definition for "utukku."

Humanist
2012-07-27, 04:13
Not certain from which era the Hebrew word at bottom is from, but it does share the same general meaning with the Sureth word (and perhaps the Sumerian word??). Plus, the "il" in Sureth "il-tih" (h="ch" in German "Buch"), may refer to deity in NW Semitic?

If the "il" means deity, does it then not also suggest that it may have originally meant something along the lines of "deity from below?"

Wikipedia:
ʾĒl ([C]ognate to Akkadian: ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "deity".


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahat.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-27, 08:30
SURETH/SYRIAC (not necessarily from Akkadian?)

Basement, downstairs, below.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltih1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iltih2.jpg


Sureth

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ullul.jpg


Aramaic dialects (Source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)


Abbreviations [from CAL]

BA Biblical Aramaic
CPA Christian Palestinian Aramaic
Gal Galilean
JBA Jewish Babylonian
JBAg Jewish Babylonian Gaonic period
JLAtg Jewish Literary Aramaic, Targumic
Jud Judean archival texts
LJLA Late Jewish Literary Aramaic
Nab Nabataean
OfA Official(i.e., Imperial) Aramaic
Palm Palmyrene
Syr Syriac

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/above3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/above2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/above.jpg


Official(i.e., Imperial) Aramaic (aka Reichsaramäisch)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/above4_reichs.jpg


What I find interesting about the Imperial Aramaic definition is that it can mean both above and southwards.

Humanist
2012-07-27, 08:37
Frahang is listed as well, above.

From Wikipedia:


Frahang-i Pahlavīg (meaning "Pahlavig dictionary") is a dictionary of (mostly) Aramaic ideograms with Middle Persian translations (in Pahlavi script) and transliterations (in Pazend/Avestan script).[1] The glossary was previously known to Indian Zoroastrians (the Parsis) as the mna-xvatay (traditionally pronounced mona khoda), a name derived from the first two words of the first entry/lemma.[2] The Frahang-i Pahlavig should not be confused with the Frahang-i Oim-evak, which is a glossary of Avestan language terms.

Humanist
2012-07-27, 11:13
LILITH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lilu.jpg

OT

Anyone see this week's True Blood episode? Guess who shows up. :)


Lilith rises on 'True Blood' (http://marquee.blogs.cnn.com/2012/07/23/lilith-rises-on-true-blood/)

[This post contains spoilers to the July 22 episode of HBO's "True Blood."]

On Sunday's “True Blood,” the much-hyped super-villain Lilith finally rose.

------------------------------------------------

Wikipedia:


Lilith (Hebrew: לילית‎; lilit, or lilith) is a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud, who is generally thought to be related to a class of female demons Līlīṯu in Mesopotamian texts.

shshmuk
2012-07-27, 11:54
OT

Anyone see this week's True Blood episode? Guess who shows up. :)
...........
Lilith (Hebrew: לילית‎; lilit, or lilith) is a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud, who is generally thought to be related to a class of female demons Līlīṯu in Mesopotamian texts.

------------------------------------------------



Guess who nowadays uses this Mesopotamian-Jewish "demonic" female name most of all?

- The Armenians :)

Humanist
2012-07-27, 16:44
Guess who nowadays uses this Mesopotamian-Jewish "demonic" female name most of all?

- The Armenians :)

My aunt's name is Lila. She is part Armenian. She speaks the language too. :)

Humanist
2012-07-27, 19:23
“The Epistolary Terms k‛t, k‛nt in Official Aramaic, the Feminine Endings in Aramaic Dialects and Other Isoglosses in the History of Aramaic”
by Elitzur Bar-Asher Siegal
Ancient Near Eastern Studies 48 (2011): 199-231

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siegal.jpg

shshmuk
2012-07-27, 22:06
My aunt's name is Lila. She is part Armenian. She speaks the language too. :)

:) I meant exactly Lilit. You can google that name and see how many Armenians, especially of Armenia, have that name. There are more Armenian Lilits than Yevas (Eves) :) It's because of writer Avetik Isahakyan who wrote the very beautiful story "Lilit" based on the Jewish legend.

Humanist
2012-07-28, 06:09
A few items. Some posted previously in other threads. Some items not previously posted.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/277

Hatra - UNESCO World Heritage Site

Iraq
Governorate of Ninawa
N35 35 17.016 E42 43 5.988


Although there are few texts referring to the obscure beginnings of Hatra, it seems that a smallish Assyrian settlement grew up in the 3rd century BC becoming a fortress and a trading centre.


Some interesting bits from the Wikipedia article on the Aramaic dialect of Hatra (32 miles W of Assur).

Similarities with other Aramaic dialects of Mesopotamia


Lenition
A weakening of the laryngeal ‘ayn; in one inscription, the masculine singular demonstrative adjective is written ‘dyn (‘dyn ktb’ "this inscription") which corresponds to Mandaic and Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic hādēn. Similar demonstratives, ‘adī and ‘adā, are attested in Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic.

Vocalism
The divine name Nergal, written nrgl, appears in three inscriptions. The pronunciation nergōl is also attested in the Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin, 63b) where it rhymes with tarnəgōl, "cock."

Syntactic Phonology
The Hatran b-yld corresponds to the Syriac bēt yaldā "anniversary". The apocope of the final consonant of the substantive bt in the construct state is not attested in either Old Aramaic or Syriac; it is, however, attested in other dialects such as Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic and Western Jewish Aramaic.

Verbal Morphology
The causative perfect of qm "demand" should be vocalized ’ēqīm, which is evident from the written forms ’yqym (which appears beside ’qym), the feminine ’yqymt, and the third person plural, ’yqmw. This detail distinguishes Hatran as well as Syriac and Mandaic from the western Jewish and Christian dialects.

Nominal Morphology
The distinction between the three states is apparent. As in Syriac, the masculine plural form of the emphatic state has the inflection -ē, written -’. The confusion of this form with that of the construct state may explain the constructions bn’ šmšbrk "sons of Š." and bn’ ddhwn "their cousins." The absolute state is scarcely used: klbn "dogs" and dkyrn "(that they may be) remembered."

Syntax
As in Syriac, the analytical construction of the noun complement is common. The use of the construct state appears to be limited to kinship terms and some adjectives: bryk’ ꜥh’. In the analytical construction, the definite noun is either in the emphatic state followed by d(y) (e.g. ṣlm’ dy... "statue of...", spr’ dy brmryn’ "the scribe of (the god) Barmarēn") or is marked by the anticipatory pronominal suffix (e.g. qnh dy rꜥ’ "creator of the earth," ꜥl ḥyyhy d ... ’ḥyhy "for the life of his brother," ꜥl zmth dy mn dy... "against the hair (Syriac zemtā) of whomever..."). The complement of the object of the verb is also rendered analytically: ...l’ ldkrhy lnšr qb "do not make mention of N.", mn dy lqrhy lꜥdyn ktb’ "whoever reads this inscription."

Vocabulary
Practically all of the known Hatran words are found in Syriac, including words of Akkadian origin, such as ’rdkl’ "architect" (Syriac ’ardiklā), and Parthian professional nouns such as pšgryb’ / pzgryb’ "inheritor of the throne" (Syriac pṣgryb’); three new nouns, which appear to denote some religious functions, are presumably of Iranian origin: hdrpṭ’ (which Safar compares with the Pahlavi hylpt’ hērbed "teacher-priest"), and the enigmatic terms brpdmrk’ and qwtgd/ry’.


Hatra's ruins (baaa!) :)

http://www.wmf.org/enews/images/sheep.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-28, 13:20
Luwians in Aleppo?

Sanna Aro
Helsinki


In 2002, while finishing my chapter on art and architecture for the volume The Luwians, I had to make a difficult decision whether or not to deal with Aleppo as Luwian (Aro 2003, especially pp. 281-285). Despite the fact that a few Hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions already long known were considered as having originated from Aleppo (Hawkins 2000:388-397) and some of the recently found orthostats from the temple of the Storm-God bear Hieroglyphic Luwian captions (Kohlmeyer 2000), I was well aware that to label Aleppo as Luwian would get a chequered reception. Traditionally, Bronze Age Aleppo is thought to have had mainly Semitic and Hurrian ruling classes and population, whereas only a few scholars have so far addressed the important issue of the physical presence of the Hittites in this city or elsewhere in north Syria. For the Early Iron Age and especially for the period from the 8th century BCE onwards, Aleppo is mostly considered to have been part of the Aramaic state of Bīt Agūsi/Arpad, thus emphasizing the Semitic element of the city (see for example Lebrun 1993:13; Klengel 2000:27; Lipiński 2000:207). In this article I return to the question of whether we can claim any presence of Luwians in Iron Age Aleppo.

....

Conclusions
Luwians in Aleppo? I suppose the answer should be "Yes" despite the fact that my argumentation of 2002 was partly based on reasoning different from the present. To recognize the Luwians as actors in Aleppo or elsewhere in Early Iron Age north Syria and southern Anatolia opens up new possibilities for investigating the rich cultural dialogue in the ancient Near East. It is sometimes stated that the Luwians were politically not very prominent but nevertheless culturally they seem to have had an extraordinary ability to give and take – a fact that has so far gained too little attention. The role of these ‘Luwian speaking Hittites’ as the transmitters of the Hittite heritage is worthy of reconsideration in a wider perspective than has so far been done.

Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Luwian_language_region.jpg

"Region of the Luwian language; red: Luwian core land with many findings of inscriptions, light red: only sporadic findings of inscriptions. Data extracted from the book The Luwians (H. Craig Melchert, Brill 2003)"

---------- Post added 2012-06-29 at 14:39 ----------


This point hints at the possibility that the Northwestern Mesopotamian form of OA [Old Aramaic] was one of the significant components of "Assyrian Aramaic" as used during the last century and a half of the Assyrian empire -- thus with a certain historical-linguistic continuity between OA and one of the varieties of IA [Imperial Aramaic], as maintained by Greenfield.

Fales (see above)

--------------------------------------------------

Dienekes (October 16, 2009)


[T]he Assyrians are one of the few non-Arabic populations included in the study [Chiaroni et al. 2009]. It is also interesting that Assyrians are said to be derived from both Assyrian- and Aramaic-speaking ancestors, and hence to potentially have a complex (both East- and Northwest- Semitic) origin.


It has been nearly three years since I first discovered personal genomics. I never imagined I would learn as much as I have about my origins. I came in as an Assyrian. And I am still an Assyrian. However, being Assyrian means so much more than it did before. It is not simply about being northern Mesopotamian. It is akin, I believe, in some ways, to what the modern Arab identity is. The Arab identity today, in most areas in the ME, may be associated, at least to some degree, with a certain genetic legacy (i.e. elevated Arabian, elevated African). The same I believe can be said for those who did, and still do identify as Assyrian. The Assyrian legacy, however, may include the ancestry (not to be mistaken with culture) of not simply Semitic peoples, it may also include the heritage of Indo-European peoples. Yes. Based on the data I have observed, I do believe we may be in part Indo-European.


---------------------------------------------


Wikipedia


The Sfire or Sefire steles refers to three 8th C. BCE basalt stelae containing Aramaic inscriptions discovered at Al-Safirah ("Sfire") near Aleppo that date back to the mid eighth-century BCE.[1] The Sefire treaty inscriptions are the three inscriptions on the steles.[2] The spelling Sfire is also commonly encountered.

....

They tell of "The treaty of King Bar-ga'yah of K[a]t[a]k, with Mati'el son of Attarsamak, king of Arpad." Some have identified this as the treaty of "Ashurnerari V" (Adad-nirari III or his son Tiglath-pileser III?) of Assyria and Matiilu (unknown) of Arpad (probably modern Tell Rifa'at, Syria).[4]

....

This loyalty oath from the Sefire inscriptions is similar to other loyalty oaths imposed by Assyrian kings on other less powerful monarchs in the Levant throughout the eighth and seventh centuries BCE.[9]

The inscriptions may, under one possible interpretation, record the names of El and Elyon, "God, God Most High" possibly providing prima facie evidence for a distinction between the two deities first worshipped by the Jebusites in Jerusalem, and then elsewhere throughout the ancient Levant.[10]

Thought to be reflective of Assyrian or neo-Assyrian culture and similar to other documents dating from the first millennium BCE, scholars such as Joseph Fitzmyer have perceived Canaanite influences in the text, while Dennis McCarthy has noted similarities to second millennium BCE treaties imposed by Hittite kings on Syrian vassals.[11]

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The 'Chickens' of Sefire
by Vermondo Brugnatelli
Henoch 17.3 (1995), 259-266.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sefire1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tell_el_fakhariya.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baxta.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------


If we have retained Akkadian words, and other elements from Akkadian in our vernacular, then it also stands to reason that our “Neo-Aramaic” vernacular may still contain relics from “Old Aramaic,” perhaps not attested in any other Aramaic dialect. Given our haplogroup distribution, and other genetic data, as I have stated elsewhere, I believe that at least some of the Aramaeans who were absorbed by the Assyrians were not of entirely Semitic stock. The Aramaeans in the NW settled in the heart of what was Hurrian and Hittite country*. The product, the Aramaeans of later centuries, or more appropriately, Aramaic-speaking groups, were a mix of (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syro%E2%80%93Hittite_states) Semites (the original Aramaeans, and other Semitic peoples), Indo-Europeans, and Hurrians, in my opinion. A motley bunch.

Wikipedia

*
The Hittite Suppiluliumas I permanently defeated Mitanni and conquered Aleppo in the 14th century BC. Aleppo had cultic importance to the Hittites for being the center of worship of the Storm-God.**

**
Teshub (also written Teshup or Tešup; cuneiform dIM) was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. He was derived from the Hattian Taru. His Hittite and Luwian name was Tarhun (with variant stem forms Tarhunt, Tarhuwant, Tarhunta), although this name is from the Hittite root *tarh- "to defeat, conquer".

Humanist
2012-07-28, 21:19
At least we have company this time. From Dienekes' blog:


a said...
Defining "paucity" with regards to indigenous Iranian tribes which share R-m269 markers with 100 million R1b,

PLoS Biol. 2010 Jan 19;8(1):e1000285.


"The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men."

Grugni et al. 2012

Alleged "Assyrians" from West Azarbaijan N39- 23%,
Alleged "Azeri" from West Azarbaijan N63-12%,
Alleged "Persian" from Fars N44-11%,

Lur from Lorestan N50-23%
Armenians from Tehran N34-23%

Bakht 46 7% Indo-Iranian (IE) Luri Roewer et al.,

S_Tlsh 18N 44% Indo-Iranian (IE) Talysh Roewer et al.,

Gilaki 43N 23% Indo-Iranian (IE) Roewer et al.

Mazan 46N 15% Indo-Iranian (IE)
Mazandarani Roewer et al.

N_Tlsh 43N 19% Indo-Iranian (IE) Talysh Roewer et al.


Indo-Iranian/Indo European


LUR TRIBES:

They are probably the most intact tribes of Iran, retaining their robustness, virility, and tall stature.

Talysh:

Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian-speaking people,indigenous to a region shared between Azerbaijan and Iran which spans the South Caucasus and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea.

Gilaki:

The Caspians have generally been regarded as a pre-Indo-European people.

Elevated R-M269 in Europeans/Karabagh/Syunik/Lur peoples/Talysh peoples/Gilaki peoples.

The writing is on the wall.

Saturday, July 28, 2012 10:37:00 PM

Humanist
2012-07-29, 02:24
a said...
Defining "paucity" with regards to indigenous Iranian tribes which share R-m269 markers with 100 million R1b,

PLoS Biol. 2010 Jan 19;8(1):e1000285.


"The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men."

Grugni et al. 2012

Alleged "Assyrians" from West Azarbaijan N39- 23%,
Alleged "Azeri" from West Azarbaijan N63-12%,
Alleged "Persian" from Fars N44-11%...

The Assyrians from West Azerbaijan Province have the below haplotype as a modal. As one can see, the most closely related haplotypes are in the west. Not in Iran.




GENETIC AFFINITY OF ASSYRIANS LIVING IN ARMENIA TO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE NEAR EAST AND SOUTH CAUCASUS

Biolog. Journal of Armenia, 4 (63), 2011
A.S. HARUTYUNYAN
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Armenia

[T]he high frequency of Atlantic Modal Haplotype belonging to R1b lineage rather strongly demonstrates that the ancient Assyrians had significant genetic contacts with the peoples who migrated to North-West Europe, where the vast majority of Y-chromosomal lineages belong to R1b haplogroup.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Atlantic Modal Haplotype (Europeans)
13-24-14-11-11-14-12-12-12-13-13-29

Druze R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Shlush et al.)
13-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29
12-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29

Alawite R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Dönbak et al.)
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-14-13-30
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-13-13-29

Assyrian R1b modal haplotype (FTDNA)
13-24-14-10-11-14-12-12-12-14-13-30

---------- Post added 2012-07-28 at 21:27 ----------

From another thread:


Comparing the R-M269 modals of Druze, Alawites, and Assyrians. Adding the modal for what appears to be the most frequent Iraqi Arab R-M269 haplotype (see the Iraqi DNA Project). Standard FTDNA 1-12 and DYS464. Please note that the Iraqi Arabs are ancestral for L584.



L584x POP 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 464a 464b 464c 464d
L584- IQA 12 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 14 15 17 17
L584+ ASY 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 15 15 17 17
L584? ALW 13 24 14 11 11 15 xx xx xx 14 13 30 xx xx xx xx
L584? DRZ 13 24 14 11 xx xx 12 12 ?? 13 13 29 xx xx xx xx



The “Super Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype” (SWAMH)

DYS464=15-15-17-17

Humanist
2012-07-29, 08:16
Nasraye u Krestyane:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasraye.jpg


The Church of the East: A Concise History
Wilhelm Baum, Dietmar W. Winkler
2003


This is actually potentially significant. There is, of course, the question regarding the Mandaeans and Assyrians, and "Nasraye." These deportations may also help explain at least some, if not a good chunk of the differences between Syriac Orthodox and members of the Church of the East.

The dialect of Syriac Orthodox Assyrians shows Greek influence (e.g. Suryoyo vs. Suraya), while the dialects of members of the Church of the East show Persian influence. Genomes, likewise, at least autosomally, display affinities to the west and east, for the Syriac Orthodox and Church of the East Assyrians respectively. This may also explain the Cypriot link I referred to in this post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=917954&postcount=332). Very interesting!


The SPA point map may again be of some use (disregard the cyan and yellow spots):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_temples.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-29, 09:21
From the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


Based on Marko's 67 STR R tree.

Five of the Assyrian R-L584 men are tested through 67 markers. Two L277 men (one speculative), are also tested through 67 markers. A number of the Assyrian men are not tested through 67 markers.

The year estimates are not necessarily precise.

R1b1a2a1b (L584)

Assyrian #1, kit # 205749: TMRCA of 1848 years with Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men.

Assyrian #2, kit # 213562: TMRCA of 2239 years with Assyrian #1 and Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men. Another 1011 years (3250 years), connects him to four men. One of the men lists France as an origin.

Assyrian #3*, kit # 147979: TMRCA of 3293 years with two men of unknown origin. One of the two men lists "Strickland" as a surname.

Assyrian #4, kit # 184027: TMRCA of 1505 years with three men. At least two appear to be Armenian. Further removed from present, this branch appears dominated by Armenians.

Assyrian #5, kit # 90492: TMRCA of 1735 years with a man listing Ireland as an origin. Another 2025 years (3760 years), connects him with a number of what appear to be Armenian and European men.

L277 (23andMe)

Assyrian #6, kit # 213878: TMRCA of 2293 with an Armenian man. Another 278 years (2571 years), connects him with a number of men, including a man listing Qatar as an origin, a man with a listed surname of "Hussein," an Assyrian from Iraq (Assyrian #7), and an Armenian man. Another 854 years back (3425 years), connects him with a number of Armenian men, a man from Russia (Jewish?), a man from Kazakhstan, a man from Qatar, a man from Georgia, and a man of unknown origin.

Assyrian #7*, kit # 190249: See details for Assyrian #6, above.

* Not SNP confirmed.

From another post:

Mapping the four major Babylonian Jewish yeshivot mentioned in the Wikipedia article, and the Nisibis location, mentioned in the JewishEncyclopedia article (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11555-nisibis):

A = Sura
B = Pumbedita
C = Nehardea
D = Mahuza
E = Nisibis


http://i1234.photobucket.com/albums/ff420/AramaicDNA/yeshivot.jpg



Babylon again at the center? Find Karbala. It is slightly west of Babylon.

---------- Post added 2012-07-29 at 04:40 ----------

Wikipedia


The history of the Jews in Iraq is largely unknown for the four centuries covering the period from Ezra (c. 5th Century BCE)[5] to Hillel (1st Century CE); and the history of the succeeding two centuries, from Hillel to Judah ha-Nasi (2nd Century CE), furnishes only a few scanty items on the state of learning among the Babylonian Jews. In the chief source of information about the Babylonian schools, Sherira Gaon referred to those dark centuries in his famous letter: "No doubt, here in Babylonia public instruction was given in the Torah; but besides the exilarchs there were no recognized heads of schools until the death of Rabbi [Judah]."[citation needed]

The principal seat of Babylonian Judaism was Nehardea, where there certainly was some institution of learning. A very ancient synagogue, built, it was believed, by King Jehoiachin, existed in Nehardea. At Huzal, near Nehardea, there was another synagogue, not far from which could be seen the ruins of Ezra's academy. In the period before Hadrian, Akiba, on his arrival at Nehardea on a mission from the Sanhedrin, entered into a discussion with a resident scholar on a point of matrimonial law (Mishnah Yeb., end). At the same time there was at Nisibis, in northern Mesopotamia, an excellent Jewish college, at the head of which stood Judah ben Bathyra, and in which many Judean scholars found refuge at the time of the persecutions. A certain temporary importance was also attained by a school at Nehar-Peḳod, founded by the Judean immigrant Hananiah, nephew of Joshua ben Hananiah, which school might have been the cause of a schism between the Jews of Babylonia and those of Judea-Israel, had not the Judean authorities promptly checked Hananiah's ambition.

Humanist
2012-07-29, 18:42
Wikipedia:


The Debate between Winter and Summer or Myth of Emesh [Summer] and Enten [Winter] is a Sumerian creation myth, written on clay tablets in the mid to late 3rd millennium BC.[1]

Seven "debate" topics are known from the Sumerian literature, falling in the category of 'disputations'; some examples are: the debate between sheep and grain; the debate between bird and fish; the tree and the reed; and the dispute between silver and copper, etc.[2] These topics came some centuries after writing was established in Sumerian Mesopotamia. The debates are philosophical and address humanity's place in the world. Some of the debates may be from 2100 BC.[3]

....

The story takes the form of a contest poem between two cultural entities first identified by Kramer as vegetation gods, Emesh and Enten. These were later identified with the natural phenomena of Winter and Summer.[12] The location and occasion of the story is described in the introduction with the usual creation sequence of day and night, food and fertility, weather and seasons and sluice gates for irrigation.[1]

If these were still being told in Mesopotamia in the late 1st millennium BCE, perhaps a Sumerian origin is not out of the question. Geoffrey Khan has suggested there may be words of Sumerian origin in our lexicon.

Not the same, of course, but still evidence of public recitations of old Mesopotamian creation myths.


Wikipedia


The Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words). It was recovered by Austen Henry Layard in 1849 (in fragmentary form) in the ruined Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq), and published by George Smith in 1876.[1]

The Enûma Eliš has about a thousand lines and is recorded in Old Babylonian on seven clay tablets, each holding between 115 and 170 lines of text. Most of Tablet V has never been recovered, but aside from this lacuna, the text is almost complete. A duplicate copy of Tablet V has been found in Sultantepe, ancient Huzirina, located near the modern town of Şanlıurfa in Turkey.

This epic is one of the most important sources for understanding the Babylonian worldview, centered on the supremacy of Marduk and the creation of humankind for the service of the gods. Its primary original purpose, however, is not an exposition of theology or theogony but the elevation of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, above other Mesopotamian gods.

The Enûma Eliš exists in various copies from Babylon and Assyria. The version from Ashurbanipal's library dates to the 7th century BCE. The composition of the text probably dates to the Bronze Age, to the time of Hammurabi or perhaps the early Kassite era (roughly 18th to 16th centuries BCE), although some scholars favour a later date of ca. 1100 BCE.[2]


-------------------------------------------------------------


Seleucid Babylon (312 BC–63 BC)


Smith [J.Z.] recognizes that a text called Enuma Elish is recited during the festival, but he is not sure that this is the same Enuma Elish that we know; moreover, he reminds us, even the Enuma Elish we know is not primarily a cosmogony but is “preeminently the myth of the establishment of Marduk’s kingship and the creation of his city (Babylon) and his central capital temple (Esagila).” It is this aspect of Enuma Elish that makes it relevant to the Akitu. Smith allows that this rectification ritual may have had its origins earlier than the Seleucid period; it may go back to the period of Assyrian rule in the seventh century, and, of course, it seems quite appropriate to the era of Cyrus and his successors.

The Babylonian Akitu Festival: Rectifying the King or Renewing the Cosmos?
Benjamin Sommer
From The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 27 (2000):81-95

Humanist
2012-07-29, 20:16
Nasraye u Krestyane:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasraye.jpg


The Church of the East: A Concise History
Wilhelm Baum, Dietmar W. Winkler
2003


This is actually potentially significant. There is, of course, the question regarding the Mandaeans and Assyrians, and "Nasraye." These deportations may also help explain at least some, if not a good chunk of the differences between Syriac Orthodox and members of the Church of the East.

The dialect of Syriac Orthodox Assyrians shows Greek influence (e.g. Suryoyo vs. Suraya), while the dialects of members of the Church of the East show Persian influence. Genomes, likewise, at least autosomally, display affinities to the west and east, for the Syriac Orthodox and Church of the East Assyrians respectively. This may also explain the Cypriot link I referred to in this post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showpost.php?p=917954&postcount=332). Very interesting!

The SPA point map may again be of some use (disregard the cyan and yellow spots):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_temples.jpg

The Mandaean text, Haran Gawaita:


.. and he called the people to himself and spoke of his death and took away some of mysteries of the (Sacred?) Meal and abstained from the Food. And he took to himself a people and was called by the name of the False Messiah. And he perverted them all and made them like himself who perverted words of life and changed them into darkness and even perverted those accounted Mine. And he overturned all the rites. And he and his brother dwell on Mount Sinai, and he joineth all races to him, and perverteth and joineth to himself a people, and they are called Christians.


--------------------------------------------


Wikipedia:


There is a strict division between Mandaean laity and the priests. According to E.S. Drower (The Secret Adam, p. ix):

[T]hose amongst the community who possess secret knowledge are called Naṣuraiia—Naṣoreans (or, if the emphatic ‹ṣ› is written as ‹z›, Nazorenes). At the same time the ignorant or semi-ignorant laity are called 'Mandaeans', Mandaiia—'gnostics'. When a man becomes a priest he leaves 'Mandaeanism' and enters tarmiduta, 'priesthood'. Even then he has not attained to true enlightenment, for this, called 'Naṣiruta', is reserved for a very few. Those possessed of its secrets may call themselves Naṣoreans, and 'Naṣorean' today indicates not only one who observes strictly all rules of ritual purity, but one who understands the secret doctrine.[24]


--------------------------------------------

The Biblical repository and classical review
1844
University of California

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazarenes.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-30, 07:56
Ancient and modern man in Southwestern Asia
Henry Field

Babylonian Crania

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_crania_a.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_crania_b.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_crania_c.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_crania_d.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_crania_e.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-30, 17:22
Do not know if there is anything here.

AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madaktu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madaktu2.jpg


SURETH


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madmha.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duka1.jpg

( I say "dukta")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duka2.jpg

Humanist
2012-07-30, 18:52
History is complicated. Yeah, I know, NSS (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/no_shit,_Sherlock).

I referred to deportations coming from the west. Here are deportations/resettlements coming from the east, including "Syrian Jacobites," ~1000 years ago.

Jacobites = Syriac Orthodox.


Further deportations and settlement of Armenians in the Byzantine empire, especially in Thrace, are attested for the eighth century. During the reign of Constantine V Copronymus, thousands of Armenians and monophysitic Syrians were gathered by the Byzantine armies during their raids in the regions of Germanicea (Marash), Melitene and Erzeroum and were settled in Thrace (15). Others, also from the environs of Erzeroum, were settled along the eastern frontiers. These, however, were subsequently seized by the Arabs and were settled by them in Syria (16). During the reign of Leo IV, a Byzantine raiding expedition into Cilicia and Syria resulted in the seizure of thousands of natives, 150,000 according to one authority, who were settled in Thrace (17). These, however, were chiefly Syrian Jacobites, though some Armenians may have also been included. Many of the Armenians settled in Thrace were seized by the Bulgar Krum (803--814) and carried away, but most of them eventually returned. According to tradition, the parents of the future Emperor Basil I and Basil himself were included among these prisoners, but there is reason to doubt the historical accuracy of this tradition (18).


Khatchik was the Armenian Catholicus from 972--992 (94), but the scattering and spreading of the Armenians for whom he saw fit to establish new bishoprics began somewhat earlier, a fact which can be established on the basis of other oriental sources. One of these sources, for instance, while describing the successful campaigns of Nicephorus Phocas against the Arabs, remarks that many Armenians, having fled to the frontiers of Byzantium, were settled by the Byzantines, some in Sebasteia of Cappadocia where they "multiplied exceedingly", others in the fortresses of Cilicia which had been captured from the Arabs (95). This movement of the Armenians was no doubt encouraged, perhaps even forced, by the imperial authorities in order to repeople the various towns captured from the Arabs as, for instance, Melitene; Tarsus, captured in 965; Antioch, captured in 969 and others, which suffered considerable losses in population as the result of the departure of most of the Moslems. It is known, for instance, that Armenians and Syrian Jacobites were used by Nicephorus Phocas to repeople Melitene which had become virtually deserted (96). The spread of the Armenians into Byzantine territory in the tenth century was not restricted to the newly conquered Cilician and Syrian lands but extended, as the mention of Sebasteia in the reference quoted above indicates, into older provinces including the Cappadocian regions around Caesarea and Nazianzus where the existence of Armenian settlements in the tenth century has been confirmed by the investigation of modern scholars (97).

The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire
Peter Charanis

Humanist
2012-07-31, 07:24
The head and torso of the human figure, intact to just above its waist, stands approximately 1.5 meters in height, suggesting a total body length of 3.5 to four meters. The figure’s face is bearded, with beautifully preserved inlaid eyes made of white and black stone, and its hair has been coiffed in an elaborate series of curls aligned in linear rows. Both arms are extended forward from the elbow, each with two arm bracelets decorated with lion heads. The figure’s right hand holds a spear, and in its left is a shaft of wheat. A crescent-shaped pectoral adorns its chest. A lengthy Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription, carved in raised relief across its back, records the campaigns and accomplishments of Suppiluliuma, likely the same Patinean king who faced a Neo-Assyrian onslaught of Shalmaneser III as part of a Syrian-Hittite coalition in 858 BC.


A beautiful and colossal human sculpture is one of the latest cultural treasures unearthed by an international team at the Tayinat Archaeological Project (TAP) excavation site in southeastern Turkey. A large semi-circular column base, ornately decorated on one side, was also discovered. Both pieces are from a monumental gate complex that provided access to the upper citadel of Kunulua, capital of the Neo-Hittite Kingdom of Patina (ca. 1000-738 BC).

http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2012/archeologist.jpg


http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2012/1-archeologist.jpg


Phys.org

Humanist
2012-07-31, 14:43
Ancient warrior king statue discovered in Turkey (http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/07/31/warrior-king-statue-discovered-in-ancient-mediterranean-city/)


A newly discovered statue of a curly-haired man gripping a spear and a sheath of wheat once guarded the upper citadel of an ancient kingdom's capital.

The enormous sculpture, which is intact from about the waist up, stands almost 5 feet (1.5 meters) tall, suggesting that its full height with legs would have been between 11 and 13 feet (3.5 to 4 m). Alongside the statue, archaeologists found another carving, a semicircular column base bearing the images of a sphinx and a winged bull.

The pieces date back to about 1000 B.C. to 738 B.C. and belong to the Neo-Hittite Kingdom of Patina in what is now southeastern Turkey. They were found at what would have been a gate to the upper citadel of the capital, Kunulua. An international team of archaeologists on the Tayinat Archaeological Project are excavating the ruins.

The Neo-Hittites were a group of civilizations that arose along the eastern Mediterranean after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1000 B.C. When the statues were carved, the area was emerging from the Bronze Age and entering into the Iron Age.

The male sculpture boasts a beard and inlaid eyes made of white and black stone. He wears a crescent-shaped pectoral shield on his chest and lion-head bracelets on his arms. On his back, a long inscription records the accomplishments of Suppiluliuma, the name of a king of Patina already known to have banded together with Syrian forces in 858 B.C. to face an invasion by Neo-Assyrians.

shshmuk
2012-07-31, 15:33
History is complicated. Yeah, I know, NSS (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/no_shit,_Sherlock).

I referred to deportations coming from the west. Here are deportations/resettlements coming from the east, including "Syrian Jacobites," ~1000 years ago.

Jacobites = Syriac Orthodox.


.....One of these sources, for instance, while describing the successful campaigns of Nicephorus Phocas against the Arabs, remarks that many Armenians, having fled to the frontiers of Byzantium, were settled by the Byzantines, some in Sebasteia of Cappadocia where they "multiplied exceedingly", others in the fortresses of Cilicia which had been captured from the Arabs (95). This movement of the Armenians was no doubt encouraged, perhaps even forced, by the imperial authorities in order to repeople the various towns captured from the Arabs as, for instance, Melitene....

The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire
Peter Charanis

Concerning repopulation of Melitene and Sebastea. So that the readers may not have the wrong impression that the Armenians (maybe also some Assyrians) were some new ethnic element in these "Greek" territories, I want to make some clarification. The author of the above quotation seems to put them in Cappadocea and doesn't mention (at least in the quoted passage) that these were part of Armenia Minor (or Lesser Armenia), after the division of Armenia in the 4th century between the Roman Empire and Persia, and not of Cappadocea. That western part of Armenia, populated with Armenians, became part of the Roman Empire but still was called Armenia (Armenia Minor) and had two provinces, called First and Second Armenias. Melitene was the centre of the one province, Sebastea of the other. Later Justinian I formed 4 Armenias in those territories plus some other parts from surrounding territories, perhaps because of the spread of the Armenians also in those places (Pontus, Cappadocea). Those Armenians, being subjects of the Byzantine Empire, were also subjects of the Byzantine Church, the eparchy of Cappadocea.


Under Roman rule, Melitene was the base camp of Legio XII Fulminata. It was a major center in Lesser Armenia (P'ok'r Hayk'), remaining so until the end of the fourth century A.D. Emperor Theodosius I divided the region into two provinces: First Armenia (Hayk'), with its capital at Sebasteia (modern Sivas); and Second Armenia, with its capital at Melitene

During the reign of the Emperor Justinian I (527-565), new administrative reforms were carried out in this region, and Melitene became the capital of the province of Third Armenia.[8] The city was captured by the Rashidun Caliphate in 638 became a base for their raids further into Anatolia, which was pursued also by the Abbasids... (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malatya)

So, these territories were inhabited by the Armenians before the Arabic devastations and Byzantine deportations too. I don't know if there were also Assyrians in Armenia Minor before that. I think, it is possible.

Humanist
2012-07-31, 23:52
From Dr. James McGrath's blog: NEH Award Funds Commentary on the Mandaean Book of John (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2012/07/neh-award-funds-commentary-on-the-mandaean-book-of-john.html)


[T]he NEH has awarded a grant for the second stage of our project on the Mandaean Book of John, to add a commentary to the translation and Mandaic text that resulted from our past two years of work.

---------- Post added 2012-07-31 at 19:01 ----------

More from Dr. McGrath:

Class on Apocalyptic, Early Judaism, and the Context of Jesus (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2012/07/class-on-apocalyptic-early-judaism-and-the-context-of-jesus.html)

After the Exile: The Transition from Pre-Exilic Judah and Israel to Post-Exilic Judaism (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2012/07/after-the-exile-the-transition-from-pre-exilic-judah-and-israel-to-post-exilic-judaism.html)

sgh
2012-08-01, 00:37
Concerning repopulation of Melitene and Sebastea. So that the readers may not have the wrong impression that the Armenians (maybe also some Assyrians) were some new ethnic element in these "Greek" territories, I want to make some clarification. The author of the above quotation seems to put them in Cappadocea and doesn't mention (at least in the quoted passage) that these were part of Armenia Minor (or Lesser Armenia), after the division of Armenia in the 4th century between the Roman Empire and Persia, and not of Cappadocea. That western part of Armenia, populated with Armenians, became part of the Roman Empire but still was called Armenia (Armenia Minor) and had two provinces, called First and Second Armenias. Melitene was the centre of the one province, Sebastea of the other. Later Justinian I formed 4 Armenias in those territories plus some other parts from surrounding territories, perhaps because of the spread of the Armenians also in those places (Pontus, Cappadocea). Those Armenians, being subjects of the Byzantine Empire, were also subjects of the Byzantine Church, the eparchy of Cappadocea.



So, these territories were inhabited by the Armenians before the Arabic devastations and Byzantine deportations too. I don't know if there were also Assyrians in Armenia Minor before that. I think, it is possible.

The people who today belong to the Syriac orthodox church, many of whom identify as Assyrians, did live in parts of the Byzantine empire, esp. in areas adjacent to modern day Syria. The Byzantines did use them in their re-population schemes. The nestorians, on the other hand, lived to the east of the Byzantine empire, in territories once controlled by the Persians which eventually passed into the hands of Muslims.

Humanist
2012-08-01, 01:10
Probably nothing of significance.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/meku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/meku2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/meku_b.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xmiqa.jpg


I also understand the Sureth word to mean something similar to "one who does not respond to others," or "one who is unapproachable." For example, I would say "ah nasha kamale xmiqa, ga la hamzum min nashe." Which means, "how xmiqa is this man, that he will not speak with others." I probably butchered the sentence, but I think I got the point across.

Humanist
2012-08-01, 07:38
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adattu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adattu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adattu3.jpg



SURETH

This is our word for "gum." Think, Bazooka Joe (https://encrypted-tbn1.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT2XJcjiA0UYR-rBnaKiFunLh9FGr37Sym_gBSnoYFJmKw-kFy0rA). As always, there may be no connection to the Akkadian term.

Sureth Online Dictionary
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/data.jpg


Khan's Barwar Volumes
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/data2.jpg


Khan's Barwar definition (second), spells both gum and sweat the same way. However, for sweat I would say "deta." For gum, "data."

---------- Post added 2012-08-01 at 02:51 ----------

Anything to do with the Akkadian term? Note the name of the plant:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanna_plant.jpg

shshmuk
2012-08-01, 08:40
The people who today belong to the Syriac orthodox church, many of whom identify as Assyrians, did live in parts of the Byzantine empire, esp. in areas adjacent to modern day Syria. The Byzantines did use them in their re-population schemes. The nestorians, on the other hand, lived to the east of the Byzantine empire, in territories once controlled by the Persians which eventually passed into the hands of Muslims.

Surely. I never told the opposite. On the contrary, in my thread about the Armenians of Sasun I mentioned that the whole area of Sophene, also Aldznik etc were inhabited mostly by the Assyrians (Syriac Orthodox) in ancient times. In the above post I wasn't just 100% sure about the existence of the Assyrians in Armenia Minor, mainly Sebastea and Melitene, before the Arabic invasion. I have just myself not come across information about this and because of that I can't speak about what I haven't read myself. However, I mentioned also, that the existence of the Assyrians in those territories too is possible (if they were many in adjacent territories, then why not also in Armenia Minor?).

Humanist
2012-08-01, 09:12
AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qanaju.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qananu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qannu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qanu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qiniana.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qenyane.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-01, 13:55
Nasraye u Krestyane:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasraye.jpg


The Church of the East: A Concise History
Wilhelm Baum, Dietmar W. Winkler
2003

If the "Assyrian" ethnonym had fallen into disuse at some point during the early CE, its revival, in my opinion, may have come with the establishment of the Asuristan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asuristan) province of Sassanid Persia (226 CE). If, say, Assyrians were members of the Nasraye community, and wished to distinguish themselves from their former group, as well as the newly arrived Krestyane, an ethnonym derived from the Sassanid created identity of the province, may have served both to distinguish, and to legitimize. Note that the quasi-independent Kingdom of Adiabene (Assyria), and the Roman, Assyria Provincia, were nearly contemporaneous with the beginning of the Asuristan province.

A: Edessa
B: Harran
C: Seleucia-Ctesiphon
D: Babylon

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asuristan_.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-01, 16:28
Only including this one because the Mandaic term appears similar to the Sureth term. It may be common in Aramaic. The Sureth "h" is pronounced like the "ch" in German "Buch."


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ki.jpg


MANDAIC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hy.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dahi.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-01, 18:03
Not very confident about this term. Less so than ordinary. But, I am not very confident about many of them, so...


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pesu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pesu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pesu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pesu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pesuB.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pizza.jpg



-------------------------------------------

Barley Water

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_zAw58ivw-TA/ScnTt7Tx6xI/AAAAAAAACiw/uPVyzt5fuJM/s400/DSCN0083.JPG


"Very Salty Water"

http://nutritionfitnesslife.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/very-salty-water.JPG

Humanist
2012-08-01, 21:25
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suhtu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suhta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sexta.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 02:05
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dappu-1.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dapa-1.jpg


The above term is also found, according to the CAL, in Common Aramaic. I am not clear, exactly, what Common Aramaic is. From what I have observed, Akkadian terms in Common Aramaic are also observed in Sureth. But, Sureth has what I believe to be a significant number of additional Akkadian terms in its lexicon. The same goes for other dialects, such as Mandaic.

Humanist
2012-08-02, 02:22
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salitu.jpg


SURETH (meaning #2)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saltha.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 03:23
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikru.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sekra.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 06:45
I do not know if there is anything of significance here.

Akkadian

1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rehu.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakabu_.jpg

3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silitu2.jpg


Sureth (The "x" is pronounced like the "ch" in German "Buch.")

1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rxm.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rkw.jpg

3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syl.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 08:02
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ga_u.jpg



SURETH (w > v in Iran)

(gwa-la)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gwa_la.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 15:26
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ga_u.jpg



SURETH (w > v in Iran)

(gwa-la)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gwa_la.jpg

Refer to the above Akkadian definition, and "ga-sa-su."

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gsy.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 17:28
Akkadian Dialects of Carchemish & Ugarit

Doctoral Dissertation - Harvard University
1979
John Huehnergard

U = Ugarit
K = Karkemish


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/thesis.jpg


A: Ugarit
B: Karkemish
C: Assur
D: Nineveh
E: Babylon

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ugarit_karkemish_akkad.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-02, 20:50
I wonder whether either of these Akkadian words (one from Hurrian via Nuzi Akkadian) have anything to do with one of our traditional dances, Shehani (http://www.qeenatha.com/viewprofile.php?id=487).


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sehali.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sehanu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sexani.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-03, 00:58
Not to be taken too seriously, if at all.


1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nestu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesu4.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nisda.jpg


2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sehu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sehu2.jpg


SURETH

Our word for "Messiah," highlighted in blue. The "x" is pronounced like the "ch" in German "Buch."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msixa_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

Continuing the second entry, above, for Akkadian (Kassite word):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mashu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -
3
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/serserru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/serserratu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srsy.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srst.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-03, 02:53
Perhaps "back?"

1
AKKADIAN (Syriac is referred to)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hansatu_hassa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hansu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanasu2.jpg


SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassa2.jpg


2
AKKADIAN and SURETH/SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habita.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xerxasa.jpg

- - - Updated - - -


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatnutu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xetnuta.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

The reference in the immediately preceding Akkadian entry was to this. :)

Wikipedia


Ta'anakh or Taanach is a small village in Israel in Ta'anakh region.

Just to the east is a 40-metre-high mound which was the site of the biblical city Taanach. Twelve Akkadian cuneiform tablets were found here. The main remains visible today are of an 11th-century Abbasid palace.[1]

Humanist
2012-08-03, 08:24
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/supeltu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sepu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sawpa.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-03, 15:09
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazazu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazazu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazaqatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazamu-1.jpg



SURETH

I could not find this in the Barwar dialect. Perhaps a loan from Persian? If so, it may have originally been a loan from Akkadian in Persian. Or, perhaps it is an Akkadian term exclusive to certain Sureth dialects.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naznuzi.jpg


2
AKKADIAN (note the word "sehhanu")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garbanu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garbanu2-2.jpg


SURETH

This word is also used to express a feeling of disgust/dissatisfaction toward another person. It may also mean "diseased." I am not sure.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sexna-2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-03, 19:21
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/takalu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qela.jpg

Something similar, "psqwl," appears in Galilean and Samaritan, with the meaning of "agreement," "pledge."

- - - Updated - - -

Kassites, the eastern Zagros, and Mesopotamia. Assyrians, although certainly distinct, have a good deal in common with western Iranians genetically.

Foreigners under Foreign Rulers - The Case of Kassite Babylonia (2nd half of the 2nd millennium BC)
Susanne Paulus

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassites1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassites2.jpg

Sippar is a bit north of Babylon. The Zagros are to the east.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/map-an4.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-03, 20:53
New entry on Dienekes' blog: Neolithic fire starting technology (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/08/neolithic-fire-starting-technology.html)

That must be what these fellas were singing about (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmin5WkOuPw). ;)

Humanist
2012-08-04, 00:00
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patalu.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ptl.jpg


2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/putu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pata.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-04, 02:43
There may be no significant connection.

1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaparru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaparruB.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapora.jpg


2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buqlu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baqalu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buqlatin.jpg

Also found in Galilean Aramaic.

Humanist
2012-08-04, 06:40
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/shanannu.jpg


SYRIAC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/snanta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/snana.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-05, 03:54
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/takalu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qela.jpg

Something similar, "psqwl," appears in Galilean and Samaritan, with the meaning of "agreement," "pledge."

Adding to SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dagala.jpg


The term "dagal", or "dagala," with the meaning "to lie," or "liar," observed in the following Aramaic dialects:

Levant
Samaritan *
Christian Palestinian Aramaic *

Mesopotamia
Late Jewish Literary Aramaic ??? (see Stephen Kaufman's comment regarding this dialect, referred to previously in this thread)
Mandaic
Jewish Babylonian
Syriac/Sureth

*
Wikipedia


Assyrian account of the conquest and settlement of Samaria

However, the following account of the Assyrian kings, which was among the archaeological discoveries in Babylon, differs from the Samaritan and Jewish Biblical accounts:

[the Samar]ians [who had agreed with a hostile king]...I fought with them and decisively defeated them]....carried off as spoil. 50 chariots for my royal force ...[the rest of them I settled in the midst of Assyria]....The Tamudi, Ibadidi, Marsimani and Hayappa, who live in distant Arabia, in the desert, who knew neither overseer nor commander, who never brought tribute to any king--with the help of Ashshur my lord, I defeated them. I deported the rest of them. I settled them in Samaria/Samerina.(Sargon II Inscriptions, COS 2.118A, p. 293)

The inhabitants of Samaria/Samerina, who agreed [and plotted] with a king [hostile to] me, not to do service and not to bring tribute [to Ashshur] and who did battle, I fought against them with the power of the great gods, my lords. I counted as spoil 27,280 people, together with their chariots, and gods, in which they trusted. I formed a unit with 200 of [their] chariots for my royal force. I settled the rest of them in the midst of Assyria. I repopulated Samaria/Samerina more than before. I brought into it people from countries conquered by my hands. I appointed my eunuch as governor over them. And I counted them as Assyrians.(Nimrud Prisms, COS 2.118D, pp. 295-296)

EDIT: Or, perhaps, this may be the influence of the Levantines who were deported and settled in Mesopotamia.

Humanist
2012-08-05, 21:26
Probably nothing of significance.


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/meku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/meku2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/meku_b.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xmiqa.jpg


I also understand the Sureth word to mean something similar to "one who does not respond to others," or "one who is unapproachable." For example, I would say "ah nasha kamale xmiqa, ga la hamzum min nashe." Which means, "how xmiqa is this man, that he will not speak with others." I probably butchered the sentence, but I think I got the point across.


Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/himittu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/himitu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-05, 22:42
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasub.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nps2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nps.jpg


- - - Updated - - -

Refer to the previous post, above:

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xmy.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamis.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-06, 08:55
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damdammu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damamu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damamu2.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dmdm.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu2b.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu1.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dll.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakasu.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dqs.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-06, 16:24
Akkadian Empire Project, Yale University


The origins of the Akkadian empire, of course, are not open for investigation: we do not know how this empire was constructed but for Sargonic "great man" self-descriptions in 4,000 year old royal inscriptions (Frayne 1993). We do not know where the empire's capital was located, although it was inhabited, and mentioned in contemporary documents, for two thousand years (Weiss 1975; Weiss 1991). In fact, the only certain Akkadian "imperial" features are its collapse, emphasized in the native sources with the Sumerian King List's "...who was king, who was not king?..." (Jacobsen 1939), Shamshi-Adad's "...seven-generations since the collapse of Akkad" (Grayson 1987: 53), and a millennium-long ideological (re-) presentation as the first unified control of Mesopotamia.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/2048346982_47c5f7583c.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-06, 17:28
Foreign triangle in south-eastern Mesopotamia

Fanie Vermaak
University of South Africa
Old Testament & Ancient Near Eastern Studies (UNISA)



Large numbers of foreigners (cf. Leemans 1960: 39-142) also remained and settled in south-eastern Mesopotamia and integrated into the local (hybrid) Sumerian and Akkadian populations.6 These foreigners obviously stimulated cultural exchange, but were also responsible for acculturation of several ethnic groups which lived together in south-eastern Mesopotamia before and during the historical periods, namely Sumerians, Akkadians, Amorites, Hurrians and Kassites, etc. They played a substantial role in the economy of the country and even paid taxes (known as the gun-mada- texts)7 to the local government.

On the other hand it also gradually became clear that it is more difficult to untangle the peoples and their customs or to describe the exact nature of these peoples. This led to extensive discussions on ethnicity in southern Mesopotamia and it was eventually also the major theme for the 48th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale which was held in Leiden during 2002.8


Landsberger (1974:11-14) initially proposed the idea that there had to be an earlier “pre-stratum” phase in the Sumerian community of some unknown origin. The basic vocabulary for farming, pottery, gardening, brewing, leather work, building and other handicrafts do not fit into the local scenario in southern Mesopotamia (cf. Landsberger 1974:10-12, Speiser 1969:102-105 & Rubio 1999:1-16).

Nissen (1988:58-60) indicated that the most probable transition would have been between the Early Uruk to the Late Uruk periods The suspicion by Hǿyrup (1992:27) was that a large variety of peoples and cultures immigrated to southern Mesopotamia and that these body of immigrants formed the majority of the working population in this region while the “ruling class” would have been “autochthonous”. This eventually lead Hǿyrup (1992:21-72) to the point where the language emerged into a hybrid format with traces of all these major communities and coined Sumerian as a “creole language”.


Sumerians: ? Language isolate.
Akkadians: ? "Eastern Semites."
Amorites: "Western Semites" (Syria/Levant).
Hurrians: Non-Semitic language. Perhaps most closely related to certain Caucasian languages. Armenian Highland, N Mesopotamia, N Levant...
Kassites: Non-Semitic and non-Indo-Iranian. Wikipedia mentions possible Hurrian affiliation. Zagros Mountains, Iran ?

Humanist
2012-08-06, 20:13
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damdammu.jpg

Not that the entry quoted above is necessarily related to the Sureth term, but, if, like me, you are not familiar with Chagar Bazar, here is the Wikipedia entry:


Chagar Bazar (Arabic: تل شاغربازار) is an ancient site in northern Syria, about 35 kilometers north of Al-Hasakah, occupied from the sixth to the second millennium BC. It is situated by the small river Dara, a tributary to the Khabur River. Alternative spellings are Tell Chagar Bazar, or Šagir Bazar.

Chagar Bazar was already settled in the Neolithic. Excavations revealed pottery belonging to the Halaf and Ubaid cultures. [1] By the Early Bronze Age, in the third millennium BC, Chagar Bazar had turned into a small town with the size of 12 hectares / 30 acres. The site appears to have been abandoned by the end of the third millennium BC. It was resettled by Hurrians in the Middle Bronze Age. Fine examples of the Khabur ware pottery dating to this period have been discovered by the excavators.

The ancient site, about 12 hectares in size, was excavated by the British archaeologist Max Mallowan, with his wife Agatha Christie, from 1935 to 1937. [2] [3] [4] Many of the artefacts discovered were brought to the British Museum. Besides pottery, a large number of clay tablets written in cuneiform script were discovered. Work was resumed at the site in 1999 by an expedition from the British School of Archaeology in Iraq in cooperation with University of Liège archaeologists and the Syrian Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums. [5] [6] During these excavations, which ended in 2002, 214 cuneiform tablets were recovered.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chagar_bazar.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:13 ----------


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu2b.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dll.jpg



Babylonian Marriage Networks - Wife-givers & Wife-takers
Bastian Still
"This poster was presented at "The Connected Past: people, networks and complexity in archaeology and history." A two-day collaborative, multi-disciplinary symposium at The University of Southampton, 24-25 March 2012."




ABSTRACT: This poster presents results obtained from the application of social network analysis to ancient Babylonian society. By converting marriage ties into a directed graph we are able to reveal that Babylonian priests observed a complex marriage system known in sociological literature as hypergamy. This system involves the marriage of a lower-status bride to a higher-status groom. In the marriage system of Babylonian priests, status was assigned according to the purity-based hierarchy of the temple – all this is indicative of a highly hierarchized society that was deeply influenced by the temple fabric.

....

Marriage in this community was thus a strictly non-reciprocal concept. In modern societies that practise this kind of marriage system, sociologists have often observed that a relative status difference is likely to arise between the family of the bride and the family of the groom. In Borsippa, the wife-taker assumed the superior role, as he received not only a bride and a dowry from her family, but also their labour.

Humanist
2012-08-06, 21:41
AKKADIAN

Very long Akkadian entry in the CAD. These are the most relevant bits, I believe.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu3.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahra.jpg



AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kallatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kallutu.jpg



SURETH


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaluta.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-06, 23:58
Not to be taken too seriously. I know it gets repetitive, but every post may be some individual's first post.

These may not be significant, as far as the immediate Sureth-Akkadian relationship is concerned.


A few terms, so dividing once between Akkadian and Sureth.

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamriru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamrihtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanapuB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanapuB2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marira.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tym.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tina.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tani.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-07, 02:02
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabahu.jpg


SYRIAC and other Aramaic dialects* (source: The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/))


nbwḥw, nbwḥwtʾ (nāḇōḥū, nāḇōḥūṯā) n.f. ability to bark

1 ability to bark Syr.
2 canine reason ? Syr.

nbḥ vb. to bark
G
1 to bark JLAtg, Gal, Syr, JBA, LJLA. --(a) metaph.: to speak roughly Syr.

D
1 to make a loud sound JBA.

C
1 to cause to bark Syr.
2 ܒ_: to inflame Syr.


*
Gal Galilean
JBA Jewish Babylonian
JLAtg Jewish Literary Aramaic, Targumic
LJLA Late Jewish Literary Aramaic
Syr Syriac

Humanist
2012-08-07, 05:22
With a grain of salt, please.


Wikipedia


Saint Mari was converted by Saint Addai. He is said to have had Mar Aggai as his spiritual director. He is also believed to have done missionary work around Nineveh, Nisibis, and along the Euphrates, and is said to have been one of the great apostles to Syria and Persia. He and Addai are credited with the Divine Liturgy of Addai and Mari. Despite the fact that there is little if any concrete information on Mari, he is still venerated as a saint by the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, and the Syro Malabar Catholic Church. Apocryphal Acts of Mar Mari are connected with him.


Mar Mari - A window into the world of Apostolic succession (source: Assyrian Church of the East Women)


To the average member of the Assyrian Church of the East, the mention of Mar Mari would more than likely make us think about Mar Addai – one of Christ’s seventy two disciples. This is because together, Mar Addai and Mar Mari are infamously known and will always be remembered for composing The Church of the East liturgy in the Syriac language for the first Church they founded in Edessa. This liturgy has been translated to various languages through the years; such as English, vernacular Syriac and Arabic and is used to this day in our universal Church.

But there is more to Mar Mari than the simple reputation he has earned as being Mar Addai’s disciple and associate worker in the Edessan Church. When we delve into the history of Mar Mari as we read from the Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle, we start to truly unveil the magnitude of this holy man’s character and personality as portrayed through his mighty faith and humble works in the name of the Lord Jesus.

....

Mar Mari and his companions travelled throughout the cities of Mesopotamia performing miracles in the name of the Lord Jesus and gaining the faith of all the pagan inhabitants he had preached to by performing miracles of healing to many of the cities kings and nobles while also exposing the worthless pagan gods they worshipped through the power and light of the One true God.

....

The natives of Seleucia proved to be the most challenging and obstinate of Pagans for Mar Mari to convert. But after a whole year of perseverance and patience, he converted the king and natives of the city of Seleucia and through performing further miracles also converted the city of Ctesiphon across the river. He had the pagan temples demolished and Churches built in their place. The famous temple of the pagan goddess Ishtar that sat on the banks of the Tigris River was demolished and the famous Patriarchal Church of Kokhe was built in that area.

....

Papa and his colleagues answered and said to him: “Christ who sent you to us is witness: you have taught us the true faith in which we live, and as we heard from you thus we will do!” After these events the blessed Mar Mari left this world, departing to the eternal life. His holy body was deposited and buried in the church, which he himself built and completed in Dur-Qunni, before the sanctuary, and inside which his commemoration is perpetuated to the end, following the order of Papa, the heir of his see who also continued the faithful work of the honourable and distinguished Mar Mari established priests and leaders in the whole land of the East. 4

Let us faithful of the Assyrian Church of the East in the 21st Century also take heed of the blessed Mar Mari’s words and be encouraged by his unmoving faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. The faithful works of this saint should be esteemed, remembered and praised for converting so many pagans to the Christian faith through the strength and aide of the Lord. Let us look to Mar Mari’s disease-healing, demon-exorcizing, fire-extinguishing faith and aim to live with the same zealous and passionate trust in the Lord to conquer our everyday obstacles as we continuously grow in our faith for the glory of God.


Although he may very well have existed, if he did not, is there a word from Akkadian that may provide a clue as to why "Mar Mari?"

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmari8.jpg



Matthew 16:15-18.


15 He saith unto them, But who say ye that I am?
16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jonah: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven.
18 And I also say unto thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.

Humanist
2012-08-07, 06:54
Our bishops are given the title, "Mar," when they are consecrated. It is said to mean, "Lord" and/or "Master." It is similar to our word for owner of property or business, "mara." Which in turn is identical to our word for "spade." The word for spade is from Sumerian, via Akkadian (refer to Khan and Krotkoff). Although our bishops receive the title "Mar," they are addressed as "abuna." Khan lists abuna as a loan from Arabic.


Source: Melkite Greek Catholic Church Information Center

Archpriests - Abounas / Abunas - Reverend Fathers


An archpriest is the spiritual descendant/successor of the Holy Apostles. The Holy Apostles were appointed by Holy God the Son within the Holy Trinity / Our Lord, God and Savior, Jesus Christ to be His representatives on earth. Then, an archpriest is the representative of Holy God the Son within the Holy Trinity / Our Lord, God and Savior, Jesus Christ on earth.

Any Arabic-speaking folks wish to chime in, please do so. I know less about Arabic than I do my own language. Which is to say, not much at all.


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbunuta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mar.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mara.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spade.jpg



AKKADIAN - Searching for a possible meaning of "abuna," if it did not originally mean "our father."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abunnatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuB3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuB4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuB5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuB6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bunuD.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-07, 10:18
Not the same, of course, but still evidence of public recitations of old Mesopotamian creation myths.

Seleucid Babylon (312 BC–63 BC)

The Babylonian Akitu Festival: Rectifying the King or Renewing the Cosmos?
Benjamin Sommer
From The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 27 (2000):81-95

Hey, look who it is. Emesh. I am sure there is still a less than spectacular explanation (i.e. loan word from a neighboring foreign tongue).

Wikipedia


Emesh and Enten, Cain and Abel

Many scholars have pointed to the similarities between the Sumerian tale of Emesh and Enten and the Biblical tale of Cain and Abel.[7][8] Samuel Noah Kramer called the Emesh and Enten tale "the closest extant Sumerian parallel to the Biblical Cain and Abel story".[9] The Emesh and Enten tale is found on clay tablets from the 3rd millennium BCE[10] while the oldest source of the Hebrew Bible is thought to have been written during the 6th century BCE.[11]

In the Sumerian tale, the god Enlil has sex with the Earth, which gives birth to two boys named Emesh and Enten. Emesh is a personification of summer and Enten a personification of winter. Each brother brings an offering to Enlil, but Enten becomes angry with Emesh and the two begin an argument.[12] In Genesis, Adam has sex with Eve, who gives birth to two boys named Cain and Abel. Cain worked the soil and Abel kept flocks. Each brother brings an offering to Yahweh. Yahweh looks favorably on Abel's offering but not on Cain's, so Cain becomes angry.[Genesis 4:1-5]

At this point, however, the similarities end. In the Sumerian tale, Enlil intervenes and declares Enten the winner of the debate. Emesh accepts Enlil's judgment and the brothers reconcile.[12] In Genesis, Cain murders his brother Abel.[Genesis 4:8]


The "Emesh" (unlikely) link aside, one thing I found interesting about the bits from Wikipedia is what is stated regarding the Hebrew Bible, and a 6th century BCE vintage. I had, for whatever reason, always believed it to be a few centuries older. I had not heard of "Panbabylonism" before, although I was aware that there were those who suggested that there existed ties between Mesopotamian myths, and the later Abrahamic faiths. Although (and it is no small matter) I remain ignorant regarding most of the issues involved, my gut tells me, based on the extremely small piece I have been exposed to, that some aspects of "Panbabylonism" are not completely far-fetched.

Humanist
2012-08-07, 14:02
Actually, no need for the above. Akkadian for "abu."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-07, 20:06
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isdu.jpg



SURETH/MANDAIC/LATE JEWISH LITERARY ARAMAIC (source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)


ʾšt, ʾštʾ (ˀeššaṯ, ˀeštā) n.f. foundation, base

1 base, foundation Syr, Man, LJLA.
2 pl.: buttocks Syr, Man.

---------- Post Merged at 15:06 ----------

For Sureth, one can include bottom of containers, pots, etc. For example, "eshtit qusarta," which means, "bottom of the pot."

Humanist
2012-08-07, 21:53
THE ACTS OF SHARBIL AND BABAI (Feast Day Jan. 29)

translated from the Syriac by Rev. B. P. Pratten, 1871


The date given in the first sentence is our a.d. 112. But the Greek era commences 311 or 312 b.c., and therefore a.g. 416 would answer to a.d. 105, so there appears to be some error in the date. Moreover, the king reigning in the fifteenth year of Trajan was not Abgar VII, but Maanu Bar Ajazath, the seventh king of Edessa after Abgar I "the Black".

The anecdote at the end beginning "This Barsamya ... " is evidently a later addition by a person unacquainted with chronology: Fabianus was not made bishop of Rome till the reign of Maximinus Thrax, about the year 236. The mention of Fabianus probably arose from the fact of his having instituted notaries for the express purpose of searching for and collecting the Acts of Martyrs.

Words in angled brackets have been supplied by the translator.


Acts of Sharbil, Who Was a Priest of Idols, and Was Converted to the Confession of Christianity in Christ

In the fifteenth year of the Autocrator Trajan Cæsar, and in the third year of King Abgar the Seventh, which is the year 416 of the kingdom of Alexander king of the Greeks, and in the priesthood of Sharbil and Barsamya, Trajan Cæsar commanded the governors of the countries under his dominion that sacrifices and libations should be increased in all the cities of their administration, and that those who did not sacrifice should be seized and delivered over to stripes, and to combs, and to bitter inflictions of all tortures, and should afterwards receive the punishment of the sword.

Now, when the command arrived at the town of Edessa of the Parthians, there was a great festival, on the eighth of Nisan, on the third day of the week: the whole city was gathered together by the great altar which was in the middle of the town, opposite the Record office, all the gods having been brought together, and decorated, and sitting in honour, both Nebu and Bel together with their fellows. And all the priests were offering incense of spices and libations . and an odour of sweetness was diffusing itself around, and sheep and oxen were being slaughtered, and the sound of the harp and the drum was heard in the whole town. And Sharbil was chief and ruler of all the priests; and he was honoured above all his fellows, and was clad in splendid and magnificent vestments; and a headband embossed with figures of gold was set upon his head; and at the bidding of his word everything that he ordered was done. And Abgar the king, son of the gods, was standing at the head of the people. And they obeyed Sharbil, because he drew nearer to all the gods than any of his fellows, and as being the one who according to that which he had heard from the gods returned an answer to every man.


Drawing of a statue of Nebo in the British Museum (1875).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Rawlinson%27s_Nebo.png/253px-Rawlinson%27s_Nebo.png


Ephrem, on Nebo:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ephrem.jpg

Cults and Beliefs at Edessa (1980)
H. J. W. Drijvers


The significance of Nebo, to the last great Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal, and Assyrians in general:


We have already set forth the reasons for the [B]popularity of the Nabu cult in Assyria. Suffice it to recall that the peculiar character of the god as the patron of wisdom placed him beyond the reach of any jealousy on the part of the other members of the pantheon. So Ramman-nirari III. extols Nabu as the protector of the arts, the all-wise who guides the stylus of the scribe, and the possessor of wisdom in general. He is not merely the originator of writing, but the source of all wisdom, and for this reason he is spoken of as the son of Ea. Attributes of mere brutal force are rarely assigned to Nabu, but as befits a god of wisdom, mercy, nobility, and majesty constitute his chief attractions. By virtue of his wisdom, Sargon calls him 'the clear seer who guides all the gods,' and when the last king of Assyria—Saracus, as the Greek writers called him—invokes Nabu as the 'leader of forces,' he appears to have in mind the heavenly troops rather than earthly armies. Such patrons of learning as Sargon and Ashurbanabal were naturally fond of parading their devotion to Nabu. The former significantly calls him the 'writer of everything,' and as for Ashurbanabal, almost every tablet in the great literary collection that he made at Nineveh closes with a solemn invocation to Nabu and his consort Tashmitum, to whom he offers thanks for having opened his ears to receive wisdom, and who persuaded him to make the vast literary treasures of the past accessible to his subjects.

The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (1898)
Morris Jastrow, Jr.

Humanist
2012-08-08, 00:40
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/supru.jpg


SURETH/IMPERIAL ARAMAIC/LATE JEWISH LITERARY ARAMAIC (source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)


ṣbʿ, ṣbʿʾ (ṣḇaˁ, ṣeḇˁā) n.f. #3 finger

1 finger OfA, OfA, Syr, LJLA.
2 as a measurement OfA.

---------- Post Merged at 19:18 ----------

Adding to SURETH:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tupurta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/topra.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:30 ----------

Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuppu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:40 ----------



2
AKKADIAN (note the word "sehhanu")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garbanu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garbanu2-2.jpg


SURETH

This word is also used to express a feeling of disgust/dissatisfaction toward another person. It may also mean "diseased." I am not sure.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sexna-2.jpg

Adding to SURETH:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihna.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-08, 06:18
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buhra.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buhru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buhru2.jpg



SURETH

I may be mistaken, but I believe this is our word for the bread received during the Eucharist (Qurbana).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buxra.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-08, 07:51
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buhra.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buhru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buhru2.jpg



SURETH

I may be mistaken, but I believe this is our word for the bread received during the Eucharist (Qurbana).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buxra.jpg


I should have quoted the above post when discussing the Sureth terms for the male specific organ. As well as discussion of the terms related to virginity, Ishtar, etc.

I am not sure if the "h" is an "ḥ." If it is the latter, in my very poor Mesopotamian Aramaic, perhaps it would translate as follows: "The dough has cooled (piḥla?), its life (ḥiya?) has fallen (pila?)."

Of course, that is only (an attempt at a) literal translation by an unqualified (illiterate) speaker of the language. And, much, I assume, would be lost in translation, as far as the meaning of the expression goes.


Refer to the Akkadian entry, at top, and the bit in bold, immediately above.

Humanist
2012-08-08, 20:39
fastIBD analysis of several Jewish and non-Jewish groups (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/08/fastibd-analysis-of-several-jewish-and.html)

Dienekes:

fastIBD identifies segments of relatively recent origin that are shared by individuals. These results should not be construed as measures of overall genetic similarity or origins. Rather, they suggest which populations have exchanged genes in the relative recent past, say, the last two thousand years or so.

A note from Dienekes, from a previous fastIBD run (http://dodecad.blogspot.com/2012/03/fastibd-analysis-of-italybalkansanatoli.html):


Remember that the tree groups similar populations together, and for each row in the matrix, the red end of the spectrum indicates lots of IBD sharing, and the blue end low IBD sharing.

My neck of the woods, with my group in red, below, with names of populations added (disregard the colors to the immediate right of the population names). The full heatmap can be found here (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-N_VCcrkXQA0/UCJQJKgFa4I/AAAAAAAAFPA/m_Zi4nxnNGY/s1600/heatmap.png), on Dienekes' site.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/heatmap.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-09, 00:05
The Y-DNA signal from/to Assyrians and Saudis now has autosomal support? Maybe. See below for one example, of what I am referring to, when I say "Y-DNA signal from/to Assyrians and Saudis."

The Assyrian fastIBD population chart from Dienekes' fastIBD analysis of several Jewish and non-Jewish groups (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/08/fastibd-analysis-of-several-jewish-and.html).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_fastibd__.png



Very interesting new [J1*] DNA results. DYS438=10. The GD should not be taken as an indicator of a very recent relationship, as DYS438=11 has plenty of diversity. For Assyrians, the link with the southern areas is now that much more probable.


Of the 93 Assyrians here (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/4484-Assyrian-y-DNA-Haplogroup-Distribution?p=958395&viewfull=1#post958395), only two are J-P58. Neither of the men are "Nestorian." The majority of the individuals in the Dodecad Assyrian population are from the "Nestorian" church. J-P58 occurs at significant frequency in modern Saudis.

From Wikipedia:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/j1_p58_-1.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:05 ----------

Another disclaimer regarding the contents found in this thread. Please do not take anything in this thread that seriously, if at all, as none of the folks (at least for the Assyrians) who have contributed to it, are trained in the areas of history, linguistics, archaeology, genetics...

Humanist
2012-08-09, 00:52
Also, as for the Lezgins, the Assyrian-Lezgin difference, when referring to the K12b Dodecad (https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0ArJDEoCgzRKedEY4Y3lTUVBaaFp0bC1zZlBDcTZEY lE#gid=0) "North European" component, appears significant.

"North European"

Assyrian: 0.9
Lezgin: 23.8
--------------
Difference ~ 23

Humanist
2012-08-09, 06:21
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/jau_jau.jpg




SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aia_aia.jpg


2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahuB.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahhila.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahhuli.jpg


Also, "bahta" is our word for woman.

Humanist
2012-08-09, 08:02
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uranu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uranu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uranu3.jpg


SYRIAC

I am not sure if this is what the "mar" below means, but the word "mara" in Sureth means disease/ailment.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmuriana.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-09, 10:04
I do not know if this word exists in Akkadian, but that is not why I am posting it here.

A similar word occurs in both Syriac and Imperial Aramaic (Achaemenid Persia).


Imperial Aramaic/Syriac (source:CAL)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dawga.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dawi.jpg


The Sureth word may be a loan from Iranian, I gather. The same may apply for the earlier Syriac word, with Imperial Aramaic?

Humanist
2012-08-09, 20:39
AKKADIAN (Late Babylonian, from Old Persian)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/magusu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mgusa.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-09, 22:41
1
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masihu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masahu.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masuha.jpg


2
AKKADIAN (refer to the meanings)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu3-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu2-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu7.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahhara.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-10, 01:13
I do not know if this word exists in Akkadian, but that is not why I am posting it here.

A similar word occurs in both Syriac and Imperial Aramaic (Achaemenid Persia).


Imperial Aramaic/Syriac (source:CAL)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dawga.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dawi.jpg


So, according to the Sureth Online Dictionary, the meanings are in fact the same.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dauga.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:13 ----------


I do not know if there is anything of significance here.

Akkadian

1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rehu.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakabu_.jpg

3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silitu2.jpg


Sureth (The "x" is pronounced like the "ch" in German "Buch.")

1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rxm.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rkw.jpg

3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syl.jpg


Adding to AKKADIAN (refer to Akkadian and Sureth terms silitu and syl, above)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salalu_.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-10, 01:55
Adding to Sureth. Refer to the immediately preceding post, Akkadian salalu, and entries #3, silitu and syl, for Akkadian and Sureth respectively.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sly.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sll.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-10, 07:01
I do not think there is anything here. I could not find the Sureth word in any of the sources, so it may be a loan from a neighboring language.


AKKADIAN

mahazu in sa mahazani
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahazu-1.jpg

mahisanu
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahisanu-1.jpg


SURETH

manḥis, or manḥus (?) : to discipline (?). For example, one would say "manḥisle" (discipline him!), if a boy/man were acting inappropriately at church.

I am not sure if the last letter is "s" or "ṣ". I thought I had found the word, or at least something related, when I came across this, in Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manqus-1.jpg


However, the word I am familiar with has "ḥ," not "q," and the "s" is not "š".

Humanist
2012-08-10, 10:18
I do not think there is anything here. I could not find the Sureth word in any of the sources, so it may be a loan from a neighboring language.


AKKADIAN

mahazu in sa mahazani
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahazu-1.jpg

mahisanu
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahisanu-1.jpg


SURETH

manḥis, or manḥus (?) : to discipline (?). For example, one would say "manḥisle" (discipline him!), if a boy/man were acting inappropriately at church.

I am not sure if the last letter is "s" or "ṣ". I thought I had found the word, or at least something related, when I came across this, in Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manqus-1.jpg


However, the word I am familiar with has "ḥ," not "q," and the "s" is not "š".

This is just a funny coincidence, but when I searched for "manhus," this came up. Manlius is spelled "Manhus" in some sources.

Wikipedia


Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus held three consulships of republican Rome and was also three times Roman Dictator.

....

In 340 BC, when Manlius was consul for the third time, Rome had leadership over the Latin League. It received a delegation from member states headed by Annius, demanding coequal status in Roman government, such as a place in the senate and a consulship, but Manlius, appealing to Jupiter, refused them. Roundly abusing the Roman Jupiter, Annius fell down the steps of the public assembly, senseless. Manlius said he would strike down Rome's enemies as Jupiter struck down Annius. The Latin embassy required a safe-conduct and an escort of magistrates to leave Rome unmolested. Rome realigned itself with the Samnites against the Latins.

During the conduct of the war, Manlius and his co-consul, Publius Decius Mus, decided that the old military disciplines would be reinstated, and no man was allowed to leave his post, under penalty of death. Manlius's son, seeing an opportunity for glory, forgot this stricture, left his post with his friends, and defeated several Latin skirmishers in battle. Having the spoils brought to him, the father cried out in a loud voice and called the legion to assemble. Berating his son, he then handed him over for execution to the horror of all his men. Thus, "Manlian discipline."[5]

Humanist
2012-08-10, 20:43
Another disclaimer regarding the contents found in this thread. Please do not take anything in this thread that seriously, if at all, as none of the folks (at least for the Assyrians) who have contributed to it, are trained in the areas of history, linguistics, archaeology, genetics...

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhtuhanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhhu_B.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhdu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhdu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhdu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhdu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhdu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhd6.jpg


SURETH

(source: Geoffrey Khan)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mertoxa.jpg


-----------------------------------------

Easter Sunday - Eadad Qeyamta

They [~biscuits] are stuffed with "martukha", a kind of Assyrian sweetmeat.

Assyrians in Middle America: A Historical and Demographic Study of the Chicago Assyrian Community
Yoab Benjamin


Mərtuḥa is not always sweet, and it is not always offered at church. It is offered occasionally, including some High Holy Days (?), when people pass away...

Humanist
2012-08-10, 21:57
Continuation of the post above.

Adding to SURETH (from a previous post)


From Lady Drower's "The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore." 1937

The Nestorian dukhrana with its distribution in the church of bread and other foods and of meat by the church door, its reciting of names of the dead, and the use of the kaprana (i.e. the sa [dough] or phallus) in the qurbana, is close to Mandaean ritual in many particulars. The word dukhrana is also applied to a love-feast, or public distribution of meat which follows the dukhrana in church. In this, every member of the community shares.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duhrana.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 00:05
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niqu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niqe1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niqe2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naqu.jpg

Two sentences above the highlighted term ("munaqqite")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/munaqqite.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nepisu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nepisu2.jpg




SYRIAC/CHRISTIAN PALESTINIAN ARAMAIC

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nqy.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nupiqa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuqaia.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qita.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:05 ----------




As always, this may be nothing at all.

SURETH (see posts above, for 1 and 2)

1.mərtuḥa
2.duḥrana

And, a new one, which I cannot find in the sources. Prepared on days honoring saints ("share"):

3.duḥwa : meat of young male sheep (lamb), barley, and yogurt.

Actually, I am wrong. It is in Khan's Barwar volumes. Please see below:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duxwa.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 01:05
Posted previously, but again relevant:

SURETH

duḥa

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duxa.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:05 ----------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tersitu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/trs.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 03:54
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duhnu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duhnu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duhnu3.jpg


SURETH (Also, the CAL lists the following dialects with a similar form of the term: Imperial Aramaic, Jewish Literary Aramaic Targumic, and Late Jewish Literary Aramaic)

The Nuzi dialect is referred to as "Hurro-Akkadian." Nuzi ~ Kirkuk, Iraq

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duhna.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 05:34
I do not think there is anything here. I could not find the Sureth word in any of the sources, so it may be a loan from a neighboring language.

AKKADIAN

mahazu in sa mahazani
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahazu-1.jpg

mahisanu
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahisanu-1.jpg


SURETH

manḥis, or manḥus (?) : to discipline (?). For example, one would say "manḥisle" (discipline him!), if a boy/man were acting inappropriately at church.

I am not sure if the last letter is "s" or "ṣ". I thought I had found the word, or at least something related, when I came across this, in Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manqus-1.jpg


However, the word I am familiar with has "ḥ," not "q," and the "s" is not "š".


Posted previously, but again relevant:

SURETH

duḥa

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duxa.jpg


Reminded me of duḥa and manḥis/manḥus.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duhhusu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 09:30
I do not think there is anything here. I could not find the Sureth word in any of the sources, so it may be a loan from a neighboring language.


AKKADIAN

mahazu in sa mahazani
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahazu-1.jpg

mahisanu
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahisanu-1.jpg


SURETH

manḥis, or manḥus (?) : to discipline (?). For example, one would say "manḥisle" (discipline him!), if a boy/man were acting inappropriately at church.


I was wrong about the meaning in Sureth. It is not "to discipline," it is "to rebuke."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahasu2.jpg



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nxs.jpg



And another potentially relevant AKKADIAN term:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahasu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahasu3.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 04:30 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu2.jpg



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ndy.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 12:34
As always, this may be, and most probably is, nothing at all.

SURETH (see posts above, for 1 and 2)

1.mərtuḥa
2.duḥrana

And, a new one. Prepared on days honoring saints ("share"):

3.duḥwa : meat of young male sheep (lamb), barley, and yogurt.


Posted previously, but again relevant:

SURETH

duḥa : dedicatory sacrifice (source: Khan).


A few words from the "Sumerian Lexicon," by John A. Halloran.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadug3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadug2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadug.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tug_tukul.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tugkuruum.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gudug.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 14:27
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalmatu.jpg



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qalma.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 16:04
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatituB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatitu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatatitu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatitan.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattitu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/htitha.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hittiana.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 18:04
The "closest" word I could find to the Sureth term below, was this. It may be a recent(?) loan.


AKKADIAN (Nuzi Hurrian word)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/husaurutu.jpg



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hwusia.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 19:17
Archaeology Magazine (http://www.archaeology.org/1209/artifact/clay_tablet_ziyaret_tepe_turkey_neo-assyrian.html)

Volume 65 Number 5, September/October 2012



Written using the same Neo-Assyrian script as other ancient languages, MacGinnis says that “at least 45 of the names, and likely more, clearly do not derive from any of the known languages of the ancient world.” MacGinnis thinks the new language was probably spoken by a population deported to Tušhan from the Zagros Mountains of western Iran. The presence of these women’s names on a document found so far from their homeland “not only will add a new component to our knowledge of the world’s languages,” says MacGinnis, “but also will give researchers information on the population of the Neo-Assyrian Empire that is available in no other way.”

Humanist
2012-08-11, 21:21
A Sureth word I have been curious about. Best I could do, is below.


SURETH

Same word, two sources (Khan, and Sureth Online Dictionary)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gngz.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganguzi.jpg



AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganzazu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganahu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gesu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gistaggu1_priest.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gistaggu2_priest.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gissu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gissu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizzatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizzatu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizillu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizillu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-11, 23:13
The terms in the below post may offend some. Please do not proceed if you are the particularly shy sort. Unfortunately, "spoiler" tags do not appear to be functioning.






AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tiza.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-12, 01:13
SURETH (see posts above, for 1 and 2)

1.mərtuḥa
2.duḥrana

Prepared on days honoring saints ("share"):

3.duḥwa : meat of young male sheep (lamb), barley, and yogurt.

This particular word for sacrifice may not be significant. At least as far as the search for Akkadian-Sureth links is concerned. It appears in a similar, yet distinct (??) form, in the other dialects, including literary Syriac, and Old Aramaic, based on the data available at the CAL.


dbwḥy, dbwḥyʾ (*dḇuḥē, dḇuḥyā) n.m. act of sacrifice

1 act of sacrifice Syr.
dbḥ vb. a/a(u) to slaughter
G
1 to slaughter Syr, Man.
2 to sacrifice Com.

D
1 to sacrifice in large amounts Jud, Syr, LJLA.

Gt
1 to be sacrificed Syr.
2 to be slaughtered [dubious emendation] JBA.

dbḥ, dbḥʾ (dḇaḥ, diḇḥā) n.m. animal sacrifice

1 animal sacrifice Com.
2 fig.: victim Syr.
3 holiday requiring a special animal sacrifice JBAmag, JBA. --(a) specifically, Passover JBA.
dbḥh, dbḥtʾ (deḇḥā, deḇḥəṯā) n.f. sacrifice; eucharist

1 sacrifice OA, Syr. --(a) eucharist Syr.

Also, for "mərtuḥa," I believe the "tuḥ" in the word may be unrelated to the "duḥ" in entries 2 and 3 at top.

Humanist
2012-08-12, 03:25
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanasu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanes.jpg


Other Aramaic dialects (source: CAL (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/)), below. Only literary Syriac and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic include the meaning "to sweep." And Syriac, "to curdle." Not that it is necessarily of any consequence.


knš vb. to gather; sweep up
G
1 to gather, be assembled BA, Jud, Syr.
2 to gather (intrans.) Syr. --(a) (math.) to sum up to Syr. --(a) to curdle Syr.
3 to sweep Syr, JBA.
4 idioms: Syr. --(a) p.p. w. ܗܘܢܐ or ܢܦܫܐ : to be at ease and contemplative Syr.

D
1 to gather, collect, assemble Jud, CPA, Syr. --(a) to include Syr.
2 to conclude Syr. --(a) to sum up Syr.
3 to shut Syr.
4 to receive Syr.

C
1 to sweep Syr.
2 to gather JLAtg, Sam.

Gt
1 to be gathered Syr.
2 to die , Gal. --(a) w. לוות עמה or לוות אבהתה JLAtg, PTA, LJLA. --(b) w. מן גו עלמה PTA.

Dt
1 to be assembled BA, Jud, CPA, Syr.
2 to collect oneself Syr.
3 ܡܸܢ ܥܵܠܡܵܐ : to die Syr.
4 to gather a community to oneself Syr.
5 to be computed Syr.
6 to be concluded Syr.

---------- Post Merged at 22:25 ----------

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kima.jpg


SURETH

(Source: CAL)


kmh (kmā) adv. how much

1 how much (interrog) Syr, JBA, LJLA.
2 correlative: by how much BA, Jud, Syr, JBA, LJLA. --(a) how much! such a long time! JBA.
3 a large amount Gal.
4 conj.: as long as JBA.

Humanist
2012-08-12, 05:40
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hakamu.jpg



SYRIAC

(Source: CAL) OfA is "Imperial Aramaic"


ḥkm vb. i(a)/a to know
G
1 to know Jud, CPA, Sam, Syr, LJLA. --(a) how to do something: i.e. to be able Syr. --(b) how something functions: to understand Syr, LJLA. --(c) to become aware of, pay attention PTA, Sam, LJLA.
2 to be made wise, acquire wisdom Syr, JBA, LJLA.
3 to know someone Jud, Syr, LJLA. --(a) to know sexually Jud, Syr. --(b) to recognize Jud. (b.1) to recognize somthing Syr.

D
1 to teach OfA, Syr.
2 to make wise OfA, Syr, LJLA.
3 to make something skillfully JLAtg.

C
1 to make wise JBA. --(a) to teach JLAtg.
2 to behave more wisely JBA, LJLA. --(a) to make to behave more wisely JLAtg.

Gt
1 to be understood Syr.
2 to be recognized Gal.
3 to be warned Syr.

Dt
1 to be made wise Syr, LJLA. --(a) to be learned Syr. --(b) to recover one's wits Syr. --(c) to behave wisely Syr, LJLA.
2 to outsmart JLAtg, Syr.
3 to make oneself known PTA.
4 to consider Syr.
5 to conjure Syr.


------------------------------------------


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tajartu.jpg



SURETH (dayarta)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dayarta.jpg


Note: Sureth Online Dictionary lists this as an Arabic loan now. However, Khan does not. Whether due to inconclusive evidence, or simply because it is not, I am not sure.

Humanist
2012-08-12, 07:05
Adiabene was roughly Assyria on the upper Tigris.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/parthian_empire.png

Humanist
2012-08-12, 09:28
AKKADIAN (3, 5)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dunnu1.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duna.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-12, 10:37
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dara-1.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duru3.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-12, 20:07
Please see the caveats above, and on previous pages, regarding what is posted below.

JoAnn Scurlock, "The Techniques of the Sacrifice of Animals in Ancient Israel and Ancient Mesopotamia."

-------------------------------------------------


In Akkadian, this is the closest term I could find to what we call sheep:

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu_akkadian.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu_akkadian2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sheep_sureth.jpg



Searching the CAD's volume "I."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irbu4.jpg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irdu1.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sheep_offering.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------------



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masitu.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masyana.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msy.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-13, 00:19
1
AKKADIAN (note "shi-kar")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikaru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikaru5.jpg


SURETH (and Syriac and Jewish Babylonian Gaonic Period)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sugar_date.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikar.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakr.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakra.jpg



2
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadistu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu3.jpg



SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qds.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaddisa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaddista.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qudsa.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-13, 01:42
The standard preface applies. Actually, the preface applies especially to posts such as this...

Apologies for the lack of explanation. Anyway, it is more like a stream of consciousness. :) I was following the "gudu."


SONS OF GOD - THE IDEOLOGY OF ASSYRIAN KINGSHIP
by Professor Simo Parpola


"That tree, O king, is you" (Daniel 4:10-22).

The king's association with the cosmic tree, while part and parcel of Assyrian royal ideology, was inherited from earlier Mesopotamian empires. Several Sumerian kings of the Ur III dynasty, about 2000 B.C., are referred to in contemporary texts as "palm trees" or "mes-trees growing along abundant watercourses." In the Babylonian Epic of Erra, the mes-tree is said to "reach by its roots the bottom of the underworld and by its top the heaven of Anu," thus leaving no doubt about its identification as the cosmic tree.

Representing the king as the personification of the cosmic tree not only emphasized the unique position and power of the king, it also served to underline the divine origin of kingship.

As already noted, the cosmic tree had been planted in the world by the goddess Inanna/Ishtar, who elsewhere figures as the divine mother of the king. In Assyrian imperial art, the goddess nurses the king as a baby or child. The message conveyed was that the king was identical in essence to his divine mother. In keeping with this idea of essential identity, or consubstantiality, the goddess too is identified with the date palm in Assyrian texts.


SURETH (and Syriac and other dialects for #4, the "dates" "date palm")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gudia.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuma.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umra_umqa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tumra.jpg




AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gudadu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasisu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasiru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gudapsu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kumru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kumru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kumru3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kumurru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kumurru2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:42 ----------

EDIT:

More from Parpola


Since the human king, in contrast to gods, was made of flesh and blood, his consubstantiality with god of course has to be understood spiritually: It did not reside in his physical but in his spiritual nature, that is, in his psyche or soul. He thus was an entity composed of both matter and divine essence. This sounds very like the doctrine of homoousios enunciated at the Council of Nicaea in 325, in which Jesus is said to be "of the same substance" as the Father. According to the Epic of Gilgamesh, the eponymous hero, a "perfect king," was two thirds god and one third man. Ishtar, the divine mother of the king, was the wife of Ashur, the supreme god of the empire, defined in Assyrian sources as the "sum total of gods" and the only true god. Ashur was thus, by implication, the "heavenly father" of the king, while the latter was his "son" in human form. The Father-Mother-Son triad constituted by Ashur, Ishtar and the king reminds one of the Holy Trinity of Christianity, where the Son, according to Athanasius, is "the selfsame Godhead as the Father, but that Godhead manifested rather than immanent."

Humanist
2012-08-13, 06:47
This is interesting. I have no idea if there is any connection.


The famous Mandaean jewelry work can still be seen in Persia, for the people continue their gold and silver trade, with Mandaean goldsmiths even now making up the majority of jewelers in Ahwaz. Even in the bazaars of Tehran, one may chance upon Mandaean silver objects, and a Mandaean can often identify the artisan by examining a particular piece of merchandise.

Mandaean Religion in Iran
Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley
Encyclopedia Iranica


Today, the ordinary cult-hut, called in the literary language mashkhana (dwelling), is known in ratna (colloquial modern Mandaean) as the 'mandi'. In the roll 'Sharh d Parwanaia' (D.C. 24) the cult-hut is called the manda. Priests explain, 'the word is Persian and means a dwelling'. The word occurs again in a compound from in the term mandilta (mand-ilta), the name of the curious triple betyl erected in the courtyard of a house where a member of the familly has died, the meaning here being obviously 'dwelling-of-the-spirit', or 'dwelling-of-the-god'.

Lady Drower


AKKADIAN

(Loan in Neo-Babylonian from Aramaic)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manditu.jpg

Second meaning.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandituB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandituB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandituB3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mandituB4.jpg


There was also the Mesopotamian deity, Madānu/Mandānu.

The Akitu Festival: Religious Continuity and Royal Legitimation in Mesopotamia (2002)
Volume 2 of Gorgias dissertations: Near East series
Julye Bidmead

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu_.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu4.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mediana.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/medianuta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/medianait.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/modana.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudiaa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/modaita.jpg


Some additional terms from AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudanutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudasu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudutu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mudutu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/medu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/medu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/minde.jpg


And SURETH

Used as a placeholder name word as well.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mendi.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-13, 22:11
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqu-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqu2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sq.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msq.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-13, 23:18
As with all, not necessarily anything of significance.


AKKADIAN
1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/annaku.jpg
2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamu.jpg


SURETH
1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anka.jpg
2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tmm_tmtm.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-14, 00:37
MANDAIC (source: Drower)
"mashkhana" (perhaps, "oily," or "heat it up!" ?)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mashkhana.jpg


SURETH ("heated"?)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sxinta.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-14, 02:09
MANDAIC (source: Drower)
"mashkhana" (perhaps, "oily," or "heat it up!" ?)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mashkhana.jpg


SURETH ("heated"?)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sxinta.jpg


From AKKADIAN (note the "Aramaism in NB")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maskanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maskanu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu3.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-14, 06:00
1
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/melu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/melulu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/melulu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mummilu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/myl.jpg



2
AKKADIAN (6)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zakaru_suzkuru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zakaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zakaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zakaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zakaru4.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mszgr.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-14, 07:11
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaruB2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sbr.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-14, 08:26
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapahu2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spq.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-14, 23:32
SURETH/MANDAIC

MANDAIC
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tpt.jpg

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tpth.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pudi.jpg




AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/upatu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/upatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/upatu3.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-15, 05:48
SURETH (x=ḥ)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xmr_xms.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hummuru_sureth_possible_sour.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamasu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamasu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamasuB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamasuB2a.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-15, 09:44
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spn.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapna.jpg



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapanu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-15, 10:56
The terms in the below post may offend some. Please do not proceed if you are the particularly shy sort. Unfortunately, "spoiler" tags do not appear to be functioning.






AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tiza.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saratu1_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surrutu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rt.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erata.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urata.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/artita.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-15, 21:50
Not so say that some of these are likely, but some are less so than others, I believe.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dbdb.jpg



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dababu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dababu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dababu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dababu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dababu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dababu6.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-16, 00:28
I have no idea what the origin of our word for fruit is. It may be a loan from another language (e.g. Farsi). If it looks familiar to anybody out there, please consider replying to this post. It is from my dialect. I do not know if it is shared by many other dialects. It is not in the Barwar, Iraq dialect. That is why I suspect a relatively recent loan.

Sureth

iaimiš: fruit (I pronounce it "yemish")

Perhaps a bit closer? Refer above to "harrow," in Sureth, "shapna."

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu__.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emesu-2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu2.jpg

---------------------------------------------

The word at top, "emistu," sounds similar to our word for yogurt, "masta." But "masta" is also the word for yogurt in Persian and Kurdish. During my time searching for words in the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, I have come across several Akkadian words that may be the origin for words in Farsi (my parents are from Iran). Although, that may have no significance as far as the instant case is concerned.

Humanist
2012-08-16, 01:31
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/azl.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zi.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu2-1.jpg


Edit: This appears to be common in Aramaic.

Humanist
2012-08-16, 04:20
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/shipta-2.jpg



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihiptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu5.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-16, 06:15
Not suggesting a connection. But, to this ignorant individual, they appear to share some similarities. I do not know how common this word is in the other Aramaic dialects. When I read the Akkadian word, the first thing that came to mind was engagement/wedding ring in Sureth. Although the term below is used for rings in general as well.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isiqta.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isaqta.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu6.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissikt6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissikt7.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-16, 16:22
I have said this before, and I will say it again, much gratitude to the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago for making available the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. Not that anything substantive has come from my attempts at finding a word or two from Akkadian in Sureth not previously identified, but I certainly have learned a great deal.

From a year ago:

Chicago Assyrian Dictionary hits 100,000 downloads
By William Harms

August 1, 2011.The University’s recently completed reference work to a dead Mesopotamian language has a lively following.

Soon after its completion was announced in early June, downloads of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, published at the Oriental Institute, skyrocketed — going from 4,429 in May to 64,301 for the month of June. Interest continued strong, and by the end of July, the dictionary had garnered more than 100,000 downloads from the Oriental Institute’s website. The Oriental Institute provides free electronic access to all its published material and also sells most of its publications in print form.

Humanist
2012-08-16, 23:03
Not necessarily influenced by Akkadian.


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aldaita.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/alduyi.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maldi.jpg



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elenitu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-17, 02:26
Not necessarily exclusive to Sureth.



SURETH


1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biza.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bizazi.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/byz_bz.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bsr.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bisra.jpg

3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bsm.jpg



AKKADIAN


1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bissuru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basasu.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basaru.jpg

3
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basamu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-17, 04:33
This should be familiar to Assyrians. I do not know whether the origin is Persian or Arabic. Source is the CAL.


nbyd, nbydʾ (nḇīḏ, nḇīḏā) n.m. date wine

date wine Syr, JBAg, Man.

The other dialects are Mandaic and Jewish Babylonian Gaonic period (see below).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/timeline/2f34557ad5bf42aed0f28ece270b5405.png

Humanist
2012-08-17, 05:49
Not exclusive to Sureth.


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tny-2.jpg



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanattu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanidu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanidu2-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanisu_tanittu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanittu2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanittu3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanittu4-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanittu5-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-17, 07:28
Perhaps a bit closer? Refer above to "harrow," in Sureth, "shapna."

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu__.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emesu-2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emsu2.jpg

---------------------------------------------

The word at top, "emistu," sounds similar to our word for yogurt, "masta." But "masta" is also the word for yogurt in Persian and Kurdish. During my time searching for words in the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, I have come across several Akkadian words that may be the origin for words in Farsi (my parents are from Iran). Although, that may have no significance as far as the instant case is concerned.

Resembles the word for "fruit," I have spoken about.

SURETH, according to Georgy Percy Badger

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/yer_elmasi.jpg

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elmestu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:28 ----------

http://openwalls.com/image/20264/potato_field_1536x1024.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 00:34
Wikipedia:


The region around Kirkuk was known in Aramaic and Syriac sources as "Beth Garmai" (Syriac: ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ), which means the "place of bones" in a reference to bones of slaughtered Achaemenids which littered the plains after a decisive battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III.[13]

Was unaware of the bit regarding the eclipse.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bet_garmae.jpg


The Gaugamela Battle Eclipse: An Archaeoastronomical Analysis
by Lorenzo Verderame
Co-authored with V.F. Polcaro and G.B. Valsecchi; published in Mediterranean Archaeology 8.2 (2008), 55-64

Humanist
2012-08-18, 03:16
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/smada.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samadu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 06:26
Read the given meaning for the Sureth word, and then note how it is used in the Sureth folktale. I understand the Sureth word to mean both "to roll," and something akin to "to devour."


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kndr.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kander_.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kananu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 08:35
Not necessarily exclusive to Sureth.



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biza.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bizazi.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/byz_bz.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bissuru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basasu.jpg

Adding to SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bzaza-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 09:43
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sydn.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudingirakku.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudingirakku2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 12:27
I have said this before, and I will say it again, much gratitude to the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago for making available the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. Not that anything substantive has come from my attempts at finding a word or two from Akkadian in Sureth not previously identified, but I certainly have learned a great deal.

From a year ago:

Chicago Assyrian Dictionary hits 100,000 downloads
By William Harms


Assyrians also owe a great deal to Geoffrey Khan, and the individuals at Cambridge. Heroes in my book. What else would you call individuals who race against time to document languages/dialects on the precipice of extinction, so that we in the present, and future generations will have the resources to better understand our past.


Dr. Geoffrey Khan, of the University of Cambridge

http://www.auaf.us/News/Jeff.jpg



-------------------------------------------------------------------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/grd-2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrt.jpg




AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garadu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karatu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 07:18 ----------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/grs.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garasu-1.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 07:27 ----------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gura.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garru.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 19:18
These terms (one from Elamite), like the majority I imagine, do not share a common Akkadian origin. Thought they were interesting enough to post, however. Recall that x = ḥ

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pxl-2.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhlalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 21:18
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/grs.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garasu-1.jpg

1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrsB.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasuB.jpg




2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrs.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:59 ----------


A Sureth word I have been curious about. Best I could do, is below.


SURETH

Same word, two sources (Khan, and Sureth Online Dictionary)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gngz.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganguzi.jpg



AKKADIAN


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganzazu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganahu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gesu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gistaggu1_priest.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gistaggu2_priest.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gissu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gissu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizzatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizzatu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizillu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizillu2.jpg


Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasasu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 16:15 ----------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrqz.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karkasu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 16:18 ----------

Dictionary.com


mash
verb (used with object)
1.
to crush: He mashed his thumb with a hammer.
2.
to reduce to a soft, pulpy mass, as by beating or pressure, especially in the preparation of food.
3.
to mix (crushed malt or meal of grain) with hot water to form wort.

noun
4.
a soft, pulpy mass.
5.
a pulpy condition.
6.
a mixture of boiled grain, bran, meal, etc., fed warm to horses and cattle.
7.
crushed malt or meal of grain mixed with hot water to form wort.
8.
British Slang . mashed potatoes.

Humanist
2012-08-18, 22:23
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gura.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garru.jpg

SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gula.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-18, 23:26
Harappa Eurasian ChromoPainter/fineStructure (http://www.harappadna.org/2012/08/eurasian-finestructure-dendrograms/) cluster results for Assyrians and Iraqi Mandaeans

Assyrians (N=6)
Iraqi Mandaeans (N=2)

Pop #21: Assyrians (n=3)
Pop #144: Assyrians (n=3), Iraqi Mandaeans (N=2).

Pop #21 is exclusively Assyrian. Pop #144 includes: 17 Armenians, 2 Georgians, 2 Syrians, 1 "Turkaydin," and 1 "Turkistanbul."

There were 203 "populations" inferred. See here for the dendrogram (http://www.harappadna.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/eurasia-population-dendrogram-3.png).

Humanist
2012-08-19, 05:00
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kiapa.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapa.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qapuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qapu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:43 ----------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qappi.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qapuC.jpg

---------- Post Merged on 2012-08-19 at 00:00 ----------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qupa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quppu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-19, 06:22
SURETH (the word also means "to become extremely angry.")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srx.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:22 ----------

SURETH x = ḥ
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/helapa.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hilepu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-19, 08:38
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sala.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sola.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 03:38 ----------

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/setro.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru11.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru12.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru13.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru14.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sitru15.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-19, 10:41
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sydn.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudingirakku.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudingirakku2.jpg

How about a Sumerian origin?

Satan

proper name of the supreme evil spirit in Christianity, O.E. Satan, from L.L. Satan (in Vulgate, in O.T. only), from Gk. Satanas, from Heb. satan "adversary, one who plots against another," from satan "to show enmity to, oppose, plot against," from root s-t-n "one who opposes, obstructs, or acts as an adversary." In Septuagint (Gk.) usually translated as diabolos "slanderer," lit. "one who throws (something) across" the path of another (see devil), though epiboulos "plotter" is used once.

In biblical sources the Hebrew term the satan describes an adversarial role. It is not the name of a particular character. Although Hebrew storytellers as early as the sixth century B.C.E. occasionally introduced a supernatural character whom they called the satan, what they meant was any one of the angels sent by God for the specific purpose of blocking or obstructing human activity. [Elaine Pagels, "The Origin of Satan," 1995]

Humanist
2012-08-19, 18:34
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/snq.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanaqu9.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-19, 20:42
SURETH (the word also means "to become extremely angry.")
x = ḥ
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srx.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu.jpg

Adding to SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srx2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:42 ----------



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iqa_iqta.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siqu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-19, 22:38
Note where this term is attested. Boghazköy, the Hittite capital of Hattusa, and Nuzi, an ancient Hurrian dominated city in Assyria (~ Kirkuk), not far from the Iranian border.

PERSIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/geran.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girinnu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-20, 00:37
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gura.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garru.jpg

The origin of Sureth "gura?" :)

Adding to Akkadian and Sureth.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurra8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru9.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgurru10.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrqr.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-20, 01:39
Indo-Europeans in Mesopotamia? I do not know about the linguistic connection, but I do believe there is a distant genetic connection between Assyrians and certain European populations.

The Sumerian Question - Reviewing the Issues

Gordon Whittaker


[T]he hypothesis was formulated that Sumerian was influenced at an early period, probably from the close of Uruk IV down into the Early Dynastic period, by an early Indo-European language known for convenience as Euphratic. This tongue, in all likelihood most closely related to what became the western dialects (Italic, Celtic, and Germanic), appears to have left traces in the Sumerian (and, to a lesser extent, Akkadian) lexicon and writing system. Judging from the kinds of words involved, which include environmental terms, and from the influence on the script, the Euphrateans, a pre-equestrian agricultural society practising animal husbandry, lived in Southern Mesopotamia rather than surrounding regions.

Humanist
2012-08-20, 03:41
According to Prof. Khan:
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/emphatic_ch.jpg


--------------------------------------------------------------------
1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cappe.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tabbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tabbu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tabu.jpg


2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/capola.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapultu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-20, 05:40
Making use of History beyond the Euphrates: Political Views, Cultural Traditions, and Historical Contexts in the 'Letter of Mara Bar Sarapion'. In: A. Merz / T. Tieleman (eds.), The Letter of Mara Bar Sarapion in Context. Proceedings of the Symposion held at Utrecht University, 10–12 December 2009. (2012) 11-41.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mara_bar_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mara_bar.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-20, 06:54
These terms (one from Elamite), like the majority I imagine, do not share a common Akkadian origin. Thought they were interesting enough to post, however. Recall that x = ḥ

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pxl-2.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhlalu.jpg


Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhi.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhur1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhur2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-20, 23:26
A bit from an entry on Dienekes' site today (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/08/visualizing-admixture-differences-with.html) (in reference to a new tool made available by the Vaêdhya DNA blog (http://vaedhya.blogspot.com/2012/08/introducing-acd-tool.html)):

Dienekes:

Notice the excess of the Baloch (~Gedrosia) component in Kurds and Iranians in contradistinction to the Indo-European Armenians and Semitic Assyrians. It is fairly clear to me that the Iranian ancestral homeland is to be sought to the east, with the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) being a good candidate for its location.

Humanist
2012-08-21, 01:53
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gura.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garru.jpg


Not necessarily related. But, these were the best Akkadian "matches," with the Sureth word below. I have not looked through every page of the 21 volumes, however.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bagira-1.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bagurru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bugurru.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:53 ----------

Adding to SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garusa.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-21, 03:12
A continuation of the previous post. Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giru2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-21, 04:41
1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gidda.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gidu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gidlu.jpg


Imitation sinew

http://www.oldstyle.net/images/art.sinew.JPG


2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gsq.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gesu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisgallu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisgallu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisgallu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gissergallu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giskimmu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giskimmu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisbarru.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-21, 05:51
1.

I could not find the Sureth word "ai-ba" in the Sureth online dictionary. It means embarrassment, shameful.

Here is the Akkadian entry for "to come to shame" / "to put to shame."


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iba_shame-1.jpg

Found the Sureth word I was looking for, as well as another that may be relevant to the Akkadian word above.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aiba.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/base.jpg



And, there is also the Sureth word, "ubura," which I understand to mean "shame" as well. The Sureth word below appears to be it, or something similar, along with the "bi," at the beginning.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uburra.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubburu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-21, 07:23
Foreword to Mar Aprem Metropolitan's Indian Church History Lectures. Trichur (Kerala, India): Mar Narsai Press, 2007.
by Nikolai Seleznyov


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aprem.jpg


Mar Aprem

http://lh4.ggpht.com/-HMRA47DzunY/TyViJzMbuFI/AAAAAAAAAj8/RGsuw8uqQuE/s1600/MarApremChatting4.jpg

http://lh4.ggpht.com/-X2P_AYcb8aw/TyViD81vqaI/AAAAAAAAAjc/zYaS-v0l1rM/s1600/MarAprematCelebration6.jpg


I was fortunate enough to meet him recently, in Chicago. He has a terrific personality. Really left an impression.

Humanist
2012-08-21, 23:10
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/slita.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silitu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siliptu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siliptu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silittu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-22, 00:46
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sula.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sullumu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sullumtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulhu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sullamu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sullusu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:46 ----------


Not suggesting a connection. But, to this ignorant individual, they appear to share some similarities. I do not know how common this word is in the other Aramaic dialects. When I read the Akkadian word, the first thing that came to mind was engagement/wedding ring in Sureth. Although the term below is used for rings in general as well.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isiqta.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isaqta.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissiktu3.jpg


Adding to SURETH and AKKADIAN. Compare to the terms above as well.



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nsq.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nisiqtu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nisiqtu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nisiqtu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nisiqtu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nussuqu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasiq.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-22, 03:13
One of the Assyrian words ("srk") is listed as a possible loan from Arabic, by Prof. Khan. If so, and if its origin is Akkadian, I believe that would be quite rare, as Arabic does not have many loans straight from Akkadian, not otherwise observed in at least one of the Aramaic dialects. However, it is possible, considering the nature of the relationship between ancient Mesopotamians (Assyrians and Babylonians), and the Arabian tribes. The word "shara" is the term for our High Holy Days (Feasts for Saints).

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahra.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhara.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahraB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srk-1.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saraku2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sar.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-22, 05:35
The word "shara" is the term for our High Holy Days (Feasts for Saints).

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahra.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhara.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahraB.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sar.jpg

"High Holy Days" = Easter + Christmas + Share. :) At least to me.


Continuation of the last post. Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu9.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu10.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu11.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu12.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu13.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu14.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu15.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu16.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu17.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-22, 06:40
Found the Sureth word I was looking for, as well as another that may be relevant to the Akkadian word above.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aiba.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/base.jpg


And, there is also the Sureth word, "ubura," which I understand to mean "shame" as well. The Sureth word below appears to be it, or something similar, along with the "bi," at the beginning.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uburra.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubburu1.jpg


1.

I could not find the Sureth word "ai-ba" in the Sureth online dictionary. It means embarrassment, shameful.

Here is the Akkadian entry for "to come to shame" / "to put to shame."

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iba_shame-1.jpg


Adding to AKKADIAN

(refer to the literal meaning)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabas.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabu4.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-22, 07:43
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bhrn.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahrana.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/itbaranu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-22, 16:30
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gsq.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gesu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisgallu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisgallu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisgallu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gissergallu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giskimmu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giskimmu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gisbarru.jpg

From the Wikipedia article on "Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement." Refer to the chart, linked to below, and the words for "step" and "1/360."


1 whole day = 12 watches of 30 ges = 360 ges (degrees)
1 whole watch = 30 ges of 12 hands = 360 hands (degrees)
1 whole ges = 12 hands of 30 grains = 360 grains (degrees)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/71/Sumerian_Calendar_ISO_B0.svg/2000px-Sumerian_Calendar_ISO_B0.svg.png

The word "giri," is given as the word for "step." And "gur," and "kurru," are given as the words for "gur-cube," in Sumerian and Akkadian respectively.


In Early Dynastic Sumer (c 2900–2300 BCE) metrology and mathematics were indistinguishable and treated as a single scribal discipline. The idea of an abstract number did not yet exist, thus all quantities were written as metrological symbols and never as numerals followed by a unit symbol. For example there was a symbol for one-sheep and another for one-day but no symbol for one. About 600 of these metrological symbols exist, for this reason archaic Sumerian metrology is complex and not fully understood.[2] In general however, length, volume, and mass are derived from a theoretical standard cube, called 'gur', filled with barley, wheat, water, or oil.[3] The mass of a gur-cube, called 'gun2' is defined as the weight a laden ass can carry. However, because of the different specific gravities of these substances combined with dual numerical bases (sexagesimal or decimal), multiple sizes of the gur-cube were used without consensus. The different gur-cubes are related by proportion, based on the water gur-cube, according to four basic coefficients and their cubic roots.[4]

Royal Gur Cube of Naram-SinA major improvement came in 2150 BCE during the Akkadian Empire under the reign of Naram-Sin when the competing systems were unified by a single official standard, the royal gur-cube.[5] His reform is considered the first standardized system of measure in Mesopotamia.[5] The royal gur-cube (Cuneiform: LU2.GAL.GUR, 𒈚𒄥; Akkadian: šarru kurru) was a theoretical cube of water approximately 6m × 6m × 0.5m from which all other units could be derived. The Neo-Sumerians continued use of the royal gur-cube as indicated by the Letter of Nanse issued in 2000 BCE by Gudea . Use of the same standard continued through the Babylonian, Assyrian, and Persian Empires.[2]

Humanist
2012-08-22, 19:05
AKKADIAN/SUMERIAN (from the Wiki link, above)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/360ges.jpg



SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasuqi.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 14:05 ----------


From the Wikipedia article on "Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement." Refer to the chart, linked to below, and the words for "step" and "1/360."

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/71/Sumerian_Calendar_ISO_B0.svg/2000px-Sumerian_Calendar_ISO_B0.svg.png

The word "giri," is given as the word for "step." And "gur," and "kurru," are given as the words for "gur-cube," in Sumerian and Akkadian respectively.

In Sureth, we have "gura," meaning "big," or "large," and "yaqura," meaning "heavy."

Humanist
2012-08-22, 19:53
Again, from Wikipedia. Note the term for "watch" in Sumerian, and its meaning.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ges.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/watch.jpg

SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dana_sumerian_.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dana.jpg

Sargon999
2012-08-22, 20:24
G.Khan's conclusion that we truly speak a form of both Akkadian and Aramaic in modern Assyrian is without a doubt correct. I have been convincef of this for years now and that we still use thousands of words in our old Akkadian language is astonishing.

Humanist
2012-08-22, 23:47
Found the Sureth word I was looking for, as well as another that may be relevant to the Akkadian word above.

....

And, there is also the Sureth word, "ubura," which I understand to mean "shame" as well. The Sureth word below appears to be it, or something similar, along with the "bi," at the beginning.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uburra.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubburu1.jpg


Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abru.jpg


SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ub2_sum.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ub_sum.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ib_sum.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ab_sum.jpg


A good name for where hermits reside?


From Nineveh to Susiane. Two Notes on the Mesopotamian Topography in Syriac Sources.
by Alexei Muraviev
Co-authored with A. Nemirovsky // VDI 3 (2012)


Bishops of Nineveh resided in the monastery of [in SURETH] Beth ‘Abe (in the Forests).


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_abi.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu1-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu2-1.jpg


Wikipedia

The Cedar Forest is the glorious realm of the gods of Mesopotamian mythology. It is guarded by the demigod Humbaba and was once entered by the hero Gilgamesh who dared cut down trees from its virgin stands during his quest for immortality. The Cedar Forest is described in Tablets 4-6 of the great Epic of Gilgamesh.

---------- Post Merged at 18:47 ----------


G.Khan's conclusion that we truly speak a form of both Akkadian and Aramaic in modern Assyrian is without a doubt correct. I have been convincef of this for years now and that we still use thousands of words in our old Akkadian language is astonishing.

Hey. Professor Khan believes that our language contains an Akkadian "component." I am not sure if he has explored the extent of that component, by comparing our vernacular's lexicon to the thousands of words contained in the 21 volumes of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. Professor Khan also states that our language may contain other features, with an Akkadian origin. The same can be said of other linguists, such as Sergei Loesov (e.g. "The [possible] etymology of the -ē suffix").

Humanist
2012-08-23, 03:05
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bhrn.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahrana.jpg

"Bahrana," I believe, also means "intelligent," or "wise."

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bry1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bry2.jpg

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baruB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baruV.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru2.jpg


2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/brbr.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barbaru.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-23, 04:43
1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sklk.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakaku.jpg


2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kry.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-23, 07:47
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syx.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahu4.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-23, 09:00
1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xsxs.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/heseru1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/heseru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/heseru3.jpg


2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xsx.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasahu.jpg


3
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xsl.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasalu.jpg


4
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xwy.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hawu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-23, 17:47
As stated numerous times before, there may be no connection between the Sureth and Akkadian terms.

SURETH (mentioned previously)

'umra : church

Eastern phonetic : ' kom ra <--Not standard word for priest
[Religion]
English : a priest , one set apart or authorized to perform religious duties or functions


AKKADIAN
kumru : a priest (Old Assyrian, Mari, Middle Assyrian)

Humanist
2012-08-23, 20:58
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bhrn.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bahrana.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/itbaranu.jpg


"Bahrana," I believe, also means "intelligent," or "wise."

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bry1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bry2.jpg

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baruB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baruV.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru2.jpg


A bit from the Wikipedia article on "Divination."


Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god",[2] related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic standardized process or ritual.[3] Used in various forms for thousands of years, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency.[4]

Divination can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a formal or ritual and often social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine; while fortune-telling is a more everyday practice for personal purposes. Particular divination methods vary by culture and religion.

We have a saying, that goes something like (if I were speaking to a man) "Ainookh bahrane," or "your eyes shine/sparkle." It means you have something to look forward to (positive connotation).

Humanist
2012-08-23, 22:47
Actually, the saying referred to above is used more frequently for positive events that have already occurred, rather than will occur, although I know it is used in the latter sense as well.

Humanist
2012-08-24, 00:09
The terms in the below post may offend some. Please do not proceed if you are the particularly shy sort. Unfortunately, "spoiler" tags do not appear to be functioning.

AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu2.jpg


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tiza.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saratu1_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surrutu.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rt.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erata.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urata.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/artita.jpg

I was not lying, when I said, several pages ago, that there are many words that look familiar to me. Looking familiar does not necessarily equate to significant, of course.

Refer to the fourth Sureth term from bottom ("rt"). Compare to the Akkadian word below:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turru.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-24, 01:32
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qny.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qna.jpg


AKKADIAN (refer to the examples)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qananu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qananu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qananu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qananu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qananu5.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-24, 04:25
1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qmy.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qmaia.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qamu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qamu2.jpg


Was not sure what to do with this one.

2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nbl.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nubalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabau.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabalkutu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabalkutu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abalu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:25 ----------

This Sureth word may be relevant. Refer to the second to last Akkadian word, "nabalkutu."

Adding to SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balkuta.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-24, 06:29
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrm.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrmB.jpg



Asb = Ashurbanipal
Nbn = Nabonidus


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuC.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuC2a-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuA2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuA3.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:29 ----------

Adding to SURETH :)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karma.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-24, 10:42
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gnuna.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qannu-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qannu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 05:42 ----------

This is a stretch. More so than others.

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/spr.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru4.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-24, 16:21
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrm.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qrmB.jpg



Asb = Ashurbanipal
Nbn = Nabonidus


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuC.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuC2a-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuA2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karamuA3.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:29 ----------

Adding to SURETH :)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karma.jpg

Wikipedia, on "Jupiter (mythology)." Refer to the Akkadian references to Jupiter, and the Sureth terms, particularly the one at bottom.


Festivals of viniculture and wine were devoted to Jupiter, since grapes were particularly susceptible to adverse weather.[54] Dumézil describes wine as a "kingly" drink with the power to inebriate and exhilarate, analogous to the Vedic Soma.[citation needed]

Three Roman festivals were connected with viniculture and wine. The rustic Vinalia altera on August 19 asked for good weather for ripening the grapes before harvest.[55] When the grapes were ripe,[56] a sheep was sacrificed to Jupiter and the flamen Dialis cut the first of the grape harvest.[citation needed]

The Meditrinalia on October 11 marked the end of the grape harvest; new wine was pressed, tasted and mixed with old wine[57] to control fermentation. In the Fasti Amiternini, this festival is assigned to Jupiter. Later Roman sources invented a goddess (Meditrina), probably to explain the name of the festival.[58]

At the Vinalia urbana on April 23, new wine was offered to Jupiter.[59] Large quantities of it were poured into a ditch near the temple of Venus Erycina, which was located on the Capitol.[60]

Edit: I have no idea if it is of any significance, I should add.

Here is another bit from the Wikipedia article:

Regifugium and Poplifugia

The Regifugium ("King's Flight")[61] on February 24 has often been discussed in connection with the Poplifugia on July 5, a day holy to Jupiter.[62] The Regifugium followed the festival of Iuppiter Terminus (Jupiter of Boundaries) on February 23. Later Roman antiquarians misinterpreted the Regifugium as marking the expulsion of the monarchy, but the "king" of this festival may have been the priest known as the rex sacrorum who ritually enacted the waning and renewal of power associated with the New Year (March 1 in the old Roman calendar).[63] A temporary vacancy of power (construed as a yearly "interregnum") occurred between the Regifugium on February 24 and the New Year on March 1 (when the lunar cycle was thought to coincide again with the solar cycle, and the uncertainty and change during the two winter months were over.[64] Some scholars emphasize the traditional political significance of the day.[65]

The Poplifugia ("Routing of Armies"[66]), a day sacred to Jupiter, may similarly mark the second half of the year; before the Julian calendar reform, the months were named numerically, Quintilis (the fifth month) to December (the tenth month).[67] The Poplifugia was a "primitive military ritual" for which the adult male population assembled for purification rites, after which they ritually dispelled foreign invaders from Rome.[68]

Humanist
2012-08-25, 00:17
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hrizuta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hraza.jpg


AKKADIAN (Nuzi)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hurizu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-25, 05:19
Sodom and Gamahru?


AKKADIAN (see the "G" volume of the CAD for the rest of the entry)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru6.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:47 ----------


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sala.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sola.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulu.jpg


Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sualu.jpg

---------- Post Merged on 2012-08-25 at 00:19 ----------

SURETH (Source: "The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar")

gmbl: to roll; to roll along
gmgm: to strike hard
gmpr: to be arrogant
gmr: to compress; to tan (leather)
gmß: to wring (wet clothes)
gmš: to butt (with horns)
gmx: to knock in, to punch in

Humanist
2012-08-25, 07:48
How common is this sort of reduplication of verbs in other languages? Need to read up a bit on it.


SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/magza.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/magista.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gzgz.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ksks.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qsqs.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qzqz.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/magzazu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gazazu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gazizu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasasu-1.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:48 ----------

Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasasu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-25, 11:05
I am sure some will recognize the Akkadian term below, from several of my previous posts. Is this a possible origin of what became a common word for saying, "to taste," in Aramaic ("tm")?

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamta.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bututtu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bututtu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bututtu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bututtu4.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 06:05 ----------


One of the Assyrian words ("srk") is listed as a possible loan from Arabic, by Prof. Khan. If so, and if its origin is Akkadian, I believe that would be quite rare, as Arabic does not have many loans straight from Akkadian, not otherwise observed in at least one of the Aramaic dialects. However, it is possible, considering the nature of the relationship between ancient Mesopotamians (Assyrians and Babylonians), and the Arabian tribes. The word "shara" is the term for our High Holy Days (Feasts for Saints).

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahra.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhara.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahraB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/srk-1.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saraku2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sar.jpg


"High Holy Days" = Easter + Christmas + Share. :) At least to me.


Continuation of the last post. Adding to AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu9.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu10.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu11.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu12.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu13.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu14.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu15.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu16.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sharu17.jpg

Elementary Sumerian Glossary

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarsum.jpg


And how about the word I posted about a couple of days back, "gasiq," or "to look, gaze." It must come from somewhere. It probably does not have such a fantastical origin, but you never know.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/igi.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-25, 17:28
From the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Aramaic thread:


Sumerian
kud-kud-rá: a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative).

Sureth
qutra : hunchback ← not in available sources. But, my grandmother calls me this all the time.
qəṭrana adj. : hunchbacked
qt': to cut; to be cut; to finish; to decide.
qṭqṭ : to cut into small pieces

The Sureth word for "back," is "hassa."

The Sureth word for "door," is "tarra."

In Sureth, "gu" means "in."

Diacritical marks not shown.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/gutarra_back.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-25, 18:46
When I say that words look familiar when I look at the Akkadian (CAD) dictionary, the same applies to the Sumerian dictionaries. For instance, here are the first few terms listed for "K," in "Elementary Sumerian Glossary." Not necessarily representative, but there are certainly many terms that look familiar.

SUMERIAN


KA → du11, kìri, zú

ka(k), ka(g) mouth; opening; origin, beginning,
inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)

ka-al(-ak) excavation, brickmaking pit (> kalakku)
(Heimpel, JNES 46, 208)

ka-aš(-bar) (divine) decision

ka-aš(-bar) - bar, ga-eš8 - bar, giš - bar to decide,
render a (divine) verdict

ka - ba to open the mouth; to talk, speak (cf. Krecher,
AV Kutscher II 117f.)

ka - du8 to open wide the mouth, roar


SURETH

kaka : tooth

qaša : priest

bahra : the light/shine

Humanist
2012-08-25, 20:47
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/qps.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/bassa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/kabasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/kabasu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/kabasu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/kabasu3a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/kabasu4.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:47 ----------


Sodom and Gamahru?


AKKADIAN (see the "G" volume of the CAD for the rest of the entry)


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru6.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:47 ----------

SURETH (Source: "The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar")

gmbl: to roll; to roll along
gmgm: to strike hard
gmpr: to be arrogant
gmr: to compress; to tan (leather)
gmß: to wring (wet clothes)
gmš: to butt (with horns)
gmx: to knock in, to punch in

SUMERIAN
gum, kum to crush, pulverize, smash, beat to pieces
(cf. gaz)

gurum (gúr), gur to bend, bow down, crouch; to lay
low, kill (older reading gam)

Humanist
2012-08-25, 22:56
SURETH/JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC (JBA Source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/bushala.jpg



AKKADIAN (OA = Old Assyrian)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/bushalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-26, 06:29
Note where this term is attested. Boghazköy, the Hittite capital of Hattusa, and Nuzi, an ancient Hurrian dominated city in Assyria (~ Kirkuk), not far from the Iranian border.

PERSIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/geran.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girinnu.jpg

Here is another? There are a good many more than two. Most, if not all, I reckon, have already been identified?

PERSIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/lazem.jpg


AKKADIAN (OLD BABYLONIAN and MARI only)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/alisam1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/alisam2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-27, 02:21
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/fb8d8234.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/56434291.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:21 ----------

Edit: Looks like I have a problem with my Photobucket links!

Humanist
2012-08-27, 06:11
Instead of fixing this mess, I am going to hold off on posting the material, as I have been doing (piecemeal). I am going to wait until I have more material. Actually, I have the material, I do not have the time, unfortunately. For now, here is another singleton (reposting one from above, with different Sureth term). There is a good deal of interesting material remaining (see second, below).

1
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/303a417c.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/4d16d53f.jpg


2
MANDAIC (source: CAL)
ʾtn, ʾtnʾ n.m. #2 mesh, netting
mesh, netting



SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' tan tiš
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) sea fishing : a trawl ; 2) verb : to trawl



SUMERIAN (source: Elementary Sumerian Glossary)
igi-te-en meshes of a net

Humanist
2012-08-27, 10:04
I have mentioned a few times, the similarity (to me) between some of the events described in the Mandaean "Haran Gawaita," and the last few days (or perhaps years) of the Neo-Assyrian era.

I could not find a word that matched that well, but I did find this very interesting entry. First, the Sureth word. The word for "inside," in Sureth, is "gawai(ta)."

HARAN GAWAITA (MANDAIC)


Translated and edited by E. S. Drower

... and Haran Gawaita receiveth him and that city in which there were Nasoraeans, because there was no road for the Jewish rulers. Over them was King Ardban . And sixty thousand Nasoraeans abandoned the Sign of the Seven and entered the Median hills , a place where we were free from domination by all other races. And they built cult-huts (bimandia) and abode in the Call of the Life and in the strength of the high King of Light until they came to their end . And they loved the Lord, that is, Adonai , until in the House of Israel there was created something which was not placed in the womb of Mary , a daughter of Moses. It was hidden in her womb for nine months and bewitched her until the nine months were fulfilled and she was in labour and brought forth a messiah.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/5b7ef80d.jpg


AKKADIAN (King of Akkad = King of Babylon. Babylonians called Babylonia, "Akkad")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/e74efa1c.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/ecb77d34.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/1787fdaf.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/8f1c1b99.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 04:37 ----------

Adding to AKKADIAN.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/87f41b30.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/41dfe70d.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/f4728632.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 05:04 ----------

Adding one more to AKKADIAN

This looks like a candidate for the source material for at least some of the "Haran Gawaita."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/efe4c93f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/8788eccc.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Phoenicians/cfa529e5.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-27, 15:58
OT

Found a few "Western" words that may be, ultimately, of Sumerian/Akkadian (or at least "Eastern") origin.

Online Etymology Dictionary


regalia

1530s, "rights and powers of a king," from L. regalia "royal things," from neut. pl. of regalis (see regal). Meaning "decorations or insignia of an order" first recorded 1670s.


AKKADIAN


uriggallu (uringallu) : (1) (divine) standard (shaft upon which a divine emblem is placed), (2) Staff (3) reed bundles, reed enclosure SB, NA, NB, Sum. lw

Also, perhaps the "ring," in "uringallu," is the origin of the word for "color" in Iranian and other Indo-Iranian languages? Actually, the Sumerian?/Akkadian? word may have spawned even more words.

Humanist
2012-08-29, 00:23
Another singleton, and another post regarding the deity, Nabu.

Nabu, an important god to all "Semites."

Source: Sureth Dictionary

Eastern phonetic : ' nba:
Western phonetic : ' nbo:
[Religion → Divination]
English : transitive verb : to prophesy , to predict / to make a prediction , to foretell , to prognosticate , to forecast , to foresee , to augur (?) , to divine , to bode (?) , to betoken (?) ;

Source: CAL

nby vb. to predict, prophesy
D
1 to predict, prophesy JLAtg, Syr, LJLA.

Dt
1 to act as a prophet BA, JLAtg, Gal, PTA, CPA, Syr, LJLA. --(a) to rave (as does a prophet) Syr. --(b) to predict Syr, JBA.
2 to predict (i.e. to prophesy transitive) Gal, Syr.

Wikipedia:


Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.

Originally, Nabu was a West Semitic deity introduced by the Amorites into Mesopotamia, probably at the same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[1] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.

The etymology of his name is disputed. It could be derived from the root nb´ for "to call or announce", meaning something like "He who has called".

His power over human existence is immense, because Nabu engraves the destiny of each person, as the gods have decided, on the tablets of sacred record. Thus, He has the power to increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life.

Nabu is mentioned in the Nevi'im of the Tanakh as Nebo in Isaiah 46:1.

A statue of Nabu from Calah, erected during the reign of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III is on display in the British Museum.

In late Babylonian astrology, Nabu was connected with the planet Mercury. As the god of wisdom and writing, he was equated by the Greeks to either Apollo or Hermes, the latter identified by the Romans with their own god Mercury.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Nabu-Lawrie-Highsmith.jpeg/170px-Nabu-Lawrie-Highsmith.jpeg

Humanist
2012-08-29, 05:19
I have seen #4 mentioned before. Not the other words, but they certainly may have been mentioned previously, and I am simply unaware.

They appear to be terms related to royalty in some way (at one point).

Volume and page references are to the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.
Please make note that diacritical marks do not appear.

The example IE words are from Wiktionary.com.

1.
Volume 10 “M” Part 1 (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_m1.pdf)
Akkadian: manzaltu, manzazu, manzazanu... (p. 232–239)
Indo-European: Pashto (manzu); Greek (meso); Italian (mezzo)

2.
Volume 20 “U” and “W” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_u_w.pdf)
Akkadian/Sumerian: uriggallu (uringallu) (p.223-225)
Indo-European: 1. Latin (regalis). 2. Sanskrit (ranga)

3.
Volume 14 “R” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_r.pdf)
Akkadian: ra'abu, rabisu, rabis, ra'bu, rabu... (p. 2–56)
Indo-European: PIE (rabh-); Sanskrit (raʹbhas-); Latin (rabidus)

4.
Volume 17 "S" [Shin] Part II (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_s_shin_2.pdf) and Volume Volume 21 “Z” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_z.pdf)
Akkadian: sarru (p. 76-105) and zaru A (p.72)
Indo-European: Latin (Caesar); Persian (Shah)


I welcome any and all feedback.

Humanist
2012-08-29, 06:54
Another singleton, and another post regarding the deity, Nabu.

Wikipedia


Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.

....


In late Babylonian astrology, Nabu was connected with the planet Mercury. As the god of wisdom and writing, he was equated by the Greeks to either Apollo or Hermes, the latter identified by the Romans with their own god Mercury.


Eastern Syriac

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu1.jpg


"He has filled in ???" I do not know what "kok wa" means.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu2.jpg

Refer to "ta rid", in the last entry,above:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/trd.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-29, 18:12
The U/W volume is turning out to be very interesting. Here is one:

SURETH
iupqa: woman's skirt, (Christmas) tree skirt


AKKADIAN
upqu: tree trunk, block
upqu: a type of packet (CAD appears to be describing something akin to what we know as pack saddles for beasts of burden)
upru: a headdress (CAD examples refer to women)

Humanist
2012-08-29, 22:51
The Akkadian comparison was made previously. Here is the comparison to Sumerian, for this particular word. Akkadian --> Sumerian, or Sumerian --> Akkadian?

SURETH (Al Qosh dialect)
Eastern phonetic : ' bi la:
[City → Buildings]
English : a door , an outer door , a gate


SUMERIAN
abul(la), a-bul-la : city gate, main gate/entrance

Sargon999
2012-08-29, 22:56
You should start writing a book brother. Scholars such as yourself should print books that benefit our nation.

Humanist
2012-08-29, 23:52
You should start writing a book brother. Scholars such as yourself should print books that benefit our nation.

Thanks, bud. But, I am not a scholar. Though, I am thinking of collaborating with an Assyrian scholar (you know the individual), on some sort of project.

Sargon999
2012-08-30, 00:26
Thanks, bud. But, I am not a scholar. Though, I am thinking of collaborating with an Assyrian scholar (you know the individual), on some sort of project.

You should. If you need any help in finding what you need e.g. persons who can help in specific areas, do not hesitate to contact me.

Humanist
2012-08-30, 06:26
This Akkadian word looks very much like the Sureth, and Aramaic in general, word for "precious," "heavy."

In Sureth, "yaqurta," also means "pregnant."

The Akkadian word is only attested in Old Assyrian and Neo Assyrian.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uqurtu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uqurtu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-30, 08:07
This Akkadian word looks very much like the Sureth, and Aramaic in general, word for "precious," "heavy."

In Sureth, "yaqurta," also means "pregnant."

The Akkadian word is only attested in Old Assyrian and Neo Assyrian.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uqurtu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uqurtu2.jpg

SUMERIAN

é-kur (the temple of Enlil in Nippur)

Wikipedia:


Enlil was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in Sumerian religion, and later in Akkadian, Hittite, Canaanite and other Mesopotamian clay and stone tablets. The name is perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian, Hittite, and Canaanite literature. In later Akkadian, Enlil is the son of Anshar and Kishar.

Enlil was considered to be the god of breath, wind, loft and breadth (height and distance).[2]

One story names his origins as the exhausted breath of An (god of the heavens) and Ki (goddess of the Earth) after sexual union.[citation needed]

The myth of Enlil and Ninlil discusses when Enlil was a young god, he was banished from Dilmun, home of the gods, to Kur, the underworld for raping a goddess named Ninlil. Ninlil followed him to the underworld where she bore his first child, Nergal, and/or the moon god Sin (Sumerian Nanna/Suen). After fathering three more underworld-deities (substitutes for Sin), Enlil was allowed to return to Dilmun.[3][4]

Enlil was known as the inventor of the mattock (a key agricultural pick, hoe, ax or digging tool of the Sumerians) and caused plants to grow.[5]

Enlil is associated with the ancient city of Nippur, sometimes referred to as the cult city of Enlil.[7] His temple was named Ekur, "House of the Mountain."[8] Enlil was assimilated to the north "Pole of the Ecliptic".[9] His sacred number name was 50.[10]

As Enlil was the only god who could reach the heaven god An he held sway over the other gods who were assigned tasks by his agent and would travel to Nippur to draw in his power. He is thus seen as the model for kingship.[11]

At a very early period prior to 3000 BC, Nippur had become the centre of a political district of considerable extent. Inscriptions found at Nippur, where extensive excavations were carried on during 1888–1900 by John P Peters and John Henry Haynes, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, show that Enlil was the head of an extensive pantheon. Among the titles accorded to him are "king of lands", "king of heaven and earth", and "father of the gods".

His chief temple at Nippur was known as Ekur, signifying 'House of the mountain', and such was the sanctity acquired by this edifice that Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, down to the latest days, vied with one another in embellishing and restoring Enlil's seat of worship, and the name Ekur became the designation of a temple in general.

Grouped around the main sanctuary, there arose temples and chapels to the gods and goddesses who formed his court, so that Ekur became the name for an entire sacred precinct in the city of Nippur. The name "mountain house" suggests a lofty structure and was perhaps the designation originally of the staged tower at Nippur, built in imitation of a mountain, with the sacred shrine of the god on the top.

Enlil was also the God of weather. According to the Sumerians, Enlil helped create the humans, but then got tired of their noise and tried to kill them by sending a flood. A mortal known as Utnapishtim survived the flood through the help of another god, Ea, and he was made immortal by Enlil after Enlil's initial fury.



I have seen #4 mentioned before. Not the other words, but they certainly may have been mentioned previously, and I am simply unaware.

They appear to be terms related to royalty in some way (at one point).

Volume and page references are to the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.
Please make note that diacritical marks do not appear.

The example IE words are from Wiktionary.com.

3.
Volume 14 “R” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_r.pdf)
Akkadian: ra'abu, rabisu, rabis, ra'bu, rabu... (p. 2–56)
Indo-European: PIE (rabh-); Sanskrit (raʹbhas-); Latin (rabidus)

I welcome any and all feedback.

SUMERIAN

rib, ri(b), ri-ba great, surpassing, huge

---------- Post Merged at 03:07 ----------


Wikipedia: The myth of Enlil and Ninlil discusses when Enlil was a young god, he was banished from Dilmun, home of the gods, to Kur, the underworld for raping a goddess named Ninlil. Ninlil followed him to the underworld where she bore his first child, Nergal, and/or the moon god Sin (Sumerian Nanna/Suen). After fathering three more underworld-deities (substitutes for Sin), Enlil was allowed to return to Dilmun.[3][4]

A previous post:


Humanist: When I saw the word, "kawran," the first thing that came to mind was the word "kawra," which I take to mean damnation. My mother, when she uses the term, attaches this meaning to it.

Hopefully Birko will contribute here, as he knows the language, whereas I am an illiterate. Here is my unlearned attempt at translating "Tammuz d-kawran aw-hy" (Tammuz, of the grave, he will be). I reckon I am way off.

AKKADIAN (not necessarily related)

ekur

Humanist
2012-08-30, 08:44
Wikipedia:


In cult practice, the dead Tammuz was widely mourned in the Ancient Near East. Locations associated in antiquity with the site of his death include both Harran and Byblos, among others. A Sumerian tablet from Nippur (Ni 4486) reads:

She can make the lament for you, my Dumuzid, the lament for you, the lament, the lamentation, reach the desert — she can make it reach the house Arali; she can make it reach Bad-tibira; she can make it reach Dul-šuba; she can make it reach the shepherding country, the sheepfold of Dumuzid
"O Dumuzid of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully, "O you of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully. "Lad, husband, lord, sweet as the date, [...] O Dumuzid!" she sobs, she sobs tearfully.[3]

....

In the Sumerian king list two kings named Dumuzi appear:

Dumuzid of Bad-tibira, the shepherd (reigning 36 000 years), the fifth King before the Flood
Dumuzid of Kuara, the fisherman (reigning 100 years), the third King of the first dynasty of Uruk, reigning between Lugalbanda and Gilgamesh

Other Sumerian texts showed that kings were to be married to Inanna in a sacred marriage, for example a hymn that describes the sacred marriage of King Iddid-Dagan (ca 1900 BCE).[4]

Humanist
2012-08-30, 18:54
Some of these Akkadian words are confusing me, being an Assyrian with parents born in Iran.

SURETH/PERSIAN/KURDISH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hamisa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umisam.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-30, 20:03
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kutimmuB.jpg

SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kudim.jpg

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/timana.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-30, 23:59
Harappa Eurasian ChromoPainter/fineStructure (http://www.harappadna.org/2012/08/eurasian-finestructure-dendrograms/) cluster results for Assyrians and Iraqi Mandaeans

Assyrians (N=6)
Iraqi Mandaeans (N=2)

Pop #21: Assyrians (n=3)
Pop #144: Assyrians (n=3), Iraqi Mandaeans (N=2).

Pop #21 is exclusively Assyrian.

There were 203 "populations" inferred. See here for the dendrogram (http://www.harappadna.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/eurasia-population-dendrogram-3.png).

Harappa Update (http://www.harappadna.org/2012/08/eurasian-chromopainter-chunk-counts/)

Pop144's highest chunk count match was the exclusively Assyrian population (#21).

Pop144
1 Pop21 0.000797835
2 Pop144 0.000777001
3 Pop8 0.000759774
4 Pop103 0.000754716
5 Pop43 0.000747011
6 Pop55 0.000738284
7 Pop38 0.000732428
8 Pop178 0.00073181
9 Pop69 0.000722321
10 Pop105 0.000719772
11 Pop78 0.000718661
12 Pop130 0.000718165
13 Pop135 0.000715786
14 Pop99 0.000713885
15 Pop46 0.000713409
16 Pop90 0.000705288
17 Pop88 0.000705029
18 Pop111 0.000703262
19 Pop168 0.000701842
20 Pop120 0.00069063

Edit: This may be driven, in significant part, by the relative genetic relatedness between the Assyrians in populations #21 and #144.

Humanist
2012-08-31, 01:31
Here is my plan. Go through each entry of the 21 volumes of the CAD (basically what I have been doing) and identify words that look familiar. Then pass the list on to someone with at least some decent academic credentials in the relevant languages/dialects, and with knowledge of (modern) Assyrian traditions, life, etc.

For instance, beginning with CAD Volume 1, "A" Part 1, this would be a possible first term:

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baghtsa.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baghtsa2.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abahsinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abahsinnu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-08-31, 03:31
Here is my plan. Go through each entry of the 21 volumes of the CAD (basically what I have been doing) and identify words that look familiar. Then pass the list on to someone with at least some decent academic credentials in the relevant languages/dialects, and with knowledge of (modern) Assyrian traditions, life, etc.

For instance, beginning with CAD Volume 1, "A" Part 1, this would be a possible first term:

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baghtsa.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baghtsa2.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abahsinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abahsinnu2.jpg

I forgot to add, I plan on doing the same with the available Sumerian sources. Who knows, it may identify a possible unattested Akkadian term.

This one is well known (and shared by a good many), of course, but here is an example:

SURETH
a ka ' ru: ta
English : agriculture , tilling or cultivation of land , farming

ak ' ka: ra:
English : a ploughman / a plowman / a tillerman , a husbandman , a tiller of soil , a farmer


SUMERIAN
a-gàr, a-gar agricultural tract, area of field parcels, irrigation district, arable land; meadow(?) (Michalowski, Correspondence p. 295)

Humanist
2012-08-31, 05:54
Here is an example, not shared by many (?), between Sumerian and Sureth, that may be of some significance (read: from Akkadian). This may be a common word in Aramaic. I do not know.

SUMERIAN
d a-nun-na(-k) (a grouping of high gods)*


SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : a nan ' qa: ia:
[Moral life → Duty]
English : necessary , anything that is indispensable , such as must be , of the essence , essential , requisite


* Wikipedia

The Anunnaki (also transcribed as: Anunna, Anunnaku, Ananaki and other variations) are a group of deities in ancient Mesopotamian cultures (i.e., Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian). The name is variously written "da-nuna", "da-nuna-ke4-ne", or "da-nun-na", meaning something to the effect of "those of royal blood"[1] or 'princely offspring'.[2] Their relation to the group of gods known as the Igigi is unclear — at times the names are used synonymously but in the Atra-Hasis flood myth the Igigi have to work for the Anunnaki, rebelling after 40 days and replaced by the creation of humans.[3]

Humanist
2012-08-31, 20:51
Wikipedia:

Kuara (Sumer)


Kuara (also known as Kisiga, Ku'ara, modern Tell al-Lahm site, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) is an archaeological site located on the western bank of the mouth of the Euphrates, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of Ur.[1] According to the Sumerian king list, Kuara was also the home of Dumuzid, the fisherman, legendary third king of Uruk .[2] The city's patron deity was Meslamtaea (Nergal).[3] In Sumerian mythology, Kuara was also considered the birthplace of the god Marduk (Asarluhi), Enki's son. The cults of Marduk and Ninehama were centered in Kuara.[4][5]

Kuara was established ca. 2500 BC, during the Sumerian Early Dynastic II period. It was a seaport to the Persian Gulf, and traded with the port of Dilmun.[6] In 709 BC, the Assyrian king Sargon II was trying to capture Marduk-apal-iddina II, who fled to Kuara, whereupon Sargon's army laid siege and destroyed the city. [7] Alluvial soil carried by the Euphrates continually extended the land farther into the Persian Gulf; thus the modern site is far from the sea, even though it was a sea port 4500 years ago.

Humanist
2012-08-31, 23:35
Here is my plan. Go through each entry of the 21 volumes of the CAD (basically what I have been doing) and identify words that look familiar. Then pass the list on to someone with at least some decent academic credentials in the relevant languages/dialects, and with knowledge of (modern) Assyrian traditions, life, etc.

For instance, beginning with CAD Volume 1, "A" Part 1, this would be a possible first term:

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baghtsa.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baghtsa2.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abahsinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abahsinnu2.jpg

I know I said I would not do it piecemeal (and I do not plan to), but here is an interesting one from CAD Volume 1, "A" Part 2. Again, looking for a link to the Sureth word for "church," or "umra." The Akkadian word below is also very similar to our word for, "to say." The Akkadian entry is long, and these are only a few of the bits.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amaru10.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-01, 01:52
One of the Sureth words ("srk") is listed as a possible loan from Arabic, by Prof. Khan. If so, and if its origin is Akkadian, I believe that would be quite rare, as Arabic does not have many loans straight from Akkadian, not otherwise observed in at least one of the Aramaic dialects. However, it is possible, considering the nature of the relationship between ancient Mesopotamians (Assyrians and Babylonians), and the Arabian tribes.

Something I came across, and thought might be relevant to the bit above:


Karib'il Watar and Assyrian diplomacy (2003)
D.T. Potts

Abstract

This article discusses some of the less well-known evidence attesting to the existence of diplomatic links between South Arabia and Assyria in the 7th century B.C. Karib’il Watar’s relationship with Assyria is analysed. The evidence of gift exchange between the two states is examined. The implications of this pattern of ties is also studied in light of evidence for caravan traffic between the two regions.

Humanist
2012-09-01, 06:43
There may not be anything here. They passed the "familiar" test. That is all.

1
SURETH
http://s12.postimage.org/78wj7a73f/image.jpg


SUMERIAN
http://s11.postimage.org/6fy632yy9/zal.jpg

http://s12.postimage.org/bjb72vc6j/uzal.jpg


2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziga_sureth.jpg


SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziga.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zig.jpg


3
SURETH
http://s13.postimage.org/4skh6bhqt/zair.jpg

http://s13.postimage.org/s5iiotxud/ziura.jpg


SUMERIAN
http://s13.postimage.org/cnv0l4rdh/ziir.jpg

http://s13.postimage.org/vewxvalxx/zar.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-02, 07:14
Wikipedia:


Shapiro

Shapiro, and its variations such as Shapira, Schapiro and Chapiro (in French), is a Yiddish surname.

One theory suggests that it derives from Shpira, the Hebrew/Yiddish name for Spira (Hebrew: שפירא‎, pronounced Shpira), the medieval name of Speyer, Germany.[1][2] The Jewish community of Speyer was an important centre in the development of Ashkenazi culture. Other name variants are Sapiro, Spira, Spira, Spire, Spiro, Spero, Chapiro, Sprai, Szpir, Szpiro, Saphir and Spear. The name "Speyer" has also become a well-known surname that was spread by Jews from Frankfurt to England, the United States and Canada in the late 19th and early 20th century.

According to another theory, the word Shapiro is Aramaic (probably derived from the Hebrew word sapir (ספיר), usually translated as "sapphire", which refers not to the sapphire gemstone but to the lapis lazuli, and is reputed to be the stone which represented the tribe of Issachar on the breastplate of the high priest of Israel and thus identifies the Shapiro family with that tribe) and appears, for example, in the 11th Century Aramaic-language Jewish religious poem Akdamus a.k.a. Akdamuth (line 45) and in Onkelos's commentary on Genesis 29:17. Onkelos's commentary, believed to have been written around 110 CE, long predated the naming of Speyer (as Spira) in approximately 500 CE, and therefore has given rise to a family tradition that the city was renamed for the family and not vice versa.[citation needed]

In Aramaic, "Shapeer" means "fine".


In Sureth, one of the meanings of "Shapira," is "handsome."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapiru.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-02, 18:04
The Assyrian median Eurogenes SPA point (from a couple of months back) fell not far from the modern city of Karbala. About 15-20 miles due west of Babylon, very near to the Euphrates (not far from the Tigris either). Interestingly, that area is a holy site for those of the Muslim faith.

Wikipedia

Imam Husayn Shrine


The Shrine of Husayn ibn ‘Alī (Arabic: مقام الامام الحسين‎) is one of the oldest mosques in the world and a holy site of Shīah Islām in the city of Karbalā, Iraq. It stands on the site of the grave of Hussein ibn ‘Alī, the second grandson of Muhammad, near the place where he was killed during the Battle of Karbalā in 680 C.E..[1][2] The tomb of Husayn ibn ‘Alī is one of the holiest places for Shī‘as outside of Mecca and Medina, and many make pilgrimages to the site. Every year, millions of pilgrims visit the city to observe ‘Āshūrā, which marks the anniversary of Husayn ibn ‘Alī's death.[3]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Kerbela_Hussein_Moschee.jpg/800px-Kerbela_Hussein_Moschee.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-02, 19:41
Another example of something from the CAD Volume 1, "A" Part 1:

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon


ʿlym, ʿlymʾ (ˁlaym/ˁŭlēm, ˁlaymā/ˁŭlēmā) n.m. boy

1 boy OfA, , Jud, CPA, Syr.
2 servant, slave Palm, Syr.
3 adult Syr.
4 fawn Syr.

ʾyl, ʾylʾ (ˀăyel, ˀaylā) n.m. #2stag

1 male deer, stag OfA, Jud, CPA, Sam, Syr, JBA, Man, LJLA.
2 ram Qum. --(a) ship's ram JBA.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/yala.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajalu.jpg


SUMERIAN
di-di(-lá): little ones, youngsters, children (reduplicated form of tur) W. Farber, Mesopotamian Civilizations 2 (1989) 9 reads du-du-lá.

lulim, lu-lim: stag

Humanist
2012-09-03, 00:42
Something I read on Gene Expression ("sacred languages (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2012/08/cultures-genes-paleolithic-to-the-neolithic/)") came to mind when I came across this on Wikipedia, regarding Sumerian:


The history of written Sumerian can be divided into several periods:
Archaic Sumerian — 31st–26th c. BC,
Old or Classical Sumerian — 26th–23rd c. BC,
Neo-Sumerian — 23rd–21st c. BC,
Late Sumerian — 20th–18th c. BC,
Post-Sumerian — after 1700 BC.

Archaic Sumerian is the earliest stage of inscriptions with linguistic content, beginning with the Jemdet Nasr (Uruk III) period from about the 31st to 30th centuries BC. It succeeds the proto-literate period, which spans roughly the 35th to 30th centuries.

Some versions of the chronology may omit the Late Sumerian phase and regard all texts written after 2000 BC as Post-Sumerian.[5] The term "Post-Sumerian" is meant to refer to the time when the language was already extinct and only preserved by Babylonians and Assyrians as a liturgical and classical language (for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes). The extinction has been traditionally dated approximately to the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the last predominantly Sumerian state in Mesopotamia, about 2000 BC. However, this date is very approximate, as many scholars have contended that Sumerian was already dead or dying as early as around 2100 BC, by the beginning of the Ur III period,[4][6] while others believe that Sumerian persisted as a spoken language in a small part of Southern Mesopotamia (Nippur and its surroundings) until as late as 1700 BC.[4] Whatever the status of spoken Sumerian between 2000 and 1700 BC, it is from this period that a particularly large amount of literary texts and bilingual Sumerian-Akkadian lexical lists survive, especially from the scribal school of Nippur. This, along with the particularly intensive official and literary use of the language in Akkadian-speaking states during the same time, is the basis for the distinction between a Late Sumerian period and all subsequent time.

Humanist
2012-09-03, 07:13
This one is known. Also adding a Sumerian term to the comparison.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' zu: za
[Trade]
English : money , a coin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zuzu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zuzuB.jpg


SUMERIAN (words are coming from Daniel A Foxvog's "Elementary Sumerian Glossary")
za: (precious) stone

Humanist
2012-09-03, 08:17
SYRIAC and MANDAIC (source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)


zwtrʾ (zaw/ūtrā) n.m. a votive cake offered to demons

1 a votive cake offered to demons Syr, Man.
2 the herb savory (dialect) Syr.


Unfortunately, "meaning unknown," for the first Akkadian word.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/utru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adru_b.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-03, 14:06
This one is known. Also adding a Sumerian term to the comparison.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' zu: za
[Trade]
English : money , a coin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zuzu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zuzuB.jpg


SUMERIAN (words are coming from Daniel A Foxvog's "Elementary Sumerian Glossary")
za: (precious) stone

I have found several possible words in Volume "Z." I think I may begin with that one, since it is relatively few in pages (186).

In the meantime, adding to AKKADIAN:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zazu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-03, 23:12
2
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziga_sureth.jpg


SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziga.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zig.jpg

EASTERN SYRIAC
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/crier.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-04, 04:09
Here is an example, not shared by many (?), between Sumerian and Sureth, that may be of some significance (read: from Akkadian). This may be a common word in Aramaic. I do not know.

SUMERIAN
d a-nun-na(-k) (a grouping of high gods)*


SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : a nan ' qa: ia:
[Moral life → Duty]
English : necessary , anything that is indispensable , such as must be , of the essence , essential , requisite


* Wikipedia

May not be related to either of the above terms.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/annu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:09 ----------

Experts at War: Masters behind the Ranks of the Assyrian Army
Davide Nadali and Lorenzo Verderame(Rome)


Ummânu is the most common term used to indicate a particular skilful professional. It is a generic term, the nuances of which no modern definition can render exactly. As the medieval “master”, it is an honorific title that originates from the general and popular recognition of his skills.

While it seems to be a “subjective” definition (coming from popular acknowledgment), in the Neo-Assyrian period the term is limited to two groups of people, artisans3 and magicmantic professionals. Despite the fact that the rules for the application of this title4 are not totally clear,5 the term seems to refer to personal skills and popular recognition, and this appears also to be the principle reason for applying the term to individual artisans. In fact the skilfulness of artisans in general points to a high degree of specialization,6 and the decision to adopt the term ummânu gives the impression that the artistic value of their production, for example as jewellers or engravers, is of high quality.7

....

Among the specialists, the ummânu appears to be the most clear and most elusive category at the same time. On one hand, different specialists could be qualified as ummânu for their skilfulness, although the title was probably not applied to all specialised workers;62 on the other hand, we can suppose that such a highly-specialized professional did not directly serve in the army, but rather were in the employ of the king and his magnates, and followed them to the military campaign.

A number of Sureth words may be relevant. Note, the "h" is pronounced like the "h" in the English word, "hit." The words below are not listed as loans from any other languages.

Eastern phonetic : hé ma: ' nu: ta:
[Moral life → Duty]
English : faith , belief , reliance on testimony , trust in another's words

Same word, from an Iranian Sureth dialect:

Eastern phonetic : i ' ma: ni:
[Moral life → Duty]

Eastern phonetic : ham ' mu: ni
[Moral life → Conscience]
English : to believe , to accept as true , to give credit (trust) to


Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon


hymn vb. to believe
quad
1 to believe Com. --(a) to admit as evidence JBA. --(b) p.p. : see s.v. mhymn adj. Com.
2 to entrust with Palm, Sam, Syr.
3 to bring faith to Syr.
4 to make familiar Syr.
5 to make into a eunuch Syr.

quad T
1 to be believed Syr. --(a) to be committed to Syr. --(b) to be done with confidence Syr.
2 to be confirmed, found to be true JLAtg, Sam, Syr, LJLA. --(a) to be reliable Syr.
3 to promise Syr. --(a) to be commissioned Sam.

hymnw, hymnwtʾ (haymānū, haymānūṯā) n.f. faith, religion

1 faith, religion Com. --(a) faithfulness Syr, JBA. --(b) community of the faithful Syr. --(c) conversion Syr.
2 means of persuasion, argument, proof (=Gk. πιστις) Syr. --(a) truth Syr.
3 constancy Syr. --(a) security Syr. --(b) fidelity Syr, JBA.

Humanist
2012-09-04, 05:47
Experts at War: Masters behind the Ranks of the Assyrian Army
Davide Nadali and Lorenzo Verderame(Rome)


Ummânu is the most common term used to indicate a particular skilful professional. It is a generic term, the nuances of which no modern definition can render exactly. As the medieval “master”, it is an honorific title that originates from the general and popular recognition of his skills.

While it seems to be a “subjective” definition (coming from popular acknowledgment), in the Neo-Assyrian period the term is limited to two groups of people, artisans3 and magicmantic professionals. Despite the fact that the rules for the application of this title4 are not totally clear,5 the term seems to refer to personal skills and popular recognition, and this appears also to be the principle reason for applying the term to individual artisans. In fact the skilfulness of artisans in general points to a high degree of specialization,6 and the decision to adopt the term ummânu gives the impression that the artistic value of their production, for example as jewellers or engravers, is of high quality.7

....

Among the specialists, the ummânu appears to be the most clear and most elusive category at the same time. On one hand, different specialists could be qualified as ummânu for their skilfulness, although the title was probably not applied to all specialised workers;62 on the other hand, we can suppose that such a highly-specialized professional did not directly serve in the army, but rather were in the employ of the king and his magnates, and followed them to the military campaign.

A number of Sureth words may be relevant. Note, the "h" is pronounced like the "h" in the English word, "hit." The words below are not listed as loans from any other languages.

Eastern phonetic : hé ma: ' nu: ta:
[Moral life → Duty]
English : faith , belief , reliance on testimony , trust in another's words

Same word, from an Iranian Sureth dialect:

Eastern phonetic : i ' ma: ni:
[Moral life → Duty]

Eastern phonetic : ham ' mu: ni
[Moral life → Conscience]
English : to believe , to accept as true , to give credit (trust) to

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon [REFER TO THE ABOVE POST, FOR THE CAL TERMS]

Wikipedia:


Mani (in Middle Persian and Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαίος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani", c. AD 216–276), of Iranian origin[1][2][3][4], was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was once widespread but is now extinct. Mani was born in or near Seleucia-Ctesiphon in Asuristan (Assyria), at the time still part of the Parthian Empire. Six of his major works were written in Syriac Aramaic and the seventh, dedicated to the king of the empire, Shapur I, was written in Middle Persian.[5] He died in Gundeshapur, under the Sassanid Empire.

And, remember, "Shapiro?" I wonder if there is any link.

Biloo
2012-09-04, 06:06
@Humanist

Can you please post a list of popular assyrian surnames ? I'm curious...

Humanist
2012-09-04, 06:39
@Humanist

Can you please post a list of popular assyrian surnames ? I'm curious...

For those of the "Nestorian" church, they are mostly of Judeo-Christian origin. Names in my family would be familiar to many folks of the Hebrew faith. They include:

AMOS (Amo)
ASHER (Ashur)
AVISHAI
BINYAMIN
CHANNAH
DANIEL
DAVID
EFRAIM (Apraim)
ELAH
ELISHEVA
ESTHER
EZRA
GILAH (Gulah)
HANNAH
IMMANUEL
LAZER
MAYA (Mayo)
MIKHA'EL
MIRIAM and Maryam
NISSA (Nissan)
RINA
RIVKA
SARAH (Zarah)
SHACHAR
SHAMIRA (Shamiran)
SHIMON
SHIMSHON
SHMUEL
SHOSHANA (Shushan)
SOL
YOAV
YOCHANAN (Youkhanna)
YOEL
YONATAN
YOSEF

Biloo
2012-09-04, 06:45
Are these family surnames or just first names ?

Humanist
2012-09-04, 06:51
@Humanist

Can you please post a list of popular assyrian surnames ? I'm curious...

As for the ancients, they ordinarily included names of popular deities, such as Nabu, Assur, Ishtar, Marduk, etc., in their names. For instance, Assur-bani-apli.

---------- Post Merged at 01:51 ----------


Are these family surnames or just first names ?

Both. We did not have surnames until recently. Boys were usually named after grandfathers or grand uncles. At least that is how we did it in the East. My brother was named after my paternal grandfather, Youkhanna (John). I was named after a maternal grand uncle, Paulus (Paul).

Biloo
2012-09-04, 07:12
Many are not that exotic ;)

Binyamin (Benjamin --- in French)
Channah (Jeanne, Jane ??)
Elah (Allah, Elohim ???)
Elisheva (Elisabeth :p)
Immanuel (Emmanuel(le) ---in French)
Shimon (Simon)
Shimshon (Sun)
Shmuel (Samuel)
Shoshana (Suzan ?)
Yochanan (John)
Yoel (Joel)
Yonatan (Jonathan)
Yosef (Joseph)

Most of them sounds like jewish names

As for the ancients, they ordinarily included names of popular deities, such as Nabu, Assur, Ishtar, Marduk, etc., in their names. For instance, Assur-bani-apli.

---------- Post Merged at 01:51 ----------



Both. We did not have surnames until recently. Boys were usually named after grandfathers or grand uncles. At least that is how we did it in the East. My brother was named after my paternal grandfather, Youkhanna (John). I was named after a maternal grand uncle, Paulus (Paul).

OK, so I guess modern assyrians have the same familly surnames than the non assyrian people living in this country.
For example , Assyrians from Iran have similar last names than other persians, assyrians in Lebanon have lebanese last names etc ....

Humanist
2012-09-04, 08:25
I found this interesting. Yes, I find many things, "interesting." :)

SUMERIAN
súr, šúr, sumur: furious, fear-inspiring


Wikipedia

"Ashur (also Assur, Aššur; written A-šur, also Aš-šùr) is the head of the Assyrian pantheon."

"Sumer (from Akkadian Šumeru..."