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EliasAlucard
2012-09-04, 12:32
http://archive.org/stream/historyofthedecl00893gut/pg893.txt

History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire — Volume 4 (1784)

by Edward Emily Gibbon

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Edward_Emily_Gibbon.jpg


If he had just left out the "confounded" bit. :)

---------- Post added 2012-05-18 at 15:11 ----------



Richard N. Frye

Professor Emeritus, Harvard University (http://history.fas.harvard.edu/people/faculty/emeriti.php)I have Gibbon's Decline and Fall at home, going to read it someday.

Where did Frye post that? Or is it from an email discussion between you and him?

Assyriology ---> History

//mod

Humanist
2012-09-04, 17:31
Where did Frye post that?

http://www.aakkl.helsinki.fi/melammu/pdf/frye2002.pdf

Why did you move this thread?

Wikipedia:

Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of ancient Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) and as related cultures that used cuneiform writing. The field covers the Akkadian sister-cultures of Assyria and Babylonia, together with their cultural predecessor; Sumer. The large number of cuneiform clay tablets preserved by these cultures provide an extremely large resource for the study of the period. The region's (and the world's) first cities such as Ur are archaeologically invaluable for studying the growth of urbanization.

Humanist
2012-09-04, 22:28
3
SURETH
http://s13.postimage.org/4skh6bhqt/zair.jpg

http://s13.postimage.org/s5iiotxud/ziura.jpg


SUMERIAN
http://s13.postimage.org/cnv0l4rdh/ziir.jpg

http://s13.postimage.org/vewxvalxx/zar.jpg

Arabic/Turkish/Kurdish origin?


EASTERN SYRIAC

Eastern phonetic : ' za: ra:r
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : harm , damage , injury , hurt , detriment , misfortune , loss ; ܙܵܪܵܪ ܠܲܝܬ / NENA : ܙܵܪܵܪ ܠܲܝܬ ܒܵܗܿ : never mind , it doesn't matter , don't worry about that ; ܡܵܚܹܐ ܙܵܪܵܪ ܩܵܐ / ܡܵܚܹܐ ܙܵܪܵܪ ܠ : to injure of an impersonal agent ; ܩܵܙܲܢܓ̰ ܘܙܵܪܵܪ : loss and gain ;

this word is of Arabic / Turkish / Kurdish origin

Humanist
2012-09-05, 03:47
SURETH

Eastern phonetic : ' wa ki:l
[Professions]
1) a deputy , an agent , a proctor , a trustee , one employed to manage the affairs of another , one who has the power to act for another ;
2) an advocate , a lawyer , an attorney ;
Variants : ܘܲܟܝܼܠܵܐ

this word is of Arabic origin

Eastern phonetic : wa ' ki: la:
[Professions]
Dialect : Al Qosh


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wakalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-05, 05:14
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ris_namusa.jpg


AKKADIAN (3, 6)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/namasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-05, 08:40
Not sure if there is anything here.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šin ga:
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

Eastern phonetic : ša ' no: ga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer


SUMERIAN
saĝ adj. : first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

šà-ge-guru: one's heart's desire

sa(g), ša(g): to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa to be a favorite of (sa is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa(-ga):, ša(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa(g): to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa)

saĝa: chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

sig, si-ig, sig: to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa(g); see also a-sig)

sig(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig(KAL): good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag, sag(KAL) (cf. sa-ga, sa-ga)


The above Sumerian words also remind me of another Sureth word. However, I am confident it will be labelled as a Persian/Kurdish loan.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sangu.jpg


I need to start putting my name to some of these, in case one, two, or more are of any significance. The links to the really neat stuff (e.g. the verbs), unfortunately, no longer work.

Humanist
2012-09-06, 04:47
A re-examination of the Late Period graves at Yorgan Tepe (Nuzi)
D.T. Potts
1996

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/potts1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/potts2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/potts3.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-06, 08:02
I have made some progress in Volume "Z," but am still far from complete. Here is a word that may have a chance.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' za ta:
[Feeding → Food]
English : a cake for children
Dialect : NENA

NENA = Northeastern Neo-Aramaic = Christian AND Jewish dialects of northeastern Mesopotamia


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zatu.jpg


Pre-Sar = Pre-Sargonic
Ur III = "Neo-Sumerian Empire"

Humanist
2012-09-06, 09:36
Not sure why this is under the "sport" category in the Sureth Online Dictionary, but this also looks like a possibility.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' za ta
[Sport]
English : fortune , luck , chance , game , play


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddu5.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-06, 19:38
I am going to continue the lexicon comparison here --> Lexical Comparison of vernacular Syriac ("Sureth"), Akkadian, and other languages (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?274-Lexical-Comparison-of-vernacular-Syriac-(-quot-Sureth-quot-)-Akkadian-and-other-languages)

For strictly history topics, I will continue posting in this thread.

The last comparison of Akkadian and Sureth in this thread (taken from the first post in the above referred to thread):


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : a: ' lo la:
[City]
English : a street , a thoroughfare in a city / town / village
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' šu: la:
[Industry]
English : 1) a job , an occasional piece of work , an occupation , an employment , a task , a labour / labor a definite work undertaken in gross / things to do , a mission (?) / a project (?) / duty (?) ; 2) an affair , a business / business , a trade , commerce (?) , a shop (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

Diacritical marks for Akkadian do not appear. Please refer to the relevant entry, or entries, in the CAD.


AKKADIAN
sulu {sula'u, shulu, sullu} s.;
1. street, track, 2. (uncertain meaning)
from Old Babylonian on; Sumerian loanword

I will also add the below word to SURETH, in the thread linked to above (cannot find in the Sureth Online Dictionary):

sawle : shoes

Humanist
2012-09-07, 04:51
Failed to add these, for AKKADIAN, above:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lalu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lala.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lullu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-07, 08:35
I would not go to the extreme as to say "forgetting, almost entirely...of the Sumero-Akkadian culture of Babylonia and Assyria" as Jerrold Cooper does below, in his article, “I have forgotten my burden of former days!” Forgetting the Sumerians in Ancient Iraq (http://neareast.jhu.edu/pdf/Forgetting%20Sumerians.pdf), but it is a good read.


Cultures forget for many reasons. The examples of Mesopotamian forgetting that I have discussed here included the Sumerian King List’s deletion of a number of early regional states and creation of the myth of a single dynasty in control of Babylonia at any one time—all to create a history of kingship conforming to the ideology propagated by the ruling house; a forgetting of Sumerian alterity, an alterity which may actually be a figment of Assyriological imagining; and a forgetting of cuneiform itself, when, more than three millennia after its birth, it had finally outlived its usefulness. Ultimately, this last was not just a culture’s forgetting, but entailed the forgetting, almost entirely (except for the fragments preserved by biblical and classical texts), of the Sumero-Akkadian culture of Babylonia and Assyria, a culture that would only be recovered in the wake of the heroic decipherments of the nineteenth century a.d., a recovery that was followed with great interest at the early meetings of the American Oriental Society.

adsız
2012-09-07, 12:30
Maybe a little off-topic but ,

How many Assyrians totally living in the world today ? Any official source ?

Humanist
2012-09-08, 08:39
To the poster above: Two or three million, I suppose. Nothing concrete, of course.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Following up on the Annunaki post, from several days ago.

From Wikipedia:


Igigi was a term used to refer to the gods of heaven in Sumerian mythology. Though sometimes synonymous with the term "Annunaki," in one myth the Igigi were the younger gods who were servants of the Annunaki, until they rebelled and were replaced by the creation of humans.[1]

Atrahasis

Sumerian paradise is described as a garden in the myth of Atrahasis where lower rank deities (the Igigi) are put to work digging a watercourse by the more senior deities (the Anunnaki).[2]

When the gods, man-like,
Bore the labour, carried the load,
The gods' load was great,
The toil grievous, the trouble excessive.
The great Anunnaku, the Seven,
Were making the Igigu undertake the toil.[3]

The Igigi then rebel against the dictatorship of Enlil, setting fire to their tools and surrounding Enlil's great house by night. On hearing that toil on the irrigation channel is the reason for the disquiet, the Annanuki council decide to create man to carry out agricultural labour.[3]


SURETH

Eastern phonetic : ' ia: gi:
[Government]
English : 1) a rebel , a mutineer , an insurgent , a rioter (?) ; 2) adjective : bumptious , arrogant , rigidly self-assertive
Dialect : Urmiah


But, then, this entry in the Sureth Online Dictionary states that it is a loanword.



Eastern phonetic : ' ia: ghi:
[Government]
English : 1) a rebel ; 2) adjective masculine and feminine : rebellious ; ܥܵܒ݂ܸܕ ܝܵܓ݂ܝܼ : to rebel ;
French : 1) un rebelle ; 2) adjectif masculin et féminin : rebelle ; ܥܵܒ݂ܸܕ ܝܵܓ݂ܝܼ : se rebeller , se révolter ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

this word is of Azeri / Turkish / Kurdish origin


Of course, I accept that there are a great many loanwords from other languages in both Syriac and the vernaculars, however, refer to the bit below (dealing exclusively with Syriac, the language of our liturgy). The word in question is one of two words in bold. At least one of them, I believe, may stand a chance of being from Akkadian.

Hülegü’s rock-climbers: a short-lived Turkic word in 13th-14th century Syriac historical writing

Pier Giorgio Borbone
(Pisa)


The lexicon of the Syriac literary language is rich in terms derived from languages that happened to be in contact, both from the cultural and from the geographical point of view, such as Greek, Iranian and Arabic. On the other hand, words of Turkic originare extremely rare and are probably limited to the few terms documented in historical works of 13th-14th century, namely the Chronography by Bar hebraeus (1226-1286) and its continuators after 1286, and the anonymous History of Mar Yahballaha and Rabban Sauma (=History). Those are words such as ordu “camp”, yarliġ “command, edict”, khan “king, emperor”, yāġi “enemy, rebel”, tamġa “seal, mark”, which indicate political and administrative entities are unknown before the Mongol rule.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damqu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damaqu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamgirtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamgurtuA.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamkaruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamkaruB2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamkaru1.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-08, 21:34
Following up on the above post, regarding the Igigi. I reckon this is repetitive to most in Assyriological circles, but for amateurs, with limited access to the relevant scholarship, it is very interesting.

Note the bit regarding the scribe's interpretation of "igigu."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/igigu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agagu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 16:34 ----------

Should have added this Akkadian word as well:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raabu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-09, 01:29
I have seen #4 mentioned before. Not the other words, but they certainly may have been mentioned previously, and I am simply unaware.

They appear to be terms related to royalty in some way (at one point).

Volume and page references are to the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.
Please make note that diacritical marks do not appear.

The example IE words are from Wiktionary.com.

1.
Volume 10 “M” Part 1 (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_m1.pdf)
Akkadian: manzaltu, manzazu, manzazanu... (p. 232–239)
Indo-European: Pashto (manzu); Greek (meso); Italian (mezzo)

2.
Volume 20 “U” and “W” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_u_w.pdf)
Akkadian/Sumerian: uriggallu (uringallu) (p.223-225)
Indo-European: 1. Latin (regalis). 2. Sanskrit (ranga)

3.
Volume 14 “R” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_r.pdf)
Akkadian: ra'abu, rabisu, rabis, ra'bu, rabu... (p. 2–56)
Indo-European: PIE (rabh-); Sanskrit (raʹbhas-); Latin (rabidus)

4.
Volume 17 "S" [Shin] Part II (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_s_shin_2.pdf) and Volume Volume 21 “Z” (http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_z.pdf)
Akkadian: sarru (p. 76-105) and zaru A (p.72)
Indo-European: Latin (Caesar); Persian (Shah)


I welcome any and all feedback.


Were Y-DNA R-L23, and perhaps mtDNA U7 spread by westward-moving royals/conquerors? It is a possibility, I think. It is difficult to imagine that men carrying the R-L23 Y chromosome, as they spread to the west (if it is indeed an east to west path), did not possess some sort of advantage over their non R-L23 carrying male counterparts.

Humanist
2012-09-09, 02:57
Adding some details for one of the comparisons made above. Not one mention of either of the Akkadian words, in the Wikipedia article below.

I suppose it (my suggested "link") is dubious?

Here is one of the two words:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaru.jpg


From the Wikipedia article, "Etymology of the name of Julius Caesar."


The name Caesar probably originated from a dialect of Latium which did not share the rhotacism of the Roman dialect.[1] (That is, the s between vowels did not change to r.) Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR (the spelling CAIVS is also attested and is interchangeable with the more common GAIVS; however the letter C was used with its antique pronunciation of [g], as it was an adaptation of Greek gamma). It is often seen abbreviated to C. IVLIVS CAESAR. (The letterform Æ is a ligature, which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions, where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae".) The leading vowels in each part of the name are long, and in Classical Latin, the whole name was pronounced [ˈɡaːjus ˈjuːljus ˈkajsar], or, alternatively, with praenomen pronounced trisyllabically as [ˈɡaːius]. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his name was written Καίσαρ, which was pronounced more or less the same. The pronunciation of the first syllable is similar to that of the German word (Kaiser), itself an early loanword.

Roman nomenclature is somewhat different from the modern English form. Gaius, Iulius, and Caesar are Caesar's praenomen, nomen, and cognomen, respectively. In modern usage, his full name might be something like "Gaius Iulius-Caesar", where 'Caesar' denoted him as a member of the 'Caesarian' family branch of the 'Iulian' clan, and 'Gaius' was his personal name. Though contemporary writers sometimes referred to him as "Gaius Caesar," the name's historical usage was not the same as it is in the 21st century. His grand-nephew, Gaius Octavius, duly took the full name "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" upon his posthumous adoption in 44 BC, and the name became fused with the imperial dignity; in this sense it is preserved in the German and Bulgarian words Kaiser and Tsar (sometimes spelled Czar), both of which refer to an emperor. Compare the Hungarian, Slavic and Turkish words for "king", forms of kral, all adapted from Karl, the personal name of Charlemagne.

Meaning of "Caesar"

The original meaning of the name is unknown. The four most common derivations of the cognomen "Caesar" are given by the writer of the Historia Augusta:[2]
from caesaries, 'hair', because the founder of this branch of the family was born with a full head of hair. (Ironic, if true, because Julius Caesar himself was balding in later life.) This is the etymology favored by Festus. from caesius, an eye color variously translated today as 'grey', 'blue-grey', and even 'blue'. (Julius Caesar himself had black eyes.[3]) from caesum, 'cut out', because the first Caesar was cut from his mother's womb (see Caesarean section). This is the etymology favored by Pliny the Elder[4]. (Julius Caesar himself could not have been so delivered, because this dangerous operation was normally done only upon a dead woman, and his mother was known to have lived for many years after his birth.[5]) from caesai, a "Moorish" (maybe Punic) word for "elephant" because the first Caesar had killed such a beast in battle. This is the etymology favored by Gaius Julius Caesar himself.


From the Wikipedia article, "Caesar (title)."


The history of "Caesar" as an imperial title is reflected by the following monarchic titles, usually reserved for "Emperor" and "Empress" in many languages (note that the name Caesar, pronounced see-zer in English, was pronounced kai-sahr in Classical Latin):
Germanic languages:
Danish: Kejser & Kejserinde;
Dutch: Keizer & Keizerin;
German: Kaiser & Kaiserin;
Icelandic: Keisari & Keisaraynja;
Faroese: Keisari & Keisarinna;
Norwegian: Keiser & Keiserinne;
Swedish: Kejsare & Kejsarinna
Old English: cāsere

Slavic and Baltic languages:
Belarusian: Цар & Царыца (Tsar & Tsarytsa)
Bulgarian: Цар & Царица (Tsar & Tsaritsa);
Croatian: Car & Carica (c is read ts);
Czech: Císař & Císařovna;
Latvian: Ķeizars & Ķeizariene;
Macedonian: Кајсар & Кајсарица (Kajsar & Kajsarica c is read ts)
Polish: Cesarz & Cesarzowa;
Russian: Царь & Царица, Czar & Czaritsa (archaic transliteration), Tsar & Tsaritsa (modern transliteration); however in the Russian empire (also reflected in some of its other languages), which aimed to be the "third Rome" as successor to the Byzantine empire, it was abandoned (not in the foreign language renderings though) as imperial style - in favor of Imperator and Autocrator - and used as a lower, royal style as within the empire in chief of some of its parts, e.g. Georgia and Siberia
In the United States and, more recently, Britain, the title "czar" (from the Russian title) is a slang term for certain high-level civil servants, such as the "drug czar" for the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy and "terrorism czar" for a Presidential advisor on terrorism policy. More specifically, a czar refers to a sub-cabinet level advisor within the executive branch of the U.S. government.
Serbian: Цар & Царица / Car & Carica (pronounced Tsar & Tsaritsa)
Slovak: Cisár & Cisárovná;
Slovene: Cesar & Cesarica;
Afro-Asiatic languages:
Arabic: Qaysar قيصر
Hebrew: Keisár קיסר & Keisarít קיסרית;
Indo-Iranian languages:
Persian: Ghaysar قيصر
Urdu: Qaysar قيصر used in the title "Kaiser-i-Hind" ("Emperor of India") during the British Raj
Kartvelian languages
Georgian: კაიზერი (Keisari)
Turkic languages:
Turkish: Kayser (historical), Sezar (modern). Kayser-i-Rûm "Caesar of [Constantinople, the second] Rome", one of many subsidiary titles proclaiming the Ottoman Great Sultan (main imperial title Padishah) as (Muslim) successor to "Rum" as the Turks called the (Christian) Roman Empire (as Byzantium had continued to call itself), continuing to use the name for part of formerly Byzantine territory (compare the Seljuk Rum-sultanate)
Uralic languages:
Estonian: Keiser & Keisrinna;
Finnish: Keisari & Keisarinna or Keisaritar;
Hungarian: Császár & Császárnő;
Austronesian languages:
Bahasa Indonesia: Kaisar;
Albanian:
Albanian: Çezar & Qesarinë;
Armenian:
Armenian: կայսր Kaysr, and կայսրություն Kaysrutiun meaning empire;
In various Romance and other languages, the imperial title was rather based on the Latin Imperator (in fact a military mandate or a victory title), but Caesar or a derivation is then still used for both the name and the minor ranks (still perceived as Latin)
There have been other cases of a noun proper being turned into a title, such as Charlemagne's Latin name, including the epithet, Carolus (magnus) becoming Slavonic titles rendered as King: Kralj (Serbo-Croat), Král (Czech) and Król (Polish), etc.
However certain languages, especially Romance languages, also commonly use a 'modernized' word (e.g. César in French) for the name, both referring to the Roman cognomen and modern use as a first name, and even to render the title Caesar, sometimes again extended to the derived imperial titles above.

Humanist
2012-09-10, 01:20
Not sure if there is anything here.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šin ga:
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

Eastern phonetic : ša ' no: ga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer


SUMERIAN
saĝ adj. : first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

šà-ge-guru: one's heart's desire

sa(g), ša(g): to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa to be a favorite of (sa is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa(-ga):, ša(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa(g): to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa)

saĝa: chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

sig, si-ig, sig: to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa(g); see also a-sig)

sig(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig(KAL): good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag, sag(KAL) (cf. sa-ga, sa-ga)


The above Sumerian words also remind me of another Sureth word. However, I am confident it will be labelled as a Persian/Kurdish loan.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sangu.jpg


I need to start putting my name to some of these, in case one, two, or more are of any significance. The links to the really neat stuff (e.g. the verbs), unfortunately, no longer work.

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Official Aramaic
šnglʾ div. a moon god

1 a moon god OfA.

sngl n.m. Esagila temple

1 Esagila temple [?? dialect]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Compare the story of Sin (Nanna) and Ningal, and the Sureth and Sumerian words at top.


Source: http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/gods/partnerships/nannaningal.html


Nanna and Ningal can be easily described as the Sumerian quickest, happiest and less complicated version of myth of young god meets young goddess and both fall for each other at first sight. But who are they, the young god and goddess?

Nanna is the Moon god, later called Sin by the Babylonians and Assyrians, the first born of Enlil, the all powerful Air God and his consort, Ninlil, lady Air. Nanna is the Torch of the Night, which by ever renewing himself and illuminating primeval darkness, brought along Time, the cosmic Measure that enables the contemplation of Eternity through the little and great facts that shape up with Meaning our lives' lows and highs.* For as Nanna moved slowly over the night skies changing from waxing to waning glow, and opening the doors of heaven to let in and out days, months and years always to return, life's heartbeat synchronised in perfect harmony with the Moon's shine: tides, the coming of spring floods to renew the land, the growth of reeds, the breathing in and out of all greens, abundance of milk, cheese and cream and, most of all, the sacred blood of womanhood.

Nanna the Moon according to the Sumerians is at once young and old, bringing Rest to the land and the living, dreams and the wildest fantasies. Much loved and feared by some, Nanna's shine makes everything equally far and near, close by and yet mysteriously remote. His is a strangeness both intimate and frightening, for his coming brings either sweet dreams or weird, challenging nightmares to play during slumber. But if one chooses to, Nanna will also bestow vigilance and illumination for the diligent student of the Soul's mysteries. One of his common epithets is Prince of the Gods, and He is also said to be impetuous and gay.

Ningal, on the other hand, is the beloved daughter of Ningikuga, the Goddess of Reeds, and Enki, the God of Magic, Crafts and Wisdom. To fully understand Ningikuga as a Great Goddess, it is necessary to go back in time to the Southernmost part of Mesopotamia, where people started first gathering in settlements and to build the first huts for housing and temples for the gods also made of reeds. It was in a place called Eridu, the first identified settlement in South Mesopotamia and city dedicated to Enki, where "kingship descended from the heavens to the land". Ningikuga is therefore a very old Goddess, who tell us of the beginnings of organised life, once reeds were used to build houses, temples, furniture, sailing rafts, as well as fences to prevent flooding the neighbouring areas. Her relationship with Enki dates therefore from the very beginning of urbanised life in Sumer. Their daughter, Ningal, is said to be young and pretty, as well as to possess the gift to unveil the language of the Unknown revealed in images, age-old legends, poetry and most of all, in dreams. Thus, in her we have another timeless archetype of wholeness: She is the goddess of Dream Interpretation, of insight and divination, therefore somewhat reserved, living with her mother in the fertile marshlands of South Mesopotamia. And it is Ningal who first falls in love with Nanna, as the young lord progressed upon the night skies.

When Nanna and Ningal finally meet by the marshes, after a succession of Moon seasons (or years), it is love at first sight. Being young and full of desire, they meet by the reeds and make wild and sweet love for a full, intense forthnight, hidden from the older and wiser gods. Then, on the eve of the night of the Dark of the Moon, Nanna says goodbye to Ningal, promising to return in two nights´ time.


* I wonder whether this has anything to do with our word for "time," which is "dana."

Humanist
2012-09-10, 08:37
OK. So I am having a difficult time not posting some of what I am coming across. Again, not that much (if any) is of significance.

Ur Digitization Project: Item of the Month
By BRAD HAFFORD | Published: MAY 7, 2012


In the ancient Near East there was no legend of Medusa, but there were plenty of demonic figures; and who better to scare away evil? One of the scariest was Puzuzu, an Assyrian demon who is often represented at gateways to keep bad things out of a building. Woolley had an even more specific explanation, one he wrote up in the London Times in July 1925 when reporting on an early exhibit of Ur artifacts in the British Museum:
“One quaint little mask is described as the head of the god Pazuzu, and is also a charm to be suspended in the window to keep away the sickness brought by the south-east wind.”

Christie's (the auction house)

Amulets of the demon Pazuzu, son of the west wind, were worn by women in childbirth for protection against the female demon Lamashtu, who was feared for her attacks on newly born babies. For related amulets see nos. 63-64 in Curtis and Reade, eds., Art and Empire, Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum.


Three Puzuzu heads. The last image is a replica of an authentic Puzuzu head.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/d4821514r.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/d5078824l.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Untitled.jpg


SURETH

Eastern phonetic : ' pu za:
[Animals]
English : the snout , the long projecting nose of a beast , the anterior prolongation of the head of various animals , the proboscis ;
Dialect : Urmiah


Eastern phonetic : pu ' za na
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) snouty 2) ill-tempered , bad-tempered , sulky , grumpy , peevish , crabbed , petulant , pettish , testy , surly ; 3) sad-countenanced , gloomy , glum , doleful , mournful , long-faced ;
Dialect : Urmiah


The "p," in my dialect, when the above words are spoken, sounds a bit closer to a "b," I believe. Actually, more like in between a "b" and "p."


Eastern phonetic : ' pu: di <-- Compared to an Akkadian word previously. Unfortunately, the link is gone. Need to search for the Akkadian word again.
[Human → Body]
English : mucus , snot ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pazuzu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/putu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bussanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-10, 19:17
Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Official Aramaic
šnglʾ div. a moon god

1 a moon god OfA.

sngl n.m. Esagila temple

1 Esagila temple [?? dialect]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Compare the story of Sin (Nanna) and Ningal, and the Sureth and Sumerian words at top.


Source: http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/gods/partnerships/nannaningal.html




* I wonder whether this has anything to do with our word for "time," which is "dana."


Not sure if there is anything here.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šin ga:
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

Eastern phonetic : ša ' no: ga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer


SUMERIAN
saĝ adj. : first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

šà-ge-guru: one's heart's desire

sa(g), ša(g): to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa to be a favorite of (sa is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa(-ga):, ša(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa(g): to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa)

saĝa: chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

sig, si-ig, sig: to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa(g); see also a-sig)

sig(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig(KAL): good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag, sag(KAL) (cf. sa-ga, sa-ga)


The above Sumerian words also remind me of another Sureth word. However, I am confident it will be labelled as a Persian/Kurdish loan.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sangu.jpg


I need to start putting my name to some of these, in case one, two, or more are of any significance. The links to the really neat stuff (e.g. the verbs), unfortunately, no longer work.

I have not had an opportunity to search through all of the available resources, but this word (if not a loan) may also be relevant:

SURETH
šinta (šin-ta): sleepiness

Humanist
2012-09-10, 23:29
Just throwing this out there. I am sure it has been covered already, to the extent it is even worth discussing.

The meaning of ṭuppi

Heather D. Baker, 'The meaning of ṭuppi', Revue d'Assyriologie 104 (2010) 131-162. [published June 2012]


The meaning of the Akkadian term ṭuppi has been hotly debated by Assyriologists for the greater part of a century. The present article argues that ṭuppi, commonly found in temporal expressions, can only refer to a one-year period. This proposal arises out of the observation that, among a substantial corpus of Neo-Babylonian house rental contracts, there is not a single one that refers explicitly to a one-year lease period. Since rental periods of relatively short duration are otherwise rather common, this unexpected gap in the data is difficult to explain unless the expression adi ṭuppišu (and variants) is understood to mean ‘for a one-year period’. The same principle applies to other categories of document which involve a finite term, such as apprenticeship contracts. The article discusses the implications of this finding for our understanding of the contents of a wide range of everyday legal and administrative documents and letters, some of which provide circumstantial evidence in support of the proposed interpretation. It also examines the historical texts in which ṭuppi occurs, namely, the Assyrian King List and the 8th century inscription of Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur, governor of Mari and Sūḫu. It is argued that the suffix -šu in ṭuppišu is redundant, a conclusion which affects the interpretation of these historical passages since the -šu has sometimes been understood to refer to an antecedent other than the ruler in question. The implications of the proposed understanding of ṭuppišu for Mesopotamian chronology are not so very great since the consensus has tended towards assigning a period of between 0 and 2 years for the ṭuppišu reigns in AKL. Nevertheless, this interpretation of ṭuppišu as a one-year reign/period of office clarifies some hitherto rather enigmatic passages in these historical texts.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' puš
English : an order (imperative mode) : remain / stay (here) , do not go , stay behind , stay , wait , persist , hang on (?) / do not give up (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' pi: ša
[Science → Mathematics]
English : having remained / remaining , left behind / surviving ;
Dialect : Urmiah

A few verbs from Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Barwar dialect of Sureth:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dyp.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tpn_tpr.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tpy.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tqtq_trd.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 01:09
Not sure what to make of this one.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : za ' ḥu: tha:
[Army → War]
English : 1) Maclean : victory ; 2) Oraham, additionally : triumph , conquest ;
Dialects : Classical Syriac, Al Qosh


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zahatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zahalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zahalu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zahalu3.jpg


I have no idea about the source: THE OLD BATTLE-AXE

THE AXE, IN SUMERIAN USAGES (http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/reptiles/serpent_tribe/serpent_tribe15.htm)


Laurence Austine Waddell, in The Makers of Civilization in Race and History, (1929), sheds some light on the significance of the axe:

"The Double-Axe sign for the God Zeus in Crete also occurs as a sign for the god ZAG [1] in Sumerian. It is found in the inscription of Manis-Tusu's grandfather; and it is obviously a fuller form of the diagrammatic axe-sign in Sumerian, which has the phonetic value of ZAG or SAG, and is defined as 'axe, sceptre, two-edged sword.' And significantly this axe-sign is a title in Sumerian of 'The GREAT LORD' (NAR-GAL) [Ner-Gal from his fatal smiting still later became the God of the Underworld.], a martial reflex of the Father-God ZAGG, SAKH, or SAX [2], i.e., Zeus, who became latterly the 'God of War' in Babylonia; and Manis' father SARGON worshipped the weapon of the God ZAGG as we have seen."

Humanist
2012-09-11, 02:43
OK. So I am having a difficult time not posting some of what I am coming across. Again, not that much (if any) is of significance.

Three Puzuzu heads. The last image is a replica of an authentic Puzuzu head.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/d4821514r.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/d5078824l.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Untitled.jpg


SURETH

Eastern phonetic : ' pu za:
[Animals]
English : the snout , the long projecting nose of a beast , the anterior prolongation of the head of various animals , the proboscis ;
Dialect : Urmiah


Eastern phonetic : pu ' za na
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) snouty 2) ill-tempered , bad-tempered , sulky , grumpy , peevish , crabbed , petulant , pettish , testy , surly ; 3) sad-countenanced , gloomy , glum , doleful , mournful , long-faced ;
Dialect : Urmiah


The "p," in my dialect, when the above words are spoken, sounds a bit closer to a "b," I believe. Actually, more like in between a "b" and "p."


Eastern phonetic : ' pu: di <-- Compared to an Akkadian word previously. Unfortunately, the link is gone. Need to search for the Akkadian word again.
[Human → Body]
English : mucus , snot ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pazuzu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/putu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bussanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busu.jpg


Cute.


http://slices-of-life.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Hyena-14.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Spotted_Hyena_in_Serengeti_cropped.jpg

http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/007/cache/spotted-hyena_720_600x450.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 04:13
The Akkadian word here is amusing, even if the Sureth word is unrelated.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : qun ' ṭai pa
[Numbers]
English : a bunch (of grapes) , a cluster , a number of things of the same kind growing together , a clump of trees , a bunch -flowers, bananas (?), keys (?)- , a cluster -of stars (?) , a tuft of hair (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kantappu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 06:48
Bet Nahrin = word for "Homeland" in Sureth

SURETH

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHXONSbxESI

AKKADIAN
1
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru.jpg

2
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru9.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru10.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru11.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 10:26
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : zab bu: ' nu: ta
[Human → Disease]
English : weakness , feebleness , state of lacking strength , flimsiness (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zabu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zabu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zabu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sebu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 12:16
As with all of them, I do not know if there is anything here.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ku: ' za za
[Human → Body]
English : shivering , the act of shivering (cold, fright ....) , a shuddering (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 17:16
A story from a year or so back.

New York's New Gay Synagogue Originally Designed by an Anti-Semite (http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2011/08/new-yorks-new-gay-synagogue-originally-designed-by-an-anti-semite/243285/)


The New York Times City Room blog notes the planned conversion of a 1929 Assyrian-themed structure by the architect Cass Gilbert (best known for the Woolworth and Supreme Court buildings) by a gay Jewish congregation. The reason for Gilbert's Assyrian motif was once 'lost to history,' as the blog puts it, but actually may have been discovered by the architectural historian Margaret Heilbrun in her excellent study of Gilbert, Inventing the Skyline. She quotes a reply from Gilbert to a New York Post columnist, in which the architect compares the emerging setback skyscrapers of the city to the ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia and reflects that they may be appropriate to a city called "the modern Babylon." (Actually the purpose of the 1916 zoning law mandating them was assuring light and air while permitting height, avoiding the dense canyons that were darkening downtown.) As for conversion to a synagogue, Gilbert actually saw Assyrians and Hebrews as Semitic cousins, and New York as "a city where so many of our peoples are descended from the races that once inhabited the Assyrian plains." [xix]

EDWARD TENNER - Edward Tenner is a historian of technology and culture. He was a founding advisor of Smithsonian's Lemelson Center and holds a Ph.D in European history.

---------- Post Merged at 12:16 ----------

To add one personal note, related to the story above. I have always felt a special bond with people of the Jewish faith as well. More so than with any other Semitic-speaking group, I would say.

Humanist
2012-09-11, 18:09
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanusta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunistu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kansutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kansu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 20:44
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanusta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunistu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kansutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kansu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunasu.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunsu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunsillu.jpg

---------------------------------------------------------------------------


Any possibility that this next Sureth word is from the Nuzi dialect of Akkadian?

Also, these words remind me of the name of the city of Kirkuk. Kirkuk is not far from Nuzi.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karaxa.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kirku.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karaku.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:39 ----------

Apologies. Forgot to add this.

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karxa.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:44 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kirhu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-11, 22:21
Wikipedia

Kurgan is the Turkic term for a tumulus; mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves, originating with its use in Soviet archaeology, now widely used for tumuli in the context of Eastern European and Central Asian archaeology.

The word is ultimately of Turkic origin, more specifically from Tatar according to the Oxford English Dictionary, from a word meaning "fortress".[1][2]

The distribution of such tumuli in Eastern Europe corresponds closely to the area of the Pit Grave or Kurgan culture in South-Eastern Europe.[3]
Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic, Bronze, Iron, Antiquity and Middle Ages, with old traditions still active in Southern Siberia and Central Asia. Kurgan cultures are divided archeologically into different sub-cultures, such as Timber Grave, Pit Grave, Scythian, Sarmatian, Hunnish and Kuman-Kipchak.

A plethora of placenames that include the word "kurgan" appear from Lake Baikal to the Black Sea.

Kurgan barrows were characteristic of Bronze Age peoples, from the Altay Mountains to the Caucasus, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria. Burial mounds are complex structures with internal chambers. Within the burial chamber at the heart of the kurgan, elite individuals were buried with grave goods and sacrificial offerings, sometimes including horses and chariots. Kurgans were used in the Ukrainian and Russian Steppes but spread into eastern, central, and northern Europe in the third millennium BC.


AKKADIAN ("lex." = lexical texts)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kirgunnu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-12, 04:21
Most people who have read my posts, I hope, realize that I am not making these comparisons between Akkadian and other languages out of some desire to hurt the feelings of certain groups and/or individuals.

This sentiment is not unique, of course, but I would like to repeat something I have said before:


I think there stands a good chance we are reaching faulty conclusions as a result of a fundamental misunderstanding of history, and its players.

The above quote can certainly be extended to linguistics. Whether it can be extended to the instant case (Aramaic), to some degree, I am obviously not qualified to answer.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wikipedia


Ezra ( /ˈɛzrə/; Hebrew: עזרא, Ezra;[1] fl. 480–440 BC), also called Ezra the Scribe (Hebrew: עזרא הסופר, Ezra ha-Sofer) and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra. According to the Hebrew Bible he returned from the Babylonian exile and reintroduced the Torah in Jerusalem (Ezra 7-10 and Neh 8). According to First Esdras, a non-canonical Greek translation of the Book of Ezra, he was also a high priest.

His name may be an abbreviation of Azaryahu, "God-helps". In the Greek Septuagint the name is rendered Esdras (Greek: Ἔσδρας), from which Latin: Esdras.

The Book of Ezra describes how he led a group of Judean exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem (Ezra 8.2-14) where he enforced observance of the Torah and cleansed the community of mixed marriages.[2][3]

Ezra, known as "Ezra the scribe" in Chazalic literature,[4] is a highly respected figure in Judaism.[5]


The possible etymology in the Wikipedia article is not far off, perhaps. However, from the standpoint of a layman, the Akkadian forms may be a better fit. Particularly when we consider Ezra's Babylonian origin.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eseru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eseruB.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 22:35 ----------

Here is another to include. There may be more. I am not sure.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezeru.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:21 ----------

Ezra 9:1-15 (New International Version)

Ezra's Prayer About Intermarriage

1 After these things had been done, the leaders came to me and said, "The people of Israel, including the priests and the Levites, have not kept themselves separate from the neighboring peoples with their detestable practices, like those of the Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Jebusites, Ammonites, Moabites, Egyptians and Amorites. 2 They have taken some of their daughters as wives for themselves and their sons, and have mingled the holy race with the peoples around them. And the leaders and officials have led the way in this unfaithfulness." 3 When I heard this, I tore my tunic and cloak, pulled hair from my head and beard and sat down appalled. 4 Then everyone who trembled at the words of the God of Israel gathered around me because of this unfaithfulness of the exiles. And I sat there appalled until the evening sacrifice. 5 Then, at the evening sacrifice, I rose from my self-abasement, with my tunic and cloak torn, and fell on my knees with my hands spread out to the LORD my God 6 and prayed: "O my God, I am too ashamed and disgraced to lift up my face to you, my God, because our sins are higher than our heads and our guilt has reached to the heavens. 7 From the days of our forefathers until now, our guilt has been great. Because of our sins, we and our kings and our priests have been subjected to the sword and captivity, to pillage and humiliation at the hand of foreign kings, as it is today. 8 "But now, for a brief moment, the LORD our God has been gracious in leaving us a remnant and giving us a firm place in his sanctuary, and so our God gives light to our eyes and a little relief in our bondage. 9 Though we are slaves, our God has not deserted us in our bondage. He has shown us kindness in the sight of the kings of Persia: He has granted us new life to rebuild the house of our God and repair its ruins, and he has given us a wall of protection in Judah and Jerusalem. 10 "But now, O our God, what can we say after this? For we have disregarded the commands 11 you gave through your servants the prophets when you said: 'The land you are entering to possess is a land polluted by the corruption of its peoples. By their detestable practices they have filled it with their impurity from one end to the other. 12 Therefore, do not give your daughters in marriage to their sons or take their daughters for your sons. Do not seek a treaty of friendship with them at any time, that you may be strong and eat the good things of the land and leave it to your children as an everlasting inheritance.' 13 "What has happened to us is a result of our evil deeds and our great guilt, and yet, our God, you have punished us less than our sins have deserved and have given us a remnant like this. 14 Shall we again break your commands and intermarry with the peoples who commit such detestable practices? Would you not be angry enough with us to destroy us, leaving us no remnant or survivor? 15 O LORD, God of Israel, you are righteous! We are left this day as a remnant. Here we are before you in our guilt, though because of it not one of us can stand in your presence."

Humanist
2012-09-12, 05:49
Wikipedia


Shechem was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[2] Traditionally associated with Nablus,[3] it is now identified with the site of Tell Balatah in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank.

Its position is indicated in the Bible: it lay north of Bethel and Shiloh, on the high road going from Jerusalem to the northern districts (Judges xxi, 19), at a short distance from Michmethath (Joshua 17:7) and of Dothain (Genesis 37:12-17); it was in the hill-country of Ephraim (Joshua 20:7; 21:21; 1 Kings 12:25; 1 Chronicles 6:67; 7:28), immediately below Mount Gerizim (Judges 9:6-7). These indications are completed by Josephus, who says that the city lay between Mount Ebal and Mt. Garizim, and by the Madaba map, which places Sychem, also called Sikima between the Tour Gobel (Ebal) and the Tour Garizin (Garizim). The site of Shechem in patristic sources is almost invariably identified with[4] or located close to[5] the town of Nablus/Flavia Neapolis.

The old city of Shechem dates back to about an estimated four thousand years.

Shechem is mentioned in the third-millennium Eblaite Tablets found at Tell Mardikh in the context of a city of which Rasap (Resheph) is the patron deity. Shechem was a commercial center due to its position in the middle of vital trade routes through the region. It traded in local grapes, olives, wheat, livestock and pottery between the middle Bronze Age and the late Hellenic Period (1900-100 BC).

....

Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob's Well (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and the tomb of Joseph (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel. The city, including its Bronze Age temple, fell to the Israelites sometime before 1000 BC.

After Gideon's death, Abimelech, his son by a Sichemite concubine, was made king (Judges 9:1-45). Yotam, the youngest son of Gideon, made a famous speech on Mount Gerizim known as Yotam's allegory where he warned the people of Shechem about Abimelech's future tyranny (Judges 9:7-20). When the city rose in rebellion three years later, Abimelech took it, utterly destroyed it, and burnt the temple of Baal-berith where the people had fled for safety. From the excavations, it was learnt that the city was destroyed in 1100 BC.

....

It was rebuilt in the 10th century BC and was probably the capital of Ephraim (1 Kings 4). Shechem was the place appointed, after Solomon's death, for the meeting of the people of Israel and the investiture of Roboam; the meeting ended in the secession of the ten northern tribes, and Sichem, fortified by Jeroboam, became for a while the capital of the new kingdom (1 Kings 12:1; 14:17; 2 Chronicles 10:1).

When the kings of Israel moved first to Tirzah, and later on to Samaria, Shechem lost its importance, and we do not hear of it until after the fall of Jerusalem (587 B.C.; Jeremiah 12:5). The events connected with the restoration were to bring it again into prominence. When, on his second visit to Jerusalem, Nehemias expelled the grandson of the high priest Eliashib (probably the Manasse of Josephus, "Antiq.", XI, vii, viii), who refused to separate from his alien wife, Sanaballat's daughter, and with him the many Jews, priests and laymen, who sided with the rebel, these betook themselves to Shechem; a schismatic temple was then erected on Mount Garizim and thus Shechem became the "holy city" of the Samaritans. The latter, who were left unmolested while the orthodox Jews were chafing under the heavy hand of Antiochus IV (Antiq., XII, v, 5, see also Antinomianism in the Books of the Maccabees) and welcomed with open arms every renegade who came to them from Jerusalem (Antiq., XI, viii, 7), fell about 128 B.C. before John Hyrcanus, and their temple was destroyed ("Antiq.", XIII, ix, 1).

During the First Jewish–Roman War, Shechem was destroyed and a Neapolis or "new city" was built nearby by Vespasian in 72. Eventually, this name became the Arabic Nablus.


Perhaps tenuous. But still interesting.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nablis.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nablu1.jpg

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Source: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2238-baal-berith

BAAL-BERITH

—Biblical Data ("the Ba'al of the Covenant"):
A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean "the God of the Covenant." In considering what the covenant (or covenants) was over which this Ba'al presided, it must not necessarily be concluded that certain definite treaties of the time were alone referred to, such as the Canaanitic league of which Shechem was the head, or the covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv.). The term is too abstract to have been occasioned by a single set of conditions. Moreover, the temple of the god (Judges ix. 4, 46) in Shechem implies a permanent establishment. Probably the name and the cult were wide-spread and ancient (see Baalim), though it happens to have been mentioned only in connection with the affairs of Shechem.

—In Rabbinical Literature:
The idol Baalberith, which the Jews worshiped after the death of Gideon, was identical, according to the Rabbis, with Baal-zebub, "the ba'al of flies," the god of Ekron (II Kings i. 2). He was worshiped in the shape of a fly; and so addicted were the Jews to his cult (thus runs the tradition) that they would carry an image of him in their pockets, producing it, and kissing it from time to time. Baal-zebub is called Baal-berith because such Jews might be said to make a covenant (Hebr. "Berit") of devotion with the idol, being unwilling to part with it for a single moment (Shab. 83b; comp. also Sanh. 63b). According to another conception, Baal-berith was an obscene article of idolatrous worship, possibly a simulacrum priapi (Yer. Shab. ix. 11d; 'Ab. Zarah iii. 43a). This is evidently based on the later significance of the word "berit," meaning circumcision.


Wikipedia


Baal is one of the seven princes of Hell. He is mentioned widely in the Old Testament as the primary pagan idol of the Phoenicians, often associated with the pagan goddess Ashtaroth.


Beelzebub, with numerous archaic variants,[1] is a Semitic deity that was worshiped in the Philistine city of Ekron. In later Christian and Biblical sources, he is referred to as another name for Satan,[2] and in demonology, is one of the seven princes of Hell.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Beelzebub_and_them_with_him.jpg


Wikipedia


Resheph (Rašap, Rešef, Reshef; Canaanite/Hebrew ršp רשף) was a Canaanite deity of plague and war. In Egyptian iconography Resheph is depicted wearing the crown of Upper Egypt surmounted in front by the head of a gazelle. He has links with Theban war god Montu and was thought of as a guardian deity in battle by many Egyptian pharaohs. Although the iconography of Resheph shares the gazelle with that of the Egyptian-Canaanite Shed, Izak Cornelius writes that "the rest of the attributes are totally different." [1] According to myth, Resheph exerted a benign influence against disease.

Humanist
2012-09-12, 06:12
With "Nablis" in mind.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' pa: liš
[Army → War]
English : to war , to engage in warfare , to warfare , to fight ;

Eastern phonetic : ' nu: ra
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : fire (with flames) ;

Humanist
2012-09-12, 07:18
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gergerta.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgugu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgugu2.jpg


SUMERIAN
gur, gur4 : to turn, go around; to turn away; to return; to roll

Humanist
2012-09-12, 10:18
SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanusta.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunistu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kansutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kansu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunasu.jpg

A comment by Dienekes Pontikos, on a GeoCurrents article by Asya Pereltsvaig (http://geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/wheel-vocabulary-puts-a-spoke-in-bouckaert-et-al-s-wheel), discussing the words for "wheel" in Indo-European:



Διηνέκης Ποντικός • 5 days ago −
Hittite lacks an IE word for wheel. Also, the word for wheel need not have originally meant a transportation wheel, it could have meant the potter's wheel or indeed different round or rolling objects.

Note the second Sureth word from top, "kusa," meaning "spindle." Compare with Hittite, below:


6.32 — SPINDLE — The origin of GIŠ huesa- remains a subject of debate, the most likely derivation so far being that (by Kronasser, in Studi … V. Pisani 2, p. 611) from IE *H1wes- ‘turn, wind’ (IEW 1173 [7. u̯es-]), comparing Skt. vedá- ‘bunch of Kusa-grass’ (< *veḍá- < *H1wos-do-), uṣṇī́ṣa- ‘turban’, ON vasask ‘be wrapped, mixed up in’, NHG dial. wasen, ME wase ‘faggot’ (the Engl. form also meant ‘pad on the head for carrying burdens’). Other suggestions T 268- 69. The spindle is partnered with GIŠ hulali- ‘distaff’, a further deriv. from hul- ‘twist’.


Hittite source: Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck’s Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages (http://gendocs.ru/docs/18/17768/conv_1/file1.pdf)
by David Michael Weeks

If they are indeed related, perhaps the Sureth word is a loan from Hittite, Luwian, or another Anatolian IE tongue, via Aramaic varieties spoken in Neo-Hittite (Syro-Hittite) territories during the 1st millennium BCE?

Humanist
2012-09-12, 11:31
There is a word in my dialect that I think I may have come across. I could not find it in the Aramaic sources so I am a bit uncertain of its origin. I will probably butcher the transliteration, but it is something along the lines of "meš-meš-ookh." Basically, when you tell it to someone, you are saying that you will soon be "putting them in order." Would like to hear Birko's opinion. The spelling is not all that different from our word for apricot (listed as an Arabic/Kurdish loan).


[Links restored]
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masmassu1.jpg
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http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masmassu3.jpg


I asked someone about this. The saying, they believe, is "meš-meš-ookh mam-ṭun-ae."

Eastern phonetic : mam ' ṭu yi
[Transport]
English : transitive verb : to bring , to take / to carry / to convey to a destination


As stated in the quoted bit, it is ordinarily directed at someone who is misbehaving. That is my understanding.

From Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msms.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-13, 01:30
Perhaps it is a bit older. :) For the record, I do not necessarily believe these proposed etymologies stand a good chance of being correct. Though, I think some have a better chance than others. And note the appearance of one of the Akkadian/IE words ("mezzo") I suggested a few days back (the "royalty" terms).


moola - money. Variations on the same theme are moolah, mola, mulla. Modern slang from London, apparently originating in the USA in the 1930s. Probably related to 'motsa' below.

motsa/motsah/motzer - money. Popular Australian slang for money, now being adopted elsewhere. Variations on the same theme are motser, motzer, motza, all from the Yiddish (Jewish European/Hebrew dialect) word 'matzah', the unleavened bread originally shaped like a large flat disk, but now more commonly square (for easier packaging and shipping), eaten at Passover, which suggests earliest origins could have been where Jewish communities connected with English speakers, eg., New York or London (thanks G Kahl). Popularity is supported (and probably confused also) with 'lingua franca' medza/madza and the many variations around these, which probably originated from a different source, namely the Italian mezzo, meaning half (as in madza poona = half sovereign).


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mullu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-13, 03:10
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gergerta.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgugu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurgugu2.jpg


SUMERIAN
gur, gur4 : to turn, go around; to turn away; to return; to roll


SURETH

garuma:
[Transport → Surface]
English : 1) Urmiah : an axle , a pin or spindle on which a wheel revolves , an axis , an axletree / an axle-tree ; 2) Classical Syriac, NENA : a rolling-pin

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gergera.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gera.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girigubbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girgiltu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girgisu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/giridu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gararu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-13, 04:23
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' qoq los
[Science → Mathematics]
English : a cycle , an imaginary circle , an orbit in the heavens , a circle ;
Dialect : Urmiah


Greek and Mesopotamian contacts? Of course, they were very significant in the past.


Wiktionary.com


Proto-Indo-European *kʷékʷlos (“circle, wheel”). Cognates include Sanskrit चक्र (cakrá), Latin colus and Old English hwēol (English wheel).


GREEK (source: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon)


κύκλος , ὁ (Dor. ἁ, v. infr. 11.11), also with heterocl. pl.
A. “κύκλα” Il., etc., v. infr.11.1, 3,9, 111.1:—ring, circle, ὅπποτέ μιν δόλιον περὶ κύκλον ἄγωσιν, of the circle which hunters draw round their game, Od.4.792; κ. δέκα χάλκεοι (concentric) circles of brass on a round shield, Il.11.33, cf. 20.280; but ἀσπίδος κύκλον λέγω the round shield itself, A.Th.489, cf. 496,591.
2. Adverbial usages, κύκλῳ in a circle or ring, round about, “κ. ἁπάντῃ” Od.8.278; “κ. πάντῃ” X.An.3.1.2; “πανταχῇ” D.4.9; “τὸ κ. πέδον” Pi.O.10(11).46; “κ. περιάγειν” Hdt.4.180; “λίμνη . . ἐργασμένη εὖ κ.” Id.2.170; “τρέχειν κ.” Ar.Th.662; “περιέπλεον αὐτοὺς κ.” Th.2.84; “οἱ κ. βασιλεῖς” X.Cyr.7.2.23; ἡ κ. περιφορά, κίνησις, Pl.Lg.747a, Alex. Aphr.in Top.218.3: freq. with περί or words compounded there with, round about, “κ. πέριξ” A.Pers.368, 418; “περιστῆναι κ.” Hdt.1.43; “βωμὸν κ. περιστῆναι” A.Fr.379; “ἀμφιχανὼν κ.” S.Ant.118 (lyr.); “περιστεφῆ κ.” Id.El.895; “περισταδὸν κ.” E.Andr.1137; “κ. περιϊέναι” Pl.Phd.72b, etc.; “τοῦ φλοιοῦ περιαιρεθέντος κ.” Thphr.HP4.15.1; so κ. περὶ αὐτήν round about it, Hdt.1.185; “περὶ τὰ δώματα κ.” Id.2.62; also κύκλῳ c. acc., without “περί, ἐπιστήσαντες κ. σῆμα” Id.4.72; “πάντα τὸν τόπον τοῦτον κ.” D.4.4: c.gen., “κ. τοῦ στρατοπέδου” X.Cyr.4.5.5; “τὰ κ. τῆς Ἀττικῆς” D.18.96, cf. PFay. 110.7 (i A.D.), etc.: metaph., around or from all sides, S.Ant.241, etc.; κεντουμένη κύκλῳ ἡ ψυχή all over, Pl.Phdr. 251d; τὰ κ. the circumstances, Arist.Rh.1367b29, EN1117b2; ἡ κ. ἀπόδειξις, of arguing in a circle, Id.APo.72b17, cf. APr.57b18: with Preps., “ἐν κ.” S.Aj.723, Ph.356, E.Ba.653, Ar.V.432, etc.; “ἅπαντες ἐν κ.” Id.Eq.170, Pl.679: c. gen., E.HF926, Th.3.74; “κατὰ κύκλον” Emp.17.13.
II. any circular body:
1. wheel, Il.23.340; in which sense the heterocl. pl. κύκλα is mostly used, 5.722, 18.375; τοὺς λίθους ἀνατιθεῖσι ἐπὶ τὰ κύκλα on the janker, IG12.350.47.
2. trencher, SIG57.32 (Milet., v B.C.), Abh.Berl.Akad.1928(6).29 (Cos), Poll.6.84.
3. place of assembly, of the “ἀγορά, ἱερὸς κ.” Il.18.504; “ὁ κ. τοῦ Ζηνὸς τὠγοραίου” Schwyzer 701 B6 (Erythrae, v B.C.); ἀγορᾶς κ. (cf. κυκλόεις) E.Or.919; of the amphitheatre, D.C.72.19.
b. crowd of people standing round, ring or circle of people, “κ. τυραννικός” S.Aj.749; κύκλα χαλκέων ὅπλων, i.e. of armed men, dub. in Id.Fr.210.9, cf. X. Cyr.7.5.41: abs., E.Andr.1089, X.An.5.7.2 (both pl.), Diph.55.3.
c. place in the ἀγορά where domestic utensils were sold, Alex.99.
4. vault of the sky, “ὁ κ. τοῦ οὐρανοῦ” Hdt.1.131, LXX 1 Es.4.34; “πυραυγέα κ. αἰθέρος” h.Hom.8.6, cf. E.Ion1147; “ὁ ἄνω κ.” S.Ph.815; “ἐς βάθος κύκλου” Ar.Av.1715; “νυκτὸς αἰανὴς κ.” S.Aj.672; γαλαξίας κ. the milky way, Placit.2.7.1, al., Poll.4.159; also “ὁ τοῦ γάλακτος κ.” Arist. Mete.345a25; “πολιοῖο γάλακτος κ.” Arat.511.
b. μέγιστος κ. great circle, Autol.Sph.2, al.; “μ. κ. τῶν ἐν τῇ σφαίρᾳ” Archim.Sph.Cyl.1.30, cf. Gem.5.70; κ. ἰσημερινός, θερινός, etc., Ph.1.27; “χειμερινός” Gem.5.7, Cleom.1.2; ἀρκτικός, ἀνταρκτικός, Gem.5.2,9; “ὁ κ. ὁ τῶν ζῳδίων” Arist. Mete.343a24; ὁ ὁρίζων κ. the horizon, Id.Cael.297b34; παράλληλοι κ., of parallels of latitude, Autol.Sph.1: in pl., the zones, Stoic.2.196.
5. orb, disk of the sun and moon, “ἡλίου κ.” A.Pr.91, Pers.504, S.Ant.416; “πανσέληνος κ.” E.Ion 1155; μὴ οὐ πλήρεος ἐόντος τοῦ κύκλου (sc. τῆς σελήνης) Hdt.6.106: in pl., the heavenly bodies, IG14.2012A9 (Sulp. Max.).
6. circle or wall round a city, esp. round Athens, “ὁ Ἀθηνέων κ.” Hdt.1.98, cf. Th.2.13, etc.; “οὐχὶ τὸν κ. τοῦ Πειραιῶς, οὐδὲ τοῦ ἄστεως” D.18.300.
b. circular fort, Th.6.99, al.
7. round shield, v. sub init.
8. in pl., eye-balls, eyes, S.OT1270, Ph.1354; “ὀμμάτων κ.” Id.Ant.974 (lyr.): rarely in sg., eye, “ὁ αἰὲν ὁρῶν κ. Διός” Id.OC704 (lyr.).
9. οἱ κ. τοῦ προσώπου cheeks, Hp.Morb.2.50; “κύκλα παρειῆς” Nonn.D.33.190, 37.412; but κύκλος μαζοῦ, poet. for μαζός, is f.l. in Tryph.34.
10. κ. ἐλαίης an olive wreath, Orph.A.325 (pl.).
11. cycle or collection of legends or poems, “κύκλον ἱστορημέναν ὑπὲρ Κρήτας” GDI5187.9 (Crete); esp. of the Epic cycle, “ὁ ἐπικὸς κ.” Ath. 7.277e, Procl. ap. Phot.Bibl.p.319 B., cf. Arist.Rh.1417a15; of the corpus of legends compiled by Dionysius Scytobrachion, Ath.11.481e, cf. Sch. Od.2.120; κ. ἐπιγραμμάτων Suid.s.v. Ἀγαθίας; cf. “κυκλικός” 11.
III. circular motion, orbit of the heavenly bodies, “κύκλον ἰέναι” Pl.Ti.38d; “οὐρανὸς . . μιᾷ περιαγωγῇ καὶ κύκλῳ συναναχορεύει τούτοις” Arist.Mu.391b18; revolution of the seasons, “ἐνιαυτοῦ κ.” E.Or. 1645, Ph.477; τὸν ἐνιαύσιον κ. the yearly cycle, ib.544; “ἑπτὰ . . ἐτῶν κ.” Id.Hel.112; μυρία κύκλα ζώειν, i.e. years, AP7.575 (Leont.): hence κ. τῶν ἀνθρωπηΐων ἐστὶ πρηγμάτων human affairs revolve in cycles, Hdt.1.207; “φασὶ . . κύκλον εἶναι τὰ ἀνθρώπινα πράγματα” Arist.Ph.223b24, al.; “κ. κακῶν” D.C.44.29; κύκλου ἐξέπταν, i.e. from the cycle of rebirths, Orph.Fr.32c.6.
b. ἐν τοῖς κ. εἶναι to be in train, of an affair, PEleph.14.24 (iii B.C.).
2. circular dance (cf. κύκλιος)“, χωρεῖτε νῦν ἱερὸν ἀνὰ κ.” Ar.Ra.445, cf. Simon.148.9, E.Alc.449 (lyr.).
3. in Rhet., a rounded period, “περιόδου κύκλος” D.H.Comp.19, cf. 22, 23.
b. period which begins and ends with the same word, Hermog.Inv.4.8.
4. in Metre, a kind of anapaest, v.l. for κυκλικός in D.H.Comp.17.
IV. sphere, globe, Pl.Lg.898a. [υ^ by nature, S.Ant.416, Aj.672, etc., but freq. long by position in Hom. and Trag.]

Humanist
2012-09-13, 06:12
Note: x ~ ḥ

SURETH (Geoffrey Khan's "Barwar" volumes)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xlapa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahluptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlipuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlipu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlaptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlapanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halapu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-13, 20:44
Just throwing this out there. I am sure it has been covered already, to the extent it is even worth discussing.

The meaning of ṭuppi

Heather D. Baker, 'The meaning of ṭuppi', Revue d'Assyriologie 104 (2010) 131-162. [published June 2012]

--------------
A few verbs from Geoffrey Khan's volumes on the Barwar dialect of Sureth:

SURETH (diacritical marks not displayed)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tpy.jpg


AKKADIAN (diacritical marks not displayed)
tuppi adv.; some time (past or future), appropriate time, proper notice; Nuzi, Standard Babylonian, Neo Assyrian, Neo Babylonian

Humanist
2012-09-13, 22:42
Came across this paper today.

Sargon II’s 8th Campaign: A New View on Old Constructs, in: O.Wh. Muscarella / Samad Ellyioun (eds.): The eighth campaign of Sargon II. Historical, geographical, literary and ideological aspects, Tabriz 2012, 11-17
Stephan Kroll


Excavations at the Zendan-I Suleiman, Ziwiye, Rabat Tepe or Qalaichi show a distinct different material culture (generally called Mannean), heavily influenced from Babylonia / Assyria.

Figure 3, from the paper:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kroll.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-14, 04:23
From a couple, to a few hundred years back, the author states.

From "Book of Protection Being a Collection of Charms"
Hermann Gollancz

This work is edited and translated from Syriac manuscripts. Found within are three Codexes, presented in their native language and also translated into English. These Codexes contain a large number of incantations, charms, etc., all of which have been translated to the best of Mr. Gollancz' ability. In some cases, he makes tentative translations, as it appeared the original scribe meant to baffle all satisfactory interpretation. Many notes are included, explaining the various texts.


§ 26. FOR THE PESTILENCE AMONG SHEEP AND LARGER ANIMALS.


In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Our Lord went to the Mountain of Sinai, and saw the sheep of Abraham which Satan had killed, and he told one of the angels to protect and help (whatever he saw) of all that vision. May no hateful visitation approach either the cattle, or the sheep, or whatever there is, or there will be belonging unto the one who bears these writings, neither by night, nor by day, nor at even-tide, nor in the morning, nor at noon-time, [xlii] nor sleeping nor rising. May the pestilence be annulled from off the sheep and the cattle of the one who beareth these writs. May no malady or sickness of Kûs,63 or sickness of Mosul, or evil and envious eye, or the wily eye of wicked men (approach him):64 but may evil demons and (their) cursed practices be removed from the sheep of the servant of Christ, A., the son of B. Amen!

63. Cf. § 5, where I have translated 'jaundice — the sickness of Mosul'.

3. I have here rendered the word 'jaundice' as an abbreviation of . In A, § 26, it seems to be the name of a place known for a certain sickness. The name occurs as that of a town in Egypt, and a similarly sounding name is found on the frontier between Persia and Afghanistan. Is it perhaps an abbreviated form (the first syllable) of 'Constantinople'


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusu.jpg


SUMERIAN
kuš : skin, hide; leather
kúš : to be(come) tired, weary, exhausted; to be troubled; to sigh; to ponder, deliberate; to rest, relax, be calm, calmed, soothed
kùš : mould


Wikipedia


Jaundice (also known as icterus;[1] from the Greek word ίκτερος, attributive adjective: icteric) is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid.


Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphtae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for two or three days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness.

Foot-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming, since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals through aerosols, through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing or feed, and by domestic and wild predators.[1] Its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions and quarantines, and occasionally the elimination of millions of animals.

The author of the Syriac "Book of Protection..." states that "kus" may be referring to a geographic location. In my opinion, skin, hide, etc., does not at all sound unreasonable.

EDIT: "kus" is similar to one of our words for "hair," which is "kawsa." I made the comparison to an Akkadian word a while back.

Humanist
2012-09-14, 08:06
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan)
kškš Q m-kškš (mkaškəš, mkuškəšle, mkaškoše) to make threatening noises before fight (dogs); to shoo away (chickens, birds)


AKKADIAN (please read the entire entry)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussudu.jpg


SUMERIAN
kaš4 : running, race; runner (also lú-kaš4-e)

kaš4/kas4 du11 : to run; to hasten (Attinger, Eléments 578-586)

kéš(d/r) : to be bound, tied, joined; to be locked, closed, blocked, stopped, sealed.

---------- Post Merged at 02:26 ----------

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' kis ta
[Transport]
English : a pouch , a purse , a small bag , a small sack or receptacle for carrying things (money ...) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


JBA = Jewish Babylonian Aramaic; Man. = Mandaic (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
kysh, kystʾ (kīsā, kīstā) n.f. bag
1 bag JBA, Man.

---------- Post Merged at 02:49 ----------

SURETH (Online Sureth Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' kaš ka
English : a girth , a binding strap , a binding band , a girdle ;
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 02:56 ----------

The complete entry, for the third Sumerian term, above, is this:


kéš(d/r) to be bound, tied, joined; to be locked, closed, blocked, stopped, sealed. The root has a /d/ or /r/ Auslaut, and the full finite root may be kešedr; cf. OBGT 12, 5: saĝ kéš-šè-ra-ab = kişşar and see Steinkeller, JNES 46, 57. The past participle is written kéš-da (kešdada) or kešda(KÉŠ). Cf. giškirid

---------- Post Merged at 03:06 ----------

Wikipedia

Kish is very near the Eurogenes Assyrian median SPA point.

Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiŝki;[1] Akkadian: kiššatu[2]) is modern Tell al-Uhaymir (Babil Governorate, Iraq), and was an ancient city of Sumer. Kish is located some 12 km east of Babylon, and 80 km south of Baghdad (Iraq).

Kish was occupied beginning in the Jemdet Nasr period (ca. 3100 BC), gaining prominence as one of the pre-eminent powers in the region during the early dynastic period.

The Sumerian king list states that it was the first city to have kings following the deluge,[3] beginning with Jushur. Jushur's successor is called Kullassina-bel, but this is actually a sentence in Akkadian meaning "All of them were lord". Thus, some scholars have suggested that this may have been intended to signify the absence of a central authority in Kish for a time. The names of the next nine kings of Kish preceding Etana are all Akkadian words for animals, e.g. Zuqaqip "scorpion". The Semitic nature of these and other early names associated with Kish reveals that its population had a strong Semitic component from the dawn of recorded history.[4]

The 12th king of Kish appearing on the list, Etana, is noted as "the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries". Although his reign has yet to be archaeologically attested, his name is found in later legendary tablets, and Etana is sometimes regarded as the first king and founder of Kish himself. The 21st king of Kish on the list, Enmebaragesi, said to have captured the weapons of Elam, is the first name confirmed by archaeological finds from his reign. He is also known through other literary references, where he and his son Aga of Kish are portrayed as contemporary rivals of Dumuzid, the Fisherman and Gilgamesh, early rulers of Uruk.

Some early kings of Kish are known through archaeology, but are not named on the King list. These include Utug or Uhub, said to have defeated Hamazi in the earliest days, and Mesilim, who built temples in Adab and Lagash, where he seems to have exercised some control.

The Third Dynasty of Kish is unique in that it begins with a woman, previously a tavern keeper, Kubau, as "king". She was later deified as the goddess Kheba.

Afterwards, though its military and economic power was diminished, it retained a strong political and symbolic significance. Just as with Nippur to the south, control of Kish was a prime element in legitimizing dominance over the north. Because of the city's symbolic value, strong rulers later added the traditional title "King of Kish", even if they were from Akkad, Ur, or Babylon. One of the earliest to adopt this title upon subjecting Kish to his empire was King Mesannepada of Ur. A few governors of Kish for other powers in later times are also known.

Sargon of Akkad came from the area of Kish. The city's patron deity was Zababa (or Zamama) in Akkadian times, along with his wife, the goddess Inanna.

Kish continued to be occupied through the old Babylonian, Kassite, and Neo-Assyrian periods, and into classical times, before being abandoned.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Sumer_Dynasty.svg/474px-Sumer_Dynasty.svg.png

There is also:


Kesh was an ancient Sumerian city and religious site, whose patron goddess was Ninhursag. Its location is uncertain; some of the possible sites put forth include Al-Ubaid, near Ur, or Tell al-Wilayah near Adab or Abu Salabikh. Robert D. Biggs suggested it could have just been a variation in the spelling of Kish.[1]

There is a famous Kesh temple hymn[1] about Ninhursag's temple in Kesh, where she is called Nintud. The goddess Nisaba appears as the temple's caretaker and decision maker.

Humanist
2012-09-14, 08:36
Refer to the above post.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasu_a.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 03:36 ----------

SUMERIAN (source: Daniel A Foxvog)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kus.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-14, 11:54
Akkadian and Sureth compared previously. Adding Sumerian.


SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' a: zil
[Transport]
English : to journey ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܠܩܵܕ݇ܡ / ܐܵܙܸܠ ܠܩܲܕ݇ܡܵܝܘܼܬܵܐ ܕ / ܐܵܙܸܠ ܠܩܵܕ݇ܡܬܵܐ ܕ : to go to meet a person arriving on a journey ; Urmia : ܐܵܙܸܠ ܪܲܟܵܒ݂ܵܐ : to go on horseback , to ride (on a horse) ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܠܸܚܕܵܪܵܐ : to take a walk ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܦܝܼܵܕܵܐ : to go on foot ; ܓܵܘܘܼܗܝ ܒܹܐܙܵܠܵܐ ܝܠܹܐ : he has had diarrhea ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܠܩܵܕ݇ܡܘܼܗܝ : to prosper , to thrive , to flourish , to succeed , to go forward , to make strides ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܠܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕ : to go to meet ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܡܸܢ ܐܝܼܕܵܐ : to disappear , to vanish ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܓܵܘܘܼܗܝ : to be emptied
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : a: ' zu: la:
[Transport]
English : a traveller ;
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
zal to flow; to melt; to pass (time)

zíl(TAG), zi(l), zil-zil v. and adj. (to be) good, pleasing

zu-a, OS su-a acquaintance (elliptical for lú-zu-a)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asuB2.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-15, 01:22
A few weeks back I posted words that I thought could be the origin for the word "Satan." Adding a few additional terms, and a Syriac charm, to the comparison.


AKKADIAN (note the "name of a demon," at bottom of first term)
http://i50.tinypic.com/rbjer7.jpg
http://i46.tinypic.com/55jyur.jpg


http://i46.tinypic.com/16bj5sl.jpg


http://i48.tinypic.com/2afhjk3.jpg
http://i50.tinypic.com/33lnfyd.jpg


http://i48.tinypic.com/md15af.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : šedana
[Religion]
English : 1) demoniac , influenced by a demon , possessed by an evil spirit ; 2) crazy , berserk , amuck , disordered in intellect , demented , mentally deranged , maniac , loopy;
Dialect : Urmiah

Even though "Mar George" is named in the body, the author takes the name of St. Thomas, rather than Mar George (Mar Giwargis). The Syriac "Mar Giwargis" might be relevant here, because he has been associated with Tummuz/Dumuzi (i.e. Damu-zid of "Kuara." If that is the right "Damu-zid."). In Sumerian, "Kur," could mean "home of the dead," or "mountain," I believe. I have spoken about the similarities with Sureth, on previous pages of this thread.


In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The prayer, request, petition, and supplication of Mar George (sic), the glorious martyr, who lived in the mountain for forty years. He was torn as rags,17 and blood flowed from them (i.e. the rents made in his flesh): and he prayed and said, 'O Lord, God of Hosts, I beseech thee, and supplicate thy grace, and ask the same request which Peter, Paul, and Gabriel — chief of the angels, besought on account of the evil spirit of lunacy. I bind you away from the three hundred [xxxiii] and sixty-six members of the one who carrieth these writs: and you are bound by me, O evil Spirit of Lunacy, and you have not the power to reside in the body and soul of the one who carrieth these writs, but you will needs go forth from the bones, from the sinews, from the flesh, from the skin, and from the hair unto the ground, and from the ground (passing on) to iron, and from iron to stone, and from stone (you will pass on) to the mountain. This writing must be sealed. Amen, Amen!

16. In the heading we have Mar Thomas, whilst in the body of the charm Mar George is named.

17. Or 'into rags': cf. Isa. lxiv. 6.


Cod. A, p. 20. Equestrian figure of 'Mar Thomas' engaging with 'the Spirit of Lunacy.'

http://i47.tinypic.com/257h9i1.jpg



SUMERIAN
diĝir (conventionally dingir) god, goddess

šùd, šùdu (Proto-Ea), šu12 (late value) n. prayer; v. to pray

šùd - du11 to say a prayer, pray (Attinger, Eléments 726-728)

šu - du11 to use the hand; to do, effect; to exert oneself; to accomplish (Attinger, Eléments 696-703)

šu - dù to slander, denounce

šu - dù to restrain (cf. šu-dù handcuffs); to capture (cf. CAD K 129a)

Humanist
2012-09-15, 05:38
1
SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ṭa: ' u yi
[Human → Senses]
English : to search , to seek , to go in search of , to endeavour to make a discovery , to look for
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN ("meaning uncertain" for the first word)
http://i47.tinypic.com/1nz6ew.jpg
http://i50.tinypic.com/qx5r2s.jpg


http://i45.tinypic.com/9hq6g6.jpg
http://i47.tinypic.com/35d7o5k.jpg


2
SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ba: ' u ta:
[Humanities → Language]
English : request , a desire expressed , petition , solicitation , entreaty
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN ("meaning uncertain" for the first word) (includes Assyrian Royal Inscription)
http://i45.tinypic.com/j9xc8m.jpg

http://i50.tinypic.com/2ymxc45.jpg

http://i47.tinypic.com/122gg7m.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-15, 06:58
AKKADIAN
http://i50.tinypic.com/358qbgh.jpg


http://i46.tinypic.com/34no4fl.jpg



SURETH
Eastern phonetic : a: šu: ' pu: ta:
[Religion]
English : snake charming , use of magic , enchantment
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : a ' šu: pa:
[Professions]
English : a charmer , an enchanter , one who uses sorcery or witchcraft , a wizard , a snake-charmer
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : i šu ' pi: ia
[Religion]
English : a charm , words spoken in the practice of magic , an enchantment ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-09-15, 10:31
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : taq ' qa taq
[Human → Senses]
English : knocks , strokes with something hard / heavy (as on a door) , knocking , clock : ticking , keys, weapons, mess tin ... : clicking (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : taq ' tu: qi
[Industry]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to knock , to strike resoundingly (with something heavy / hard) , to click (heels ?) ; 2) to tick , to click ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : taq ' taq ta
[Human → Senses]
English : knocking , rapping (?) ticking , clicking
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
tag : to touch, prod; to touch wrongly, profane, spoil; to weave; to overlay, face, embellish; to apply, treat with; to broadcast (seed-grain, see Maekawa, ASJ 15, 112)

tigi, tígi : (a kind of drum); (a hymn type, in OB a hymn of praise consisting minimally of sagida and saĝara sections); (in OB a kind of musician, cf. F. Vulliet, AV Black 129)

tuk4, tuku4 : to tremble, quake, shiver (Foster, RA 75, 189); to buffet

giš tukul : mace, weapon, arms (Civl, AV Biggs 33)

tuk, tuku (reduplicated du12-du12) : to acquire, obtain; to have, possess; to marry; to play a musical instrument (cf. reduplicated syllabic variant du-du in Dumuzi and Enkimdu 12, Sefati, Love Songs 337)



AKKADIAN
http://i45.tinypic.com/2vj4ens.jpg
http://i48.tinypic.com/n6k3r.jpg

http://i47.tinypic.com/2rh9ym9.jpg

http://i50.tinypic.com/120hwug.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-15, 20:32
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : taq ' qa taq
[Human → Senses]
English : knocks , strokes with something hard / heavy (as on a door) , knocking , clock : ticking , keys, weapons, mess tin ... : clicking (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : taq ' tu: qi
[Industry]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to knock , to strike resoundingly (with something heavy / hard) , to click (heels ?) ; 2) to tick , to click ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : taq ' taq ta
[Human → Senses]
English : knocking , rapping (?) ticking , clicking
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
tag : to touch, prod; to touch wrongly, profane, spoil; to weave; to overlay, face, embellish; to apply, treat with; to broadcast (seed-grain, see Maekawa, ASJ 15, 112)

tigi, tígi : (a kind of drum); (a hymn type, in OB a hymn of praise consisting minimally of sagida and saĝara sections); (in OB a kind of musician, cf. F. Vulliet, AV Black 129)

tuk4, tuku4 : to tremble, quake, shiver (Foster, RA 75, 189); to buffet

giš tukul : mace, weapon, arms (Civl, AV Biggs 33)

tuk, tuku (reduplicated du12-du12) : to acquire, obtain; to have, possess; to marry; to play a musical instrument (cf. reduplicated syllabic variant du-du in Dumuzi and Enkimdu 12, Sefati, Love Songs 337)



AKKADIAN
http://i45.tinypic.com/2vj4ens.jpg
http://i48.tinypic.com/n6k3r.jpg

http://i47.tinypic.com/2rh9ym9.jpg

http://i50.tinypic.com/120hwug.jpg


SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan's "Barwar" volumes)

totike n.f. type of dance

xəgga n.m. (pl. xəgge) dance performed with a line of people in a row with linked arms


Not sure if this Assyrian dance/song has a particular name, but it does seem to be heavy on the drums? And the men seem to be simulating (acting out) some sort of confrontation?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmBWvO8-ukE

Humanist
2012-09-15, 22:07
SURETH (Online Sureth Dictionary and Geoffrey Khan)
Eastern phonetic : ' go: ra [and "gura"]
[Moral life → Quality]
English : 1) gallant , brave , valiant , chivalrous , stout , bold , valorous ; 2) noun : a brave man , a courageous man , a man of mettle / of high spirits
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : gu ' ru: ta:
[Moral life → Quality]
English : manhood , bravery , gallantry , courage , heroism , intrepidity ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ga: ' ru: sa:
[Measures]
English : masculine : coarse , large , big , great ; feminine : ܓܲܪܘܼܣܬܵܐ ; ܙܘܿܪ ܓܲܪܘܼܣܵܐ ܒܸܛܚܵܢܵܐ ܝܠܹܗ : he is exaggerating , he is stretching it , he is embellishing , he is overdoing it (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac;

Eastern phonetic : ' kar 'a:
[Feeding → Food]
English : butter, breastmilk ;
Dialects : Urmiah, Classical Syriac, NENA

gabbara, gebara n.m. (pl. gabbare, gebara) : hero

Eastern phonetic : gab ba: ' ru: ta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : valiancy , bravery , manliness , valor , manly strength , fortitude , mightiness , heroism
Dialect : Urmiah



[U]SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
gùr : to bear, carry; to be clad with
gur4, kur4, gur : to be thick, enlarged, swollen; to be proud, (self-)important; to fatten (animals)
gur4(-ra) : fat, fattened, thick; proud
gur5-ru-uš/gùruš - búr : to bear the teeth/fangs, gnash the teeth (Civil, AV Biggs 28) (qarāšu)
gur7, guru7 : grain store, granary; grain-heap (as a measure); heap, pile (now read kara6 in this meaning by Marchesi, LUMMA 111 + n. 569)

gaba - ri : to advance against
gaba-ri : rival; equal, equivalent; copy, duplicate; response, answer
gaba-gi4 : counterpart, adversary
gaba nu-ru-gú : unopposable, irresistable
ga-ba-ra, gáb-ra : (OS) herder, herding-boy
ga-ba-ra-hum : rebellion (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 78)


Not sure if this is the word, but see "Gabare," at about the 45 sec. mark. Also, the clip (the artist's nickname?) is called, "Goreh d'Tyareh."


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfHcaf81hc0

Humanist
2012-09-16, 01:17
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ašq
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) a mania , an excessive / unreasonable excitement or enthusiasm , a violent desire or passion , a craze (?) / fad (?) ; 2) amativeness / sexual arousal , faculty to influence sexual desire , propensity to love , love ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' a: šiq
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) in love , amative , amorous , enamoured / enamored , infatuated , besotted (?) ; 2) a lover , a sexual partner (?) , an enthusiast (?) / amateur (?) ; 3) (noun) professions : a professional singer
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : aš ' qa na
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) amative , full of love , amorous , romantic (?) , sexually aroused / horny / hot / stimulated , pertaining to / producing sexual love / suggestive / sex appealing , lewd (?) / lustful (?) / lascivious (?) ; 2) maniac , sex maniac (?) / one track-mind
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : š a qa
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to be amorous , to be inclined to love , to be in love ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Again relevant (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=985636&viewfull=1#post985636) <-- Link to post

Eastern phonetic : ' šin ga:
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

Eastern phonetic : ša ' no: ga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer



SUMERIAN
a šà-ga šu-du 11 to inseminate, engender (later elliptically just šu - du11)

á-sàg (a demon); (a source of sickness or death) (> asakku)

áš, á-áš, aš curse

sa6(g), ša6(g) to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa6 to be a favorite of (sa6 is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa6(-ga), ša6(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

šà(g) (šag4) heart, inside, interior, middle; womb; meaning

šà-ge-guru6-7 one's heart's desire

šà-ge - pà to envision inwardly (conventionally "choose in/by the heart")


Still need to search Akkadian, in the meantime, here is one relevant word:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ishu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:17 ----------

For a "language isolate," the Sumerian lexicon seems rather (too?) familiar to this "Semite."

SUMERIAN
silim to be well, whole, healthy, safe, at peace, in good condition; to fulfill an office or term

silim(-eš) - du11 to greet, salute; to boast (Attinger, Eléments 673-678)

silim-ma adj. whole, well; in good condition (as of plows in Nik I 287); n. well-being

silim-ma Be well! (imperative)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šla ma:
[Moral life]
English : 1) peace , a state of tranquility , freedom from disturbance / agitation , calm , serenity , safety , welfare ; 2) interjection : a greeting / salutation , an invocation of peace

Eastern phonetic : ' šla ma ' lu:ḥ
[Human → Speech]
English : Hello ! , (a greeting) , liturgical greeting : peace be with you !

Eastern phonetic : sa'la:mat
[Human → Disease]
English : safe and sound, healthy, in good health
Dialect : NENA

Eastern phonetic : ' sa lim
[Industry]
English : intact , untouched (by anything that harms or defiles) , left complete or entire , uninjured / unharmed / unspoiled , unbroken , undamaged , whole , unhurt / unscathed , safe and sound
Dialect : Urmia

Humanist
2012-09-16, 03:29
Not necessarily related.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' din ga ' din ge
[Human → Hygiene]
English : hale* , sound , healthy , entire , whole , complete , unimpaired , robust , swarthy**, strong (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
diĝir (conventionally dingir) : god, goddess

daĝal v. & adj. (to be) wide, broad, vast, far-reaching, widespread; n. breadth, width

daĝal-bé broadly

daĝal - tag to spread wide

du10(g) (dùg) to be good, pleasing, enjoyable, sweet (fig.); to enjoy, relish

du10(g), du10-ga good, pleasant, fine, sweet, delightful

du10-du10-ga best, finest

dugud v. & adj. (to be) heavy, huge, weighty, important


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dingiruggu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dingiruggu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dunnunu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dunnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dannu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dananu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dandannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dandannu2.jpg


*
HALE

free from defect, disease, or infirmity : sound; also : retaining exceptional health and vigor <a hale and hearty old man>

Examples of HALE

<still hale and strong at 80, often outdoing his younger golfing buddies>

Origin of HALE

partly from Middle English (northern) hale, from Old English hāl; partly from Middle English hail, from Old Norse heill

**
SWARTHY

of a dark color, complexion, or cast

Examples of SWARTHY

<a dark-eyed, swarthy young man with killer looks>

Origin of SWARTHY

alteration of obsolete swarty, from swart

Humanist
2012-09-16, 05:04
1
SUMERIAN
i-lu cry; wail, lament; song


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : i ' la la
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to lament , to wail , to whine , to howl for grief , to grieve (for...) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ilu.jpg



2
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazazu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazazu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nussusu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nussusu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasnasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasnasu2.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : naz ' nu: zi
[Human → Speech]
English : (intransitive verb) : to whine , to groan , to moan , to heave a sigh (in complaint or distress) , to pule , to wail , to whimper , to sob , to snivel (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah



3
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesu2-1.jpg


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nzl.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nys.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-16, 08:25
This is related to the "Haran Gawaitha" post from a few weeks back.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ga iu: ' lu: ta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : compassion , tender feeling , a sensation of sorrow excited by the distress or misfortune of another , pity , commiseration , sympathy
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' gih la
[Moral life → Fault]
English : wanton , deviating from the rules of chastity , lascivious , lecherous , lewd , lustful , bawdy (?) , amorous , unrestrained
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' gai ta
English : flight , hasty departure , running away , to escape danger , to flee ;
Dialect : Urmiah



SUMERIAN
gú - lá to lean over; to hang the head, submit; cf. gú ki-šè - lá to fall prostrate

gú - lá (with -da-), gú-da - lá to embrace

gal5-lá (or galla) constable (Ur III) (cf. Civil "prosecu-tor," AV Hallo 74, rare after Ur III); a demonic bailiff of the netherworld (post-Ur III)

gal5-lá-gal chief constable (Ur III)



AKKADIAN (Please read the examples)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gillatuB1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gillatuB2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gillatuB3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gillatuB4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gilittu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gilittu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gilittu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gilittu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gillatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gullulu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gullultu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-16, 10:02
SUMERIAN
mes : strong, vigorous youth, young man (Marchesi, Or 73, 191-3)

mas-su, mas-sù : leader, chief; councillor (massû)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' msa sa
[Clothing]
English : a fibre / fiber , a thredlike object , a yarn , a stuff , a core , a tough substance composed of threadlike tissue capable of being spun or woven , a thread / rope made of fiber tissue ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : maṣ ' ia: na
[Industry]
English : able , having sufficient power / skill / means / resources of any kind to accomplish the object , competent , skilled , capable
Dialect : Urmiah


Previously compared to Akkadian.

---------- Post Merged at 04:45 ----------

SUMERIAN
ma-da : country, land, district, territory (Limet, RA 72 (1978) 1-12); countryside, frontier (area) (Michalow-ski, Correspondence p. 125ff.)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ma: tha:
[Country]
English : 1) a village , a hundred houses , a rural community , a hamlet (?) , a backwater (?) ; 2) the Motherland / Fatherland , the native land , the birthplace , the domicile / place of residence , the country ;
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 04:55 ----------

SUMERIAN
kìri, kir4 : nose, muzzle

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : na ' ḥi: ra <-- In AKKADIAN, "naḥiru" = "nostril," "whale," "spout"
[Human → Body]
English : a nose , the conk (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 05:02 ----------

SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ' kap ra
[City]
English : a hamlet , a little cluster of houses in the country , a thorp , a village , a crossroads (?) , a burg ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapru2.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-16, 11:29
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : na ' ni luḥ
[Human → Senses]
English : (a greeting expression) : may you enjoy it , may it be pleasant , you are welcome ;
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nannu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nanzazu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nannaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nannaris.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 06:29 ----------

Not much to work with, with the Akkadian entry.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ristu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ristu2.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ruš ta:
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the shoulder-blade , the scapula ; 2) tool : a (wooden) shovel , a winnowing-fan / shovel , a scoop (?) ; 3) an oar , a scull , a paddle
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-09-16, 12:38
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusa.jpg

HITTITE

6.32 — SPINDLE — The origin of GIŠ huesa- remains a subject of debate, the most likely derivation so far being that (by Kronasser, in Studi … V. Pisani 2, p. 611) from IE *H1wes- ‘turn, wind’ (IEW 1173 [7. u̯es-]), comparing Skt. vedá- ‘bunch of Kusa-grass’ (< *veḍá- < *H1wos-do-), uṣṇī́ṣa- ‘turban’, ON vasask ‘be wrapped, mixed up in’, NHG dial. wasen, ME wase ‘faggot’ (the Engl. form also meant ‘pad on the head for carrying burdens’). Other suggestions T 268- 69. The spindle is partnered with GIŠ hulali- ‘distaff’, a further deriv. from hul- ‘twist’.

Hittite source: Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck’s Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages (http://gendocs.ru/docs/18/17768/conv_1/file1.pdf)
by David Michael Weeks

If they are indeed related, perhaps the Sureth word is a loan from Hittite, Luwian, or another Anatolian IE tongue, via Aramaic varieties spoken in Neo-Hittite (Syro-Hittite) territories during the 1st millennium BCE?

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gustu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gustu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasuB1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qusu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusita.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusummu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-16, 13:40
:) + Ishtar ?

Wikipedia


The spindle is closely associated with many goddesses, including the Germanic Holda, Norse Frigg and Freya, Isis, Artemis and Athena. It is often connected with fate, as the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns work with yarns that represent lives. Because the spinning wheel was not in common use before the 16th century in Europe, the older stories are certainly referring to hand spinning done on a spindle. Chief among these is the french fairy tale The Sleeping Beauty, where the princess is erroneously shown to prick her hand on some part of a spinning wheel in modern illustrations, rather than a spindle.

Humanist
2012-09-16, 15:01
SUMERIAN
sagi : cupbearer


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ša qi
[Professions]
English : a butler , a man-servant in charge of drinks (wines / liquors) , a cupbearer , a headservant / majordomo
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-16, 16:04
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan's "Barwar" volumes)

totike n.f. type of dance

xəgga n.m. (pl. xəgge) dance performed with a line of people in a row with linked arms

ḥ ~ x


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥa ga ' iu: ta
[City → Festivals]
English : festivity , merrymaking , partying , gaiety , joyfulness
French : fête , célébrations , festivités , agapes (?) , convivialité , gaieté , joie
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
hé-ĝál abundance, prosperity


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu9.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-16, 21:43
Might either (or both) of these bits be of some relevance, as far as the "Abul Gissu" is concerned?

The International History Project
Date: 2003
Mesopotamian/Sumerian Calendar


The months began at the first visibility of the New Moon, and in the 8th century BC court astronomers still reported this important observation to the Assyrian kings. The names of the months differed from city to city, and within the same Sumerian city of Babylonia a month could have several names, derived from festivals, from tasks (e.g., sheep shearing) usually performed in the given month, and so on, according to local needs. On the other hand, as early as the 27th century BC, the Sumerians had used artificial time units in referring to the tenure of some high official--e.g., on N-day of the turn of office of PN, governor. The Sumerian administration also needed a time unit comprising the whole agricultural cycle; for example, from the delivery of new barley and the settling of pertinent accounts to the next crop. This financial year began about two months after barley cutting. For other purposes, a year began before or with the harvest. This fluctuating and discontinuous year was not precise enough for the meticulous accounting of Sumerian scribes, who by 2400 BC already used the schematic year of 30 12 = 360 days.


(referred to, in the Akkadian definition below)

[T]he Zababa Gate at Babylon was known as "It Hates Its Attacker."
Yağmur Heffron, 'Zababa (god)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abul_gissu.jpg


SURETH
(Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' gis sa:
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the side , see ܠܟܸܣ ; 2) the ham , the buttock , the rump ; 3) plural : ܓܸܣܹ̈ܐ : a fleece , a kid
Dialect : Classical Syriac

ܠܟܸܣ
Eastern phonetic : ' lkis
[Humanities → Geography]
English : to (someone' s place) , to , by , near , near at hand , in the neighborhood
Dialect : Urmiah

ܓܸܣܹ̈ܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' gis si
[Animals]
English : plural of ܓܸܣܬܵܐ : 1) fleeces ; 2) goat's young : kids ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


(Geoffrey Khan)
gyš : to fumble to find; to feel by touch

gzgz : to shiver; to tremble (His body trembled and he was afraid)

kškš : to make threatening noises before fight (dogs); to shoo away (chickens, birds)

Humanist
2012-09-17, 00:06
(Geoffrey Khan)
gyš : to fumble to find; to feel by touch

I am again reminded of this Sureth word:

(Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ga: ' šu: qi
[Human → Senses]
English : to look , to stare , to gaze , to behold ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ga ' šiq
[Human → Senses]
English : Look ! ; Have a look ! Behold !
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
giš ig : door
igi : eye; sight, vision, view; face, countenance; front, cf. igi-na in front of him
igi - bar to look at (-šè), gaze at, regard; to look into (-a), examine (Zólyomi, Analyzing Sum. Lit. 316ff.; Krecher, AV Kutscher 108-111)
igi - saĝ5(LAK 159)/zàĝ(ŠID) to examine, check; to select (nasāqu, bêru) (Proto Ea 557)
igi - sè(g) to look at, inspect
igi-šè before, in(to) the presence of; often in the phrases igi PN-ak-šè or igi-PRONOUN-šè
ĝišgal pedestal; (astral) station (manzāzu) (cf. Lugale I 24)
ĝiš-zi(-da) (side) wall (Powell, BSA 6, 112, argues against standard reading iz-zi, q.v.; perhaps two different words?)


Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' ur za
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force

---------- Post Merged at 19:06 ----------

Wikipedia (perhaps of no significance to the above two posts)


Ur-Zababa is a name of an ancient lord listed on the Sumerian King List as the second king of the 4th Dynasty of Kish. The king list also says Sargon of Akkad was a cup-bearer for Ur-Zababa before becoming ruler of the Akkadian Empire.

Ur-Zababa was a son of King Puzur-Suen. His mother is unknown.[1][2]

His grandmother was famous Queen Kubaba.[3]

Sargon legend is a Sumerian text purporting to be Sargon's biography. In the text Ur-Zababa is mentioned, who awakens after a dream. For unknown reasons, Ur-Zababa appoints Sargon as a cupbearer. Soon after this, Ur-Zababa invites Sargon to his chambers to discuss a dream of Sargon's, involving the favor of the goddess Inanna. Ur-Zababa was deeply frightened.

When Sargon returns to Ur-Zababa, the king becomes frightened again, and decides to send Sargon to King Lugal-zage-si of Uruk with a message on a clay tablet asking him to slay Sargon.[4][5]

Cities of Sumer

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Cities_of_Sumer_%28en%29.svg/436px-Cities_of_Sumer_%28en%29.svg.png

Humanist
2012-09-17, 00:46
There is a word in my dialect that I think I may have come across. I could not find it in the Aramaic sources so I am a bit uncertain of its origin. I will probably butcher the transliteration, but it is something along the lines of "meš-meš-ookh." Basically, when you tell it to someone, you are saying that you will soon be "putting them in order." Would like to hear Birko's opinion. The spelling is not all that different from our word for apricot (listed as an Arabic/Kurdish loan).


[Links restored]

AKKADIAN
http://i50.tinypic.com/358qbgh.jpg


http://i46.tinypic.com/34no4fl.jpg



SURETH
Eastern phonetic : a: šu: ' pu: ta:
[Religion]
English : snake charming , use of magic , enchantment
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : a ' šu: pa:
[Professions]
English : a charmer , an enchanter , one who uses sorcery or witchcraft , a wizard , a snake-charmer
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : i šu ' pi: ia
[Religion]
English : a charm , words spoken in the practice of magic , an enchantment ;
Dialect : Urmiah



I asked someone about this. The saying, they believe, is "meš-meš-ookh mam-ṭun-ae."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masmassu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masmassu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masmassu3.jpg

I asked someone about this. The saying, they believe, is "meš-meš-ookh mam-ṭun-ae."

Eastern phonetic : mam ' ṭu yi
[Transport]
English : transitive verb : to bring , to take / to carry / to convey to a destination


As stated in the quoted bit, it is ordinarily directed at someone who is misbehaving. That is my understanding.

From Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msms.jpg


šyp I (šayəp, šiple, šyapa) to rub, to erase, to delete


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
muš : snake, serpent
muš-ĝír : 'dagger-snake' or 'scorpion-snake' (a mythical or literary serpent)
muš-huš : 'fierce snake' (a mythical or literary serpent, later a symbol of Marduk) (mušhuššu)
mùš, múš countenance, appearance, aspect; halo, aura; (a kind of crown); temple base or emplacement (George, AV Black 113)
mas-su, mas-sù leader, chief; councillor (massû)

su(b), su-ub, sub, sub6(TAG) to rub, wipe, scrub, polish; to reap; to smear on (ASJ 11, 213; 8, 12); to suck, suckle

šu - ba(r), šu - bar to release, set free; to forget (the original root is /badr/; cf. šu - bad and see Krecher, AV Kutscher 111-117)

šub to (let) fall, be felled, fell; to throw down, away; to forsake, abandon, dismiss; to give up, leave off; to remove from (-ta-)

Humanist
2012-09-17, 04:07
Just throwing this out there. I am sure it has been covered already, to the extent it is even worth discussing.

The meaning of ṭuppi

Heather D. Baker, 'The meaning of ṭuppi', Revue d'Assyriologie 104 (2010) 131-162. [published June 2012]


The meaning of the Akkadian term ṭuppi has been hotly debated by Assyriologists for the greater part of a century. The present article argues that ṭuppi, commonly found in temporal expressions, can only refer to a one-year period. This proposal arises out of the observation that, among a substantial corpus of Neo-Babylonian house rental contracts, there is not a single one that refers explicitly to a one-year lease period. Since rental periods of relatively short duration are otherwise rather common, this unexpected gap in the data is difficult to explain unless the expression adi ṭuppišu (and variants) is understood to mean ‘for a one-year period’. The same principle applies to other categories of document which involve a finite term, such as apprenticeship contracts. The article discusses the implications of this finding for our understanding of the contents of a wide range of everyday legal and administrative documents and letters, some of which provide circumstantial evidence in support of the proposed interpretation. It also examines the historical texts in which ṭuppi occurs, namely, the Assyrian King List and the 8th century inscription of Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur, governor of Mari and Sūḫu. It is argued that the suffix -šu in ṭuppišu is redundant, a conclusion which affects the interpretation of these historical passages since the -šu has sometimes been understood to refer to an antecedent other than the ruler in question. The implications of the proposed understanding of ṭuppišu for Mesopotamian chronology are not so very great since the consensus has tended towards assigning a period of between 0 and 2 years for the ṭuppišu reigns in AKL. Nevertheless, this interpretation of ṭuppišu as a one-year reign/period of office clarifies some hitherto rather enigmatic passages in these historical texts.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' puš
English : an order (imperative mode) : remain / stay (here) , do not go , stay behind , stay , wait , persist , hang on (?) / do not give up (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' pi: ša
[Science → Mathematics]
English : having remained / remaining , left behind / surviving ;
Dialect : Urmiah

[See original post for other Sureth terms (e.g. "tpy")]

Not sure if this adds anything of significance to the above discussed topic.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paisu-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paisu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paisu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paisu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paisu5.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-17, 06:25
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ṣudra
[Clothing]
English : a shirt , a loose undergarment for the upper part of the body commonly worn by males ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' ṣadra:
[Human → Body]
English : the chest , the thorax / the part of the body inclosed in the ribs and the breastbone , the trunk (?) / torso (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudduru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudduru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sudurru.jpg


SUMERIAN
šùd - rá to pray
šu - du7 to do, set, perform, prepare, correctly or perfectly; to complete, perfect; to embellish, adorn
sù(d) (sud) or sù without Auslaut to sprinkle, spatter (elēhu, zarāqu, zalāhu); to decorate (ulluhu); to overlay, adorn (zânu) (some confusion with sù(g))
sù(dr), sud(r) to be(come) distant, remote (in time or space); to extend, prolong, elongate; to be long-lived or long-lasting
sù(dr), sud-rá distant, remote


MANDAIC
sadra : sacred shirt

---------- Post Merged at 01:25 ----------

The Akkadian entry, above, refers to the word below. The word for "flood" was on the same page.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/illuku.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/illu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-17, 08:02
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šgha ra
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : (intransitive verb) : to kindle / catch fire , to be burning / glowing / hot / heated , incense : to burn ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : šghi: ' ru: ta
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) ardour / ardor , burning heat , glow , flame ; 2) warmth / heat of passion or affection / fire , zeal , passionate enthusiasm , fervour / fervor / fervency , enthusiasm / eagerness , fanaticism (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
šà-ge-guru 6-7 one's heart's desire

šà - gur 4 to feel wonderful (see Civil ad Ninkasi Hymn 61f.)

sig 4(-al)-ùr/ur5-ra baked, fired brick (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 193f.)

šà(g) (šag4) heart, inside, interior, middle; womb; meaning


AKKADIAN (need to search more)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/segu.jpg


-----------------------------------------------------------------



SUMERIAN
šùd - rá : to pray
sù(dr), sud(r) : to be(come) distant, remote (in time or space); to extend, prolong, elongate; to be long-lived or long-lasting
sù(dr), sud-rá : distant, remote

Not necessarily related.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : šudara
[Transport]
English : the act of dispatching , sending off or away , sending off as a messenger , consigning (?) / sending (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : šadrana:
[Transport]
English : a sender , an expeditor , a shipper , one who sends / causes to go / dispatches , a dispatcher , a transmitter (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


-----------------------------------------------------

Humanist
2012-09-17, 09:16
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ra: za:
[Religion]
English : 1) a mystery , a rite to which only the privileged worshippers were admitted and under obligation of secrecy (that ancient rite had the purpose of imparting precepts which were supposed to impart a belief in the future life ) , liturgy ; 2) a sacrament ; ܥܵܒܸܕ ܐܪܵܙܹܐ : to celebrate the Eucharist ; 3) a rite , a ritual , an ordinance ; Ashirat : ܥܵܒܸܕ ܐܪܵܙܵܐ : to make a compact / covenant / contract , to establish a charter , to agree ; Al Qosh : ܫܵܩܸܠ ܐܪܵܙܵܐ ܡܸܢ : to bid farewell to , to say farewell to ; 4) -?- a secret , esoteriscism , the occult , kabbalah (?) / cabala (?) ; 5) a symbol ;

Eastern phonetic : ' kas si <-- How our Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, is addressed.
[Religion]
English : 1) My lord , my master (a title usually reserved to the patriarchal immediate family) 2) my friend , my beloved
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' qa ša <-- Our word for "priest."
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a priest ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : qaš ši: ' šu: ta
[Human being]
English : 1) seniority , being a senior / older / the elder , priority of birth / office / service , primogeniture / birthright (?) ; 2) the office of a presbyter , priesthood ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasasu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/razu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/razu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/razu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasilutu.jpg




http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasi7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasi8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaskassu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-17, 10:54
Experts at War: Masters behind the Ranks of the Assyrian Army
Davide Nadali and Lorenzo Verderame(Rome)


Ummânu is the most common term used to indicate a particular skilful professional. It is a generic term, the nuances of which no modern definition can render exactly. As the medieval “master”, it is an honorific title that originates from the general and popular recognition of his skills.

While it seems to be a “subjective” definition (coming from popular acknowledgment), in the Neo-Assyrian period the term is limited to two groups of people, artisans and magic mantic professionals. Despite the fact that the rules for the application of this title4 are not totally clear,5 the term seems to refer to personal skills and popular recognition, and this appears also to be the principle reason for applying the term to individual artisans. In fact the skilfulness of artisans in general points to a high degree of specialization,6 and the decision to adopt the term ummânu gives the impression that the artistic value of their production, for example as jewellers or engravers, is of high quality.7

....

Among the specialists, the ummânu appears to be the most clear and most elusive category at the same time. On one hand, different specialists could be qualified as ummânu for their skilfulness, although the title was probably not applied to all specialised workers;62 on the other hand, we can suppose that such a highly-specialized professional did not directly serve in the army, but rather were in the employ of the king and his magnates, and followed them to the military campaign.



A number of Sureth words may be relevant. Note, the "h" is pronounced like the "h" in the English word, "hit." The words below are not listed as loans from any other languages.

Eastern phonetic : hé ma: ' nu: ta:
[Moral life → Duty]
English : faith , belief , reliance on testimony , trust in another's words

Same word, from an Iranian Sureth dialect:

Eastern phonetic : i ' ma: ni:
[Moral life → Duty]

Eastern phonetic : ham ' mu: ni
[Moral life → Conscience]
English : to believe , to accept as true , to give credit (trust) to


Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon


Actually, the word never left our lexicon.

Eastern phonetic : iu ma ' nu: ta
[Professions]
English : workmanship , art , artistry , craft , skill , artifice , guile ;
Dialect : Urmiah


Eastern phonetic : ša ' pi: rut u: ma ' nu: ta
[Industry]
English : aptitude , natural or acquired capacity for a particular purpose , skill , a practical ability , dexterity , competence , qualification , proficiency , know-how , aptness , art , workmanship / craftsmanship / handicraft ;
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 05:54 ----------




SURETH (Geoffrey Khan)
gzgz : to shiver; to tremble (His body trembled and he was afraid)

kškš : to make threatening noises before fight (dogs); to shoo away (chickens, birds)



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaskassu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-17, 11:59
For a "language isolate," the Sumerian lexicon seems rather (too?) familiar to this "Semite."

SUMERIAN
silim to be well, whole, healthy, safe, at peace, in good condition; to fulfill an office or term

silim(-eš) - du11 to greet, salute; to boast (Attinger, Eléments 673-678)

silim-ma adj. whole, well; in good condition (as of plows in Nik I 287); n. well-being

silim-ma Be well! (imperative)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šla ma:
[Moral life]
English : 1) peace , a state of tranquility , freedom from disturbance / agitation , calm , serenity , safety , welfare ; 2) interjection : a greeting / salutation , an invocation of peace

Eastern phonetic : ' šla ma ' lu:ḥ
[Human → Speech]
English : Hello ! , (a greeting) , liturgical greeting : peace be with you !

Eastern phonetic : sa'la:mat
[Human → Disease]
English : safe and sound, healthy, in good health
Dialect : NENA

Eastern phonetic : ' sa lim
[Industry]
English : intact , untouched (by anything that harms or defiles) , left complete or entire , uninjured / unharmed / unspoiled , unbroken , undamaged , whole , unhurt / unscathed , safe and sound
Dialect : Urmia


AKKADIAN (There are more terms, of course)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salamu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 06:59 ----------

SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ' bi:th ' ḥo: ké
[City → Hotel]
English : Yoab Benjamin : a staircase , a stairway , a stairwell ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/huqu_1.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-17, 17:13
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ur du
[Army]
English : a horde , a host , a wandering troop , a number of men embodied for war ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
ardu (wardu, bardu, urdu, aradu) s.; 1. slave, 2. official, servant, subordinate, retainer, follower, soldier, subject (of a king), worshiper (of a deity); from Old Akkadian on; wardu in Old Babylonian, bardu and urdu in Old Assyrian, urdu in Middle Assyrian and Neo Assyrian, ardu in Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian and Standard Babylonian, aradu Explicit Malku I 67. pl. (w)ardu, Neo Assyrian urdani.

Humanist
2012-09-18, 00:57
From one of the dead links, plus Sumerian:

SUMERIAN
pu-úh-ru-um assembly (< Akk. puhrum )


SYRIAC / AKKADIAN (The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle. Ed. by Amir Harrak.)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhra_.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-18, 02:05
Obviously, take this with a grain of salt.


SANSKRIT (source: Wikipedia)

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Sanskrit: गण; IAST: gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Sanskrit: ईश; IAST: īśa), meaning lord or master.[18] The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva (IAST: Śiva).[19] The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.[20] Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaņas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.[21] Ganapati (Sanskrit: गणपति; IAST: gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord".[20] The Amarakosha,[22] an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha : Vinayaka, Vighnarāja (equivalent to Vignesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers),[23] Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (IAST: gajānana); having the face of an elephant).[24]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/Ganesha_Basohli_miniature_circa_1730_Dubost_p73.jp g/250px-Ganesha_Basohli_miniature_circa_1730_Dubost_p73.jp g



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinis.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu3-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/essu.jpg


HEBREW (source: Wikipedia)

The Knesset (Hebrew: הַכְּנֶסֶת‎‎ [haˈkneset]; lit. the gathering[1] or assembly) is the unicameral legislature of Israel, located in Givat Ram, Jerusalem. The legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister (although the latter is ceremonially appointed by the President), approves the cabinet, and supervises the work of the government. In addition, it also recommends a candidate for the State Comptroller to the President, who appoints someone to the post. It also has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, remove a Prime Minister convicted of an offense involving moral turpitude, and to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Prime Minister may dissolve the Knesset. However, until an election is completed, the Knesset maintains authority in its current composition.[2]

Humanist
2012-09-18, 05:29
Wikipedia

Cabal


A cabal is a group of people united in some close design together, usually to promote their private views or interests in a church, state, or other community, often by intrigue. Cabals are sometimes secret societies composed of a few designing persons, and at other times are manifestations of emergent behavior in society or governance on the part of a community of persons who have well established public affiliation or kinship. The term can also be used to refer to the designs of such persons or to the practical consequences of their emergent behavior, and also holds a general meaning of intrigue and conspiracy. The use of this term usually carries strong connotations of shadowy corners, back rooms and insidious influence; a cabal is more evil and selective than, say, a faction, which is simply selfish; because of this negative connotation, few organizations use the term to refer to themselves or their internal subdivisions. Amongst the exceptions is Discordianism, in which the term is used to refer to an identifiable group within the Discordian religion.

The term cabal derives from Kabbalah (a word that has numerous spelling variations), the mystical interpretation (of Babylonian origin) of the Hebrew scripture, and originally meant either an occult doctrine or a secret.[citation needed]


SUMERIAN
húb, hub : to heap up; to smite, destroy (in this meaning better reading is tu11, tu10)


AKKADIAN (There was a good deal written in the CAD. Please refer to the CAD for the complete entries)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB9.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habalu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaltu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaltu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluC2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hubbulu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habullu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥu: ' ba la
[Industry]
English : 1) compensation , reward , recompense , remuneration , wages (?) , indemnisation (?) ; 2) corruption , destruction , desolation
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ḥa ' bu: la:
[feminine: ḥa ' bul ta]
[Human being]
English : 1) masculine : one who feels cold , a chilly person ; 2) adjective : feeling cold / chilly
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ḥa ' bu: li
[Human → Senses]
English : to feel cold , to become cold , to be deprived of heat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ' (m)ḥa: bil
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) Al Qosh, Classical Syriac : to spoil , to ruin (?) , to damage (?)


From my understanding of the word, I would add "weak," and "ineffectual," to "ḥubala," at top. But, please do not rely on anything I add.

Humanist
2012-09-18, 09:43
When you see "tš," "tch," and "č," in the Sureth words, imagine a "k." Not exclusive. There are a good many more, and I have not yet looked through the better part of the volume.


1
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : bi:t ' tša ki
[Army → Weapons]
English : an arsenal , a place for the storage of arms and military stores , a place for the manufacture of weapons ;
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
tuk4, tuku4 to tremble, quake, shiver (Foster, RA 75, 189); to buffet

giš tukul mace, weapon, arms (Civl, AV Biggs 33)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakku.jpg


2
SUMERIAN
ki-mah : grave, cemetery


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : i ' tcha: ma
English : intransitive -?- : to shut , to close , so as to prevent the entrance or exit of ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimahu.jpg


3
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' tšu ia:
[Industry]
English : smooth , even on the surface , evenly spread or arranged , sleek ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajanu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaju.jpg


4
AKKADIAN (Refer to the bit regarding the rodent)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkisu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : tšaq ' tšu: qi
[Human → Speech]
English : to tattle , to prate , to talk idly , to use many words with little meaning , to chatter ;
Dialect : Urmiah


5
SUMERIAN
tál(-la) : wide
túl (public) fountain, well


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' tša: li [I say "tša: la"]
[City → Buildings]
English : a moat , a deep and wide trench , a depression , a hollow , a swallow-hole (?) ;
French : une douve , un fossé profond , une tranchée , un creux , une dépression sur le terrain , une concavité , un enfoncement , un trou (?) , un aven (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalakku.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalakkuB.jpg


6
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkabanu.jpg


SURETH ("to deck out") Listed as a Kurdish loan, as are many words.
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ckbn.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-18, 22:14
Wikipedia

Cabal




SUMERIAN
húb, hub : to heap up; to smite, destroy (in this meaning better reading is tu11, tu10)


AKKADIAN (There was a good deal written in the CAD. Please refer to the CAD for the complete entries)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB9.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habalu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaltu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaltu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluC2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hubbulu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habullu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥu: ' ba la
[Industry]
English : 1) compensation , reward , recompense , remuneration , wages (?) , indemnisation (?) ; 2) corruption , destruction , desolation
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ḥa ' bu: la:
[feminine: ḥa ' bul ta]
[Human being]
English : 1) masculine : one who feels cold , a chilly person ; 2) adjective : feeling cold / chilly
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ḥa ' bu: li
[Human → Senses]
English : to feel cold , to become cold , to be deprived of heat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ' (m)ḥa: bil
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) Al Qosh, Classical Syriac : to spoil , to ruin (?) , to damage (?)


From my understanding of the word, I would add "weak," and "ineffectual," to "ḥubala," at top. But, please do not rely on anything I add.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-19, 00:03
When you see "tš," "tch," and "č," in the Sureth words, imagine a "k." Not exclusive. There are a good many more, and I have not yet looked through the better part of the volume.

1
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : bi:t ' tša ki
[Army → Weapons]
English : an arsenal , a place for the storage of arms and military stores , a place for the manufacture of weapons ;
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
tuk4, tuku4 to tremble, quake, shiver (Foster, RA 75, 189); to buffet

giš tukul mace, weapon, arms (Civl, AV Biggs 33)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakku.jpg


2
SUMERIAN
ki-mah : grave, cemetery


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : i ' tcha: ma
English : intransitive -?- : to shut , to close , so as to prevent the entrance or exit of ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimahu.jpg


3
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' tšu ia:
[Industry]
English : smooth , even on the surface , evenly spread or arranged , sleek ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajanu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaju.jpg


4
AKKADIAN (Refer to the bit regarding the rodent)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkisu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : tšaq ' tšu: qi
[Human → Speech]
English : to tattle , to prate , to talk idly , to use many words with little meaning , to chatter ;
Dialect : Urmiah


5
SUMERIAN
tál(-la) : wide
túl (public) fountain, well


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' tša: li [I say "tša: la"]
[City → Buildings]
English : a moat , a deep and wide trench , a depression , a hollow , a swallow-hole (?) ;
French : une douve , un fossé profond , une tranchée , un creux , une dépression sur le terrain , une concavité , un enfoncement , un trou (?) , un aven (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalakku.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalakkuB.jpg


6
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkabanu.jpg


SURETH ("to deck out") Listed as a Kurdish loan, as are many words.
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ckbn.jpg
7
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' tša: dra:
[Army]
English : a tent , a tepee , a camp ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitru1_zps7a278802.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitru2_zpscd7aaaf6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitruB_zpsb468ccf7.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:03 ----------

Adding to AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kataru1_zps75055991.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kataru2_zps3474699c.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kadaruB_zps1b9e28d8.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kadaruC_zpsc77e80e6.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-19, 01:08
When you see "tš," "tch," and "č," in the Sureth words, imagine a "k." Not exclusive. There are a good many more, and I have not yet looked through the better part of the volume.

4
AKKADIAN (Refer to the bit regarding the rodent)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkisu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : tšaq ' tšu: qi
[Human → Speech]
English : to tattle , to prate , to talk idly , to use many words with little meaning , to chatter ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Forgot about this SUMERIAN word:

ka(k), ka(g) : mouth; opening; origin, beginning, inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)

Humanist
2012-09-19, 02:41
Unfortunately, the "spoiler" tags do not appear to be functioning.



When you see "tš," "tch," and "č," in the Sureth words, imagine a "k." Not exclusive. There are a good many more, and I have not yet looked through the better part of the volume.


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cz_zps1cffc3d2.jpg


AKKADIAN (Many words. Disregard the larger size of one of the words. It is not meant to emphasize that particular word.)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuzippu1_zps65d757ab.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuzippu2_zpsd105a045.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuzippu3_zpse9db2f2d.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuzippu4_zpsa601011f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuzippu5_zpsee4546dc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasabu_zps6429bda1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasapu_zpsad570dcc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasapuB_zps4a900273.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasaru_zps41b90bb3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasasuB_zps5a3cbe36.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasasuC_zps598c7845.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasibu_zpsb58c7bbc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasitu_zps2f8570fb.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaskassu_zps8ec38eb0.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassaptu_zpsf721145a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassapu_zps0dbbbc5a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassaputu_zpsdbc67456.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassu_zpsc4e08b90.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassuB_zps0e9edfb2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasu_zps1fa6d8e8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasuB_zpsa951b575.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasuC_zpsb1066b5a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasuD_zps67012b3a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasuE_zps78cbc4df.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasusa_zps15a0ea05.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kazazakku_zps3d2ebaa3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaziztu_zps6d041a95.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kesuu_zps5f777c90.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kezertu_zps0b994268.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kezru_zpsd66f3149.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisahu_zps5106974e.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisatu_zpsbca38723.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisibbu_zpse0ee6d52.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisirtu_zps180a1d55.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisittu_zps44619567.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kiskililu_zpsd31e26ae.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kislu_zps489bea83.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kispu_zpsa2d118fc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissatu_zps37ed2cec.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissatuB_zps1f34d851.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissu_zps1616ad85.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissuru_zps03fb3e9e.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisu_zps70f4d88c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisuB_zps52308c8c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisuC_zpse6ff6836.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kizru_zps14f373ab.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ša ghu: ' šu: ta
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) disturbance , confusion of the mind , agitation of feelings , emotional upset , bother , trouble , disarray , 2) turbulence , disorderliness / a mess / chaos / clutter (?) , trouble , commotion , upheaval , unsteadiness , turmoil , a stir / fuss / convulsion ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' šghaš ta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : disturbing , throwing into disorder / confusion , interrupting , heckling , ruffling / troubling / vexing / disconcerting , a disturbance , an annoyance , a perturbation , a vexation / irritation / aggravation (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ša ' ghu: ša
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) a disturber / disrupter / botherer , one who disturbs / disrupts the peace , a troubler , one who interferes with the enjoyment of a right , a heckler ; 2) adjective : troublesome , bothersome , annoying , worrisome , importunate (?) , obtrusive , intrusive , meddlesome (?) , officious (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : š ' gha ša
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to disturb , to perturb , to throw into disorder / confusion , to upset , to annoy , to derange , to disarrange , to disorganize , to unsettle , to ruffle / vex / trouble , to discompose / faze ; 2) to shake , to move ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saggastuB_zps968d4a84.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saggasu_zps4f11ce2b.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagsu_zps3ac297ca.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagasu_zpsf750f6b4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saggastu_zpsd6fa74fa.jpg


SUMERIAN
šaĝa(LÚxKÁR) prisoner(?); (one to whom an injustice is done, see Krecher, AV Matouš II 57)

šaĝar(GU7), šà-ĝar, še-ĝar starvation, famine, hunger

šà-sù-ga emptiness, nakedness

šà - sìg to be depressed, anxious

šà-sìg depression, sorrow

šà(g) (šag4) heart, inside, interior, middle; womb; meaning

sù(g) (sug4), su(g) to be empty, deserted; to be naked

sùh to be confused, blurred, tangled, in disorder, in disarray; to be dangerous

su - zi(g) to have gooseflesh, become frightened (G. Cunningham, Analysing Lit. Sum. 89)

sug-ge - gu7 to be obliterated, destroyed (lit. "consumed by the marsh")

sù(-ga), su(-ga) empty, deserted, desolate; naked, plucked

sig, si-ig to be(come) weak, thin, flat, low, level; to bring down, tear down, rip apart, demolish, level, remove

sìg (sàg) to strike, beat upon, beat down, fell; to make tremble, quake. Some now read sàg with Proto Ea 490.

saĝ - ĝar (ĝá-ĝá) to proceed, venture against, attack, (dare to) oppose

saĝ-gaz - a5 to commit murder

saĝ ĝiš - ra to commit murder, kill

saĝ-ĝiš-ra-a murder

saĝ - sìg to be brought low, down, be in despair

saĝ - šúm to hurry, rush (into combat) against, attack

saĝ-ur-saĝ (a member of the cultic personnel of Inanna, perhaps a "cult warrior" figure who engages in mock combat in her honor? Cf. Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma, p. 225)

sa6(g), ša6(g) to slaughter (sheep, goats) (reading uncertain, cf. perhaps sìg/sàg to strike, also šár to slaughter sheep)

Humanist
2012-09-19, 03:52
Unfortunately, the "spoiler" tags do not appear to be functioning.

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cz_zps1cffc3d2.jpg


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasapu_zpsad570dcc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassaptu_zpsf721145a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassapu_zps0dbbbc5a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassaputu_zpsdbc67456.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisibbu_zpse0ee6d52.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kispu_zpsa2d118fc.jpg


My Sureth dialect (parents are from Iran) --> "tape" (e.g. Scotch Tape) = "chaspa"


Persian
چسپ chusp, Coherent, viscous, adhesive.

چسپاندن chaspāndan, چسپانیدن chaspānīdan, To fasten, glue, fix, cause to stick.

چسپانده chaspānda, Pasted or glued together; paper pasted together for children to exercise writing upon.

source: A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary (U. of Chicago)

Humanist
2012-09-19, 06:00
Posted previously:


The land most famous in the ancient Near East for its shepherds and sheep was Assyria. A bas-relief on the stairways of the Apadana at Persepolis portrays the subject peoples of the Achaemenid Empire delivering their tribute to king Xerxes. Each region brings the tribute upon which the economic strength of that nation is based. The Lydians, for example, with their long side-locks, deliver measures of gold-dust to the Great King. The Assyrians are there too. They bring fleeces and live sheep. (John Hicks, The Persians (Time Life, 1978) pp. 36-7) The Assyrian kings of the Neo-Assyrian epoch were regularly portrayed wearing robes trimmed with woollen fringes and grasping in their right hands the Assyrian symbol of royal authority and power — the shepherd’s crook. The pharaohs of Egypt also used the shepherd’s crook as a symbol of kingly authority, but its use in this context appears to have been unknown before the Hyksos Age.


Ages in Alignment by Emmet Sweeney


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ko: ' pal ta:
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a shepherd's crook , a sheherd's staff (ended with a hook) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ko: ' pa: la:
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) a crook (a staff used by a shepherd) ; 2) a cane , a walking stick , a supporting stick ; 3) a crutch / a prop ;
Dialect : Urmiah
This word is of Persian / Kurdish origin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapalu1_zpsc048e593.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapalu2_zpsd30da07a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaparru_zps461d511c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapru1_zps1ee95ee2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapru2_zps0682f108.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapruB_zps3d48955d.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapapu_zps5a8fc532.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gupru_zps5ce9b337.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaparruB_zpsab6bdeb4.jpg


SUMERIAN
ga-ba-ra, gáb-ra (OS) herder, herding-boy

lu(g), lu-gú : to be twisted, crooked (zâru) (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 100; Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 175)

dul, dul5(TÚG), dul9 to cover; to envelop, wrap


--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Example of a Cypriot shepherd's crook, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bronze shepherd's crook
Period: Late Cypriot III Date: ca. 1200–1050 B.C.


This is one of six known pieces that are described as shepherd's crooks or scepters, although this is the only one with a tip curved to form a scroll. It was once attached to a wooden rod.

http://images.metmuseum.org/CRDImages/gr/web-large/DP21065.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-19, 08:02
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : zan ' gu: ri
[Human → Senses]
English : to ring , to sound (as a bell) , to cause to sound (by striking a metallic body) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : zan ' ga: ra:
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : rust ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' zi ga
[Religion]
English : a bell ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : zan ' gar ta
[Human → Senses]
English : the ringing , the causing to sound , the sounding (by striking a metallic body) , chiming , jingling , clanging (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : djan ' ga: na:
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : masculine : rusty , oxydated , corroded (?) ; feminine : ܓ̰ܲܢܓܵܢܬܵܐ ;
French : masculin : rouillé , oxydé , corrodé (?) ; féminin : ܓ̰ܲܢܓܵܢܬܵܐ : rouillée , oxydée , corrodée (?) ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]
This word is of Persian / Kurdish / Turkish origin

Eastern phonetic : djan ' gu: ni
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : to rust , to become oxidized / rusty ;
Dialect : Urmiah
This word is of Persian / Kurdish / Turkish origin

Eastern phonetic : djan ' ga:n ta:
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : feminine of ܓ̰ܲܢܓܵܢܵܐ : rusty , oxydated , corroded (?) ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]
This word is of Persian / Kurdish / Turkish origin



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaginnu_zps01100b47.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zagin_zps77cb9ed5.jpg



SUMERIAN (Again, sorry. The "spoiler" tags are not working)
zi-ga mobilization, levy; (something) raised

na4 za-gìn lapis lazuli

gín (giĝ4) shekel (a weight = 1/60 ma-na = 8 gr.); (an axe? Cf. aga, tùn/agà) Proto Ea 718 supports a pronunciation /giĝ/, though /gin/ seems correct for OS; see Krecher, ZA 63, 199.

gú-en(-na) throne room, audience hall, lit. 'assembly or totality of lords' (Marchesi, MC 14, 232 n. 13)

gùn, gùnu to be dappled, spotted, mottled, (multi)colored, colorful, decorated with colorful materials (cf. še-gu-nu) Sign is REC 34. See Steinkeller, BSA 8, 68 n. 103 for the gùn/dar vs. si4 sign contrast.)

gùn, gùn-na, gùn-a, gùn-gùn (multi)colored, dappled variegated, speckled

gurun fruit; fruitfulness, ripeness, lusciousness, abundance (cf. gi-rin flower) (Civil, AV Biggs 25)

ĝi6-ù-na, ĝi6-un-na midnight, night

saĝ adj. first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

saĝ(-e-éš) - rig7 to give, present, grant

saĝ - sè(g) to entrust; to take care of, tend to, attend

saĝ - sìg to be brought low, down, be in despair

sig5(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig15(KAL) good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag10, sag8(KAL) (cf. sa6-ga, sa-ga)

sig7 (se12, si12) to be(come) green, yellow, sallow, pale (read si12-si12 when reduplicated)

sig7(-ga), sig17, (reduplicated si12-si12) green, yellow, tan; verdant (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 56) Cf. kù-sig17(GI))

še-gu-nu, še-gù/gùn-nu speckled barley; second, late crop (cf. gùn)

šen-šen very clean, immaculate

šèĝ(A.AN), šeĝ7(IM) to rain; n. rain (also written IM.A.AN, IM.A, or IM.A.A)

šeĝ6 to boil, cook, heat, bake (bašālu) (Steinkeller, AV Sigrist 186)

šeĝ9 ripe (grain)

gur5-ru(-uš), gùruš, gú-guru5 - du11 to strip away, cut off (kasāmu), tear to pieces; to despoil; adj. gur5-a stripped away (Attinger, Eléments 519-525)

gur5-ru-uš/gùruš - búr to bear the teeth/fangs, gnash the teeth (Civil, AV Biggs 28) (qarāšu)

ga-àr(a), gára, ga'ara(LAK 490) cream; cheese made without rennet (modern kišk) (see Civil, Or 56 (1987) 234f.; Stol, BSA 7, 104ff. with proposed etymology of E.R. Ellison: "milled (grated) cheese"; Teuber, BSA 8, 26ff. for origin of ga'ara sign) Note that ePSD now separates gamurx(LAK490) , gára "cream" from gára, ga-àr "cheese" (eqīdu).

Humanist
2012-09-19, 19:02
SUMERIAN
mes : strong, vigorous youth, young man (Marchesi, Or 73, 191-3)

mas-su, mas-sù : leader, chief; councillor (massû)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' msa sa
[Clothing]
English : a fibre / fiber , a thredlike object , a yarn , a stuff , a core , a tough substance composed of threadlike tissue capable of being spun or woven , a thread / rope made of fiber tissue ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : maṣ ' ia: na
[Industry]
English : able , having sufficient power / skill / means / resources of any kind to accomplish the object , competent , skilled , capable
Dialect : Urmiah

Previously compared to Akkadian.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' muš ta
[Human → Body]
English : the fist , a stroke (hit) with the fist , a punch (a blow with the fist)
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' muš ti ' mḥai ta
[Sport]
English : boxing , the act of fighting with the fists ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : maš ' ru: qa
[Art → Music]
English : 1) a pipe , a whistle (?) , a catcall (?) ; 2) a toot , the sound produced by blowing through a pipe ;
Dialect : Urmiah

There is also another meaning, I believe, for "mašriq." I believe it can mean "to hit someone hard."

Humanist
2012-09-19, 22:28
SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cz_zps1cffc3d2.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasapu_zpsad570dcc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassapu_zps0dbbbc5a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassaputu_zpsdbc67456.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisibbu_zpse0ee6d52.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kispu_zpsa2d118fc.jpg


My Sureth dialect (parents are from Iran) --> "tape" (e.g. Scotch Tape) = "chaspa"


Persian
چسپ chusp, Coherent, viscous, adhesive.

چسپاندن chaspāndan, چسپانیدن chaspānīdan, To fasten, glue, fix, cause to stick.

چسپانده chaspānda, Pasted or glued together; paper pasted together for children to exercise writing upon.

source: A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary (U. of Chicago)



SUMERIAN (it is referred to in one of the above Akkadian entries)
(na4)kišib seal, seal impression; sealed document

kišib - ra to impress a seal

Humanist
2012-09-20, 00:46
Wikipedia

Cabal

A cabal is a group of people united in some close design together, usually to promote their private views or interests in a church, state, or other community, often by intrigue. Cabals are sometimes secret societies composed of a few designing persons, and at other times are manifestations of emergent behavior in society or governance on the part of a community of persons who have well established public affiliation or kinship. The term can also be used to refer to the designs of such persons or to the practical consequences of their emergent behavior, and also holds a general meaning of intrigue and conspiracy. The use of this term usually carries strong connotations of shadowy corners, back rooms and insidious influence; a cabal is more evil and selective than, say, a faction, which is simply selfish; because of this negative connotation, few organizations use the term to refer to themselves or their internal subdivisions. Amongst the exceptions is Discordianism, in which the term is used to refer to an identifiable group within the Discordian religion.

The term cabal derives from Kabbalah (a word that has numerous spelling variations), the mystical interpretation (of Babylonian origin) of the Hebrew scripture, and originally meant either an occult doctrine or a secret.[citation needed]



SUMERIAN
húb, hub : to heap up; to smite, destroy (in this meaning better reading is tu11, tu10)


AKKADIAN (There was a good deal written in the CAD. Please refer to the CAD for the complete entries)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluB9.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habalu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaltu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaltu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaluC2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hubbulu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habullu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥu: ' ba la
[Industry]
English : 1) compensation , reward , recompense , remuneration , wages (?) , indemnisation (?) ; 2) corruption , destruction , desolation
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ḥa ' bu: la:
[feminine: ḥa ' bul ta]
[Human being]
English : 1) masculine : one who feels cold , a chilly person ; 2) adjective : feeling cold / chilly
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ḥa ' bu: li
[Human → Senses]
English : to feel cold , to become cold , to be deprived of heat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [and Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ' (m)ḥa: bil
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) Al Qosh, Classical Syriac : to spoil , to ruin (?) , to damage (?)


From my understanding of the word, I would add "weak," and "ineffectual," to "ḥubala," at top. But, please do not rely on anything I add.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabalu.jpg


SUMERIAN
ki-bala, ki-bal-a rebellious, rebel land

Humanist
2012-09-20, 02:54
This one is not that interesting, all things considered. If it is even from Akkadian. I am not familiar with the word.

SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ' u:k ta:
[Animals → Reptiles]
English : Yoab Benjamin : venom ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqtu_zps5b78d39a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqatu_zpsda9a8952.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:54 ----------

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' zé na:
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) Maclean, Oraham : armour , armor , a cuirass (?) , mail (?) / chainmail (?) ; 2) Oraham : arms , weapons , instruments of offense or defense ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' za: ni:
[Moral life → Fault]
English : to fornicate , to commit fornication , to prostitute self (?) ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : zan ' né ta:
[Moral life → Fault]
English : a fornicating woman , unmarried female having unlawful sexual intercourse , a hussy / a huzzy ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : za ' ni: ta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : a fornicatress , a prostitute , a whore , a hooker ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

From G. Khan's source: zny
English: to commit adultery
Dialect: Barwar


I am not familiar with any of the above meanings. I am very familiar with "ziana," and "zianuta," which means "trouble." When a child makes a mess of his room, for example. :)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zinuta_zpsed66e321.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zenu_zps81276c5f.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-20, 05:25
1
SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
lul v. & adj. (to be) false, lying, deceitful, misleading, treacherous (opposite zi(d))
lul lie, falsehood; treachery, danger
lul-ba furtively, treacherously
lul(-da) - du11 to speak falsely, tell a lie (Attinger, Eléments 597f.)
lul-da, lul-du falsely (lul-da < *lul-du-a like niga < *níĝ-gu7-a)
lul-da - pà(d) to swear falsely
lil foolish (> lillu fool, idiot)
lú-lul treacherous person, traitor
al - du11 to desire, want; to request, ask for, demand (Attinger, Eléments 429-438)
a-la(-la) ululation, expression of joy
a-lá (a demon)
du11(g) to say, speak (elliptical for inim - du11)
du14 quarrel (with /d/ or /dr/ Auslaut, see Attinger, Eléments p. 466f. )
húl to rejoice, delight in, be happy
húl(-la) happy, joyous; joy


SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary, except where noted)
Eastern phonetic : al ' du yi
[Moral life → Fault]
English : to deceive , to cause to believe what is false / disbelieve what is true , to mislead , to cheat , to deal treacherously with , to beguile , to bluff , to be false to / dishonest with , to fool , to dupe , to take in , to lure , to humbug , to fox , to hoodwink / bamboozle , to chisel , to bushwhack , to gull , to two-time (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : al ' dai ta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : cheating , deceiving so as to defraud , defrauding , deluding , deception / deceit , using trickery / humbug / fraudulence / fraudulency / gammon / deviousness / foxiness ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' du gla:
[Human → Speech]
English : masculine : a lie , falsehood ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other [Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ' la: la:
[Human → Speech]
English : dumb , destitute of the power of speech , unable to utter articulate sounds , mute , silent ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

Eastern phonetic : ' du: ga:
[Human → Senses]
English : a deaf-mute , one deprived of speech or hearing , a deaf person , a mute person , a dumb person ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

G. Khan's Source: yala n.m. (pl. yale, 'ayale) : child

G. Khan's Source: hlhl : to ululate, to celebrate



2

Not sure here (or above!). Not a verb. Meaning appears rather similar, but I recognize that that is certainly not conclusive.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : na ' ḥu: la
[Moral life → Fault]
English : wily , deceitful , crafty , sly , cunning , full of tricks , ambidextrous , double-faced , deliberately misleading / cheating , deceptive , shrewd , full of guile / tricks / stratagems / designing / scheming ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakalu_zps4b7affed.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 00:25 ----------

3
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' nḥa: la:
[Industry]
English : intransitive verb : to sift , to separate (fine parts from the coarse ones) with a sieve -sand, flour ...-
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahalu2_zpsbcef6c65.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahallu1_zps52919ffc.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-20, 06:40
This is probably nothing (and a bit PG-13), but I did get a chuckle out of it, when I read it.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : kar ' ku: ti
[Human → Body]
English : to tickle , to touch some sensitive part of the body so as to produce a peculiar thrilling sensation which causes laughter or a kind of spasm.
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karkittu_zpsd381300c.jpg


SUMERIAN
kar-KID, (OS kar-kid3) conventionally "prostitute," but now understood as a class of women not living under male authority, an independent woman (harimtu) (Assante, UF 30, 5-97; cf. Glassner, RAI 47, 151ff.)

Humanist
2012-09-20, 08:25
SUMERIAN
giš šu-úr-me/mén, šurmen(ŠU.ME.EREN) cypress (the tree, its wood, or its resin)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : šar ' vai na (šar ' wai na)
[Country → Trees]
English : a cypress ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surmenu1_zps398caf77.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surmenu2_zps0dbd8acf.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surmenu3_zps00088eac.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surmenu4_zps40b2c122.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surmenu5_zps3adff867.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-20, 16:49
Section from Chapt. 5 of John Heise's 'Akkadian language', about Akkadian dialects: Babylonian and Assyrian


Akkadian dialects

Old Akkadian (OAkk) 2500-1950

Old Babylonian OB 1950-1530

Old Assyrian OA 1950-1750

Middle Babylonian MB 1530-1000

Middle Assyrian MA 1500-1000

Neo Babylonian NB 1000-625

Neo Assyrian NA 1000-600

Late Babylonian LB 625-0

Standard Babylonian (SB) 1500-0

Standard Babylonian. In addition to these dialects (e.g. reflected in letters, contracts) an artificial language developed. It was in use for certain kind of (literary) documents, both by the Assyrians and the Babylonians, since the cultural exchange was large. This language is called Standard Babylonian and is modelled on the Old Babylonian dialect.

---------- Post Merged at 11:49 ----------

“Zakho Neo-Aramaic and Old Babylonian Akkadian: The (Concessive-)Conditional Pattern”, in: Studies in Semitic and General Linguistics in Honor of Gideon Goldenberg (Alter Orient und Altes Testament vol. 334), Eds. T. Bar and E. Cohen, Münster 2007, 159–177.


An important point regards the implications of comparing between OB and Z. Both languages were in use in Mesopotamia almost four thousands years apart. Some syntactic features may be common heritage (e.g., an attributive clause following a construct state, as described above); however, the concessive-conditional pattern described hereunder is not one of them, and the fact that a similar pattern occurs in both is merely incidental. The comparison is therefore conducted from a typlogical, rather than genealogical, point of view.

Humanist
2012-09-20, 18:01
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šul qa
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : boiled , stewed , subjected to boiling , parboiled ;
Dialect : Urmiah


Eastern phonetic : šu ' la qa
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : 1) a decoction , the act of boiling anything in a watery fluid to extract its virtues ; 2) an extract derived from a body by boiling it in water ; 3) preparing by the boiling method ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suluku_zps7116e63b.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-20, 22:35
This one is very interesting. The examples are important.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šur ṭa:
[City]
English : 1) a watchman (especially a city watchman) , a policeman / guard ; 2) peas : ܫܘܼܪܛܝܼܬܵܐ ; 3) oats : ܫܘܼܪܛܝܼܬܵܐ 4) a spinning / rotating / rotary blade , a food-processor (?) , a lawn-mower (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (have not yet searched for all Sureth meanings listed above)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surdu1_zps878619da.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surdu2_zps16a5b9f1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu1_zps4f599710.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu2_zps6f201a58.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu3_zpse92f3589.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu4_zps0698a4c9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu5_zps59de891f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu6_zps14e4d3f7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu7_zpsaee2d564.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu8_zpsfdb830f1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu8b_zps4d56d5ba.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu9_zps41cc8be5.jpg




http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertuB_zps296afe91.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertuB2_zps32dee187.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertuB3_zps849fb58a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seru_zps1bf50128.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-21, 01:05
Not sure if there is anything here.

SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ' pa ghia:
[Army → Military]
English : Yoab Benjamin : a regiment
Dialect : Eastern Syriac <-- What is referred to as "Eastern Syriac," may be (?), simply, Eastern (vernacular) Syriac (i.e. varieties of Sureth)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puagu_zps049d9b10.jpg

???
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paugu1_zps4e8f8e10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paugu2_zpsafe9d6e4.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:43 ----------

This is from Aramaic, probably.

' pa ghia --> alpaghia = 1000 (men). ?

I knew something was up, when I saw only Assyrian varieties of Akkadian. :)

---------- Post Merged at 20:05 ----------

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ša: ' mo a:
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) one having a good sense of hearing , a sharp ear , a sharp hearer ; 2) a hearer , an attentive / devout listener , an auditor , a hearkener , prying ears / a spy (?) ; 3) a pupil , a student / disciple ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/semu_zps7733d41f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/semu2_zpsf31cfe12.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/semu3_zpsc0703bbe.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-21, 03:25
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ṭar qa
[Moral life → Quality]
English : 1) excellent , chief , preeminent , exceeding in kind or degree , surpassing others , superior , crack , elite ; 2) noun : a nobleman ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ta ' ruq ta (?) <-- [That is how I pronounce it as well]
[Clothing]
English : a button (to secure parts on a garment) ;
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tariktu1_zps952270bc.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tariktu2_zpsbe836a6a.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tariqu_zpseefbcc5d.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarikuB_zps1ecf1187.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/darku_zps2e394a52.jpg


Not in any way meant to offend. This is one of the words, that is all. "Ku," means "black," I believe, in Sumerian. In Sureth, "kuma."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarku_zps9db32d02.jpg


http://classic.net.bible.org/dictionary.php?word=TIRHAKAH


TIRHAKAH - ter-ha'-ka, tir-ha'-ka (tirhaqah; Codex Vaticanus in 2 Kings Thara; elsewhere and in Codex Alexandrinus Tharaka; Josephus Tharsikes):
1. Name and Prenomen:

The king of Cush or Ethiopia (basileus Aithiopon), who opposed Sennacherib in Palestine (2 Ki 19:9; Isa 37:9). The name of this ruler of Egypt and his native realm appears in hieroglyphics as Taharqa, his prenomen being Nefer-atmu-Ra-chu, "Nefer-atmu-Ra protects." The Assyrian form of Tirhakah is Tarqu or Tarqu'u (inscriptions of Assur-bani-pal).

---------- Post Merged at 22:25 ----------


Posted previously:

The land most famous in the ancient Near East for its shepherds and sheep was Assyria. A bas-relief on the stairways of the Apadana at Persepolis portrays the subject peoples of the Achaemenid Empire delivering their tribute to king Xerxes. Each region brings the tribute upon which the economic strength of that nation is based. The Lydians, for example, with their long side-locks, deliver measures of gold-dust to the Great King. The Assyrians are there too. They bring fleeces and live sheep. (John Hicks, The Persians (Time Life, 1978) pp. 36-7) The Assyrian kings of the Neo-Assyrian epoch were regularly portrayed wearing robes trimmed with woollen fringes and grasping in their right hands the Assyrian symbol of royal authority and power — the shepherd’s crook. The pharaohs of Egypt also used the shepherd’s crook as a symbol of kingly authority, but its use in this context appears to have been unknown before the Hyksos Age.

Ages in Alignment by Emmet Sweeney



SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ko: ' pal ta:
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a shepherd's crook , a sheherd's staff (ended with a hook) ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ko: ' pa: la:
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) a crook (a staff used by a shepherd) ; 2) a cane , a walking stick , a supporting stick ; 3) a crutch / a prop ;
Dialect : Urmiah
This word is of Persian / Kurdish origin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapalu1_zpsc048e593.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapalu2_zpsd30da07a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaparru_zps461d511c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapru1_zps1ee95ee2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapru2_zps0682f108.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapruB_zps3d48955d.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapapu_zps5a8fc532.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gupru_zps5ce9b337.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaparruB_zpsab6bdeb4.jpg


SUMERIAN
ga-ba-ra, gáb-ra (OS) herder, herding-boy

lu(g), lu-gú : to be twisted, crooked (zâru) (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 100; Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 175)

dul, dul5(TÚG), dul9 to cover; to envelop, wrap


--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Example of a Cypriot shepherd's crook, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bronze shepherd's crook
Period: Late Cypriot III Date: ca. 1200–1050 B.C.

http://images.metmuseum.org/CRDImages/gr/web-large/DP21065.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutpalu1_zps444a746a.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-21, 05:41
This is probably nothing (and a bit PG-13), but I did get a chuckle out of it, when I read it.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : kar ' ku: ti
[Human → Body]
English : to tickle , to touch some sensitive part of the body so as to produce a peculiar thrilling sensation which causes laughter or a kind of spasm.
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karkittu_zpsd381300c.jpg


SUMERIAN
kar-KID, (OS kar-kid3) conventionally "prostitute," but now understood as a class of women not living under male authority, an independent woman (harimtu) (Assante, UF 30, 5-97; cf. Glassner, RAI 47, 151ff.)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : nak ' nu: ki
[Human → Speech]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to groan , to moan , to heave a sigh , to pule , to wail , to whine , to whimper , to sough -wind- (?) ; 2) to stutter , to stammer , to bumble , to speak haltingly , to hesitate or stumble in uttering words
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakuttu1_zps152bb158.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakuttu2_zpsd5401910.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakuttu3_zpse36f6020.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niktu_zps65ced956.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-21, 06:44
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' miš ḥa
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : oil , any of a large class of unctuous combustible substances


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mishu_zps7211952f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mishu2_zps7a1ae630.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mishu3_zps95127bd7.jpg

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lady Drower


[T]he Parsis when making the sign of the cross of their sacred foods, make the same explanation, and the Nestorian priest, making the sign of the cross over the sacramental wafers, murmurs, "From east to west, from north to south."


A bit from "The Order of the Hallowing of the Apostles which was composed by Mar Addai and Mar Mari, the blessed Apostles"


And the priest bows toward the four sides of the Bema: first he bows to the east two times, and then to the right, and then to the east once. And he rises, and then bows to the east two times, and then to the left once, to the east once, and behind him once. Then they open the curtains of the altar and the deacons go out to meet the priest.

Humanist
2012-09-21, 21:47
This may not be of any significance.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ab za
[Clothing]
English : a buckle , the ring of a strap , a clasp , a hook to hold anything close
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abusatuB_zps25cd24d5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abusatu_zps00351a3f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abusatu2_zpse204acd1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abusu_zps4d288ccc.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busu_zpsdcde1018.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buzu_zps66e0bafb.jpg


Still may not be Akkadian, but this bit is interesting, regarding the material referred to in the word immediately above:

Wikipedia


Byssus is a remarkable adhesive, one that is neither degraded nor deformed by water, as are synthetic adhesives. This property has spurred genetic engineers to insert mussel DNA into yeast cells for translating the genes into the appropriate proteins.[6]

---------- Post Merged at 16:47 ----------

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : da ' bu: ša
English : 1) masculine adjective : sticky , adhesive ; feminine : ܕܲܒܘܼܫܬܵܐ ; 2) Oraham : a sticker , one (or something) that sticks , an adhesive
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basu1_zpsdd7862f9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basu2_zps15b2d009.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-21, 23:41
Note: x ~ ḥ

SURETH (Geoffrey Khan's "Barwar" volumes)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xlapa.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahluptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlipuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlipu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlaptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlapanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halapu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥé ' la: pa:
[Country → Trees]
English : 1) a willow ; 2) = ܚܸܠܝܼܦܵܐ : a beehive made of osier ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥlé pa:
[Clothing]
English : a quilt , a bed cover made of two thicknesses of material with a filling of wool (cotton ...) and stitched through
Dialect : Urmiah
This word is of Arabic origin [<--??]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hilepu_zpsac40a7b6.jpg


Wikipedia


Willows are very cross-fertile, and numerous hybrids occur, both naturally and in cultivation. A well-known ornamental example is the weeping willow (Salix × sepulcralis), which is a hybrid of Peking willow (Salix babylonica) from China and white willow (Salix alba) from Europe.

....

In Persian literature, the recognized adjective for 'willow' is lunatic (مجنون), and lover (or lovers' heart) is compared to willow in many texts.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Salix_alba_Morton.jpg


Psalm 137:1-20 (http://www.biblegateway.com/audio/mclean/kjv/Psa.137.1-Psa.137.20)
21st Century King James Version (KJ21)

137 By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down; yea, we wept when we remembered Zion.
2 We hung our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof.
3 For there they that carried us away captive required of us a song, and they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, “Sing us one of the songs of Zion!”
4 How shall we sing the Lord’s song in a strange land?
5 If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cleverness.
6 If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy.
7 Remember, O Lord, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem’s fall, who said, “Raze it, raze it, even to the foundation thereof!”
8 O daughter of Babylon who art to be destroyed, happy shall he be, that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us.
9 Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones.

Humanist
2012-09-22, 02:55
Originally Posted by Humanist
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan's "Barwar" volumes)

totike n.f. type of dance

xəgga n.m. (pl. xəgge) dance performed with a line of people in a row with linked arms

ḥ ~ x


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥa ga ' iu: ta
[City → Festivals]
English : festivity , merrymaking , partying , gaiety , joyfulness
French : fête , célébrations , festivités , agapes (?) , convivialité , gaieté , joie
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
hé-ĝál abundance, prosperity


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hegallu9.jpg


SUMERIAN
húl(-la) happy, joyous; joy

gú - lá (with -da-), gú-da - lá to embrace

gu-la large; larger, greater (see Krecher, Or 47, 384 "groβ gegenüber einem anderen") (variant of gal-(l)a; both ma-sá-gal-gal and ma-sá-gu-la occur in DP 51 i 1, iv 5). Cf. lú-gu-la important person, aristocrat (Ukg 4 ix 32/35 OS)

gal(-la) great, greater (see also gu-la); adv. well, greatly

gal, gu-ul v. and adj. (to be) big, large, great; older, elder, eldest

kala(g) (kalag), kal-la(-g) to be strong, mighty; to strengthen, mend

kalam country, nation (normally referring to Sumer, see Jacobsen, AfO 26, 9)

kal to be precious, dear, valuable

kal(-la) precious; kal-kal(-la) very precious



SURETH
Eastern phonetic : kul la ' iu: ta
[Measures]
English : entirety , completeness , the state of being entire , the sum total , the whole
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ka: mi: ' lu ta:
[Art]
English : the perfection , the state of being perfect or complete , the completeness , the totality , the state where nothing is missing or wanting , the wholeness , the state of being whole , the entire development
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : glu: ' lu: ta
[Science → Mathematics]
English : roundness , quality of being round , sphericity
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥé la:
[Army → Military]
English : 1) strength , power , force , might , ability to do or bear , power to resist , valiancy

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥlu: la:
[Feeding → Meal]
English : 1) a wedding feast , a marriage banquet or reception , nuptials , a wedding ; 2) a dance / a ball at a village feast ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥil lia:
[Human → Senses]
English : masculine : 1) sweet , pleasing to the taste , having an agreeable taste , not sour ; 2) lovable (?) , amiable (?) , beloved (?) , agreeable (?) , darling (?) , honey (?) ; 3) NENA, Shamisdin, Al Qosh : = ܚܲܠܒ݂ܵܐ : milk , Urmiah : ܚܲܠܒ݂ܵܐ ; 4) NENA : sap , juice ; feminine : ܚܠܝܼܬܵܐ : douce , sucrée , délicieuse ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
Brief search of Akkadian.
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kullatu_zpsee8640ba.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kullatan_zpsef8074a5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu1_zps0143b152.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu2_zps23f87038.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hullu_zps95fb7d27.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halilu_zps54ee4aae.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haliluB_zpsf333bc5f.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:55 ----------

[U]Indo-European


gala (n.)
1620s, "festive dress or attire," from Fr. en gala, perhaps from O.Fr. gale "merriment," from galer "rejoice, make merry" (see gallant). Klein suggests the French word is from It. gala (as in phrase vestido de gala "robe of state"), perhaps from Arabic khil'a "fine garment given as a presentation." Sense of "festive occasion" (characterized by display of finery) first recorded 1777.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=gala

Humanist
2012-09-22, 04:00
Indo-European

globe
mid-15c., "sphere," from M.Fr. globe (14c.) and directly from L. globus "round mass, sphere, ball," also, of men, "a throng, crowd, body, mass," related to gleba "clod, soil, land" (see glebe). Sense of "planet earth," or a three-dimensional map of it first attested 1550s.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=globe

---------- Post Merged at 22:16 ----------


This one is very interesting. The examples are important.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šur ṭa:
[City]
English : 1) a watchman (especially a city watchman) , a policeman / guard ; 2) peas : ܫܘܼܪܛܝܼܬܵܐ ; 3) oats : ܫܘܼܪܛܝܼܬܵܐ 4) a spinning / rotating / rotary blade , a food-processor (?) , a lawn-mower (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (have not yet searched for all Sureth meanings listed above)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surdu1_zps878619da.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surdu2_zps16a5b9f1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu1_zps4f599710.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu2_zps6f201a58.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu3_zpse92f3589.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu4_zps0698a4c9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu5_zps59de891f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu6_zps14e4d3f7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu7_zpsaee2d564.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu8_zpsfdb830f1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu8b_zps4d56d5ba.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu9_zps41cc8be5.jpg




http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertuB_zps296afe91.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertuB2_zps32dee187.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertuB3_zps849fb58a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seru_zps1bf50128.jpg


Indo-European

surety
c.1300, from O.Fr. seurté, from L. securitatem (nom. securitas) "freedom from care or danger, safety, security," from securus (see secure). Until 1966, the Fr. national criminal police department was the Sûreté nationale.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=surety

---------- Post Merged at 22:22 ----------


7
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' tša: dra:
[Army]
English : a tent , a tepee , a camp ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitru1_zps7a278802.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitru2_zpscd7aaaf6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kitruB_zpsb468ccf7.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:03 ----------

Adding to AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kataru1_zps75055991.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kataru2_zps3474699c.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kadaruB_zps1b9e28d8.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kadaruC_zpsc77e80e6.jpg


Indo-European

cadre (n.)
1830, from Fr. cadre, lit. "a frame of a picture" (16c.), so, "a detachment forming the skeleton of a regiment" (1851), from It. quadro, from L. quadrum "a square" (see quadrille). The communist sense is from 1930.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=cadre


quadrille (n.)
1773, "lively square dance for four couples," from Fr. quadrille, originally one of four groups of horsemen in a tournament (a sense attested in English from 1738), from Sp. cuadrilla, dim. of cuadro "four-sided battle square," from L. quadrum "a square," related to quattuor "four" (see four). The craze for the dance hit England in 1816, and it underwent a vigorous revival late 19c. among the middle classes. Earlier a popular card game for four hands (1726).

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=quadrille

---------- Post Merged at 22:26 ----------

By the way, I recognize the possibility that the above words may have been lost and then "rediscovered" by Sureth. Though, a good chunk, I reckon, were not.

---------- Post Merged at 22:34 ----------

My guess is that (if they are from the "East"), a decent number were borrowed by IE during the days of Persian dominance (i.e. after Nabonidus).

---------- Post Merged at 23:00 ----------

Actually, some of them may have come through earlier, I suppose, such as during the Hittite era.

Humanist
2012-09-22, 05:28
This is an interesting one as well.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : maṭ ' lai ta:
[Human → Sleep]
English : 1) causing to sleep , putting to sleep 2) euthanasia (???) , mercy killing (???)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mattalatu_zps97dde243.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/natalu1_zpsb935e625.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/euth_zps9289f8f3.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-22, 07:19
May not be of any significance.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' puq ta (' puk ta)
[Human → Body]
English : hiccough / hiccup ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puqdu_zpsb5b3f0e6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puqqu1_zps70850bca.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piqittu1_zpsa11378df.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piqittu2_zps002aee76.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piqittu3_zps91bb9a0e.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piqittu4_zps0bada60d.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piqittu5_zpsbc851d68.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paqu_zps9e143791.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piqu_zps4e083298.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-22, 08:36
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' zé na:
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) Maclean, Oraham : armour , armor , a cuirass (?) , mail (?) / chainmail (?) ; 2) Oraham : arms , weapons , instruments of offense or defense ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' za: ni:
[Moral life → Fault]
English : to fornicate , to commit fornication , to prostitute self (?) ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : zan ' né ta:
[Moral life → Fault]
English : a fornicating woman , unmarried female having unlawful sexual intercourse , a hussy / a huzzy ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : za ' ni: ta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : a fornicatress , a prostitute , a whore , a hooker ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

From G. Khan's source: zny
English: to commit adultery
Dialect: Barwar


I am not familiar with any of the above meanings. I am very familiar with "ziana," and "zianuta," which means "trouble." When a child makes a mess of his room, for example. :)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zinuta_zpsed66e321.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zenu_zps81276c5f.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/senu1_zps69d43b4b.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/senu2_zpsa15ad195.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/senu3_zpsf72613e5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/senu4_zps33a10eb1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/senu5_zpsf9dfde21.jpg


------------------------------------------------------------------------


SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ' kub ta
[Government]
English : 1) a crown ; 2) Yoab Benjamin : an umbrella ; 3) Yoab Benjamin : a whirlpool , an eddy , a vortex
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubatu_zps8d3be8c9.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubbutu_zps8b92a256.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubsu_zps198f6c49.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubtu_zps12c7f344.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuptu_zps5b2300c5.jpg


An interesting bit from this book. Whether it is of any significance, I have no idea.

http://www.atour.com/bn/education/images/20100426a.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umbrella_zpsc331c51d.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-22, 11:01
1
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : šap ' la it
[Moral life → Fault]
English : basely , meanly , in a base / mean / despicable / dishonourable / shameful / disgraceful manner , dishonourably / dishonorably , shamefully , disgracefully
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : šap ' lu: ta
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) feebleness of the limbs , debility , weakness , disability , infirmity ; 2) paralysis , palsy , the abolition (complete or partial) of function , loss of power of voluntary motion , loss of sensation in any part of the body ; 3) lowliness , baseness , wretchedness / meanness / ignominy , turpitude , being inferior / being a sorry person , cowardice / cowardliness , poltroonery , pusillanimity
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' šap la
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) weak , feeble , deficient in physical strength , infirm , frail ; 2) paralyzed , affected with paralysis (?) / palsy (?) ; 3) mean , base , villainous , foul , lousy , icky / stinking / filthy / dirty / vile / despicable , ignoble , abject , infamous / scurvy , low-down / lowly / low , disgraceful ; 4) cowardly , heartless , weak-kneed , yellow-bellied , faint / horseless (?) / scaly , unmanly , yellow / craven , lily-livered , chicken-hearted , faint-hearted , pusillanimous , white-livered , dastardly , hen-hearted , poor-spirited / spiritless / demoralized (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapalu_zps4b469a44.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapatu_zpse8e76f38.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saplitu_zps9809a98f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saplitu2_zps81401ef4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saplu_zps355574e7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapluB_zps053b5490.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapluC_zps64a205cb.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sappalu_zps9ed3ce52.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapalu2_zpsdaa79d28.jpg



2
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : šil ' la it
[Human → Body]
English : lamely , awkwardly (?) , in a lame (foolish / ineffictive) manner , feebly , weakly
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : šil ' lu: ta
[Human → Body]
English : lameness , the state of being lame / limping , being physically disabled in any way , being paralyzed (?) , a handicap / having an injured limb
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' šil la
[Human → Body]
English : lame , limping , gammy , cripple / crippled , maimed , physically disabled / weakened in any way , infirm , feeble , helpless , paralyzed
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siliati_zps280a548c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silitu_zpse4dd3e92.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silittu_zps97f19321.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sillatu_zps09124851.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silutu_zps05e096bc.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silu_zps9f2a2a59.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-22, 22:39
Wikipedia

Hakkari, Turkey


Little is known about the history of the region before Europeans first visited it in the 18th century. It is thought however that the Christian Assyrian concentration dates back to the 14th century when Timurlane occupied Persia and Mesopotamia and persecuted its Christian populace driving them to the safety of the mountains. By the 16th century the Nestorians disappeared from many cities where they previously thrived, such as in Tabriz and Nisibis. The head of the Church of the East moved from Baghdad to Maragha in Urmia by 1553.[2] The Assyrians later concentrated in a mountainous triangular region with its head at Lake Van and Lake Urmia and Mosul. The Church of the East lost some of its members in the few centuries following the Schism of 1552 to the Chaldean Catholic Church. Those living in Hakkari, however, were unaffected by the disputes and around 1600 the Archbishop Shimun IX Dinkha broke away from Rome and moved to Qudshanis in Hakkari where he reintroduced the Shimun line hereditary patriarchy which continued until 1976.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ikkaru1_zps551df799.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ikkaru2_zpsac485f22.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ikkaru3_zps947f1e84.jpg


SUMERIAN
engar plowman, farmer

e, ég, e4(A) (raised) irrigation ditch, embankment, levee, "a broad earthen wall which accomodated a ditch or small canal running along its top" (Steinkeller, JAOS 115 [1995] 543) (iku) (conventionally read e, but see Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 109-113, 136 n. 2)

a-gàr, a-gar agricultural tract, area of field parcels, irrigation district, arable land; meadow(?) (Michalowski, Correspondence p. 295)

Humanist
2012-09-23, 01:43
Wikipedia

Hakkari, Turkey

Little is known about the history of the region before Europeans first visited it in the 18th century. It is thought however that the Christian Assyrian concentration dates back to the 14th century when Timurlane occupied Persia and Mesopotamia and persecuted its Christian populace driving them to the safety of the mountains. By the 16th century the Nestorians disappeared from many cities where they previously thrived, such as in Tabriz and Nisibis. The head of the Church of the East moved from Baghdad to Maragha in Urmia by 1553.[2] The Assyrians later concentrated in a mountainous triangular region with its head at Lake Van and Lake Urmia and Mosul. The Church of the East lost some of its members in the few centuries following the Schism of 1552 to the Chaldean Catholic Church. Those living in Hakkari, however, were unaffected by the disputes and around 1600 the Archbishop Shimun IX Dinkha broke away from Rome and moved to Qudshanis in Hakkari where he reintroduced the Shimun line hereditary patriarchy which continued until 1976.



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ikkaru1_zps551df799.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ikkaru2_zpsac485f22.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ikkaru3_zps947f1e84.jpg


SUMERIAN
engar plowman, farmer

e, ég, e4(A) (raised) irrigation ditch, embankment, levee, "a broad earthen wall which accomodated a ditch or small canal running along its top" (Steinkeller, JAOS 115 [1995] 543) (iku) (conventionally read e, but see Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 109-113, 136 n. 2)

a-gàr, a-gar agricultural tract, area of field parcels, irrigation district, arable land; meadow(?) (Michalowski, Correspondence p. 295)



Nestorian Patriarch Mar Shimun riding with servants - Qodshanes 1904

http://www.shlama.be/shlama/images/stories/Hakkari/assyrian%20patriarch%20near%20qodshanes%201904.jpg

ca. 1850 (painted)

Historical context note


Qudshanis or Qodschanis, Kochanes, Kocanis, modern Turkish name, Konak, is a mountain village in the Turkish province of Hakkari, about 20 km north-east of the town of Hakkari. It was formerly the Seat of the Assyrian Patriarch.

http://media.vam.ac.uk/media/thira/collection_images/2008BT/2008BT8045_jpg_l.jpg


http://www.gutenberg.org/files/38828/38828-h/images/frontispiece.jpg





AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsanis_zps2867e7dc.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsanis2_zps9e5e1f19.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsanis3_zpsa80fad9b.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsanis4_zps5a5b5ba9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsanis5_zps83e35a61.jpg

There is also the Assyrian name, "Oshana." My great-grandfather's name, actually, and a popular name among Assyrians. I do not know what it means.

Humanist
2012-09-23, 02:51
Wikipedia

Hakkari, Turkey

Little is known about the history of the region before Europeans first visited it in the 18th century. It is thought however that the Christian Assyrian concentration dates back to the 14th century when Timurlane occupied Persia and Mesopotamia and persecuted its Christian populace driving them to the safety of the mountains. By the 16th century the Nestorians disappeared from many cities where they previously thrived, such as in Tabriz and Nisibis. The head of the Church of the East moved from Baghdad to Maragha in Urmia by 1553.[2] The Assyrians later concentrated in a mountainous triangular region with its head at Lake Van and Lake Urmia and Mosul. The Church of the East lost some of its members in the few centuries following the Schism of 1552 to the Chaldean Catholic Church. Those living in Hakkari, however, were unaffected by the disputes and around 1600 the Archbishop Shimun IX Dinkha broke away from Rome and moved to Qudshanis in Hakkari where he reintroduced the Shimun line hereditary patriarchy which continued until 1976.



Nestorian Patriarch Mar Shimun riding with servants - Qodshanes 1904

http://www.shlama.be/shlama/images/stories/Hakkari/assyrian%20patriarch%20near%20qodshanes%201904.jpg

ca. 1850 (painted)

Historical context note


Qudshanis or Qodschanis, Kochanes, Kocanis, modern Turkish name, Konak, is a mountain village in the Turkish province of Hakkari, about 20 km north-east of the town of Hakkari. It was formerly the Seat of the Assyrian Patriarch.

http://media.vam.ac.uk/media/thira/collection_images/2008BT/2008BT8045_jpg_l.jpg


http://www.gutenberg.org/files/38828/38828-h/images/frontispiece.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu1_zps45499280.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu2_zps87cff9b0.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu3_zps40a8b27b.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quddusu4_zpsec307ab6.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-23, 04:27
SYRIAC/SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' kaš ba:
[Country]
English : a wood (?) , wood (?) ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' qai sa
[Country → Trees]
English : wood (the fibrous substance) ;
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisubbu_zpsf048be64.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qisu_zpsbb5a2963.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-23, 07:58
SUMERIAN
hul(-a) adj. evil, bad; adv. evilly
ki-hul funeral (rites)
gul, gu-ul to destroy


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' kiḥ la
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) khol , a dark preparation used by Eastern women to darken the edges of their eyes 2) antimony , a collyrium
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' koḥ la:
[Human → Hygiene]
English : Khol , Stibium , a preparation of soot and other ingredients (antimony ...) used to darken the eyes
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gihlu_zpsc5c4461c.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kihullu1_zps41c441fe.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kihullu2_zps3f5a7afc.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kihullu3_zpsf2e15d06.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kihullu4_zps8c6fe4d2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kigulla1_zpsb693081f.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kigulla2_zps5608f4b6.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:58 ----------

INDO-EUROPEAN

ghoul (n.)
1786, in the English translation of Beckford's "Vathek," from Arabic ghul, an evil spirit that robs graves and feeds on corpses, from ghala "he seized."

Humanist
2012-09-23, 10:05
This may be unrelated.

Wikipedia


Early mention of Salmas was made in 1281, when its Assyrian bishop made the trip to the consecration of the Assyrian Church of the East patriarch Yaballaha in Baghdad.[4]



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis_zpsc0ff4690.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis2_zpsace712b5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis3_zps3f481e3e.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis4_zps553aafcf.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis5_zpsbcf2380b.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-23, 21:26
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kutimmuB.jpg

SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kudim.jpg

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/timana.jpg

May not be of any significance. Well, excluding the "mara." But, that ("mara"), is known.

SUMERIAN
giš mar spade, shovel


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gidimmu_zps8ac49bed.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marru_zps70ed709d.jpg




SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ma ra
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a spade
Dialect : Classical Syriac [Urmia]

---------- Post Merged at 16:26 ----------

Unrelated to the above post.


2012 “After Eltekeh: royal hostages from Egypt at the Assyrian court.“ In H.D. Baker, K. Kaniuth & A. Otto (ed.), Stories of long ago: Festschrift für Michael D. Roaf. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 397 (Münster 2012) 471-479.
by Karen Radner


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/radner_egypt_zpsdfee2d91.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-23, 22:29
This may be unrelated.

Wikipedia


Early mention of Salmas was made in 1281, when its Assyrian bishop made the trip to the consecration of the Assyrian Church of the East patriarch Yaballaha in Baghdad.[4]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis_zpsc0ff4690.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis2_zpsace712b5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis3_zps3f481e3e.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis4_zps553aafcf.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmis5_zpsbcf2380b.jpg

Again, odds are, there is absolutely no connection.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmas_zpse4e047bb.jpg



Sargon II’s 8th Campaign: A New View on Old Constructs
STEPHAN KROLL

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urmia_sargon_zps02aac3ae.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 00:00
Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' ur za
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force


AKKADIAN
*
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urzi_zps17c3dda5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursunu_zps7970fb8a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urisu_zps5dff0b64.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urasu_zps391b9004.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursanu_zpsfac55bbb.jpg


*
Although they look cute and shy, badgers are ferocious fighters that should not be disturbed. They will growl, snarl and emit an unpleasant musk scent if provoked. :)

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/badger/

Humanist
2012-09-24, 01:50
With a grain (or more) of salt.


Wikipedia


Saint George (c. 275/281 – 23 April 303) was, according to tradition, a Roman soldier from Syria Palaestina and a soldier in the Guard of Diocletian, who is venerated as a Christian martyr. In hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Catholic (Western and Eastern Rites), Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and the Oriental Orthodox churches. He is immortalized in the tale of Saint George and the Dragon and is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. His memorial is celebrated on 23 April, and he is regarded as one of the most prominent military saints.

....

Saint George and the dragon

In the fully developed Western version, which developed as part of the Golden Legend, a dragon or crocodile makes its nest at the spring that provides water for the city of "Silene" (perhaps modern Cyrene in Libya or the city of Lydda in the Holy Land, depending on the source). Consequently, the citizens have to dislodge the dragon from its nest for a time, to collect water. To do so, each day they offer the dragon at first a sheep, and if no sheep can be found, then a maiden must go instead of the sheep. The victim is chosen by drawing lots. One day, this happens to be the princess. The monarch begs for her life to be spared, but to no avail. She is offered to the dragon, but there appears Saint George on his travels. He faces the dragon, protects himself with the sign of the Cross,[29] slays the dragon, and rescues the princess. The citizens abandon their ancestral paganism and convert to Christianity.

The dragon motif was first combined with the standardised Passio Georgii in Vincent of Beauvais' encyclopaedic Speculum Historiale and then in Jacobus de Voragine's "Golden Legend", which guaranteed its popularity in the later Middle Ages as a literary and pictorial subject.

The parallels with Perseus and Andromeda are inescapable. In the allegorical reading, the dragon embodies a suppressed pagan cult.[30] The story has other roots that predate Christianity. Examples such as Sabazios, the sky father, who was usually depicted riding on horseback, and Zeus's defeat of Typhon the Titan in Greek mythology, along with examples from Germanic and Vedic traditions, have led a number of historians, such as Loomis, to suggest that George is a Christianized version of older deities in Indo-European culture.


SURETH
George = Giwargis / Gargis

Eastern phonetic : ' gi ra:
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) an arrow ; 2) Judeans : 3, 15 : Gera ;
French : 1) une flèche , un trait (projectile) ; 2) Judéens : 3, 15 : Géra ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' zar ga:
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) a short lance / a javelin , a short spear used by foot-soldiers , a dart ; 2) Lishani : a bayonet ;
French : 1) une lance courte utilisée par les fantassins , un javelot ; 2) Lishani : une baïonnette ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' gru:š
[Industry]
English : 1) to pull , to draw ; 2) order to pull or draw (" Pull !") ;
French : 1) tirer ; 2) ordre de tirer ou hisser ("Tirez !") ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/girgisu_zpsa04bd669.jpg


INDO-EUROPEAN

George
masc. personal name, from L.L. Georgius, from Gk. Georgos "husbandman, farmer," from ge "earth" + ergon "work" (see urge (v.)).

The name introduced in England by the Crusaders (a vision of St. George played a key role in the First Crusade), but not common until after the Hanoverian succession (18c.). St. George began to be recognized as patron of England in time of Edward III, perhaps because of his association with the Order of the Garter (see garter). His feast day, April 23, was made a holiday in 1222. The legend of his combat with the dragon is first found in "Legenda Aurea" (13c.). The exclamation by (St.) George! is recorded from 1590s.


Wikipedia


Saint George, 1472, by Carlo Crivelli
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Saint_George_-_Carlo_Crivelli.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 04:43
The meaning of the word below is likely explained somewhere, but I thought I would see if I could come up with a possible etymology, based on the words in the CAD.

Wikipedia


The Battle of Gaugamela ( /ˌɡɔːɡəˈmiːlə/; Greek: Γαυγάμηλα) took place in 331 BC between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. The battle, which is also called the Battle of Arbela, resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians and led to the fall of the Persian Empire.

Darius chose a flat, open plain where he could deploy his numerically superior forces, not wanting to be caught in a narrow battlefield as he had been at Issus two years earlier, where he was unable to properly deploy his huge army. Darius also had his soldiers flatten the terrain prior to the battle, so as to give his 200 war-chariots optimal conditions to operate in. However this did not matter. On the ground were few hills and no bodies of water that Alexander could use for protection, and in the autumn the weather was dry and mild.[6] The most commonly accepted opinion about the location is (36.36°N 43.25°E), east of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq – suggested by Sir Aurel Stein in 1938 (see his Limes Report, pp. 127–1)

During the two years after the Battle of Issus, Alexander proceeded to occupy the Mediterranean coast and Egypt. He then advanced from Syria against the heart of the Persian empire.[7] Alexander crossed both the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers without any opposition. Darius was building up a massive army, drawing men from all parts of his empire. He gathered more than 250,000 soldiers (including more than 42,000 cavalry) against approximately 47,000 Macedonian soldiers (including around 8,000 cavalry).[8] Just before the battle, Darius offered Alexander a generous peace agreement. Darius would cede half of the entire Persian Empire provided Alexander cease his invasion of Persia. When presented to Alexander, he declined the offer without any consideration at all. One of Alexander's generals, Parmenion, said that if he were Alexander, he would gladly accept the more-than-generous offer. Alexander replied, "And I would too, if I were Parmenion."

....

After the battle, Parmenion rounded up the Persian baggage train while Alexander and his own bodyguard pursued Darius. As at Issus, substantial amounts of loot were gained following the battle, with 4,000 talents captured, as well as the King's personal chariot and bow. The war elephants were also captured. In all, it was a disastrous defeat for the Persians and one of Alexander's finest victories.

Darius had managed to escape the battle with a small core of his forces remaining intact. The Bactrian cavalry and Bessus managed to catch up with him, as did some of the survivors of the Royal Guard and 2,000 Greek mercenaries.

At this point, the Persian Empire was divided into two halves–East and West. On his escape, Darius gave a speech to what remained of his army. He planned to head further east and raise another army to face Alexander, assuming that the Macedonians would head towards Babylon. At the same time, he dispatched letters to his eastern satraps asking them to remain loyal.

The satraps, however, had other intentions. Bessus murdered Darius before fleeing eastwards. When Alexander discovered Darius murdered, he was saddened to see an enemy he respected killed in such a fashion, and gave Darius full burial and ceremony at Persepolis, the once ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire, before angrily pursuing Bessus, eventually capturing and executing him the following year. The majority of the remaining satraps gave their loyalty to Alexander and were allowed to keep their positions. The Persian Empire is traditionally considered to have ended with the death of Darius.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gammilu_zps72b412a6.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gammalu_zpsceb6ee3c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaluB_zpsb44361e4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamilu_zps41236c99.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qu2_zpsa1080e30.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qu_zps5bf3277c.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guis1_zps0df32728.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guis2_zps804c9e0f.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamalu_zps268837a2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gagguritu_zps8c14221f.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gugallu_zpsd168ca35.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mummilu_zpsaba33bf4.jpg



SURETH (there are other words, but only listing this one)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/myl_zps5df59ced.jpg



I would not be surprised if we (Mesopotamians) have some Greek/Macedonian blood. A product of Alexander's conquest, perhaps.

Wikipedia
"Bust of a young Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic era, British Museum"
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/AlexanderTheGreat_Bust.jpg/220px-AlexanderTheGreat_Bust.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 06:18
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : 'ṣipra
[Animals → Birds]
English : a sparrow , a small bird
French : un moineau / pierrot / passereau / piaf , un bouvreuil ;
Dialect : Common Aramaic
Hebrew : tsip'por צִפּוֹר «small bird»

The Sureth Online Dictionary lists "Common Aramaic," but the CAD does not list any terms for "sparrow," with that spelling. The CAD does, however, contain a similar word for "bird."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sibaru_zpsf4c09618.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 07:21
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' kassi <-- How our Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, is addressed.
[Religion]
English : 1) My lord , my master (a title usually reserved for the patriarchal immediate family) 2) my friend , my beloved
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussi_zps791c19b0.jpg


------------------------------------------------------


SUMERIAN (Not sure if this is related to the Akkadian and Syriac terms below)
iti6(UD.dNANNA), ì-ti, i-ti moonlight


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/attalu_zps48626300.jpg


SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : a: ' ti: lia
[Sky → Astronomy]
English : Lishani : an eclipse of the sun and the moon
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Humanist
2012-09-24, 10:56
SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ' zar ga:
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) a short lance / a javelin , a short spear used by foot-soldiers , a dart ; 2) Lishani : a bayonet ;
French : 1) une lance courte utilisée par les fantassins , un javelot ; 2) Lishani : une baïonnette ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

I do not know where the above word is coming from. Some words from Akkadian:


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zuku_zps3ae8873e.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zairu_zps9f13846d.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zardu_zpscb5c89b0.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaruB_zps1838210e.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaru1_zpsf1cb62ef.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaru2_zps87b0893d.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaru3_zps973a1a54.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zargu_zpscb270c30.jpg




--------------------------------------------------


Same goes for this word:
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ṣa: ' va: na (ṣa: ' wa: na) [<--The "v" occurs in Sureth dialects of Iran, I believe.]
[Art]
English : 1) ugly , offensive to the sight , contrary to beauty , unsightly , hideous , ill-favored / ill-favoured , unhomely , horrible / frightful / ghastly / gruesome / fearsome / grisly / direful / terrible ; 2) influential , powerful , weighty , having leverage / clout / pull ;
French : 1) laid , vilain , hideux , horrible / effrayant / faisant peur -à voir- / effroyable / épouvantable , répugnant , moche / déplaisant à regarder , disgracieux , vraiment pas beau à voir , le contraire de la beauté ; 2) influent , ayant de l'influence / de l'ascendant / du rayonnement , pesant (sur un résultat)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamanu_zps07271883.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamanuB_zps23d71cbf.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 16:16
Another Sureth saying I have been wondering about.

I may be getting the transliteration wrong.

SURETH
ili bili, ili buli, uli buli, uli bili ??? : incessant (?), insistent (?)



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buluB1_zps9ffc625d.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buluB2_zpsd1502fb3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bulu1_zps151e68ec.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bulu2_zpsbb8d3d76.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bulu3_zps2d404b35.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bilbillu_zps453e4271.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eli_zps2fc1a2de.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 19:02
1
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qasbu_zps1dae3c47.jpg


SURETH/JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC (source: CAL)
qašbā : dried date




Regarding the comment in the CAD, above. Aramaic? Or, how about, simply, Akkadian (Neo-Babylonian)? Unfortunately, I am not qualified to opine on the question. Well, at least not in any meaningful way.




2
Another term I am curious about, and cannot find in the Aramaic sources. It may be a loan from a non-Semitic language(?).

SURETH
kizze or kizzi or kiṣṣe or kiṣṣi? : containing a salt content to the point of inedibility (??)


SUMERIAN
gi-zi reed shoots, fodder reed (Waetzoldt, BSA 6, 129f.)


Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations
By Daniel T. Potts

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gizi_zpsfa6d5bb0.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissatu1_zps92d7e0b5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissatu2_zps331c2b04.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kissu_zps98291fcc.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 14:02 ----------

Another example:

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' gi ṣa:
[Nature → Minerals]
English : 1) gypsum (used as white plaster for walls) ; 2) stucco , plaster ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Other

HATRAN/JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC/SYRIAC (note: Hatra was located not very far from Assur)
gṣ, gṣʾ (gaṣ, gaṣṣā) n.m. chalk, lime, gypsum

1 chalk, lime, gypsum Hatran, Syr, JBA.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gassu_zps705cc49b.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 22:14
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : šu: ' ka na (šu: ' ḥa na)
[Legal]
English : a legacy , a gift of property (money or other property) by will , a bequest , an inheritance / patrimony bequeathed by will
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukanu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saknuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saknu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakanu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukenu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukinnu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-24, 23:35
Loan into Sureth from Roman era.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : dqo ri ' on
[Army → Military]
English : decurion , a chief over ten soldiers
Dialect : Urmiah


Wikipedia


A decurion (Latin: decurio, plural decuriones) was a Roman cavalry officer in command of a squadron (turma) of cavalrymen in the Roman army.

Republican army

During the Roman Republic a "Polybian" legion (ca. 300–88 BC) of citizen-levies had a cavalry complement of 300 horse, divided into 10 turmae (squadrons) of 30 men each. Each turma was led by 3 decurions, who were elected by the squadron members themselves. Although decurio literally means "leader of 10 men", it does not appear that a turma was sub-divided into 3 troops of 10 men each. Instead, one decurion would act as squadron commander and the other two as his deputies.[1] All decurions were members of the Roman equestrian order, as were many of their subordinates.[citation needed]

Imperial army

In the imperial Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - AD 284), a decurion also commanded a cavalry turma of ca. 30 men, but now without colleagues. In common with all soldiers in the imperial army, decurions were long-service professionals, the majority volunteers.

A Roman imperial legion, which contained ca. 5,500 men, contained a small cavalry arm of just 120 men (i.e. 4 turmae). Since the average number of legions deployed was ca. 30, imperial legionary cavalry numbered only ca. 3,600, out of a total of ca. 80,000 cavalrymen deployed by the imperial army. There were thus ca. 120 cavalry decurions in the legions at any given time.

The vast majority of the imperial cavalry was in the regiments of the auxilia, the non-citizen corps of the regular imperial army (whose recruits were mainly imperial subjects who did not hold Roman citizenship (known as peregrini). An ala (literally "wing"), which was an elite all-cavalry regiment, contained 480 horse (16 turmae, thus 16 decurions). A double-strength ala (ala milliaria) contained 720 horse (24 turmae). Circa 90 alae were deployed in the time of emperor Hadrian (ruled 117-38). In addition, the auxiliary corps included a type of regiment known as a cohors equitata, an infantry unit with a cavalry complement of 120 horse (4 turmae; 8 in a double-strength unit). Around 180 such regiments existed under Hadrian. There were thus ca. 2,500 decurions serving in the auxilia at any given time.

In the imperial period, decurions were no longer conscripted Romans, commoners who were often promoted from the ranks, but could also be members of native tribal aristocracies. (Roman knights at this stage only provided the overall commanders (praefecti) of the auxiliary regiments). Thus, decurions in the imperial army were of far lower social status than their predecessors in the Republican cavalry. The latter were not only Roman citizens, but also aristocrats, whereas auxiliary decurions were mostly commoners and non-citizens (until AD 212, when all imperial subjects were granted citizenship). Even if they belonged to a native aristocracy, they ranked lower than a commoner Roman citizen in the status-conscious Roman empire.

http://img252.imageshack.us/img252/9314/antonineauxcavdecurionit4.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-25, 07:22
Wikipedia


Lilith (Hebrew: לילית‎; lilit, or lilith) is a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud, who is generally thought to be related to a class of female demons Līlīṯu in Mesopotamian texts. However, Lowell K. Handy (1997) notes, "Very little information has been found relating to the Akkadian and Babylonian view of these demons. Two sources of information previously used to define Lilith are both suspect."[1] The two problematic sources are the Gilgamesh appendix and the Arslan Tash amulets, which are discussed below.[2]

The term Lilith occurs in Isaiah 34:14, either singular or plural according to variations in the earliest manuscripts, though in a list of animals. In the Dead Sea Scrolls Songs of the Sage the term first occurs in a list of monsters. In Jewish magical inscriptions, on bowls and amulets from the 6th century CE onwards, Lilith is identified as a female demon and the first visual depictions appear.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lilu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : li ' li: ta
[Religion → Myths]
English : 1) Lamia , a man-devouring monster commonly represented with the head and breast of a woman and the body of a serpent 2) a phantom , a ghost , a night specter , a fairy ; 3) (compare with the mythical "Lilith" -Adam's first wife- ?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon
lyly, lylytʾ (lī/ēlī, lī/ēlīṯā) n.f. #2 female demon

female demon, Lilith JLAtg, Syr, JBAmag, LJLA.

JLAtg = Jewish Literary Aramaic, Targumic
Syr = Syriac
JBAmag = Jewish Babylonian Gaonic period
LJLA = Late Jewish Literary Aramaic

Humanist
2012-09-25, 09:10
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' qiṭ ma
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : the ashes / ash , cinders / cinder
Dialect : Urmiah


We have a saying that goes something like, "qiṭma b'rishi." I suppose it translates to "oh, my," or "oh my god." Although, apparently, the literal translation would be something along the lines of "ashes/cinders on my head."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kutmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuttumu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuttimmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qitmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuddimmu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 04:10 ----------

Wikipedia


Ash Wednesday, in the calendar of Western Christianity, is the first day of Lent and occurs 46 days before Easter. It is a moveable fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the date of Easter. It can occur as early as February 4 or as late as March 10.

According to the canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke; Jesus spent 40 days fasting in the desert before the beginning of his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan.[2][3] Ash Wednesday marks the beginning of this 40-day liturgical period of prayer and fasting.

Ash Wednesday derives its name from the practice of placing ashes on the foreheads of adherents as a sign of mourning and repentance to God. The ashes used are typically gathered after the palms from the previous year's Palm Sunday are burned.[4]

This practice is common in much of Christendom, being celebrated by Catholics, Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, and some Baptist denominations.[5][6]

As far as I know, we do not have this practice in our church. But, I may be wrong.

Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Crossofashes.jpg/225px-Crossofashes.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-25, 20:22
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' qiṭ ma
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : the ashes / ash , cinders / cinder
Dialect : Urmiah


We have a saying that goes something like, "qiṭma b'rishi." I suppose it translates to "oh, my," or "oh my god." Although, apparently, the literal translation would be something along the lines of "ashes/cinders on my head."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kutmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuttumu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuttimmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qitmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuddimmu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 04:10 ----------

Wikipedia



As far as I know, we do not have this practice in our church. But, I may be wrong.

Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Crossofashes.jpg/225px-Crossofashes.jpg


I wonder if there is any connection to the Sumerian self-appellation, "the black-headed people."* Perhaps it was their way of distinguishing between the "believers," and "non-believers?" Just as on other topics, I lack the knowledge to form an educated opinion. I can only provide ignorant commentary.


*"ùĝ saĝ gíg-ga"


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
gíg(GI6), gi6(g) black ePSD reads giggi like babbar when simplex, but gi6- gi6 when reduplicated (e.g. TMHnf 5, 164 vi 2). CDLI now prefers to read ge6. See also ku10 'dark' and cf. ĝi6 'night', all written with the same sign (Civil, EBLA 1975-1985, 155 n. 32.)

ku10(g), kukku5 black, dark; darkness (often reduplicated: ku10-ku10 or kúkku; see also gíg) (Civil, EBLA 1975-1985, 155 n. 32)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ḥu: ia:

English : 1) Oraham : dark , lacking light , wholly or partially black , gloomy ; 2) thick darkness ; 3) Maclean : darkness , dusk , twilight ; ܗܲܠ ܚܘܼܒ݂ܝܵܐ ܚܒ݂ܵܝܵܐ : until dusk
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥan pa:
[Religion]
English : 1) a pagan , a worshipper of false gods , a darky / an obscurantist , a heathen , an unbeliever , an infidel , an atheist ; feminine : ܚܲܢܦܬܵܐ ; adjective : ungodly , unreligious / irreligious , unholy , iniquitous , blasphemous
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥiš ka:

English : 1) Maclean : darkness ; 2) Yoab Benjamin, Lishani : an eclipse of the sun and the moon
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ku: ma:
[Colors]
English : masculine : black , the darkest colour
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


I was unfamiliar with the second Sureth term, so I looked it up in the CAD. I do not know what makes it West Semitic (the letters?). Perhaps it is common in the Aramaic dialects in the western areas, or found in Phoenician, Hebrew and/or other West Semitic languages? If it was unattested (or even attested) in W Semitic from that point forth, and occurred in both Early Assyrian and Old Babylonian, its presence in Sureth, I reckon, may be attributable to its adoption, to whatever extent, in the East.

And yes, I believe the Akkadian "influence" on the vernaculars in the East may be significantly misunderstood.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanpu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanapu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanapu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hannipu.jpg

[COLOR="silver"]---------- Post Merged at 15:18 ----------

Wikipedia


[COLOR="#0000CD"]Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was a local chieftain of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC). Abdi-Heba's name can be translated as "servant of Hebat", a Hurrian goddess. Some scholars believe the correct reading is Ebed-Nob[citation needed]. Whether Abdi-Heba was himself of Hurrian descent is unknown, as is the relationship between the general populace of pre-Israelite Jerusalem (called, several centuries later, Jebusites in the Bible) and the Hurrians. Egyptian documents have him deny he was a ḫazānu and assert he is a soldier (we'w), the implication being he was the son of a local chief sent to Egypt to receive military training there.[1]

....

During Abdi-Heba's reign the region was under attack from marauding bands of Apiru.[3] Abdi-Heba made frequent pleas to the Pharaoh of Egypt (probably Amenhotep III), for an army[4] or, at least, an officer to command.[5] Abdi-Heba also made other requests for military aid in fighting off his enemies, both Canaanite warlords and bands of Apiru...

As a result, conspiracy charges are made against Abdi Heba, who defended himself strenuously in his correspondence with Pharaoh.[7]
In later years Abdi-Heba appears to have reconciled with the Apiru, or at least certain bands of them, and hired mercenaries from among their ranks. Indeed, though he earlier complained about the depredations of Labaya, Shuwardata, king of the Canaanite town of Keilah as well as other places in the Judean highlands, refers to him as a "new Labaya"...

Abdi-Heba's ultimate fate is unknown.

Abdi-Heba was the author of letters EA 285-290.[9]
EA 285—title: "The soldier-ruler of Jerusalem"
EA 286—title: "A throne granted, not inherited"
EA 287—title: "A very serious crime"'
EA 288—title: "Benign neglect"
EA 289—title: "A reckoning demanded"
EA 290—title: "Three against one"'[9]

EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), (note paragraph divisions).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Amarna_Akkadian_letter.png/300px-Amarna_Akkadian_letter.png

---------- Post Merged at 15:22 ----------

If Abdi-Heba is from the Amarna period, then are the CAD references to "Early Assyrian" and "Old Babylonian" no longer current? Would they not be, "Middle Assyrian," and "Middle Babylonian" respectively?

EDIT: EA = Amarna Texts

Humanist
2012-09-25, 21:54
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : bi ' bil ta
[Human → Body]
English : 1) eye : the pupil ; 2) Sipurghan, north of the Urmiah plain : (the name of a small flat stone) ; 3) metaphor , Proverbs : 7, 9 : darkness ; Proverbs : 19, 20 : ܒܹܒܸܠܬܵܐ ܕܚܘܼܒ݂ܝܵܐ : in the blackest darkness



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bibiltu-1.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 16:54 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biblu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bibluC.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-25, 23:19
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ku: ' ša ra
[Trade]
English : prosperity , an advance or gain in anything good or desirable , success , an advantage , an asset (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusiru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasaruB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusru.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 00:24
Standard Babylonian


George , Andrew (2007) 'Babylonian and Assyrian: a history of Akkadian.' In: Postgate, J. N., (ed.), Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, pp. 36, 57-59.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 02:33
Herodotus: from The History of the Persian Wars, c. 430 BCE

VII.63: The Assyrians went to war with helmets upon their heads made of brass, and plaited in a strange fashion which is not easy to describe. They carried shields, lances, and daggers very like the Egyptian; but in addition they had wooden clubs knotted with iron, and linen corselets. This people, whom the Hellenes call Syrians, are called Assyrians by the barbarians. The Chaldeans served in their ranks, and they had for commander Otaspes, the son of Artachaeus.


It would be interesting to research this line (to the extent it can be researched).


Persia and the Greeks: The Defence of the West, C. 546-478 B.C.
Andrew Robert Burn

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/otaspes_artakhaies.jpg


Wikipedia ("Ierissos (Greek: Ιερισσός) or Acanthus (Ancient Greek: Ἄκανθος) was an ancient Greek city on the Athos peninsula.")


The first historical reference, in Thuycidides, from mid-6th century BC, connects the city with the Persian Wars, during which the townsfolk officially welcomed the Persians and willingly helped with the digging of the canal for Xerxes, 480 BCE, for which Xerxes richly rewarded them. They declared one of his relatives who died in the area, named Artahei, a hero, and willingly took part in the expedition against Greece. After the Persian wars Acanthus became a member of the Athenian Alliance, paying tribute of three talents. In 424 BCE, after a short siege and oratory by Brasidas, the city was convinced to ally itself with the Spartans, although Thucydides remarks the greater likelihood that it was the threat to destroy their profitable vineyards, rather than Brasidas's rhetoric, that truly moved the Acanthians.[2]

---------- Post Merged at 21:33 ----------

Not sure if this is of any significance.

Wikipedia

"Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement" (refer to the "load" row)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biltu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : bi ' bil ta
[Humanities → Geography]
English : a summit , a peak , the top , the highest point of anything
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
gú-en(-na) throne room, audience hall, lit. 'assembly or totality of lords' (Marchesi, MC 14, 232 n. 13)

gi-gun4(-na), gi-gù-na cella, chapel (on top of the temple tower or upper terrace), divine audience chamber and living quarters (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 323-329; Steinkeller, AV Biggs 229 + n. 27)

gú(n), gú-un (or gúnun) load, burden; tax, tribute; talent (a weight = 60 ma-na = 28.8 kg.)

Humanist
2012-09-26, 04:30
SURETH (this is also very similar to our word for "thirst") <--Though, this may ultimately still be from Aramaic?
Eastern phonetic : ṣah ' iu: ta:
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) drought ; 2) nostalgia
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/setu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:19 ----------

Wiktionary.com

Elias


The New Testament form of Elijah, a Hebrew prophet, from Ancient Greek Ἡλίας.


Hebrew אליהו (Eliyahu, “Yahweh is God”).


Ἡλίας

From the Hebrew אליה
(5th BC Attic): IPA: /hɛ͜ɛli͜í.a͜as/
(1st BC Egyptian): IPA: /heːlíːaːs/
(4th AD Koine): IPA: /ilías/
(10th AD Byzantine): IPA: /ilías/
(15th AD Constantinopolitan): IPA: /ilías/

Wiktionary states that the Greeks got "Ἡλίας" from Hebrew, אליהו (Eliyahu, “Yahweh is God”).

Compare the Greek word with these Akkadian words. I am not suggesting that it is likely from Akkadian. The Greeks may have adopted the name from Hebrew, as Wiktionary.com states.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ilisB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elis.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:30 ----------

Wikipedia


Elijah ( /ɨˈlaɪdʒə/ or /ɨˈlaɪʒə/;[1] also Elias /ɨˈlaɪ.əs/; Hebrew: אֱלִיָּהוּ, Eliyahu, meaning "My God is Yahweh";[2] Arabic:إلياس, Ilyās), was a famous prophet and a wonder-worker in the northern kingdom of Israel[3] during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC), according to the Books of Kings.

According to the Books of Kings, Elijah defended the worship of Yahweh over that of the Phoenician god Baal; he raised the dead, brought fire down from the sky, and was taken up in a whirlwind (either accompanied by a chariot and horses of flame or riding in it).[4] In the Book of Malachi, Elijah's return is prophesied "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord,"[5] making him a harbinger of the Messiah and the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. Derivative references to Elijah appear in the Talmud, Mishnah, the New Testament, and the Qur'an.

In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah ritual that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover seder and the Brit milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah and rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud.

In Christianity, the New Testament describes how both Jesus and John the Baptist are compared with Elijah, and on some occasions, thought by some to be manifestations of Elijah, and Elijah appears with Moses during the Transfiguration of Jesus.

In Islam, the Qur'an describes Elijah as a great and righteous prophet of God, and one who powerfully preached against the worship of Ba'al.
Elijah is also a figure in various folkloric traditions. In Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania, he is known as "Elijah the Thunderer" and in folklore is held responsible for summer storms, hail, rain, thunder, and dew.[6]

Humanist
2012-09-26, 09:32
1
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ma kra

English : 1) minium , a red pigment ; 2) a brillant red , vermilion ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/makru.jpg



[COLOR="#FF0000"]2
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : maz ' ra: ia:
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) arable , tillable , suitable for cultivation 2) (noun) : arable land , farming land , land fit for plowing or tillage , tillage
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (need to search Akkadian further)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mazrutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 12:53
From one of the many dead links.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : iš ' path a:
[Army → Weapons]
English : a magazine , an ammunition clip , a device that holds bullets or shells
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ispatu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 07:53 ----------

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' mar ga
[Humanities → Geography]
English : a meadow , a low land covered with coarse grass near rivers , grassland , a prairie / a range
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/margu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/margu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 13:27
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' qal pa
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : fruit, vegetables : the peel , the skin / rind , a pod nuts, oysters, mussels : the shell , the shuck , tree : the bark , grain : the husk , fish, armour : a scale , a metal plate or link
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : mad ' da la
[Animals → Insects]
English : a bedbug , a woodlouse
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' qal ma
[Animals → Insects]
English : a louse , a cootie
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qulpu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qalpu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mutqu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mutqu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalmatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qalmu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 14:48
Not sure about this one. Perhaps it is Aramaic.

I searched for our word for, "appear."

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : mab ' ian ta
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) the appearance , the outward show , the outward look ; 2) the act of appearing ; 3) the perception , the view of
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bairtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bajatu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 19:01
Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' ur za
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force


AKKADIAN
*
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urzi_zps17c3dda5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursunu_zps7970fb8a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urisu_zps5dff0b64.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urasu_zps391b9004.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursanu_zpsfac55bbb.jpg


*

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/badger/


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ur a:
[Army]
English : an encounter , a meeting , a coming against face to face , an attack , an assault , an onslaught ; verb : to confront , to assault , to attack , to fall upon
Dialect : Classical Syriac

The next one may be unrelated to the Akkadian term, at bottom.

Eastern phonetic : ' bi ra:
[Army → War]
English : 1) an assault , an attack with violent means , an onslaught , rushing ; 2) to rush , to run towards , to storm , to assault
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/beru.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 14:01 ----------

I do not know about this one as well.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ṭu ' ra: ia:
[Army → War]
English : 1) driving , rushing or pressing with violence , compelling -need- (?) ; 2) (noun) : an attack , an assault , an onslaught , an offensive operation , a rape (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/teru.png

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tirutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 19:43
Searching for the origin of this word:

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šir va (šir wa)
[Feeding → Meal]
English : a stew / dish of meat / egg and vegetables prepared by stewing , a soup
Dialect : Urmiah


I have noticed in some Akkadian words m --> w (?). In Aramaic, b --> w also.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sirmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surru.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-26, 21:02
Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Official Aramaic
šnglʾ div. a moon god

1 a moon god OfA.

sngl n.m. Esagila temple

1 Esagila temple [?? dialect]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Compare the story of Sin (Nanna) and Ningal, and the Sureth and Sumerian words at top.


Source: http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/gods/partnerships/nannaningal.html




* I wonder whether this has anything to do with our word for "time," which is "dana."


Not sure if there is anything here.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šin ga:
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

Eastern phonetic : ša ' no: ga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer


SUMERIAN
saĝ adj. : first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

šà-ge-guru: one's heart's desire

sa(g), ša(g): to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa to be a favorite of (sa is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa(-ga):, ša(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa(g): to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa)

saĝa: chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

sig, si-ig, sig: to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa(g); see also a-sig)

sig(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig(KAL): good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag, sag(KAL) (cf. sa-ga, sa-ga)


The above Sumerian words also remind me of another Sureth word. However, I am confident it will be labelled as a Persian/Kurdish loan.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sangu.jpg


I need to start putting my name to some of these, in case one, two, or more are of any significance. The links to the really neat stuff (e.g. the verbs), unfortunately, no longer work.


I have not had an opportunity to search through all of the available resources, but this word (if not a loan) may also be relevant:

SURETH
šinta (šin-ta): sleepiness


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sittu.jpg



From memory, the two varieties of Akkadian most often represented in the words that I find "familiar," are:

1. Standard Babylonian (most frequent)
2. Neo-Babylonian (?)

Humanist
2012-09-26, 23:58
SUMERIAN
húl(-la) happy, joyous; joy

gú - lá (with -da-), gú-da - lá to embrace

gu-la large; larger, greater (see Krecher, Or 47, 384 "groβ gegenüber einem anderen") (variant of gal-(l)a; both ma-sá-gal-gal and ma-sá-gu-la occur in DP 51 i 1, iv 5). Cf. lú-gu-la important person, aristocrat (Ukg 4 ix 32/35 OS)

gal(-la) great, greater (see also gu-la); adv. well, greatly

gal, gu-ul v. and adj. (to be) big, large, great; older, elder, eldest

kala(g) (kalag), kal-la(-g) to be strong, mighty; to strengthen, mend

kalam country, nation (normally referring to Sumer, see Jacobsen, AfO 26, 9)

kal to be precious, dear, valuable

kal(-la) precious; kal-kal(-la) very precious



SURETH
Eastern phonetic : kul la ' iu: ta
[Measures]
English : entirety , completeness , the state of being entire , the sum total , the whole
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ka: mi: ' lu ta:
[Art]
English : the perfection , the state of being perfect or complete , the completeness , the totality , the state where nothing is missing or wanting , the wholeness , the state of being whole , the entire development
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : glu: ' lu: ta
[Science → Mathematics]
English : roundness , quality of being round , sphericity
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥé la:
[Army → Military]
English : 1) strength , power , force , might , ability to do or bear , power to resist , valiancy

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥlu: la:
[Feeding → Meal]
English : 1) a wedding feast , a marriage banquet or reception , nuptials , a wedding ; 2) a dance / a ball at a village feast ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥil lia:
[Human → Senses]
English : masculine : 1) sweet , pleasing to the taste , having an agreeable taste , not sour ; 2) lovable (?) , amiable (?) , beloved (?) , agreeable (?) , darling (?) , honey (?) ; 3) NENA, Shamisdin, Al Qosh : = ܚܲܠܒ݂ܵܐ : milk , Urmiah : ܚܲܠܒ݂ܵܐ ; 4) NENA : sap , juice ; feminine : ܚܠܝܼܬܵܐ : douce , sucrée , délicieuse ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
Brief search of Akkadian.
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kullatu_zpsee8640ba.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kullatan_zpsef8074a5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu1_zps0143b152.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu2_zps23f87038.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hullu_zps95fb7d27.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halilu_zps54ee4aae.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haliluB_zpsf333bc5f.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:55 ----------

[U]Indo-European



http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=gala


Not sure if this is of any significance.

Wikipedia

"Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement" (refer to the "load" row)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biltu.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : bi ' bil ta
[Humanities → Geography]
English : a summit , a peak , the top , the highest point of anything
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
gú-en(-na) throne room, audience hall, lit. 'assembly or totality of lords' (Marchesi, MC 14, 232 n. 13)

gi-gun4(-na), gi-gù-na cella, chapel (on top of the temple tower or upper terrace), divine audience chamber and living quarters (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 323-329; Steinkeller, AV Biggs 229 + n. 27)

gú(n), gú-un (or gúnun) load, burden; tax, tribute; talent (a weight = 60 ma-na = 28.8 kg.)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ḥit na:
[Human → Family]
English : 1) the bridegroom , a newly-married man , a man about to be married ; 2) the son-in-law ; 3) the brother-in-law ; ܗ݇ܘܹܐ ܠܹܗ ܚܸܬܢܵܐ ܥܲܡ : he made affinity with , he took a liking for
Dialect : Urmiah, NENA
Hebrew : ḥatan «the groom»

Eastern phonetic : ' ka lu
[Human → Family]
English : the bride , a woman newly-married or about to be married
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' ku le
English : 1) whole , complete , perfect , containing the total amount or number , all ; 2) every , each , without exception , every one
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' qa la
[Human → Speech]
English : voice , the sound uttered by human beings (speech, song ...)
Dialect : Urmiah
Hebrew : qol «voice»

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥaḥ ḥa:
[Country → Fruits]
English : 1) a plum , a fruit of any of various species of Prunus ; 2) a peach
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : bi:t ' gnu: na
[City → Buildings]
English : bride chamber , the nuptial apartment
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' ga: wir <--(before, was it "gamir," or "gabir?")
[Human → Family]
English : transitive and intransitive : to marry , to give as a spouse , to take as a spouse ; Al Qosh : followed by ܥܸܠ : to sleep together , to have sex with
Dialect : Eastern Syriac



[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hahhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaluB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganuna.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gaanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamaru.jpg



The Global Economy of Music in the Ancient Near East

in J. Westenholz (ed.), The Sounds of Music: Instruments from the Ancient World (Jerusalem, Keter Press)


As regards music, all of these states, and their contemporaries and successors of any standing, had sophisticated systems for the training and management of palace and temple musicians. Here as in other areas the Sumerians long maintained a prestigious cultural edge. Most revealing is the adoption of gala and nar—respectively ‘lamentation priest’ and the more versatile ‘singer-musician’ or ‘singer-priest’—into Akkadian as kalu and naru; these persisted throughout second and first millennium Mesopotamia, in both Babylonia and Assyria, as standard professional titles. One may conclude that, despite considerable differences of pantheon and liturgy, by the late third millennium the offices of ritual-music came to be executed and managed bureaucratically in a very similar manner among both Sumerian- and Akkadian-speaking populations.

"Neo-Assyrian palace ensemble"
Drawing by Anne Glynnis Fawkes

http://www.kingmixers.com/images/assyrians.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 18:58 ----------

The Joy Of Sumer-The Sacred Marriage Rite


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-54i5JT6UQ

Humanist
2012-09-27, 02:15
Following up on the above post, with two additional Sumerian terms:

gána field area, agricultural tract, (cultivated) ground or land (Powell, JCS 25, 178-184)

gurun fruit; fruitfulness, ripeness, lusciousness, abundance (cf. gi-rin flower) (Civil, AV Biggs 25)

As well as the contents of the below post:


Not sure if there is anything here.


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' šin ga:
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

Eastern phonetic : ša ' no: ga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer


SUMERIAN
saĝ adj. : first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

šà-ge-guru: one's heart's desire

sa(g), ša(g): to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa to be a favorite of (sa is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa(-ga):, ša(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa(g): to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa)

saĝa: chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

sig, si-ig, sig: to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa(g); see also a-sig)

sig(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig(KAL): good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag, sag(KAL) (cf. sa-ga, sa-ga)


The above Sumerian words also remind me of another Sureth word. However, I am confident it will be labelled as a Persian/Kurdish loan.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sangu.jpg


I need to start putting my name to some of these, in case one, two, or more are of any significance. The links to the really neat stuff (e.g. the verbs), unfortunately, no longer work.


Any reason to post a link to this clip. :)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wcfl4ziB6s




-----------------------------------------------------------------


Separate from above.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sillu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/handuB.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' qa nia:
[Country → Plants]
English : 1) Exodus : 30, 23 (Revised Version) : sweet calamus , = ܙܹܠܵܐ ; 2) Al Qosh : a reed , a stalk / pommes ... a stalk (?) / mushroom a stalk (?) / cabbage a stalk (?) , the stem of a plant ; 3) Exodus : 25, 35 : a shaft of a candlestick , flag, lance, halberd ... : a pole (?) , a shaft (?)
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' zi: la:
[Country → Plants]
English : 1) a reed ; ܩܵܠܵܡܵܐ ܕܙܹܠܵܐ : a calamus , a reed-pen ; 2) sweet calamus / acorus calamus
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' qand [<-- I say "qanda."]
[Feeding → Food]
English : sugar ;
Dialect : Urmiah


PERSIAN (Wiktionary.com)
Noun
قند • (qand)
sugar

Humanist
2012-09-27, 03:58
Assyrian mtDNA affinities: North (Armenia), East (Iran and points farther east, e.g. India), South (Marsh Arabs?? and ??)

I have referred to this piece several times.

Mother Tongue and Y Chromosomes

Peter Forster, Colin Renfrew


Some 6000 different languages are spoken in the world today, and tracing the prehistory of languages and of language change by means of genetic markers has long been a goal (1). However, this has proven to be a more challenging task than simply tracing colonizations. Nevertheless, a number of genetic studies over the past few years have started to address language and language change before recorded history. A correlation is emerging that suggests language change in an already-populated region may require a minimum proportion of immigrant males, as reflected in Y-chromosome DNA types. By contrast, the female lineages, as indicated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types, do not reflect the survivor language but represent more ancient settlement.


Although from the "Stone Age" of population genetics, Cavalli-Sforza's PCA may have got the gist of it right.

From a Gene Expression entry: Re-imagining genetic variation (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2012/09/re-imagining-genetic-variation/)

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/files/2012/09/genetic00.jpg



-----------------------------------------------------------



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru.jpg


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' ši ra
[Human → Body]
English : the navel [and umbilical?]
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 22:58 ----------

SURETH (I believe this occurs in certain other Aramaic dialects without the "A" at the beginning.)
Eastern phonetic : ab ' bu: ba
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : a) flute, pipe, reed ; b) a channel , a canal, a watercourse, a waterway (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abubu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abubu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-27, 05:52
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' pir a
[Country → Trees]
English : 1) an offshoot , a lateral shoot , a branch of the main stem ; 2) a bud , a blossom
Dialect : Urmiah

Source: G Khan
prr III m-prr (maprər, muprərre, maprore) to open up (space), to widen


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/piru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/parau.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-27, 11:38
Online Etymology Dictionary

mitre (n.)

bishop's tall hat, late 14c., from O.Fr. mitre, from L. mitra "headband, turban," from Gk. mitra "headband, turban," earlier a belt or cloth worn under armor about the waist, from PIE root *mei- "to tie" (cf. Skt. Mitrah, O.Pers. Mithra-, god names; Rus. mir "world, peace," Gk. mitos "a warp thread"). In Latin, "a kind of headdress common among Asiatics, the wearing of which by men was regarded in Rome as a mark of effeminacy" [OED]. But the word was used in Vulgate to translate Hebrew micnepheth "headdress of a priest."


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian, only Sennacherib*)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/midru.jpg


*Wikipedia

Sennacherib (pronounced /səˈnækərɪb/; Akkadian: Sîn-ahhī-erība "Sîn has replaced (lost) brothers for me") was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 – 681 BC).

Does not have any obvious connection to the following Sureth word:

Eastern phonetic : ' miṭ ra
[Sky → Climate]
English : rain
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 06:38 ----------

Wikipedia ("Mitra (Vedic)")


Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the oath and tribal contracts, often twinned as Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). In the Vedic hymns, Mitra is often invoked together with Varuna, as Mitra-Varuna. In some of their aspects, Varuna is lord of the cosmic rhythm of the celestial spheres, while Mitra brings forth the light at dawn, which was covered by Varuna. Mitra together with Varuna is the most prominent deity and the chief of the Adityas in the Rigveda. Though being Asuras, Mitra and Varuna are also addressed as devas in Rigveda (e.g., RV 7.60.12), and in the only hymn dedicated to Mitra, he is referred to as a deva (mitrasya...devasya) in RV 3.59.6.

Wikipedia ("Varuna")


In Vedic religion, Varuna (Sanskrit Varuṇa वरुण, Malay: Baruna) or Waruna is a god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth.

In Hindu mythology, Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element, particularly the oceans.

....

As a sky god, Varuna may either correspond to, or rule over, the dark half of the sky—or celestial ocean (Rasā)[2]...

....

^ According to Dumezil, Varuna is the god of "masses of water", while falling rain is rather related to Mitra.

Humanist
2012-09-27, 13:21
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' mil a
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : a flood
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ma ' mu: la
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : a deluge , a flood , an overflowing of the land by water , an inundation , a downpour (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/milu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/milu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mamu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/illu-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-27, 14:25
Online Etymology Dictionary

mitre (n.)



AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian, only Sennacherib*)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/midru.jpg


*Wikipedia


Does not have any obvious connection to the following Sureth word:

Eastern phonetic : ' miṭ ra
[Sky → Climate]
English : rain
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 06:38 ----------

Wikipedia ("Mitra (Vedic)")



Wikipedia ("Varuna")


A bit more from Wikipedia:


Etymology

Both Vedic Mitra and Avestan Mithra derive from an Indo-Iranian common noun *mitra-, generally reconstructed to have meant "covenant, treaty, agreement, promise." This meaning is preserved in Avestan miθra "covenant." In Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan languages, mitra means "friend," one of the aspects of binding[disambiguation needed] and alliance.

The Indo-Iranian reconstruction is attributed[1] to Christian Bartholomae,[2] and was subsequently refined by A. Meillet (1907), who suggested derivation from the Proto-Indo-European root *mei "to exchange."

A suggested alternative derivation was *meh "to measure" (Gray 1929). Pokorny (IEW 1959) refined Meillet's *mei as "to bind." Combining the root *mei with the "tool suffix" -tra- "that which [causes] ..." (also found in man-tra-, "that which causes to think"), then literally means "that which binds," and thus "covenant, treaty, agreement, promise, oath" etc. Pokorny's interpretation also supports "to fasten, strengthen", which may be found in Latin moenia "city wall, fortification", and in an antonymic form, Old English (ge)maere "border, boundary-post".

Meillet and Pokorny's "contract" did however have its detractors. Lentz (1964, 1970) refused to accept abstract "contract" for so exalted a divinity and preferred the more religious "piety." Because present-day Sanskrit mitra means "friend," and New Persian mihr means "love" or "friendship," Gonda (1972, 1973) insisted on a Vedic meaning of "friend, friendship," not "contract".

Meillet's analysis also "rectified earlier interpretations"[1] that suggested that the Indo-Iranian common noun *mitra- had anything to do with the light or the sun. When H. Lommel suggested[3] that such an association was implied in the Younger Avesta (>6th c. BCE), that too was conclusively dismissed.[4] Today, it is certain that "(al)though Miθra is closely associated with the sun in the Avesta, he is not the sun" and "Vedic Mitra is not either."[1]

Old Persian Mitra or Miθra - both only attested in a handful of 4th century BCE inscriptions of Artaxerxes II and III - "is generally admitted [to be] a borrowing from the Avesta,"[5] the genuine Old Persian form being reconstructed as *Miça. (Kent initially suggested Sanskrit[6] but later[5] changed his mind). Middle Iranian myhr (Parthian, also in living Armenian usage) and mihr (Middle Persian), derive from Avestan Mithra.

Greek/Latin "Mithras," the focal deity of the Greco-Roman cult of Mithraism is the nominative form of vocative Mithra. In contrast to the original Avestan meaning of "contract" or "covenant" (and still evident in post-Sassanid Middle Persian texts), the Greco-Roman Mithraists probably thought the name meant "mediator." In Plutarch's first century discussion of dualistic theologies, Isis and Osiris (46.7) the Greek historiographer provides the following explanation of the name in his summary of the Zoroastrian religion: Mithra is a meson ("in the middle") between "the good Horomazdes and the evil Aremanius [...] and this is why the Pérsai call the Mediator Mithra". Zaehner[7] attributes this false etymology to a role that Mithra (and the sun!) played in the now extinct branch of Zoroastrianism known as Zurvanism.


Refer to the two AKKADIAN words below, and the bits in blue bold above. One of the words is posted above. The one on the right is new.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/midru_migru.jpg


And this SURETH word comes to mind. G. Khan lists this word as a loan from Kurdish.

Eastern phonetic : ' mi dri
[Numbers]
English : again , another time , once more , anew , in return , back again
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-09-27, 22:13
SUMERIAN
urudu ha-zi(-in) : axe


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu2.jpg


SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ḥas ' ṣi: na:
[Army → Weapons]
English : an adze , a hatchet , a small axe with a short handle used with one hand
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Also found in the following Aramaic dialects, according to the CAL: Hatran, Jewish Literary Aramaic Targumic, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Locations of Hatran ("A"), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic ("D"), below. Points "B" and "C" represent the Assyrian cities of Assur and Nineveh respectively.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/axe_locations.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 17:13 ----------


SURETH (I believe this occurs in certain other Aramaic dialects without the "A" at the beginning.)
Eastern phonetic : ab ' bu: ba
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : a) flute, pipe, reed ; b) a channel , a canal, a watercourse, a waterway (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abubu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abubu2.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-28, 02:29
Some material previously posted.

Mitanni


The upper class in the cities consisted of a chariot-warrior caste, the maryannu, which bred horses on large country estates. The nobles received their land as an inalienable fief: land could not be sold. To get around this law, landowners arranged to sell land by "adopting" buyers for a prearranged sum of money. Sheep were raised for their wool, and the palace collected textiles to be exported to foreign markets. The social structure and legal system were well-organized and patterned after the Babylonian.

R. Y. Ebied (1980)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mariyannu.jpg


SURETH
maranaiuta
[Government]
English : lordship , dominion , sovereign / supreme authority , suzerainty (?) , castle ownership -European feudal system- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

maruyi
[Country → Agriculture]
English : (transitive verb) : to pasture , to put out to pasture , to feed (animals) on growing grass , to tend cattle in a pasturage , to let animals graze in a pasture land , to act as a shepherd
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mariannu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-28, 07:52
SUMERIAN
urudu ha-zi(-in) : axe


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu2.jpg


SYRIAC
Eastern phonetic : ḥas ' ṣi: na:
[Army → Weapons]
English : an adze , a hatchet , a small axe with a short handle used with one hand
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Also found in the following Aramaic dialects, according to the CAL: Hatran, Jewish Literary Aramaic Targumic, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Locations of Hatran ("A"), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic ("D"), below. Points "B" and "C" represent the Assyrian cities of Assur and Nineveh respectively.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/axe_locations.jpg

1
Hatran, Syriac, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
nrg, nrgʾ (nārgā) n.m. axe

1 axe Hatran, Syr, JBA.
2 mattock Syr.

nrgws, nrgwsʾ (nārgōs, nārgōsā) n.m. little axe

1 little axe Syr.
2 'wedding hook' Syr.


SURETH
'narga
[Industry]
English : an ax / axe
Dialect : Urmiah


These are the only Akkadian terms I came across in the "N" volume of the CAD:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nargu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabtuC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabtuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naris.jpg


May not be relevant to Sureth, but may have some relationship with one of the above Akkadian words.

SUMERIAN
na4-àr grinding slab (Ur III) (some read na4-kikkin) (but cf. Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, 132)
na4-šu(-k) stone hammer, pounder (Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, 132f.)



2
SUMERIAN
nagar carpenter (Civil, AV Biggs 20) (naggāru)


SURETH (Will do a separate entry for "riš" at another time)
naggara
[Professions]
English : a carpenter , a woodworker , an artificer in timber , a builder in timber / a framer , a woodcutter / a logger / a woodsman / a lumberman / a lumberjack / a lumberer / a tree cutter / a tree feller , a shipwright (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'riš naggari
[Professions]
English : an architect , a master builder , a "carpenter-in-chief"
Dialect : Urmiah

naggaruta
[Industry]
English : carpentry , woodwork , the craft of a carpenter / trade of cutting and joining timber to construct buildings or other structures , joinery (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naggaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rab_naggari-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naggarutu.jpg



3
SURETH
'ardiḥla
[City → Buildings]
English : architecture, design of buildings
Dialect : Urmiah

ardaḥluta
[Art → Architecture]
English : architecture
Dialect : Urmiah

ardaḥla
[Professions]
English : an architect
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arad_ekalli.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arad_ekallutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-28, 09:34
'kalu
[Human → Family]
English : the bride , a woman newly-married or about to be married
Dialect : Urmiah


The Joy Of Sumer-The Sacred Marriage Rite


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-54i5JT6UQ

Refer to the relevant post, a few spots above, as well.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ekallu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naru-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naaru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nairu.jpg


SURETH
nara
[Animals]
English : (intransitive verb) : to bellow (bull ...) , to moo / to low -cow- (?) , to roar (lion ...) , to growl (dog ...) , to bray / heehaw (donkey ...) , to bell (deer ...)
Dialect : Urmiah


-------------------------------------------------------

Separate entry.

SURETH
'nala
[Human → Speech]
English : a moan , a groan (pain / grief) , a low prolonged sound indicative of pain / grief , a wail , a whimper , a whine / whining / whinging / a lament
Dialect : Urmiah

'nala
[Human → Sleep]
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'nala
[Human → Sleep]
English : a nightmare
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naluB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/najalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-28, 14:36
Unfortunately, "meaning uncertain" for the Akkadian term.

SURETH
'abru
[Moral life → Quality]
English : dignity , honor , impressiveness , respect , modesty
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abru2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 09:36 ----------

SUMERIAN
a-zu, a-su physician


SURETH
'asi/'asia (fem. asitha)
[Human → Hygiene]
English : a healer , a physician , a doctor of medicine , one authorized to prescribe remedies to treat diseases
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-28, 22:29
SURETH (I believe this occurs in certain other Aramaic dialects without the "A" at the beginning.)
abbuba
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : a) flute, pipe, reed ; b) a channel , a canal, a watercourse, a waterway (?) ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abubu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abubu2.jpg




AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbu2.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/embubu.jpg




---------------------------------------------------------------


Separate topic.

Wikipedia


The Golan Heights (Arabic: هضبة الجولان‎ Haḍbatu 'l-Jawlān or مرتفعات الجولان Murtafaʻātu l-Jawlān, Hebrew: רמת הגולן‎, Ramat ha-Golan (audio) (help·info)), also called the Golan or the Syrian Golan,[3] forms a rocky plateau in the Anti-Lebanon mountains that overlooks southern Syria. The region attracts three million tourists a year and supplies Israel with one-third of its water.[4]

....

Arabic names are Jawlān[23] and Djolan (Arabic: جولان‎).[24] In the bible Golan is mentioned as a city of refuge located in Bashan: Deuteronomy 4:43, Joshua 20:8, 1Chronicles 6:71.[25] 19th century authors interpreted the word "Golan" (Hebrew: גולן‎) as meaning "something surrounded, hence a district".[26][27] The Greek name for the region is Gaulanitis (Greek: Γαυλανῖτις).[23] In the Mishna the name is Gablān similar to Aramaic language names for the region: Gawlāna, Guwlana and Gublānā.[23]

Arab cartographers of the Byzantine period referred to the area as jabal (mountain), though the region is a plateau.[28] The Muslims took over in 7th century CE.[23] The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia refers to the region as Gaulonitis.[29] The name Golan Heights was not used before the 19th century.[25] The UN refers to the region as The Occupied Syrian Golan.


SURETH
gulana
[Country → Fruits]
English : masculine : fruits : containing stones ; feminine : ܓܘܼܠܥܵܢܬܵܐ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Humanist
2012-09-28, 23:42
SURETH
'šulpa
[Army → Weapons]
English : a blade (any instrument) , the blade of a knife
Dialect : Urmiah

'šilpa
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) a blade ; 2) -?- propeller, fan, a bomb ...] : a blade (?) , a vane (?) ; 3) -?- turbine : a blade (?) , a paddle (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šlipta
[Army → Weapons]
English : a blade , the cutting part of an instrument
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salputtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silpuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silpuB2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silpu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulpu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salapu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-29, 04:31
SURETH
ṣada
[Sport → Hunting]
English : intransitive verb : 1) to hunt / go hunting , to pursue game or prey / to run , to go gunning for ; 2) to hit (especially what was aimed at) , to strike
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

(Source: G. Khan)
sadda n.m. (pl. sadde)
English : dammed section of paddy field consisting of a row of basins (məššare)
Dialect : Barwar*

(Source: Humanist)
Sada*
[Assyrian Christan Surname]
(May not mean what I think it may mean, but given the fact that the individual in question is from Barwar (see above), I thought it would not hurt to include it)

(Source: G. Khan)
məššara n.f. (pl. məššare)
English : section of a paddy field, paddy field basin
Dialect : Barwar



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saduC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu2.jpg

* (Nuzi)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saduB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/musaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/musarra.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/musara2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/musaruB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/musaru.jpg



SUMERIAN
sa12-du5(-k) (saĝ-du5) field or land registrar (šassukku) (Falkenstein, NSGU III 153)
sá square (in Gudea and math., see Suter, ZA 87, 5)
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
sá - du11 to reach, arrive at, attain, obtain, overtake (Attinger, Eléments 632-652)
abzu (mythological underground fresh water ocean, home of the god Enki); (a water-basin shrine in many Mesopotamian temples)
šár-ra-ab-du8 (a field worker)
sar garden plot; (an area measure = 1/100 iku = 1 sq. nindan = ca. 38.28 sq. meters)


*
Nuzi ("A")
Barwar ("B")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barwar_nuzi.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:31 ----------

Adding to AKKADIAN. Compare to Sureth, "ṣada," at top.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saduD.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saduD2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-29, 06:08
SURETH
'ṣmida
English : connected , bound together , united , linked / joined together by some tie , tied , related (?) , wired together (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'ṣmada
[Industry]
English : (transitive verb) : to bind , to make fast / fasten with a band or tie , to bind / tie together
Dialect : Urmiah

ṣmiduta
English : connection , the state of being connected , a junction , an alliance , a union , a close connection , coherence / coherency / cohesion , familiarity / intimacy (?) / an affair (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/simittu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samadu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/summudu.jpg



SUMERIAN
sa sinew; string, cord; net; bundle, bunch
saman lead rope (Civil, AV Biggs 21) (šummannu)
si to tie (shoes, sandles) (Civil, Or ns 56, 237)

Humanist
2012-09-29, 08:12
The meaning of the word below is likely explained somewhere, but I thought I would see if I could come up with a possible etymology, based on the words in the CAD.

Wikipedia


The Battle of Gaugamela...

I would not be surprised if we (Mesopotamians) have some Greek/Macedonian blood. A product of Alexander's conquest, perhaps.

Wikipedia
"Bust of a young Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic era, British Museum"
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/AlexanderTheGreat_Bust.jpg/220px-AlexanderTheGreat_Bust.jpg


The possible Ishtar link is exciting and all, but what really caught my attention was the Greek loan, Late Babylonian, etc. bit.

SURETH
(Sureth Online Dictionary)
'isṭra/'istra
[Sky → Astronomy]
English : 1) crescent , anything having the shape of a new moon , literally : "Ali's hand" ; 2) the emblem of Turkey , a symbol of Artemis ; 3) Eastern Syriac : a stater / gold coin
Dialect : Classical Syriac

The symbol of the Assyro-Babylonian goddess Ištar was a moon-crescent

'istir
[Measures]
English : a stater , a gold coin of Ancient Greece
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/istatirru.jpg

An example of a gold stater minted in Babylon (source: Wikipeda):


Head of helmeted Athena right. Obverse of a gold stater minted in Babylon during the reign of Philip III or Philip IV of Macedon.

On deposit in the Louvre Museum, Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman antiquities

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Gold_stater_obverse_Philippos_CdM_Paris_FG383.jpg/600px-Gold_stater_obverse_Philippos_CdM_Paris_FG383.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-29, 12:06
I really wish I had some formal training in this material.


1
SURETH
laḥuša
[Religion → Magic]
English : a charmer , a snake-charmer , one who uses the power of enchantment , a sorcerer / a magus (?)

'lḥaša
[Human → Speech]
English : intransitive verb : 1) to murmur , to utter complaints in a low half-articulated voice ; 2) to mutter incantations , to charm , to use charms (spells ...)

laḥšuta
[Religion → Magic]
English : a charm , a spell , the chanting of a verse supposed to have magic or occult powers , an incantation , an enchantment , magic



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lihsu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahisu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahisu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahasu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahasu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahasu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahasu4.jpg


2
SURETH
ḥaršuta
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) dumbness , muteness , the inability to speak ; 2) deafness


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harsu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-29, 15:10
SURETH
'urdu
[Army]
English : a horde , a host , a wandering troop , a number of men embodied for war
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
ardu (wardu, bardu, urdu, aradu) s.; 1. slave, 2. official, servant, subordinate, retainer, follower, soldier, subject (of a king), worshiper (of a deity); from Old Akkadian on; wardu in Old Babylonian, bardu and urdu in Old Assyrian, urdu in Middle Assyrian and Neo Assyrian, ardu in Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian and Standard Babylonian, aradu Explicit Malku I 67. pl. (w)ardu, Neo Assyrian urdani.


SUMERIAN
ìr, ir11, arad(2), urdu(2) male slave, servant. (a) Pre-Sarg. èr/ìr(NÍTA) or ir11(NÍTAxKUR) and àr-dú. (b) Sarg. àr-dú abandoned in favor of arad(NÍTA) or árad(NÍTAxKUR). (c) Sarg. and Ur III arad/árad and ìr/ir11 are all possible (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 82ff.) CDLI now prefers just ARAD or ÁRAD everywhere. See most recently Michalowski, Correspondence 227f. for forms and discussion. (ardu)



--------------------------------------------------------


1
SURETH
'kšapa
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) to whisper , to speak softly , to pray in a low voice ; 2) to supplicate , to beg , to beseech , to appeal , to pray , to entreat , to implore ; 3) to deprecate , to gibe , to taunt , to scoff , to mock , to speak ill of , to do down , to put (somebody) down
Dialect : Urmiah

kušapa
[Human → Speech]
English : an entreaty , a plea , a supplication , the act of beseeching , an earnest petition , an urgent prayer , an intercessory prayer
Dialect : Urmiah

qaṣoma
[Religion → Divination]
English : 1) a diviner , a soothsayer , one who foretells by divination / supernatural powers , a seer / clairvoyant (?) ; 2) music : a bard , a songster , a lyric poet , a minstrel / folk singer / troubadour
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kispu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassaputu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasapu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassapu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassapu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasmu.jpg



SUMERIAN
kúš to be(come) tired, weary, exhausted; to be troubled; to sigh; to ponder, deliberate; to rest, relax, be calm, calmed, soothed
ki-ús dais(?), cultic seat(?)
kaš4/kas4 - du11 to run; to hasten (Attinger, Eléments 578-586)
kéš(d/r) to be bound, tied, joined; to be locked, closed, blocked, stopped, sealed.
ka-aš(-bar) (divine) decision
ka-aš(-bar) - bar, ga-eš8 - bar, giš - bar to decide, render a (divine) verdict


2
SURETH
ḥarraša
[Religion → Magic]
English : a soothsayer , a magician , a shaman , an enchanter , a sorcerer , a wizard , one skilled in magic , a hex or spell caster
Dialect : Classical Syriac

ḥarrašutha
[Religion → Magic]
English : magic , sorcery , witchcraft , wizardry , necromancy (?) , conjuration , hex and spells , soothsaying (?)
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasilutu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harasu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 10:10 ----------


From memory, the two varieties of Akkadian most often represented in the words that I find "familiar," are:

1. Standard Babylonian (most frequent)
2. Neo-Babylonian (?)

3
SURETH
'ḥašša
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) Maclean : suffering , sorrow , grief / bereavement , care , heartache / heartbreak , pain / agony / misery , anguish / distress , heartsickness , sadness , 2) Oraham : worrying , feeling / expressing great care or anxiety ; ܡܩܵܒܸܠ ܚܲܫܵܐ : to suffer , to ache / to hurt / to have a bad time , to feel wretched ; ܥܵܒ݂ܸܕ ܚܲܫܵܐ : a) to suffer / to ache ; b) to be sorry - intransitive: to regret , to rue , to bewail , to mourn
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasuE.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasuD.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasuC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasuC2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassau.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-29, 21:59
SURETH
parbulira
[Professions]
English : Parabolarius , a professional fighter of wild beasts , a gladiator (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



A bit from a book that may help shed some light on this "Parabolarius."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/parabolarius-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-30, 02:40
SURETH
'burma
[Human → Body]
English : 1) a curl , a twist (?) ; Isaiah : 3, 24 : ܦܘܼܠܚܵܢܵ ܕܒܘܼܪܡܵܐ : well set hair ; 2) a water-tap , a faucet ; 3) clothing : a thick rough woolen cloak
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/burmu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/burmamu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/burrumu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-30, 04:49
SURETH
'bina
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) a polite answer when a person is called : Here I am ! ; 2) a polite question when a person does not hear : What ? , Will you repeat please ?
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]SUMERIAN
ba-an-gi4 response, answer
giš pan (rarely giš ba-na) bow (reading ban is obsolete, see Civil, JCS 55, 50f.)
nun noble, prince; princess (cf. Temple Hymns line 82)
nun(-na) princely, noble, preeminent, grand; loud


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/banu.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-30, 06:16
A few bits from the most recent, in a series of posts by Martin Lewis of GeoCurrents on the Bouckaert et al. IE paper, of more or less general applicability:

The Misleading and Inconsistent Language Selection in Bouckaert et al. (http://geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-misleading-and-inconsistent-language-selection-in-bouckaert-et-al)
September 28, 2012


[L]iving languages that have been intensively studied get preference over those that have not received similar scrutiny. Selecting and ignoring languages in such a manner may be convenient for formal modeling, but deep and systematic distortions result [emphasis added].

....

Although one could argue that the Scythian languages are not known well enough to have been used, such an argument amounts to an admission that preservation bias compromises the approach. The failure to include well-known Sogdian, on the other hand, cannot be attributed to preservation bias, and is perhaps rooted instead in carelessness, ignorance, or the simple desire to mold the data in order to reach pre-established conclusions.

Humanist
2012-09-30, 12:07
A link that hits close to home?

Most of my family are "Nochiyaye."

Wikipedia


An Englishman visiting the Nochiya Region in the late 19th century noted that "there is perhaps no Assyrian district where simple piety and loyal devotion to the church of their fathers is more beautifully seen than Nochiya".[2] Nochiyaye were and are still today most famous for their Eastern Rite faith and for being the guardians of the Assyrian Church of the East's canon laws, which they have faithfully preserved.[3]

....

The Nochiya tribe is not a "tribal confederation", but is based on the "bond of kinship" (tukhma). This point is important and what it means is that the ten clans are not just unified by leadership or geographical factors...but [also] by blood and so cannot be separated, they are shackled by the "bond of kinship," which defines their tribal affinity to outsiders.[1]

SURETH
'tuḥma
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : a species , a group of individuals having common attributes and designated by a common name , a kind , a sort , an origin , a type
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

mtahmuta
[Human → Family]
English : relationship , kinship , connection by consanguinity or affinity , blood relationship
Dialect : Urmiah

'naḥla
[Humanities → Geography]
English : a gorge , a narrow passage / entrance , a defile , a ravine , a torrent / a fast stream of water
Dialect : Urmiah

'mḥulta / miḥilta [<-- Came across this word, so included both the Sureth and Akkadian (below) forms]
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : a sieve , a strainer , a colander (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN (need to continue searching for the Akkadian equivalent of Sureth, "ṭuhma")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahallu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahallu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhulu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahhaltu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tukumma.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuamu.jpg



SUMERIAN (these may not be of much relevance)
tuk, tuku (reduplicated du12-du12) to acquire, obtain; to have, possess; to marry; to play a musical instrument (cf. reduplicated syllabic variant du-du in Dumuzi and Enkimdu 12, Sefati, Love Songs 337)
túg ma6 (conventional reading, perhaps better túg ba13) (a fine divine or royal garment) (nalbašu)
mè battle, war
me divine power, attribute, office; 'essence' (G. Cunningham, Analysing Lit. Sum. 76)
me, -m to be (copular verb)

naĝ-ku5 a side pond or water reservoir for flood control (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 133f.)

Humanist
2012-09-30, 13:28
SURETH
'šaḥra
[Transport]
English : a pannier , a large basket to carry provisions , bicycle : a pannier (?) / saddlebag (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saharru.jpg

Humanist
2012-09-30, 21:01
This Akkadian word reminded me of Sureth, "rabbi."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/murabbanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-01, 00:55
Assyrian Costumes and Jewelry
Samir Johna, Regina Tower

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pomegranate.jpg



SURETH
armunta [<-- I use this word]
[Country → Fruits]
English : a pomegranate
Dialect : Urmiah, Other

rimuna
[Country → Fruits]
Dialect : Other

rimmunta
[Country → Fruits]
English : a pomegranate
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, NENA

rumanta
[Country → Fruits]
English : a pomegranate
Dialect : Urmiah, Other

rumana
[Country → Fruits]
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA


SUMERIAN
giš nu-úr-ma pomegranate (nurmû)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nurmu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nurimdu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urumu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-01, 03:02
Assyrian Costumes and Jewelry
Samir Johna, Regina Tower

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pomegranate.jpg



SURETH
armunta [<-- I use this word]
[Country → Fruits]
English : a pomegranate
Dialect : Urmiah, Other

rimuna
[Country → Fruits]
Dialect : Other

rimmunta
[Country → Fruits]
English : a pomegranate
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, NENA

rumanta
[Country → Fruits]
English : a pomegranate
Dialect : Urmiah, Other

rumana
[Country → Fruits]
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA


SUMERIAN
giš nu-úr-ma pomegranate (nurmû)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armannu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nurmu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nurimdu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urumu.jpg


SUMERIAN
giš nu-úr-ma or is it, perhaps -->

giš úr-ma-nu

Just kidding. I know next to nothing about Sumerian.

Humanist
2012-10-01, 06:32
Another possible link from Standard Babylonian.


Wikipedia


Hallelujah, also spelled halleluiah, halleluyah, and the Greek and Latin form alleluia are transliterations of the Hebrew word הללו יה (Modern halleluya, Tiberian halləlûyāh) meaning "Praise ye Yah" or "Praise Jah, you people".[1][2] The last syllable is from the first two letters of the name of God, YHWH (also transcribed JHVH). "Praise Jah" is therefore a shortened form of "Praise Yahweh",[3][4][5] or, in another transliteration of the name, "Praise Jehovah".[6] It is used in different ways in Christian liturgies.[7] Hallelujah is found primarily in the book of Psalms. The word is used in Judaism as part of the Hallel prayers, and in Christian prayer.[8] It has been accepted into the English language and has a similar pronunciation in many other languages.

In the Bible

The term is used 24 times in the Hebrew Bible (mainly in the book of Psalms, e.g. 111–117, 145–150, where it starts and concludes a number of Psalms) and four times in Greek transliteration in the Christian Book of Revelation.[8]

In the Hebrew Bible hallelujah is actually a two-word phrase, not one word. The first part, hallelu, is the second-person imperative masculine plural form of the Hebrew verb hallal.[9] However, "hallelujah" means more than simply "praise Yah", as the word hallel in Hebrew means a joyous praise in song, to boast in God. Hallel could also refer to someone who acts madly or foolishly.[10][11]

The second part, Yah, is a shortened form of YHWH, the name for the Creator.[8] The name ceased to be pronounced in Second Temple Judaism, by the 3rd century BCE due to religious beliefs.[12] The correct pronunciation is not known, however, it is sometimes rendered by Christians as "Yahweh" or "Jehovah". The Septuagint translates Yah as Kyrios (the LORD), because of the Jewish custom of replacing the sacred name with "Adonai", meaning "the Lord".

In Psalm 150:6 the Hebrew reads kol han'shamah t'hallel yah;[13] It appears in the Hebrew Bible as הללו-יה and הללו יה. In Psalm 148:1 the Hebrew says "הללו יה hallelu yah". It then says "hallelu eth-YHWH" as if using "yah" and "YHWH" interchangeably. The word "Yah" appears by itself as a divine name in poetry about 49 times in the Hebrew Bible (including hallelu yah), such as in Psalm 68:4–5 "who rides upon the deserts by his name Yah" and Exodus 15:2 "Yah is my strength and song". It also often appears at the end of Israelite theophoric names such as Isaiah "yeshayah(u), Yahweh is salvation" and Jeremiah "yirmeyah(u), Yahweh is exalted".[8]

The word hallelujah occurring in the Psalms is therefore a request for a congregation to join in praise toward God. It can be translated as "Praise Yah" or "Praise Jah, you people",[1][6][7] and in English translations is usually rendered as "Praise the LORD".

"Hallelujah" appears in Revelation 19 in Greek transliteration as "alleluia" (ἀλληλούϊα), the great song of praise to God for his triumph over the Whore of Babylon.[8] This transliteration also appears in the Septuagint.

In standard modern Hebrew, the word "hallelujah" is sung as part of the Hallel Psalms (interspersed between Psalms 104-150). "Hallel" means "to praise," and "hallelu" is the imperative form. The ending "yah" is not a way of expressing magnanimity in the word Hallelujah. The word "merchav" in (Psalms 118:5) means "a large space" by itself. What the verse is saying in Hebrew is merchav Yah, or Yah brought me into a large place. The word "shalhevet" in (Song of Songs 8:6) does mean flame, but "shalhevetyah" means "flame of Yahweh" as it is written. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia proposes "shalhavotheyha" and "shalhavoth-yah" as alternate readings, but the correct translation is "flames of Yah." The alternate reading shalhavoth-Yah is identical in construction to Hallelu-Yah and the word Yah is punctuated the same in both cases. See Gesenius' Lexicon under the word שַׁלְהֶבֶת, page 824. See also the Brown/Driver/Briggs Lexicon, page 529, where shalhevethyah is translated "Yahweh-flame = powerful flame." The article also says that the ending -yah (in this particular case) has been interpreted as an encl. part., which would possibly explain the variant reading of shalhavotheyha in Biblia Hebraica. The accepted translation of Hallelu-Yah is "praise ye Yah."[14][15]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hallulaja1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hallulaja1a.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hallulaja1b.png
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hallulaja2.jpg



SUMERIAN (Daniel Foxvog)
hi-li (female) sexual charm, allure, appeal; ripeness, physical prime; luxuriance; wig
hu-luh. huluh, ha-luh to tremble, be afraid; to be fearsome; to scare, frighten (Sjöberg, AV Klein 300 + n. 14; Civil, AV Biggs 28)
hul, hulu to be bad, evil; to ruin, damage, destroy
hul(-a) adj. evil, bad; adv. evilly
húl to rejoice, delight in, be happy
húl(-la) happy, joyous; joy
húl-bi-šè, húl-la-bé, húl-la-e happily, joyfully
íl v. to lift, raise, bear, carry; to bear (fig.), endure; n. carrier, porter
i-lu cry; wail, lament; song
lú-lul treacherous person, traitor
lú-ùlu, lú-u18-lu (or lú-ùlulu) men, people; human beings, humanity, mankind (< *lú-lú) ePSD now reads lú-lu7(lu)
lù, lu to be(come) disturbed, stirred up, blurred, confused; to mix
luh to be clean; to clean, wash; to purify, refine
luh-ha cleaned, refined
lukur (a kind of priestess); (a cloistered woman, nadītu)
lul v. & adj. (to be) false, lying, deceitful, misleading, treacherous (opposite zi(d))
lul lie, falsehood; treachery, danger
la-la, a-la (male) prime, vigor, fullness, appeal, handsomeness (Sjöberg, Or 39, 75-77)
lil foolish (> lillu fool, idiot)

Wikipedia

William Blake (1757–1827)
Whore of Babylon
London, British Museum
1809

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/William_Blake_whore_babylon.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-01, 09:03
The possible Akkadian links are not mentioned in the below Wikipedia articles for the names "Alanna," and "Alan." Not that these stand a good chance of being the actual origins.


Alanna


Alanna, Alanah or Alannah is a given name which has disputed origins. It can be either derived from the Old High German word for "precious" or from the Irish language term "a leanbh" or "child", in English. It's sometimes considered a feminine form of Alan.

Alana is a common female given name coming from the Goidelic / Hawaiian community meaning fair, beautiful, offering. It also an Ibo given name which means father land or father's land in Igbo language.

"Alana" or "Elana" can also be the female name in an english translation of "Elan" which in Hebrew means tree.


Alan


Alan is a masculine given name in the English language.[2] The name, or forms of the name, were brought to England by people from Brittany, in the 11th century; later the name spread north into Scotland and west into Ireland.[3] In Ireland and Scotland there are Gaelic forms of the name which may, or may not be etymologically related to the name introduced by the Bretons.

In Breton, alan is a colloquial term for a fox and may originally have meant "deer", making it cognate with Old Welsh alan (cf. Canu Aneirin, B2.28, line 1125: "gnaut i-lluru alan buan bithei", "it was usual for him to be fleet like a deer"[4]), Modern Welsh elain (plural alanedd) "young dear" (and the plant name alan "coltsfoot, elecampane"), coming from a Brittonic root *alan- or *elan (also attested in Celtiberian in personal names such as Elanus, Elaesus, and Ela[5]), ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *(H1)el-Hn- "deer, hind" (perhaps denoting an animal - generally cervids - with red or brown fur).[6][7][8]

The Irish form of the name may be a diminutive of a word meaning "rock".[2] For example, the modern Irish ailín means "little rock".[9] Similarly, according to Patrick Woulfe, the Irish name Ailín is derived from diminutive ail, which means "noble", "rock". Woulfe stated that this name a pet form of some other name beginning with the first element Ail-.[10][11] Forms of the Gaelic name appear in early records British records; the Latin form Ailenus was recorded by Adomnán (died 704).[3][12][note 1] Another similar-looking word in Irish is álainn and Scottish Gaelic àlainn, which means "beautiful".[15][16][17]

Another explanation of the name is that the modern English Alan, and French Alain, are derived from the name of the Alans.[18] The Alans were an Indo-Iranian people who lived north of the Caucasus Mountains in what is today Russia,[19] and who were known to Classical writers in the 1st century CE.[18] According to historian Bernard Bachrach, the Alans settled in parts of what is today France, including Brittany, in the Early Middle Ages. Bachrach stated that the use of forms of the name in given names, surnames, and place names, are evidence of the continued influence of the Alans on the Gaulish, Breton and Frankish peoples.[20]



AKKADIAN

OLD BABYLONIAN/MIDDLE BABYLONIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ilanu.jpg


STANDARD BABYLONIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ilanuB.jpg


This one, too, reminds me of a particular name, and word. The name, "Lauren," and the word, "allure."

OLD BABYLONIAN/MIDDLE ASSYRIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/illuranu.jpg


STANDARD BABYLONIAN/NEO-BABYLONIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/illuru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-01, 12:01
A link that hits close to home?

Most of my family are "Nochiyaye."

Wikipedia


An Englishman visiting the Nochiya Region in the late 19th century noted that "there is perhaps no Assyrian district where simple piety and loyal devotion to the church of their fathers is more beautifully seen than Nochiya".[2] Nochiyaye were and are still today most famous for their Eastern Rite faith and for being the guardians of the Assyrian Church of the East's canon laws, which they have faithfully preserved.[3]

....

The Nochiya tribe is not a "tribal confederation", but is based on the "bond of kinship" (tukhma). This point is important and what it means is that the ten clans are not just unified by leadership or geographical factors...but [also] by blood and so cannot be separated, they are shackled by the "bond of kinship," which defines their tribal affinity to outsiders.[1]


SURETH
'naḥla
[Humanities → Geography]
English : a gorge , a narrow passage / entrance , a defile , a ravine , a torrent / a fast stream of water
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (need to continue searching for the Akkadian equivalent of Sureth, "ṭuhma")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahallu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahallu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhulu.jpg


This is also an interesting possibility, for the origin of "Nochiyaye."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhua.jpg


SURETH
nuhama
[Human → Speech]
English : murmuring , humming , uttering a low indistinct sound , moaning
Dialect : Urmiah

'nḥa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : to harm , to injure , to hurt / to offend / to grieve , to damage , to cause misfortune to
Dialect : Urmiah

niḥa
[Transport]
English : slow , not swift
Dialect : Urmiah

niḥuta
[Industry]
English : 1) slowness , awkwardness -unskilfulness resulting from a lack of training- (?) ; 2) easiness / being at ease / relief (?) / alleviation (?) / quietness , serenity , placidity (?) / placidness (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


Looking at these words, and their meanings, reminded me of this (source: Wikipedia):


Nahum Hebrew: נַחוּם Naḥūm‎) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. His book comes in chronological order between Micah and Habakkuk in the Bible.[1] He wrote about the end of the Assyrian Empire, and its capital city, Nineveh, in a vivid poetic style.[2]

Little is known about Nahum’s personal history. His name means "comforter," and he was from the town of Alqosh [Al Qosh], (Nah 1:1) which scholars have attempted to identify with several cities, including the modern Alqush of Assyria and Capharnaum of northern Galilee.[3] He was a very nationalistic Hebrew however and lived amongst the Elkoshites in peace.


The fall of Nineveh

Nahum’s prophecy carries a particular warning to the Ninevites of coming events, although he is partly in favor of the destruction.[5] One might even say that the book of Nahum is "a celebration of the fall of Assyria."[2] And this is not just a warning or speaking positively of the destruction of Nineveh, it is also a positive encouragement and "message of comfort for Israel, Judah, and others who had experienced the "endless cruelty" (3:19) of the Assyrians."[2] The prophet Jonah shows us where God shows concern for the people of Nineveh, while Nahum’s writing testifies to his belief in the righteousness/justice of God[14] and how God dealt with those Assyrians in punishment according to "their cruelty" (Nahum 3:19). The Assyrians had been used as God's "rod of [...] anger, and the staff in their hand [as] indignation." (Isaiah 10:5)


AKKADIAN (STANDARD BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussudu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/namu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/namu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/namu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/namu4.jpg


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAyR1K0fFJA

Humanist
2012-10-01, 17:23
A nice bit for those interested in their past, whatever it may be.


The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples in the Neo-Babylonian Period, in Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Cultures (eds. E. Robson & K. Radner 2011) Oxford: 725-51
Caroline Waerzeggers


These and similar epithets put emphasis on the king's duty to transmit the practices of the past unaltered to the future and to renew what had been wronged or undone. Long after the fall of Babylon, king Nebuchadnezzar II was still remembered for having restored the cult of Ishtar of Uruk to its original state (Beaulieu 2001). The antiquarian interest of the Neo-Babylonian monarchs, who excavated temple foundations and examined the hidden messages of former kings enclosed therein (Beaulieu 1994; Schaudig 2003), can also be seen in this light. By interring their own messages alongside those recovered from the past, they created a lasting dialogue, written in clay, brick, and stone, with their like-minded, pious predecessors. (Radner 2005)


I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits (…), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription. (Langdon 1912: 78-79: Nebukadnezar 2; Da Riva 2008: 27)

Humanist
2012-10-01, 19:59
Another post regarding the deity, Nabu.

Source: CAL

nby vb. to predict, prophesy
D
1 to predict, prophesy JLAtg, Syr, LJLA.

Dt
1 to act as a prophet BA, JLAtg, Gal, PTA, CPA, Syr, LJLA. --(a) to rave (as does a prophet) Syr. --(b) to predict Syr, JBA.
2 to predict (i.e. to prophesy transitive) Gal, Syr.

Wikipedia:

Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.

Originally, Nabu was a West Semitic deity introduced by the Amorites into Mesopotamia, probably at the same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[1] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.

The etymology of his name is disputed. It could be derived from the root nb´ for "to call or announce", meaning something like "He who has called".

His power over human existence is immense, because Nabu engraves the destiny of each person, as the gods have decided, on the tablets of sacred record. Thus, He has the power to increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life.

Nabu is mentioned in the Nevi'im of the Tanakh as Nebo in Isaiah 46:1.

A statue of Nabu from Calah, erected during the reign of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III is on display in the British Museum.

In late Babylonian astrology, Nabu was connected with the planet Mercury. As the god of wisdom and writing, he was equated by the Greeks to either Apollo or Hermes, the latter identified by the Romans with their own god Mercury.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Nabu-Lawrie-Highsmith.jpeg/170px-Nabu-Lawrie-Highsmith.jpeg


Eastern Syriac

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu1.jpg


"He has filled in ???" I do not know what "kok wa" means.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu2.jpg

Refer to "ta rid", in the last entry,above:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/trd.jpg


Not sure if there is anything here.


SURETH
'šinga
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) desire , a longing / craving for a wished-for object / dream , love , passion , lust (?) , yearning , longing , aspiration , sexual lust (?) / sexual appetite (?) / sexual desire (?) / libido (?) ; 2) industry : in a water-mill : a spout by which wheat is brought down from the hopper to the millstones

šanoga
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a lover , one person holding affection for another , one who is in love with another , a male lover / sweetheart , a swain / suitor / wooer


SUMERIAN
saĝ adj. : first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born;

šà-ge-guru: one's heart's desire

sa(g), ša(g): to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa to be a favorite of (sa is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa(-ga):, ša(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa(g): to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa)

saĝa: chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

sig, si-ig, sig: to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa(g); see also a-sig)

sig(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig(KAL): good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag, sag(KAL) (cf. sa-ga, sa-ga)


The above Sumerian words also remind me of another Sureth word. However, I am confident it will be labelled as a Persian/Kurdish loan.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sangu.jpg



A nice bit for those interested in their past, whatever it may be.


The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples in the Neo-Babylonian Period, in Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Cultures (eds. E. Robson & K. Radner 2011) Oxford: 725-51
Caroline Waerzeggers

More from Caroline Waerzeggers' paper:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/caroline_waerzeggers.jpg


Ezida = Temple of Nabu in Borsippa (see above, for more on Nabu)
Esangila (Esagila) = Temple of Marduk in Babylon

Wikipedia


The Ésagila, a Sumerian name signifying "É (temple) whose top is lofty",[1] (literally: "house of the raised head") was a temple dedicated to Marduk, the protector god of Babylon.

The average Eurogenes SPA points for the Mandaeans (N=2) and Assyrians, in relation to Babylonian cities, including Babylon and Borsippa.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/borsippa_babylon.jpg

SURETH (in addition to those above)

(Sureth Online Dictionary)
saquli
[Art]
English : to embellish / to beautify , to make beautiful or elegant (by ornaments) / fetching , to decorate , to adorn , to garnish
Dialect : Urmiah

suqala
[Art]
English : adornment , adorning , decking / dressing with ornaments / decoration / embellishment / enhancements / garlands / garnishment / trimming -dishes- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'sqala
[Industry]
English : (transitive verb) : to polish , to furbish , to rub / scour to brightness , to burnish ; 2) to embellish , to adorn , to decorate
Dialect : Urmiah

'zawin
[Trade]
English : to buy , to purchase
Dialect : Classical Syriac [Urmia]

'izin [<-- I am not familiar with this word. But, then gain, I am not familiar with many Sureth words]
[City → Administration]
English : feminine word : leave / permission , the act of allowing or permitting , a formal consent , authorization / clearance , permittance ; ܐܸܙܸܢ ܐܝܼܬ ܠܝܼ : I may , I can , I am allowed , I have permission
Dialect : Urmiah

(G. Khan)
zyd I (zayəd, zidle, zyada) to increase (intr.); to be excessive, to be left over
m-zyd (mazyəd/m>zid, muzyədle/muzidle, mazyode/mazode) to add; to increase | qaríwti} mazyèd qàlax} My friend, raise your voice (A38:8); "álaha mazyêdle} May God increase it (said by a guest to the host as thanks for a meal).

(G. Khan)
cncl Q m-cncl (mcancəl, mcuncəlle, mcancole) to egg on (a straggler) [<-- Note: Should not be "c." Could not create the diacritical mark. The pronunciation (at least when I say it) is close to "shanshil."]

'nba
[Religion → Divination]
English : transitive verb : to prophesy , to predict / to make a prediction , to foretell , to prognosticate , to forecast , to foresee , to augur (?) , to divine , to bode (?) , to betoken (?)

Humanist
2012-10-01, 21:32
Came across this one as well.

Wikipedia


History of Aspirin

Plant extracts, including willow bark and spiraea, of which salicylic acid was the active ingredient, had been known to help alleviate headaches, pains, and fevers since antiquity. The father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, who lived sometime between 460 BC and 377 BC, left historical records describing the use of powder made from the bark and leaves of the willow tree to help these symptoms.[154]

1923 advertisement

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Aspirine-1923.jpg/220px-Aspirine-1923.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/azupiranu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/azupiru1.png

---------- Post Merged at 16:27 ----------


SUMERIAN
a-zu, a-su physician


SURETH
'asi/'asia (fem. asitha)
[Human → Hygiene]
English : a healer , a physician , a doctor of medicine , one authorized to prescribe remedies to treat diseases
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu.jpg

Meant to add this to the last post.

---------- Post Merged at 16:32 ----------


Wiktionary


Etymology

From the German trademark Aspirin, from Acetylirte Spirsäure (“acetylated spiræic acid”). The trade name Aspirin is a registered trademark in some countries, but has entered the English language in generic usage.

Humanist
2012-10-01, 22:34
(Source: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2203-azazel)


AZAZEL (Scapegoat, Lev. xvi., A. V.):

The name of a supernatural being mentioned in connection with the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi.). After Satan, for whom he was in some degree a preparation, Azazel enjoys the distinction of being the most mysterious extrahuman character in sacred literature. Unlike other Hebrew proper names, the name itself is obscure.

—Biblical Data:
In Lev. xvi. the single allusion to Azazel is as follows: On the tenth day of Tishri (see Atonement Day) the high priest, after first performing the prescribed sacrifices for himself and his family, presented the victims for the sins of the people. These were a ram for a burnt offering, and two young goats for a sin-offering. Having brought the goats before Yhwh at the door of the tabernacle, he cast lots for them, the one lot "for Yhwh" and the other "for Azazel." The goat that fell to Yhwh was slain as a sin-offering for the people. But the goat of Azazel (now usually known as the "scapegoat") was made the subject of a more striking ceremony. The high priest laid his hands upon its head and confessed over it the sins of the people. Then the victim was handed over to a man standing ready for the purpose, and, laden as it was with these imputed sins, it was "led forth to an isolated region," and then let go in the wilderness.

—In Biblical, Apocryphal, and Rabbinical Literature:
The Rabbis, interpreting "Azazel" as "Azaz" (rugged), and "el" (strong), refer it to the rugged and rough mountain cliff from which the goat was cast down (Yoma 67b; Sifra, Aḥare, ii. 2; Targ. Yer. Lev. xiv. 10, and most medieval commentators).Most modern scholars, after having for some time indorsed the old view, have accepted the opinion mysteriously hinted at by Ibn Ezra and expressly stated by Naḥmanides to Lev. xvi. 8, that Azazel belongs to the class of "se'irim," goat-like demons, jinn haunting the desert, to which the Israelites were wont to offer sacrifice (Lev. xvii. 7 [A. V. "devils"]; compare "the roes and the hinds," Cant. ii. 7, iii. 5, by which Sulamith administers an oath to the daughters of Jerusalem. The critics were probably thinking of a Roman faun).

Azazel Personification of Impurity
Far from involving the recognition of Azazel as a deity, the sending of the goat was, as stated by Naḥmanides, a symbolic expression of the idea that the people's sins and their evil consequences were to be sent back to the spirit of desolation and ruin, the source of all impurity. The very fact that the two goats were presented before Yhwh before the one was sacrificed and the other sent into the wilderness, was proof that Azazel was not ranked with Yhwh, but regarded simply as the personification of wickedness in contrast with the righteous government of Yhwh. The rite, resembling, on the one hand, the sending off of the epha with the woman embodying wickedness in its midst to the land of Shinar in the vision of Zachariah (v. 6-11), and, on the other, the letting loose of the living bird into the open field in the case of the leper healed from the plague (Lev. xiv. 7), was, indeed, viewed by the people of Jerusalem as a means of ridding themselves of the sins of the year. So would the crowd, called Babylonians or Alexandrians, pull the goat's hair to make it hasten forth, carrying the burden of sins away with it (Yoma vi. 4, 66b; "Epistle of Barnabas," vii.), and the arrival of the shattered animal at the bottom of the valley of the rock of Bet Ḥadudo, twelve miles away from the city, was signalized by the waving of shawls to the people of Jerusalem, who celebrated the event with boisterous hilarity and amid dancing on the hills (Yoma vi. 6, 8; Ta'an. iv. 8). Evidently the figure of Azazel was an object of general fear and awe rather than, as has been conjectured, a foreign product or the invention of a late lawgiver. Nay, more; as a demon of the desert, it seems to have been closely interwoven with the mountainous region of Jerusalem and of ancient pre-Israelitish origin.


Wikipedia



In 3 Enoch
In the 5th Century 3 Enoch, Azazel is one of the three angels (Azza [Shemhazai] and Uzza [Ouza] are the other two) who opposed Enoch's high rank when he became the angel Metatron. Whilst they were fallen at this time they were still in Heaven, but Metatron held a dislike for them, and had them cast out. They were thenceforth known as the 'three who got the most blame' for their involvement in the fall of the angels marrying women. It should be remembered that Azazel and Shemhazai were said to be the leaders of the 200 fallen, and Uzza and Shemhazai were tutelary guardian angels of Egypt with both Shemhazai and Azazel and were responsible for teaching the secrets of heaven as well. The other angels dispersed to 'every corner of the Earth.'

In the Apocalypse of Abraham
In the extracanonical text the Apocalypse of Abraham (c.1stC AD), Azazel is portrayed as an unclean bird who came down upon the sacrifice which Abraham prepared. (This is in reference to Genesis 15:11: "Birds of prey came down on the carcasses, but Abram drove them away" [NIV]).

A depiction of Azazel in his familiar form of a goat-like demon, from Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal (Paris,1825)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/de/Azazel.jpg/300px-Azazel.jpg.

SURETH
azza
[Human → Body]
English : vigor / vigour , the active strength or force of the body , strength , force , energy , forceful exertion , zip , power , muscle / sinews
Dialect : Urmiah

azziza
[Moral life → Will]
English : vehement , fervid , determined , acting with great force , furious , violent , impetuous , passionate / burning , zealous , avid , -words- vociferous , enthusiastic (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

azzizuta
[Moral life → Will]
English : vehemence , zeal , impetuous force , energy / determination / drive / impetus , violence , ardour / ardor / heat
Dialect : Urmiah

euza
[Moral life → Will]
English : energy / drive / forceful exertion / zip , strength of expression / vehemence , power to impress the mind and arouse feelings / charisma , capacity of acting / producing an effect , fervor / ardor / enthusiasm / zeal
Dialect : Urmiah

euzaza
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : fervor , heat / intensity of action (?) , excessive warmth , vehemence , intensity of feeling / expression / impetuosity / enthusiasm , glowing ardor / zeal
Dialect : Urmiah

uzaia
[Moral life → Quality]
English : fortitude , vigor , strength , firmness , inpregnability / unshakability , passive courage / stoutness / resoluteness , pith
Dialect : Urmiah

ṭiza / 'ṭéza
[Human → Body]
English : the anus , the rectum
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

'déṣa
[Animals]
English : an ibex , a wild goat , a steinbok
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'izza
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a goat ;
Dialect : Urmiah


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uzuzzu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uzuzzu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uzuzzu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uzzu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uzzatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezzuC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezezu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezzu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezzetu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/issuru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/issu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tezu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-02, 00:11
This may not be of any significance.


SURETH
'ṣivta ('ṣiwta)
[Art]
English : 1) decoration / the act of decorating , the adornment / act of adorning , the embellishment / embellishing , dressing / beautifying / bedecking / gracing ; 2) an ornament , a garnish , a garniture , a trinket (?) / decorative object (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'ṣvata ('ṣwata)
[Art]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to arrange , to put / dispose in proper order , to compose , to adjust , to tune (?) ; 2) to decorate , to embellish , to adorn , to beautify
Dialect : Urmiah

ṣbath
[Art]
English : ornate , to adorn , to decorate , to bedeck
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabat.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabatu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabatu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabatu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibtu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibtu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-02, 01:33
There may not be anything here, but given that Halloween is only a few weeks away, I could not help myself. :)

SUMERIAN
ne-su-ub to kiss
ní-su-ub crazy person; (an ecstatic?)


SURETH
'nṣapa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) intransitive verb : to exude , to sweat out , to flow from a body through the pores or by natural discharge -juice, pus, blood, sweat ...- , to ooze out -perspiration- ; 2) to hiss , to shrill , to shriek , to screech , to scream (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nassabu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasabu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasabu2.jpg


:)

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/30/1256899791474/Bela-Lugosi-as-Dracula-001.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-02, 04:22
Wikipedia


Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Mesopotamian city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq, located near the Tigris river. The site consists of one medium sized multiperiod tell and two small single period mounds.

The town of Gasur was apparently founded during the Akkadian Empire in the late third millennium BC. In the middle second millennium Hurrians absorbed the town and renamed it Nuzi. The history of the site during the intervening period is unclear, though the presence of a few cuneiform tables from Old Assyria indicates that trade with nearby Assur was taking place. After the fall of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni to the Hittites, Nuzi fell to the Assyrians and went into decline. Note that while Hurrian period is well known because those levels of the site were fully excavated, the earlier history is less firm because of only scanty digging.[1] The history of Nuzi is closely interrelated with that of the nearby towns of Eshnunna and Khafajah.

Mesopotamia in 2nd millennium BC

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Meso2mil-English.JPG/300px-Meso2mil-English.JPG


1
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hewadu.jpg


SURETH [<-- When I use the word, I ordinarily mean,"to mix." Not necesarily "to agitate."]
ḥawuṭa
[Government]
English : 1) Maclean : a disturber , a trouble-maker ; 2) Oraham : an agitator , one who stirs or excites others , one who causes discontent or uneasiness of mind , an abettor , a disturber / disrupter of the peace ; 2) a mixer , one who mixes or stirs
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

'ḥwaṭa
[Human → Speech]
English : verbal noun of ܚܵܒ݂ܸܛ : to incite , to stir , to spur on , to move to action , to urge on , to instigate : tumult , confusion , urging / pressing ; ܚܒ݂ܵܛܵܐ ܕܦܵܘܚܵܐ : a storm
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

'ḥotu
English : confusion , trouble , disorder , feelings ? : mixed feelings (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ḥoṭana
English : mingler , mixer , one who mingles , an agitator , one who urges
Dialect : Urmiah

'ḥawiṭ
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : 1) Classical Syriac : to shake , to beat ; 2) transitive and intransitive : to mix , to mingle ; past participle, Arithmetic : ܚܒ݂ܝܼܛܵܐ : fraction mixed , compound ; 3) metaphor : to interfere , to meddle in , to step in , to wheel and deal ; 4) metaphor : transitive : to spoil , to mar ; 5) metaphor : to trouble , to disturb ; 6) to temper together , see ܡܚܵܒܸܛ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac [Urmia]


2
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harwarahhu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harwaruzzu.jpg

Also, refer to the Akkadian words list in #4.


SURETH
mil ' ḥa wa
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a pitchfork (a farming implement)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

mal ' ḥa wa
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a pitchfork
Dialect : Eastern Syriac



3 (Throwing this one out there)
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hiwaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hilina.jpg


SURETH
'ḥwara

English : masculine, noun and adjective : white ; feminine : ܚܘܵܪܬܵܐ ; plural : Revelation : 3, 4 : ܚܘܵܪܹܐ : white garments ; ܠܸܒܘܼܗܝ ܚܘܵܪܵܐ : unmanly , cowardly ; ܛܘܼܪܵܐ ܚܘܵܪܵܐ : the name of a mountain in Persia : the white mountain ; ܡܵܓ̰ܝܼܕܝܼܵܐ ܚܘܵܪܵܐ : a silver dollar ; ܕܘܼܟܬܵܐ ܚܘܵܪܬܐ : in a book : a hiatus , a blank , a gap , a discontinuation ; ܚܘܵܪܵܐ ܕܒܸܥܬܵܐ : the white of an egg
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

[B][COLOR="#000000"]'ḥawir

English : intransitive verb : to whiten , to become white / pale
Dialect : Classical Syriac

ḥiwara
[Nature → Minerals]
English : 1) syriaque classique : l'étain , le fer blanc ; 2) lime , white plaster (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac [Urmia]


[COLOR="#FF0000"]4
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halwu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hawalhu.jpg


SURETH
'ḥalwat
[Human being]
English : 1) adjective masculine and feminine : private , not publicly known , secret , intimate , personal , not open , clandestine (?) , undercover (?) , privy , inmost , innermost , covert , hidden , secretive , clandestine (?) / underground (?) , voir ܒܛܝܼܢܵܐ ; 2) Oraham : sequestered from company , in isolation (prisoner) ; 3) feminine noun : privacy , seclusion (?) , freedom from intrusion (?) ; ܒܚܲܠܘܲܬ : in private , in privacy
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

This word is of Turkish / Persian / Arabic origin [<-- They are listing it as a loan]

Humanist
2012-10-02, 05:32
SUMERIAN
mes : strong, vigorous youth, young man (Marchesi, Or 73, 191-3)

mas-su, mas-sù : leader, chief; councillor (massû)


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' msa sa
[Clothing]
English : a fibre / fiber , a thredlike object , a yarn , a stuff , a core , a tough substance composed of threadlike tissue capable of being spun or woven , a thread / rope made of fiber tissue ;
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : maṣ ' ia: na
[Industry]
English : able , having sufficient power / skill / means / resources of any kind to accomplish the object , competent , skilled , capable
Dialect : Urmiah

Previously compared to Akkadian.

SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ' muš ta
[Human → Body]
English : the fist , a stroke (hit) with the fist , a punch (a blow with the fist)
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ' muš ti ' mḥai ta
[Sport]
English : boxing , the act of fighting with the fists
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : maš ' ru: qa
[Art → Music]
English : 1) a pipe , a whistle (?) , a catcall (?) ; 2) a toot , the sound produced by blowing through a pipe ;
Dialect : Urmiah

There is also another meaning, I believe, for "mašriq." I believe it can mean "to hit someone hard."


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amasu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-02, 08:17
SURETH
'warda
[Country → Plants]
English : 1) a rose
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA

This word is derived from Old Persian [<-- Stated as a loan. It may be.]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ardatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wardatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/warittu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aritu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/russu.jpg


Etymology.Com

rose (n.)
O.E. rose, from L. rosa (cf. It., Sp. rosa, Fr. rose; also source of Du. roos, Ger. Rose, Swed. ros, etc.), probably via Italian and Greek dialects from Gk. rhodon "rose" (Aeolic wrodon), ultimately from Pers. *vrda-. But cf. Tucker: "The rose was a special growth of Macedonia & the Thracian region as well as of Persia, & the Lat. & Gk. names prob. came from a Thraco-Phrygian source." Aramaic warda is from O.Persian; the modern Persian cognate, via the usual sound changes, is gul, source of Turk. gül "rose." The ultimate source of all this may be PIE *wrdho- "thorn, bramble."

Humanist
2012-10-02, 17:04
A post over on Gene Expression has made me want to go back and highlight a few past posts, so that folks coming across this thread can get a better idea (I hope) of my perspective. That is, without having to dredge through hundreds of past posts. Nothing. And I mean nothing (save for the work of trained professionals) in this thread should be taken without a very healthy dose of skepticism. Most of my posts are not much more than streams of consciousness.

Here is one (perspective) post that comes immediately to mind.


The Median “Empire”, the End of Urartu and Cyrus’ the Great Campaign in 547 B.C. (Nabonidus Chronicle II 16)

In 1988, 1994 and in 1995, the late Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg questioned with arguments of considerable weight, the existence of a Median “Empire” as a political entity possessing structures comparable to those of the so called Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian or the Achaemenid “empires”. She pleaded for a methodologically fresh approach by not only casting doubt on the general validity of our most important source, i.e. Herodotus’ Medikos Logos, and pointing to gaps in the non-classical sources, i.e. primarily for the first half of the sixth century B.C., but also taking into consideration anthropological models of state formation and conceptual systems of the social sciences.

Independently from each other Burkhart Kienast and I adduced arguments calling into question the presumed vassal status of the early Persians vis à vis the Medes. Amélie Kuhrt has recently shown that the Assyrian heartland as well as its eastern fringes (the region around Arrapha) were part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Both regions stayed under firm Babylonian control after the downfall of its Assyrian predecessor. In 2001 an international conference held in Padova focused on the problem of the Median “Empire” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint taking into consideration historical, archaeological and philological perspectives. Though it became clear that even modern reconstructions of the so called Median language do not rest on too firm ground there remained disagreement concerning the existence of a Median “Empire”. Whereas some scholars questioned the existence of such a structure others still believed that a Median “Empire” played an important role in the history of the Ancient Near East. In any case it became clear that modern views of this “empire” are heavily built upon the picture Herodotus presents in his Histories written around 420 B.C. Cuneiform sources dealing with the Medes from the 9th century B.C. onwards do not support this view. This is also true for the archaeological remains the interpretation of which is often dependent on the picture the written sources offer.

Dr. Robert Rollinger (Innsbruck)

---------- Post Merged at 12:00 ----------

Post 2


Mapping patterns of long-term settlement in Northern Mesopotamia at a large scale (http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/03/12/1115472109)
Bjoern H. Menzea, and Jason A. Ura

Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138; and Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

Published online before print March 19, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1115472109

Abstract

The landscapes of the Near East show both the first settlements and the longest trajectories of settlement systems. Mounding is a characteristic property of these settlement sites, resulting from millennia of continuing settlement activity at distinguished places. So far, however, this defining feature of ancient settlements has not received much attention, or even been the subject of systematic evaluation. We propose a remote sensing approach for comprehensively mapping the pattern of human settlement at large scale and establish the largest archaeological record for a landscape in Mesopotamia, mapping about 14,000 settlement sites—spanning eight millennia—at 15-m resolution in a 23,000-km2 area in northeastern Syria. To map both low- and high-mounded places—the latter of which are often referred to as “tells”—we develop a strategy for detecting anthrosols in time series of multispectral satellite images and measure the volume of settlement sites in a digital elevation model. Using this volume as a proxy to continued occupation, we find a dependency of the long-term attractiveness of a site on local water availability, but also a strong relation to the relevance within a basin-wide exchange network that we can infer from our record and third millennium B.C. intersite routes visible on the ground until recent times. We believe it is possible to establish a nearly comprehensive map of human settlements in the fluvial plains of northern Mesopotamia and beyond, and site volume may be a key quantity to uncover long-term trends in human settlement activity from such a record.

---------- Post Merged at 12:04 ----------

Post 3


This study, on select 8th and 7th century BCE Neo-Assyrian settlements in northern Mesopotamia, may also be of relevance:

Landscape and Settlement In the Neo-Assyrian Empire

by Jason Ur
Harvard University


[M]any of these settlements may well be the kapru of Neo-Assyrian texts (Fales and Postgate 1995: 31), which were probably small hamlets or villages. Such settlements are well attested in the so-called Assyrian Domesday book, which appears to have functioned as a register (housed in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh) of tax-exempt land during the seventh century B.C. /settlements_late_neo_assyrian.jpg[/IMG]

Humanist
2012-10-02, 18:13
Post 4


Mario Fales

Moving around Babylon: On the Aramean and Chaldean Presence in Southern Mesopotamia, in Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva, Ess, Margarete van, and Marzahn, Joachim (Eds.), Babylon Wissenskultur in Orient und Okzident, Berlin, Boston (DE GRUYTER) 2011, 91–112

Differently from the long-attested Arameans, the Chaldeans (Kaldu) are – quite surprisingly– not documented in the written sources before 878 BC. Their place names, and especially those of their vast territorial and political enclaves, were characterized by the noun Bıt, “household”, followed by the linguistically West Semitic personal name of an eponymic ancestor figure, exactly as in the case of the contemporary Aramean states of the Jezirah and Transeuphratene.15 This feature allows us to postulate a connection of the Chaldeans with the northern and western Arameans in the general perspective of a shared heritage of ethnicity; while some slight hints in the texts might more specifically point to political affiliations of long standing between the Chaldeans and the Aramean tribes of the Middle Euphrates area: e.g. as we shall see below, the rebel Chaldean leader Mukı¯n-ze¯ri had political contacts with the Arameans of Hindanu, some 300 kms upstream on the Euphrates.

On the other hand, it must be admitted that no straightforward structural similarities between the two main non-indigenous groupings present in the Babylonian area may be traced on the social, economic, and cultural level; quite the contrary is in fact true. This contrast is particularly evident if one observes the settlement patterns of the Chaldeans, and their general socio-economic profile. To be sure, the social structure of the Chaldeans was rigidly centered upon the tribal unit of which all subjects were jointly “members” (ma¯r, literally, “son” of the eponymic ancestor) – similarly to the Aramean tribal “households” of the northern Jezirah and inner Syria – but it would be more precise to state that such units represented in fact tribal confederations, which must have undergone a relatively long process of social coalescence, although the latter has left no trace in the written record.

….

But let us return once more to the main theme of this contribution, which is that of a view of non-indigenous groups “moving around Babylon”, with alternatively peaceful and hostile stances vis-à-vis Assyrian interference. The Mukı¯n-ze¯ri epistolary dossier shows once more the full cast of characters which was introduced in section § 1, above, albeit now endowed with movement and with complex reciprocal relations. In the first place, we are given to observe the inhabitants of the ancient cities of the southern alluvium – and especially the people of Babylon itself – as floundering in the political and military net that has been cast around them: deeply distrustful of the Assyrians, but no less terrified of the Chaldeans, they practice forms of passive resistance which seem to lead nowhere, and often become the helpless prey of raids and other forms of violence. The second group which stands out is that of the Aramean tribesmen: they seem to resent the military struggle taking place around them as much as the city-dwellers, but possibly only insofar as it impinges upon their freedom of movement and their socio-economic autarchy. Accordingly, they choose to side with one or the other opponent, but do not seem particularly bent on participating to the action in person – at least, not for the time being. And finally, we have the Chaldeans, whom the revolt of Mukı¯n-ze¯ri catches in the process of (re)defining their mutual political relations: in other words, this first major interference of the Assyrians in Babylonian affairs seems to represent a unique opportunity to measure the respective strength of the individual confederations and of their smaller camp-followers – but not without some personal and political qualms reflecting the tight gentilic structure among the groups, as in the case of Balassu of Bit-Dakkuri, who was the uncle of Mukı¯n-ze¯ri of Bit-Amukkani.

---------- Post Merged at 12:22 ----------

Post 5


New Light on Assyro-Aramaic Interference: the Assur Ostracon, in

F.M. Fales – G.F. Grassi (Eds.), CAMSEMUD2007. Proceedings of the 13th Italian Meeting of Afro-asiatic Linguistics, Padova 2010, 189-204.
Mario Fales

Was the widespread diffusion of Aramaic within the general population of the empire fully accepted on the part of the Assyrian political authorities? I believe that, all said and done, this must, infact, have been the case, in consideration of the following well-known sets of data:

1. A group of fifteen bronze statuettes in the form of recumbent lions, of regularly decreasing size and weight, has come down to us from Nimrud, one of the main political centers of the empire. These lion weights bear, deeply incised on the animals’ metal bodies, Aramaic epigraphs indicating the ponderal measures of the statuettes, alongside fully parallel Assyrian texts, as well as numerical bars for the untutored. Since these objects also bear (only in the cuneiform version) the names of different Assyrian kings, there can be little doubt that they represent a fully official issue, destined for a bilingual audience.4

2. The large bas-reliefs on stone orthostats which decorated the Assyrian palace halls with their scenes of war and conquest, and which were by and large executed with the aim of public admirationfor the king and his deeds of conquest, show numerous scenes in which two scribes perform side byside the registration of war booty. The one nearest to the viewer bears a clay tablet or a wax-coveredwriting-board in one hand, and a stylus in the other; while the one farthest away bears a pliable scrollin one hand, and a brush. There can thus be no doubt that the first scribe was writing in Assyrian cuneiform script, and the other one in Aramaic alphabetic characters. These pictures match fully with a number of indications in the texts themselves, which speak of Aššuraya and Aramaya scribes working in pairs, for legal or administrative purposes.5


---------- Post Merged at 12:27 ----------

Post 6


Fales, M.F., Old Aramaic

FROM : S. Weninger et al. (Eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook (=Handbooks of Linguistics and communication Science, 36), Berlin 2011, 555-573

This point hints at the possibility that the Northwestern Mesopotamian form of OA [Old Aramaic] was one of the significant components of "Assyrian Aramaic" as used during the last century and a half of the Assyrian empire -- thus with a certain historical-linguistic continuity between OA and one of the varieties of IA , as maintained by Greenfield.

---------- Post Merged at 12:36 ----------

Post 7


Karen Radner, 'Nineveh, Assyria's capital in the 7th century BC', Knowledge and Power, Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/essentials/nineveh/]

From the reign of Sennacherib (r. 704-681 BC) onwards, Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian empire. It was then considered to be the world's largest city: according to the Old Testament book of Jonah, it was home to 120,000 people and took three days to cross.

Water For Nineveh
Like every irrigation system, these waterworks needed constant maintenance and repair. So when Nineveh fell to the Babylonian and Median armies in 612 BC the complex quickly ceased to function properly as no-one was financing or organising the regular upkeep that was necessary. This collapse contributed to the rapid abandonment of the city because without artificial irrigation it could not provide a home for its many inhabitants. Nineveh soon became a ghost town.

---------- Post Merged at 12:44 ----------

Post 8


New Light on Assyro-Aramaic Interference: the Assur Ostracon, in F.M. Fales – G.F. Grassi (Eds.), CAMSEMUD2007. Proceedings of the 13th Italian Meeting of Afro-asiatic Linguistics, Padova 2010, 189-204.


The Assur ostracon was written by an individual named Bel-eṭir, who is known from contemporary texts in cuneiform as a military, and specifically as a cohort commander (rab kiṣir) of king Assurbanipal, active in southern Mesopotamia (Fig. 3), presumably during the years in which the Assyrian ruler was engaged in warfare against his brother, Šamaš-šum-ukin, king of Babylonia (645-640 BC). An Assyrian letter indicates that the king had dispatched 200 horsemen under Bel-eṭir and Arbaya — who is also mentioned in the ostracon (l. 2), in the region of Uruk (see l. 3), to assist the local pro-Assyrian governor, Nabûušabši — who might be the same person as the Nabû-zer-ušabši mentioned in l. 19 of our text. We may at this point tackle the actual contents of the text. Bel-eṭir should have been in retirement from the battlefield in his city of birth, Assur, when he wrote this letter to a former army crony of his, Pir-Amur(ru).

[T]he most interesting feature of this text is also the most obvious one. The Assur ostracon written by and to individuals also known in the contemporary Neo-Assyrian correspondence as officials of the Empire; due to their rank, these people must have absolutely been expected to speak/read Assyrian [Akkadian] on official matters, but this private letter was thought out and written in Aramaic. We are not dealing here with a family letter, in which private ideas and were exchanged among members of a tight-knit foreign community — as, e.g., in a number the letters in Aramaic from Achaemenid Egypt — but with a letter traded between “army buddies”, endowed with fully Assyrian names. These people chose to chew the fat, to set forth their private problems, and to ask for present support, in the vernacular, not in the official language of “work”.

---------- Post Merged at 13:02 ----------

Post 9


Betrachtungen zur Siedlungs und Bevölkerungsstruktur des Unteren Khabur Gebietes in der neuassyrischen Zeit, in H. Kühne (Hrsg.), Umwelt und Subsistenz der assyrischen Stadt Dur-Katlimmu am Unteren Habur (Syrien), BATSH 8, Wiesbaden, 2008, 189-214.

by Daniele Morandi Bonacossi

The study of the pottery collected during the surface surveys has allowed to assume even if only in a limited number of sites (36%) a substantial continuity in the settlement activity in the region during the decades that immediately followed the downfall of the Assyrian empire (end 7th-mid 6th century).The ensuing picture seems to be one of a general, widespread reduction in settlement, particularly of the rural occupation of the region, and of a possible progressive decay of the canal system. The latter would have been accompanied by a parallel drop in agricultural production, and thus by a falling back on poorer patterns of life and subsistence.

Nevertheless, this general tendency, which confirms in substance, even if not in size, the picture of depopulation and economic depression already postulated in the historical debate on the Assyrian homeland, may be countered by several significant indicators of economic vitality in the region. In other words these clues do not allow us – at least in this part of Upper Mesopotamia – to postulate any real desertification of the territory. First of all we may notice the continuity of settlement attested in nearly all the central sites of the region, even if perhaps on smaller areas than in the 7th century(in particular in the site of Sheikh Hamad). Setting this datum vis-à-vis the collapse of the regional hydraulic network and the strong fall in rural settlement we gain the following picture: a rural landscape which previously was unitary and substantially continuous, had been split up in a host of smaller agricultural areas, possibly irrigated by local canals fed by the Khabur; similarly, the region had been divided up in a series of cantonal districts gathered around the major centres.

The reconstruction of the demographic structure of the valley in the Neo-Assyrian period and the regional population patterns and trends of development between the 14th and the 7th centuries BC is the last object of the present article. The reconstruction of the areas occupied by single sites in the region has made it possible to estimate the order of size of the population existing in the lower valley of the Khabur during the Late Assyrian age as around 24,000 inhabitants.

---------- Post Merged at 13:13 ----------

Post 10


[I]How to reach the Upper Tigris: The Route through the Tur Abdin.

State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 15 (2006) 273-305.

Professor Karen Radner (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/about_us/academic_staff/dr_karen)
Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History

In the 13th century BC, after the military triumph of the Assyrian kings Adad-nērārī I (1300-1270) and Shalmaneser I (1269-1241) over their weakened neighbor Mittani (called “Hanigalbat” by the Assyrians), the former Hurrian kingdom was swiftly integrated into the Assyrian Empire. Hence, the wide plain east of the Euphrates which is traversed by the rivers Hābūr and Balīh — the so-called Jezirah — became Assyrian, as well as the Upper Tigris region.

It was certainly the fact that the mountain range looks rather imposing from a southern perspective which has led to the still widespread opinion that the Tūr Abdīn can be taken as Mesopotamia’s northern border, not only geographically but also culturally speaking. Thus, the mountain range is often identified as the northern perimeter of the Mittani empire. However, as has been already stated, new excavations in the Upper Tigris region (especially Giricano, Ziyaret Tepe and also Üçtepe / Kurkh5) have proven the Mittani occupation of the area and confirmed the Assyrian presence in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC; it is therefore necessary to consider the Tūr Abdīn as an integral part of the Mesopotamian topography, and not as a frontier zone.

Today, the Tūr Abdīn, a limestone mountain range with an altitude between 900 and 1400 m, is best known for its numerous monasteries and churches, forming a unique enclave in a region which has been under Islamic rule for the past twelve hundred years. While the buildings remain, the 20th century saw the departure of many Christian families, and today the area is no longer predominantly Syriac, neither in language nor religion.

We will see that place names such as Midyāt, Mardin, Savur / Sawrō, Kīvakh, Azakh and Kfartūthō can be identified with Aramaic toponyms already attested in the Assyrian age. Many sites, however, have been renamed by the Turkish authorities in the 20th century and, with the exodus of the Syriac speaking population, begin to be forgotten.

The Assyrians designated the Tūr Abdīn as Kāsiēri, hence adapting a locally used toponym that is also attested in the Hittite sources as Kāsiāri / Gāsiāri and refers to an area under Hurrian (Mittani) control. It is therefore well possible that the toponym is derived from the Hurrian language.

The last Assyrian campaign to Kāsiēri is recorded for 855 in the inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (858-824): “In my fifth regnal year, I ascended to Kāsiēri and captured eleven fortified cities”. After this, the Assyrian control over the Kāsiēri region seems to be firmly established — there is no more mention of fights (or any other activities for that matter) in the Assyrian royal inscriptions.

It is important to note that beyond the area where the Syriac language and culture has helped to preserve the ancient Aramaic toponymy, going back to the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, the old place names have rarely been retained and identifications on the basis of etymology are generally quite problematic. The changing toponymy is, of course, also an indication that the population has changed again and again — in contrast to the Tūr Abdīn region which, typically for a mountain region, has served as a retreat area.

Humanist
2012-10-02, 20:18
There are many posts to get to, as there is a good deal of information framing my perspective.

That includes, of course, the genetic data. And I will eventually get to it as well. For now, these are our current mtDNA and Y-DNA frequencies. Heavy on members of the "Nestorian Church." It should be noted that even "Nestorian" Assyrians from Iran (e.g. my grandmother) plot very near to Babylon on the Eurogenes SPA map.

mtDNA N=74 (9/27/12)
H 28.4%
U 21.6%
J 17.6%
HV 16.2%
T 8.1%
K 2.7%
I 1.4%
N 1.4%
W 1.4%
X 1.4%

Y-DNA N=95 (9/29/12)
R1b 24.2%
J1 16.8%
T 14.7%
J2 13.7%
E1b1b1 9.5%
G 9.5%
R2a 4.2%
R1a 3.2%
Q1b 2.1%
F 1.1%
L 1.1%

Humanist
2012-10-02, 23:11
SURETH
tarqalta
[Human → Body]
English : stumbling , tripping while walking , missing a step
Dialect : Urmiah

tarquli
[Human → Body]
English : (intransitive verb) : to stumble , to trip while walking
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (please refer to the examples)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu4.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-03, 01:07
SUMERIAN
urudu ha-zi(-in) : axe


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu2.jpg


SYRIAC
ḥasṣina
[Army → Weapons]
English : an adze , a hatchet , a small axe with a short handle used with one hand
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Also found in the following Aramaic dialects, according to the CAL: Hatran, Jewish Literary Aramaic Targumic, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Locations of Hatran ("A"), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic ("D"), below. Points "B" and "C" represent the Assyrian cities of Assur and Nineveh respectively.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/axe_locations.jpg


1
Hatran, Syriac, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
nrg, nrgʾ (nārgā) n.m. axe

1 axe Hatran, Syr, JBA.
2 mattock Syr.

nrgws, nrgwsʾ (nārgōs, nārgōsā) n.m. little axe

1 little axe Syr.
2 'wedding hook' Syr.


SURETH
'narga
[Industry]
English : an ax / axe
Dialect : Urmiah


These are the only Akkadian terms I came across in the "N" volume of the CAD:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nargu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabtuC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabtuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/narkabtu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naris.jpg


MANDAIC, SYRIAC, and JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
ʾkl, ʾklʾ (ˀăḵel, ˀak̠lā (?)) n.m. hammer

1 hammer or mallet Syr, JBA, Man.
2 blow of a mallet JBA.

SURETH
'akla
[Industry]
English : a hammer
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkullu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ukkullu.jpg



------------------------------------------------------

SYRIAC (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
rglw, rglwtʾ (raggālū, raggālūṯā) n.f. battle on foot

1 battle on foot Syr.


SURETH
'aqla
[Human → Body]
English : the leg , a limb for an animal for supporting the body , foot
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uriggallu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uriggallu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uriggallu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aklu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-03, 03:10
1
SURETH
suḥara
[City → Hotel]
English : vagrancy , wandering from place to place without a settled home , being a hobo , rolling
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhiru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhiru1.jpg


2
SURETH
'ḥantši
[Professions]
English : an inn-keeper / an innkeeper
French : un aubergiste ;
Dialect : NENA, Al Qosh
This word is of Turkish origin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hans1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hans2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hansa.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hansu2.jpg



3
SURETH
atṭura
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : a fume , an aromatic smoke , a vaporous exhalation (usually odorous) , steam , smoke
Dialect : Urmiah

atṭara
[Professions]
English : a perfumer , a perfume seller / maker
Dialect : Urmiah

'atṭar
[Professions]
English : 1) an apothecary , one who prepares and sells drugs and compounds ; 2) a peddler , a hawker
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/atartuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/atartu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-03, 07:16
Most of my posts are not much more than streams of consciousness.


1
Etymology.Com

jean
"twilled cotton cloth," mid-15c., from M.Fr. jean fustian "fustian (a type of twilled cotton cloth) of Genoa," the city in Italy, from O.Fr. Jannes "Genoa," from L. Genua (see Genoa). The plural form jeans became standard 19c.

Genoa
city in Italy, It. Genova, from L. Genua, perhaps from a PIE root meaning “curve, bend,” which means it could be a cognate of Geneva. Other theories hold it to be perhaps from janua "gate," or in reference to the Italic god Janus. Adjective forms in English included M.E. Genoway (also in pl., Janeways), c.1400, from O.Fr. Genoveis, from It. Genovese. In later English, Genoese is from 1550s; Genovese from c.1600.

Janus
ancient Italic deity, guardian god of portals, doors, and gates; patron of beginnings and endings, c.1500, from L. Ianus, lit. "gate, arched passageway," perhaps from PIE root *ei- "to go" (cf. Skt. yanah "path," O.C.S. jado "to travel"). He is shown as having two faces, one in front the other in back. His temple in Rome was closed only in times of peace.


AKKADIAN/SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gine.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gina.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginu.jpg



2
Etymology.Com


jungle (n.)
1776, from Hindi jangal "desert, forest, wasteland, uncultivated ground," from Skt. jangala-s "arid, sparsely grown with trees," of unknown origin. Specific sense of "land overgrown by vegetation in a wild, tangled mass" is first recorded 1849; meaning "place notoriously lawless and violent" is first recorded 1906, from Upton Sinclair's novel (cf. asphalt jungle, 1949, William R. Burnett's novel title, made into a film 1950 by John Huston; blackboard jungle, 1954, Evan Hunter's novel title, movie in 1955).


AKKADIAN/SUMERIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gingal.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-03, 10:05
SURETH
'tuḥma
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : a species , a group of individuals having common attributes and designated by a common name , a kind , a sort , an origin , a type
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

mtahmuta
[Human → Family]
English : relationship , kinship , connection by consanguinity or affinity , blood relationship
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tukumma.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuamu.jpg


SUMERIAN (these may not be of much relevance)
tuk, tuku (reduplicated du12-du12) to acquire, obtain; to have, possess; to marry; to play a musical instrument (cf. reduplicated syllabic variant du-du in Dumuzi and Enkimdu 12, Sefati, Love Songs 337)
túg ma6 (conventional reading, perhaps better túg ba13) (a fine divine or royal garment) (nalbašu)
mè battle, war
me divine power, attribute, office; 'essence' (G. Cunningham, Analysing Lit. Sum. 76)
me, -m to be (copular verb)


SURETH
tuma
[Human being]
English : 1) Thomas ; 2) (adjective) : twofold , twin , growing in pairs , Didymus , grammar : dual (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

tama
[Human → Family]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to pair , to arrange in a pair or couple ; 2) to form pairs of ; 3) to be coupled / paired / mated ;
Dialect : Urmiah

tamumi
[Moral life → Quality]
English : (transitive verb) : to fulfill , to make full / complete , to carry through , to carry out , to terminate , to perfect , to achieve , to accomplish , to bring to a successful conclusion , to finetune (?) / to detail (?) / to touch up (?) / to put the finishing touches (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamimu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamu.jpg


Wikipedia

Thomas the Apostle, also called Doubting Thomas or Didymus (meaning "Twin," as does "Thomas" in Aramaic) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He is best known for questioning Jesus' resurrection when first told of it, then proclaiming "My Lord and my God" on seeing Jesus in John 20:28. He was perhaps the only Apostle who went outside the Roman Empire to preach the Gospel. He is also believed to have crossed the largest area, which includes the Parthian Empire and India.[5]

Thomas speaks in the Gospel of John. In John 11:16, when Lazarus has just died, the apostles do not wish to go back to Judea, where Jesus' fellow Jews had attempted to stone him to death. Thomas says bravely (or perhaps sarcastically): "Let us also go, that we may die with him" (NIV).

In Thomas' best known appearance in the New Testament, [Jn. 20:24–29] he doubts the resurrection of Jesus and demands to touch Jesus' wounds before being convinced. Caravaggio's painting, The Incredulity of Saint Thomas (illustration above), depicts this scene. This story is the origin of the term Doubting Thomas. After seeing Jesus alive, Thomas exclaimed, "My Lord and my God!".[6]

....

The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins: "These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas recorded." Syrian tradition also states that the apostle's full name was Thomas. Some have seen in the Acts of Thomas (written in east Syria in the early 3rd century, or perhaps as early as the first half of the 2nd century) an identification of Saint Thomas with the apostle Judas brother of James, better known in English as Jude. However, the first sentence of the Acts follows the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in distinguishing the apostle Thomas and the apostle Judas son of James. Few texts identify Thomas' other twin, though in the Book of Thomas the Contender, part of the Nag Hammadi library, it is said to be Jesus himself: "Now, since it has been said that you are my twin and true companion, examine yourself…"[7][8]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Caravaggio_-_The_Incredulity_of_Saint_Thomas.jpg


I wonder what they mean by "East Syria." I certainly hope they are referring to Syria proper , and not Mesopotamia (~modern Iraq). Yes, it irks me to no end.

Humanist
2012-10-03, 18:47
Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, by Donald A. MacKenzie, [1915]

Myths of Tammuz and Ishtar


The weeping ceremony [for Tammuz] was connected with agricultural rites. Corn deities were weeping deities, they shed fertilizing tears; and the sowers simulated the sorrow of divine mourners when they cast seed in the soil "to die", so that it might spring up as corn. This ancient custom, like many others, contributed to the poetic imagery of the Bible. "They that sow in tears", David sang, "shall reap in joy. He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him."

SURETH
tammuzi
[Human → Hygiene]
English : (transitive verb) : to clean , to render clean , to free from dirt or whatever is foul , to wash (?) , to purify
Dialect : Urmiah

[Listed as a loan from Persian and/or Kurdish in other sources.]

Humanist
2012-10-03, 21:57
Wikipedia


Passover is a Jewish festival. It commemorates the story of the Exodus, in which the ancient Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt. Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan in the Jewish calendar, which is in spring in the Northern Hemisphere, and is celebrated for seven or eight days. It is one of the most widely observed Jewish holidays.

....

The verb "pasàch" (Hebrew: פָּסַח‎) is first mentioned in the Torah account of the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:23), and there is some debate about its exact meaning: the commonly held assumption that it means "He passed over", in reference to God "passing over" the houses of the Hebrews during the final of the Ten Plagues of Egypt, stems from the translation provided in the Septuagint (παρελευσεται in Exodus 12:23, and εσκεπασεν in Exodus 12:27). Judging from other instances of the verb, and instances of parallelism, a more faithful translation may be "he hovered over, guarding." Indeed, this is the image invoked by the verb in Isaiah 31:5: "As birds hovering, so will the Lord of hosts protect Jerusalem; He will deliver it as He protecteth it, He will rescue it as He passeth over" (כְּצִפֳּרִים עָפוֹת—כֵּן יָגֵן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת, עַל-יְרוּשָׁלִָם; גָּנוֹן וְהִצִּיל, פָּסֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט.) (Isaiah 31:5) Both meanings become apparent in Exodus 12:23 when parsed as: the Lord will pass (hover, guard) over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer (destroying angel is commanded to pass by the children of Israel) to come in unto your houses to smite. Targum Onkelos translates pesach as "he had pity".

The English term "Passover" is first known recorded in the English language in William Tyndale's translation of the Bible, later appearing in the King James Version as well. The term Pesach (Hebrew: פֶּסַח‎) may also refer to the lamb or goat which was designated as the Passover sacrifice (called the Korban Pesach in Hebrew). Four days before the Exodus, the Hebrews were commanded to set aside a lamb.(Exodus 12:3) and inspect it daily for blemishes. During the day on the 14th of Nisan, they were to slaughter the animal and use its blood to mark their lintels and door posts. Up until midnight on the 15th of Nisan, they were to consume the lamb. Each family (or group of families) gathered together to eat a meal that included the meat of the Korban Pesach while the Tenth Plague ravaged Egypt.

In subsequent years, during the existence of the Tabernacle and later the Temple in Jerusalem, the Passover offering (Hebrew korban Pesach) was eaten during the Passover Seder on the 15th of Nisan. However, following the destruction of the Temple, no sacrifices may be offered or eaten. The Seder Korban Pesach, a set of scriptural and Rabbinic passages dealing with the Passover sacrifice, is customarily recited during or after the Mincha (afternoon prayer) service on the 14th on Nisan.[26] The story of the Korban Pesach is also retold at the Passover Seder,meaning order, and the symbolic food which represents it on the Seder Plate is usually a roasted lamb shankbone or chicken wing.

....

When the Temple in Jerusalem was standing, the focus of the Passover festival was the Passover sacrifice (Hebrew korban Pesach) also known as the "Paschal Lamb"). Every family large enough to completely consume a young lamb or wild goat was required to offer one for sacrifice at the Jewish Temple on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nisan,(Numbers 9:11) and eat it that night, which was the 15th of Nisan (Exodus 12:6). If the family was too small to finish eating the entire offering in one sitting, an offering was made for a group of families. The sacrifice could not be offered with anything leavened,(Exodus 23:18) and had to be roasted, without its head, feet, or inner organs being removed (Exodus 12:9) and eaten together with unleavened bread (matzo) and bitter herbs (maror). One had to be careful not to break any bones from the offering, (Exodus 12:46) and none of the meat could be left over by morning (Exodus 12:10Exodus 23:18).

Because of the Passover sacrifice's status as a sacred offering, the only people allowed to eat it were those who had the obligation to bring the offering. Among those who could not offer or eat the Passover lamb were: An apostate (Exodus 12:43), a servant (Exodus 12:45), an uncircumcised man (Exodus 12:48), a person in a state of ritual impurity, except when a majority of Jews are in such a state (Pesahim 66b), and a non-Jew. The offering had to be made before a quorum of 30 (Pesahim 64b). In the Temple, the Levites sang Hallel while the priests performed the sacrificial service. Men and women were equally obligated regarding the offering (Pesahim 91b).
Women were obligated, as men, to perform the Korban Pesach and to participate in a Seder.

Today, in the absence of the Temple, the mitzvah of the Korban Pesach is memorialized in the Seder Korban Pesach[27], recited in the afternoon of Nisan 14, and in the form of symbolic food placed on the Passover Seder Plate, which is usually a roasted shankbone. The eating of the afikoman substitutes for the eating of the Korban Pesach at the end of the Seder meal (Mishnah Pesachim 119a). Many Sephardi Jews have the custom of eating lamb or goat meat during the Seder in memory of the Korban Pesach.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Pessach_Pesach_Pascha_Judentum_Ungesaeuert_Seder_d atafox.jpg/225px-Pessach_Pesach_Pascha_Judentum_Ungesaeuert_Seder_d atafox.jpg


The Passover Seder Plate Hebrew: ke'ara (קערה) is a special plate containing symbolic foods eaten or displayed at the Passover Seder.

Each of the six items arranged on the plate has special significance to the retelling of the story of the exodus from Egypt, which is the focus of this ritual meal. The seventh symbolic item used during the meal — a stack of three matzos — is placed on its own plate on the Seder table. Others place the seder plate on top of the stack of matzos.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Pesahplate.jpg/250px-Pesahplate.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/passuru.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/pasru.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/pasruB.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/rabi_passuru.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/pasahu.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/pasuqtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-04, 01:51
SURETH
patana
[Moral life → Quality]
English : Oraham : brave , valiant , bold
Dialect : Urmiah

patana
[Moral life → Fault]
English : masculine : sly , mischievous , impish , naughty , puckish ; noun : a bully ; feminine : ܦܲܐܬܵܢܬܵܐ ; ܦܲܐܬܵܢܘܼܬܘܼܗܝ ܒܸܢܥܵܪܵܐ ܝܠܵܗ݁ : he is fidgeting
Dialect : Classical Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/patanu1.jpg
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/patanu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:51 ----------

SURETH
'amta
[Professions]
English : a handmaid , a female servant or attendant , a maid that waits at hand
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/amtu-1.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/amutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-04, 04:09
Wikipedia

Carduchoi in Xenophon


A people called the Carduchoi are mentioned in Xenophon's Anabasis. They inhabited the mountains north of the Tigris in 401 BC, living in well-provisioned villages. They were enemies to the king of Persia, as were the Greek mercenaries with Xenophon, but their response to thousands of armed and desperate strangers was hostile. They had no heavy troops who could face the battle-hardened hoplites, but they used longbows and slings effectively, and for the Greeks the "seven days spent in traversing the country of the Carduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost them more suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of the king and Tissaphernes put together."[11]

They have been also mentioned as Gordi by Hecataeus of Miletus ca 520 BC.


SURETH
qarduḥi
English : 1) to buffet , to slap / smack on the face , to cuff ; 2) to stem , to stop the growth of , to curb ; 3) to subjugate , to subdue , to submit , to overpower , to enslave , to vanquish / conquer
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/garduB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gardu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qarduB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qardutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qardu.jpg


SUMERIAN
kúr v. and adj. (to be) different, strange, foreign; (to be) hostile, inimical; to change, alter
kár to be bright, shining; to light up, flare up; to provoke, incite (cf. nu-kár-kár-dè without provocation); to insult, slander. Written GANA2 (non-tenû) in OS; for writing history see Veldhuis, AV Black 382.

Humanist
2012-10-04, 05:45
This seems less probable.

SURETH
'gamé
[City → Buildings]
English : new wall : to fall down , to crumble down , to sink , to founder
Dialect : Urmiah, NENA

gami [<-- Listed as loan from Kurdish/Turkish]
[Transport → Sea]
English : ship , any large sea-going vessel , boat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac



[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu4.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 00:45 ----------

This does not come close to establishing anything, really, but it is still interesting.

Iraq: Khorsabad, Palace, Throneroom Debris
Neo-Assyrian Period
Reign of Sargon II, 721-705 B.C.
Gypsum
43.0 cm H, 119.5 cm W
Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1930
OIM A11258


Archaeologists from the Oriental Institute discovered this relief fragment in the debris of the throne room of King Sargon II. The fragment shows naked Assyrian soldiers towing a boat through a shallow river, perhaps during one of Sargon's campaigns against Marduk-apla-iddina II, king of Babylon, whose name is inscribed in the text above the scene. According to the Biblical account, that same Babylonian king (referred to as Merodach Baladan) sent envoys with presents to Hezekiah, king of Judah, upon his recovery from illness (cf. II Kings 20; Isaiah 39).

http://www.hebrewscripturesandmore.com/APTS-Subpages/BOT634/Background/IsaiahHome/AssyrianSoldiersBoat.files/image003.gif

Humanist
2012-10-04, 07:12
Not sure here either. I reckon it is nothing.


SURETH
m'hasis
[Transport → Surface]
English : horse, wagon, ploughing team ... : to turn
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mahisu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sisu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-04, 18:26
Herodotus' accounts of "Babylonia, Chaldea, and Assyria" are suspect according to some scholars.

Herodotus appears to confuse Assyria and Babylonia. But, perhaps we are the ones who are confused. Or, rather, at least this non-academic. At least with regard to certain questions.

Herodotus: From The History of the Persian Wars, c. 430 BCE


Assyria possesses a vast number of great cities, whereof the most renowned and strongest at this time was Babylon, where, after the fall of Nineveh, the seat of government had been removed.

....

Many sovereigns have ruled over this city of Babylon, and lent their aid to the building of its walls and the adornment of its temples, of whom I shall make mention in my Assyrian history. Among them two were women. Of these, the earlier, called Semiramis, held the throne five generations before the later princess. She raised certain embankments well worthy of inspection, in the plain near Babylon, to control the river, which, till then, used to overflow, and flood the whole country round about...

-----------------------------------------------------------------

The Role of Babylonian Temples in Contributing to the Army in the Early Achaemenid Empire

John MacGinnis McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research - Cambridge


In the early autumn of Darius year 4 (518 bc) a band of soldiers made their way back to Babylonia from duty overseas in the service of the Achaemenid army. Their home was the ancient city of Sippar and we know about their return from a brief entry in an administrative text—CT 57 82—now preserved in the cuneiform collections of the British Museum. Lines 6–8 read, laconically:

38 shekels of silver for ŠamaŠ-iddin and his horsemen who have come back from Egypt.

This is typical of the nature of the sources at our disposal—the texts do not deal with military matters per se but are accountancy documents generated by the temple bureaucracy. Who was ŠamaŠ-iddin, who were his men, and how did it come about that they found themselves doing a tour of duty in Egypt?

To address these questions we can start by taking a look at the Babylonian background of this scene. Babylonia was at the centre of the Achaemenid Empire and an immensely wealthy country. To a large degree this wealth was generated by a network of cities positioned along the river and waterways. Each of these had a temple complex at its heart: Babylon had Esagila, the temple of the supreme god Marduk; Nippur had the Ekur temple of the god Enlil; Borsippa housed the Ezida of the god of writing Nabû, and so on. There were many others—we will talk about two more shortly—not to mention the innumerable smaller settlements.

There are a few possibilities for comparing our finds with data from other sources. Pictorial representations of Babylonian soldiers are not common but they do exist, if admittedly from a period slightly earlier than the one under consideration. For instance, Babylonian soldiers may be seen in scenes from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh wearing kilts and headdresses, armed with bows, quivers and sometimes scabbards.6 In the record of Herodotus—slightly later than the period under consideration—the Assyrians (did this mean Babylonians?) wore linen corsets and were armed with bronze helmets, shields, spears, daggers and studded wooden clubs (Herodotus vii.60, 63; cf. Strabo xv.3.19). Attempting to correlate these descriptions with the data from the Neo-Babylonian texts results in a reasonable if not watertight fit. As Joannès (1982: 16) has pointed out, the record of Herodotus corresponds pretty well with what we know from the cuneiform texts, and suggests that the soldiers of Babylon were already “armée à la Perse” in pre Achaemenid times.7 One element missing in our temple documentation is the shields—unless this is the real meaning of the word ṣallu (otherwise translated as “skin”). There also seems to be no mention of scabbards and neither is there any mention of Herodotus’ clubs.

....

Lastly, I would stress that a number of sources contributed to the formation of the Babylonian wing of the Achaemenid army. In addition to the contingents from the temple/urban polities, contingents were also drawn from the Chaldean tribal structure, from subject dominions (e.g. the Assyrians) and from mercenaries. So our evidence from Sippar, interesting as it is, can only form a small part of the picture.

7 Of course, it might be more logical to say that the Persians were “armée à l’assyrien”!


Baker, H.D. 2012. "The Neo-Babylonian Empire," in D.T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, vol. 2, pp. 914–930.


After the fall of Assyria at the end of the 7th century BC , it seems clear that Babylonia (rather than Media) exercised control over northern Mesopotamia, as well as over the northern Levant, and in recent years increasing attention has been paid to the Neo - Babylonian presence in the former Assyrian heartland. The evidence remains scanty because of the more or less complete collapse of urban life at this time, which means that no substantial, post - Assyrian occupation levels have been detected at any of the former major urban sites. Moreover, potentially relevant finds are difficult to evaluate because it is rarely possible to distinguish remains datable to the period of Neo - Babylonian control from those of the Achaemenid period which followed, hence the catch - all label “ post - Assyrian ” that has been applied to the material culture, especially the ceramics, of northern Mesopotamia at this time. Beyond the heartland this problem is being addressed by study of the ceramic material found in situ at Dur - Katlimmu (mod. Tell Sheikh Hamad) in the Khabur valley, where the so - called “ Red House ” continued in use throughout the 6th century BC . Kreppner (2008) determined that there was continuity in ceramic production at the site from the mid - 7th to the early 5th century BC , although he detected a decline in general living standards over the course of the 6th century. Thus, he concluded that the term “ post - Assyrian ”is of merely historical significance and has no application in the sphere of ceramics.

Humanist
2012-10-04, 19:36
Standard Babylonian


George , Andrew (2007) 'Babylonian and Assyrian: a history of Akkadian.' In: Postgate, J. N., (ed.), Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, pp. 36, 57-59.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian.jpg


"[T]he Sumero-Babylonian scribal tradition was...from the 6th century confined to Babylonia alone."

Humanist
2012-10-04, 21:04
I have posted many times about our mtDNA affinities. In the east, our mtDNA links stretch to India and Pakistan. Our mtDNA links in Europe are many. And, perhaps, the same may (eventually) hold true for Mandaeans?


There are many posts to get to, as there is a good deal of information framing my perspective.


Rev. Dr. Henryk Drawnel (http://www.kul.pl/rev-dr-henryk-drawnel-sdb,art_3966.html)

The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin

1.
Professional Skills of Asael (1 En. 8:1) and Their Mesopotamian Background

To be published in Revue biblique 2012

Summary

In 1 En. 8:1 one of the fallen Watchers, Asael, teaches humanity the elaboration of metals, precious stones, and the use of minerals and dyes. The article proposes to look for the cultural background of that Enochic tradition in the context of the Late Babylonian temple with its large and skilled workforce used for the upkeep of the cultic, economic and military activity. The Aramaic terminology found in 1 En. 6:8 and 8:1 properly corresponds to what we now know about the functioning of the artisans within the context of the Late Babylonian temple.


2.
The Punishment of Asael (1 En. 10:4-8) and Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Literature

To be published in RevQ 2012

Summary

The literary pattern of Asael’s punishment in the Enochic myth does not seem to stem from biblical literature or Greek mythology. It is far more probable that one has to look for its antecedents in Babylonian anti-witchcraft literature. The Jewish author who lived in Mesopotamia in Late Babylonian period treated Asael and other Watchers as warlocks against whom exorcistic rituals have to be applied. The elimination of Asael and other Watchers from the earthly realm paved the way for the Jewish context of knowledge transmission, exemplified by Enoch and his insight into the structure of the world, revealed to him by angels faithful to God of Israel.


The Punishment of Asael (1 En. 10:4-8) and Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Literature
Henryk Drawnel
Published in RevQ 25 (2012) 369-394.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/drawnel.jpg


From another thread.

The below map is from a lecture given by Dr. Mario Fales a few months back:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_intervention.jpg


I do not believe sufficient consideration is given to the resettlement and deportation policies instituted by the Neo-Assyrians. It may contribute to the genetic landscape now observed among Near Eastern minority populations (see list of populations below). They were on a scale never-before-seen in the history of man, and unparalleled in the pre-Roman era. The Babylonians (e.g. Judea) and others did the same, but on a scale not closely approaching that seen during the Neo-Assyrian era. One Dodecad component that I suggest may in part be a remnant of this past mixing of peoples, is the "Caucasus" component.

^^ Please note the "may" and "part."

Source: Dodecad K12b population sheet values.

52 Assyrian_D
52 Azerbaijan_Jews
52 Georgia_Jews
50 Druze
50 Iranian_Jews
49 Samaritans
48 Iraq_Jews

Wikipedia:

Deportations

It is not known if the Assyrians were the first to deport people, although since none before had ruled the Fertile Crescent as they did it is likely that they were the first to practice it on a large scale. The Assyrians began to utilize mass-deportation as a punishment for rebellions since the 13th century BC.[33] The purposes of deportation included, but were not limited to:

1) Psychological warfare: the possibility of deportation would have terrorized the people;
2) Integration: a multiethnic population base in each region would have curbed nationalist sentiment, making the running of the Empire smoother;
3) Preservation of human resources: rather than being butchered, the people could serve as slave labor or as conscripts in the army.

By the 9th century BC the Assyrians made it a habit of regularly deporting thousands of restless subjects to other lands.[34] Re-settling these people in the Assyrian homeland would have undermined the powerbase of the Assyrian Empire if they would rebel again. As a result, Assyrian deportation involved removing one enemy population and settling them into another. Below is a list of deportations carried out by Assyrian Kings:[32]

744 BC Tiglath Pileser III deports 65,000 people from Iran to the Assyrian-Babylonian border at the Diyala river
742 BC Tiglath Pileser III deports 30,000 people from Hamath, Syria and into the Zagros mountains in the east.
721 BC Sargon II (claimed) deports 27,290 people from Samaria, Israel and disperses them throughout the Empire. However, it is likely that his ousted predecessor, Shalmaneser V ordered the deportation
707 BC Sargon II deports 108,000 Chaldeans and Babylonians from the Babylonian region
703 BC Sennacherib deports 208,000 people from Babylon

Tiglath Pileser III re-introduced deportation on a grand scale, deporting tens, even hundreds of thousands of people. Deportations were also coupled with colonization.

The above list, is only a partial list of the deportations carried out during the Neo-Assyrian era.


Evidence for a Peripheral Language in a Neo-Assyrian Tablet from the Governor’s Palace in Tušhan

The Tushan dig is in the news.

Archaeologists discover lost language


Possibilities
What then could the origins of these names be? Very likely we are dealing with a language isolate, and it may be that it is a language about which we have no other information or that may present traces in proper names that it has not yet been possible to reconstruct into a parent language. As regards the nature of such a proposed background language there are, in my appreciation, four possibilities:

(1) Shubrian
These names could be Shubrian, that is to say the indigenous language of the region prior to the arrival of the Assyrians (and Arameans). The existence of Shubria, and Shubrian, is well-established, but it is not known to what language group Shubrian belonged. On the basis of the names of some of the kings of Shubria, it has been suggested that the language was a relative of Hurrian, but, in reality, that dataset is too small to allow reliable conclusions...

(2) Pre-Hurrian substratum
An alternative could be that the region was host to some other pre-Hurrian language about which we have no other information.

(3) Iranian (non-Indo-European)
Another possibility is that the names belong to a population group originating in western Iran but speaking a tongue that did not belong to the Indo-Iranian language group. This strikes me as particularly plausible as it is certain that the Assyrians deported populations from Iran to other parts of the empire.

(4) Recent arrival
A final suggestion is that the language could belong to a new wave of population influx. One possibility would be the Mushki (Phrygians) who were moving into eastern Anatolia around this time. If this were the case, for the names to appear in an administrative list at Tušhan would mean that such people had either deliberately infiltrated the Assyrian empire (which might seem foolish) or that they had been captured on campaign. It may be that a mixture of the above sources is involved. The following general remarks may be made concerning features of these names:

(1) the overwhelming majority end in a vowel, -a, -a, -e, -e, -i, -i
(2) four begin in ši-
(3) five end in - ši/še
(4) all Akkadian phonemes are used in the representation of these names with the possible exception of /ṣ/ and (or) /z/.

The above will by now have amply emphasized the linguistic interest of this text. The names listed evidently come from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. The small number whose etymology can be identified include Assyrian, Hurrian, Luwian, and possibly Indo-Iranian, but in the case of the great majority the background cannot be identified. How did these people come to be under the palace administration of Tušhan? In principle there would seem to be three possibilities: descendants of the indigenous population, prisoners of war, and deportees. It may be pertinent to note that the phraseology ina pan PN occurring in our text is also characteristic of lists of deportees,17 but this is not the only use of the phrase, and it seems likely that it would equally have been used for prisoners of war and resident individuals under the palace authority. The group could in any case have comprised elements from all three sources. Until a convincing identification for the linguistic milieu is made, it is probably not possible to be more specific than this.18

John MacGinnis

Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Vol. 71, No. 1 (April 2012), pp. 13-20



The mtDNA haplogroup for only one Iraqi Mandaean is known. It is T2a1a. Ian Logan's page lists the following fully sequenced T2a1a genomes (not necessarily representative of actual T2a1a distribution):

AY495298(European) Coble
AY495301(European) Coble
AY495302(European) Coble
AY495304(European) Coble
AY714022(India) Palanichamy
FJ656215 (Emperor Nicholas) Rogaev
HM625704 Kloss
JN383991(Norway) FTDNA
JQ045864(Denmark) FTDNA


T2a1a - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nicholas_ii_tsar_russia.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-04, 23:07
SURETH
'garé / 'gari
[City → Hotel]
English : a roof , a house-top , the covering of an edifice or building
Dialect : NENA

igara
[City → Hotel]
English : a roof , a house top
Dialect : Classical Syriac


SUMERIAN
é-gar8 wall


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/igaru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-05, 02:26
1

b --> w(v) ??

SURETH
darvaza [darwaza]
[City]
English : a gate , a large door or passageway
Dialect : Urmiah
Persian : darvâze دروازه*
Kurdish : derwaze دەروازە

This word is of Persian / Kurdish origin

'tara
[City → Hotel]
English : 1) a door , a gate , an entrance ; ܥܲܠ ܬܲܪܥܵܐ / ܩܵܕ݇ܡ ܬܲܪܥܵܐ / ܓܵܘ ܬܲܪܥܵܐ : outside the house , at the door , at the door-step , on the threshold ; 2) especially NENA : a box ... : an opening , an aperture ; 3) a division of a dictionary ... ; ܬܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܐܵܠܲܦ : the Alap division ; 4) Al Qosh : any division ; ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܬܲܪܥܵܐ : the west side of the sanctuary of a church
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA

taraa
[Professions]
English : a doorkeeper , one who guards the door / entrance of a building , a gate-keeper , a doorman , a porter , a janitor , an usher
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turruB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarbasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarbasu2.jpg


A waste of space? Unbuilt land in the Babylonian cities of the first millennium BC
Heather D Baker
Iraq 71 (2009) 89-98

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarbasu_baker.jpg



2
SURETH
'dara
English : 1) a vale , a dale 2) a court , a yard , en enclosure , a sheepfold , a homestead
Dialect : Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daru.jpg



3
SURETH
raeia
[Professions]
English : 1) sheep : a shepherd , a tender / keeper of a flock of sheep grazing at large ; 2) religion : a pastor , one charged of religious guidance , a confessor (Catholic Europe) -?- , a guru (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

raia
[Feeding]
English : (intransitive verb) : to graze , to browse in pastureland , to feed on growing herbage , to eat grass
Dialect : Urmiah

raeiuta
[Professions]
English : 1) shepherding , tending / feeding / guarding sheep ; 2) pastoral care , religious guidance
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reituB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reitu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:26 ----------

b --> w ??

SURETH
ṭavvaḥa [ṭawwaḥa]
[Professions]
English : 1) a crusher , one who beats down ; 2) a slaughterer , a butcher
Dialect : Urmiah

ṭawiḥ
[Army → War]
English : to crush , to bruise , to break in pieces , to beat
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Al Qosh

'ṭwaḥa
[Army → War]
English : 1) to crush , to compress or bruise between two hard bodies , to strike down , to batter , to thrash ; 2) to slay , to kill , to slaughter (?) , to butcher (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tabahu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tabhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tabihu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-05, 06:03
Certainly, not all (if any) of them are from Akkadian.

1
SURETH
'qadta
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : burning , consuming or being consumed by heat , the state of being on fire
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'qada
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : intransitive verb : to burn to , be on fire , to be ablaze , to blaze
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'qiadta
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : burning , a consuming / being consumed by fire , incineration / dead body : cremation (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'qida
[Religion]
English : a burnt offering , a holocaust ; The first meaning should be "burnt"
Dialect : Classical Syriac

qiiuda
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) a burn , a scorch (?) , a hurt / injury / effect caused by burning , a sunburn (?) ; 2) a inflammation
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

maqudi
[Army → War]
English : (transitive verb) : to burn , to consume by fire , to reduce to ashes by the action of fire or heat , to incinerate , to char , to combust , to injure by fire
Dialect : Eastern Syriac



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qidatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maqaddu-1.jpg


2
SURETH
rasa
English : (transitive verb) : to disperse , to cause to break apart and go different ways , to scatter , to strew (?) ,organization : to disband , light : to disperse (?) / decompose (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raizu-1.jpg


3
SURETH
'ṣiba
[Industry]
English : a splinter , a thin piece of wood , a chip / fragment of wood , a sliver (?) / paring (?) of wood , firewood
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ṣibanaia
[Industry]
English : 1) a lamina , a lamella / sheet , a thin plate / layer / scale / squama , a flake ; 2) (adjective) : laminar
Dialect : Urmiah

švavuna [(šwawuna) --> (šbabuna) ??]
[Country → Plants]
English : Nigella sativa , their seeds are used as black cumin
Dialect : Urmiah

savuna [(sawuna) --> (sabuna) ??]
[Human → Family]
English : a grandfather , the father of one's father or mother , a little father
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sipu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibibanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibibanu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibuC.jpg


Wikipedia on "Nigella sativa"


Characteristics
Nigella sativa has a pungent bitter taste and smell. It is used primarily in confectionery and liquors. Peshawari naan is, as a rule, topped with kalonji seeds. Nigella is also used in Armenian string cheese, a braided string cheese called Majdouleh or Majdouli in the Middle East.

History
According to Zohary and Hopf, archaeological evidence about the earliest cultivation of N. sativa "is still scanty", but they report supposed N. sativa seeds have been found in several sites from ancient Egypt, including Tutankhamun's tomb.[4] Although its exact role in Egyptian culture is unknown, it is known that items entombed with a pharaoh were carefully selected to assist him in the afterlife.

The earliest written reference to N. sativa is thought to be in the book of Isaiah in the Old Testament, where the reaping of nigella and wheat is contrasted (Isaiah 28: 25, 27). Easton's Bible dictionary states the Hebrew word ketsah refers to N. sativa without doubt (although not all translations are in agreement). According to Zohary and Hopf, N. sativa was another traditional condiment of the Old World during classical times; and its black seeds were extensively used to flavour food.[4]


4
SURETH (there are some relevant Sureth words I was unable to find in the sources)
'spisa
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : rotten , having rotted , decayed , putrid , defective in solidity , flimsy (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'zaba
[Army → Weapons]
English : cuirass , coat of mail
Dialect : Urmiah

'sibba
[Human → Body]
English : pubic hair
Dialect : Urmiah

'izba
[Human → Body]
English : pubic hair , abdominal hair , hair on the lower part of the abdomen , puberty hair , pubis
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'sippa
[Human → Body]
English : a lip (either the upper or lower one)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zappu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sappuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sappu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapsapu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapsapu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sappuC.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-05, 07:26
SURETH
'plaṭa
English : to go out , to depart , to evacuate , to slip / sneak out of a place , to take French leave (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'pliṭa
English : having gone out / departed
Dialect : Urmiah

paloṭi
[Industry]
English : 1) to cast , to cast out , to put out , to expel (demons -?-) , to extract (a tooth ...) ; 2) to invent , to originate , to create , to generate , to start , to produce , to initiate / bring into being
Dialect : Urmiah

'paliṭ
English : 1) to go out , to come out ; with ܡܸܢ : to leave a place ; 2) to result , to ensue , to follow as a result , very often = ܦܵܐܸܫ : to be , to become ; 3) to escape ; 4) sound : to be heard / uttered / pronounced ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܡܸܢ ܗܵܘܢܘܼܗܝ : to go out of ones mind ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܚܵܠܝܼܨ : to be acquitted , to be cleared / declared not guilty / exonerated / absolved ; ܚܵܠܝܼܨ ܦܵܠܸܛ : to be acquitted , to be cleared / declared not guilty / exonerated / absolved ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܠ ܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕ : to go to meet one arriving ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܠܒܲܗܪܵܐ : to be brought to light , to be revealed , to be exposed , to be divulged (?) / disclosed (?) ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܡܸܣܟܹܢܵܐ / ܦܵܠܸܛ ܨܸܢܸܚ : to become bankrupt ; ܪܹܫܘܼܗܝ ܒܸܦܵܠܛܵܐ ܝܠܹܗ ܡܸܢ : he understands (a matter)
Dialect : Classical Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paladu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-05, 10:32
Again, it is interesting to observe that Standard Babylonian is most frequent. A recurring theme, from the very beginning of this exercise.



AKKADIAN
http://i50.tinypic.com/358qbgh.jpg


http://i46.tinypic.com/34no4fl.jpg



SURETH
Eastern phonetic : a: šu: ' pu: ta:
[Religion]
English : snake charming , use of magic , enchantment
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : a ' šu: pa:
[Professions]
English : a charmer , an enchanter , one who uses sorcery or witchcraft , a wizard , a snake-charmer
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Eastern phonetic : i šu ' pi: ia
[Religion]
English : a charm , words spoken in the practice of magic , an enchantment ;
Dialect : Urmiah


1
SURETH
'špa
[Human → Hygiene]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to clear / become clear , to become clarified , to become free from foul matter , to become clean ; 2) to become simple / plain / more comprehensible / easier
Dialect : Urmiah

'šapa
[Human → Hygiene]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to rub , to wipe , to subject the body to the action of something moving ; 2) to crawl , to creep , to slither (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šappa
[Industry]
English : 1) anything flattened by rubbing / filing , anything flat / rubbed down ; 2) adjective : flat (?) , rubbed down (?) , worn out (?) ; 3) a coffin / a casket , a case , a trunk
Dialect : Urmiah

šappuputa (?)
[Animals → Reptiles]
English : 1) crawling , creeping , the act of moving slowly by drawing the body along the ground , slithering (?) ; 2) creeping (?) / moving stealthily (?) ; 3) creeping plants, ivy, vine ... : creeping (?) , sycophant, flatterer : apple-polishing (?) / crawling (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isippu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isipputu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapapu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sappitu.jpg



2
SURETH
'ṣlola
[Sky → Climate]
English : 1) transparent , crystalline / limpid , transmitting light so that bodies can be distinctly seen through ; 2) (sky...) clear , not cloudy
Dialect : Urmiah

'ṣlila
[Human → Senses]
English : clear , free from all that dims or obscures , clean , pure , unsullied , pellucid , crystalline
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sallalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salilu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 05:32 ----------

Note the last entry for Akkadian and Sureth, for #1, above. I am not sure if this is of any significance, but compare to Sumerian, for "snake," below:

SUMERIAN
muš snake, serpent

Humanist
2012-10-05, 11:44
SURETH
'nazi
[Moral life → Fault]
English : coquetry , an effort or action to attract admiration / notice / love for the gratification of vanity , making a move / making time / cruising / looking for a sexual partner / hooking / giving a come-on / coming-on to / chasing (after girls ...) / flirting / trifling in love
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuzzu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasuA.jpg


For those unfamiliar with the term, here is a bit from Wikipedia's article on "Plumage":


Humphrey-Parkes (H-P) moult and plumage terminology

Almost all species of birds moult at least annually, usually after the breeding season, known as the pre-basic moult. This resulting covering of feathers, which will last either until the next breeding season or until the next annual moult, is known as the basic plumage. Many species undertake another moult prior to the breeding season known as the pre-alternate moult, the resulting breeding plumage being known as the alternate plumage or nuptial plumage. The alternate plumage is often brighter than the basic plumage, for the purposes of sexual display, but may also be cryptic in order to hide incubating birds that might be vulnerable on the nest.[1]

Humanist
2012-10-05, 13:01
SURETH
'ḥaša
[Transport]
English : 1) a large sack / bag of coarse material for carrying straw ... , a pouch (?) ; 2) Al Qosh : see ܗܵܫܵܐ : God forbid !
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

This word is of Azeri / Turkish origin [<-- ????]

haša
[Time]
English : 1) this hour , this very moment , now , at present , from now on , henceforth ; 2) interjection of Arabic / Turkish origin : God forbid !
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-06, 00:03
SURETH
'urḥa
[Transport → Surface]
English : a way , a road , a path ; ܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕܓܹܢܵ̈ܒܹܐ : ("the road of the thieves") the Milky Way ; ܦܵܠܹܛ ܠܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕ / ܦܵܠܹܛ ܩܵܕ݇ܡ : to go to meet a person ; ܠܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕ ܦܵܠܹܛ / ܩܵܕ݇ܡ ܦܵܠܹܛ : to go to meet a person ; ܡܓܵܫܸܩ ܥܲܠ ܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕ : to expect a person ; ܕܵܪܹܐ ܠܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ : to start a person on a journey ; ܪ݇ܚܝܼܫ ܠܹܗ ܒܐܘܼܪܚܘܼܗܝ : he went his way ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܒܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ : to prosper , to rub along (?) ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܒܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܥܲܡ : to bear with , to put up with , to tolerate , to stand / to suffer ; ܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕܚܲܕ݇ ܝܘܿܡܵܐ : a day's journey , a one day-trip ; Mathew : 22, 9 : ܦܠܵܛܹ̈ܐ ܕܐܘܼܪܚܵܬܹܐ : the parting of the ways , the crossroads (?) ; ܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕܦܵܪܝܼܫܵܗ : a high road
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'arḥa
[City → Inn]
English : 1) a guest , one who is entertained at the house of another , a visitor , literally : a traveler ; ܐܵܙܸܠ ܐܵܪܚܵܐ ܠܟܸܣ : to be the guest of , to dine / lodge with , to be put up by , to be housed by ; 2) Al Qosh : a passenger on a ship ; plural : ܐܵܪ̈ܚܹܐ : guests
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

'iarḥa [I pronounce it, "yarḥa")
[Time → Month]
English : a month , a period of the moon's revolution ; ܝܲܪܚܵܐ ܪܣܲܗܪܵܐ : a lunar month
Dialect : Classical Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arhu.jpg


* (note "b," Standard Babylonian ("SB"))

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajaru2.jpg



The Mesopotamian calendar was primarily lunar, and the months began with the first sighting of the young, waxing crescent moon just after sunset on the western horizon. Consequently, each month was either 29 or 30 days long, and the year approximately 354 days.

Ritual celebrations, however, were aligned with the seasons, and thus solar in nature. Therefore, intercalary months were added when necessary to keep the lunar calendar in agreement with the seasonal schedule.

The practice of intercalation seems not to have been standardized until quite late. Possibly some time between 383 and 367 BC. Before then, a 13th month was added around every 3 years. But, again, this was not done with any particular regularity, or by any calculated method. Rather, the moon's phases were simply observed nightly. When the young crescent was sighted, it was reported to the palace, and the new month was officially announced. The decision as to whether or not an intercalary month was needed had only observational guidelines, examples of which exist in texts such as MUL.APIN.

The Mesopotamian calendar as a whole was, for quite some time, no more standardized than its intercalations. Month names and festivals varied from city to city. However, around the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the Standard Mesopotamian calendar gained widespread acceptance, mostly for political and commercial reasons. The Standard Mesopotamian month names are as follows:

Nisannu
Ajaru
Simanu
Tamuzu
Abu
Ululu
Tashritu
Arahsamnu
Kissilimu
Tebetu
Shabatu
Addaru

It is worth noting that, because the New Year coincided with the vernal equinox, the Mesopotamian month began in the middle of one of our months. Thus:

Nisannu = March-April
Ajaru = April-May

and so forth. The equinoxes play a significant role in just about all of the Mesopotamian calendars, and often the year was seen as being a union of two six-month "equinox years", rather than one twelve-month expanse. A pronounced example of this will be shown in the calendar of Ur.

Source: http://www.astronomy.pomona.edu/archeo/outside/calendar.html

---------- Post Merged at 18:50 ----------


SURETH
Eastern phonetic : ḥé ' la: pa:
[Country → Trees]
English : 1) a willow ; 2) = ܚܸܠܝܼܦܵܐ : a beehive made of osier ;
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Eastern phonetic : ' ḥlé pa:
[Clothing]
English : a quilt , a bed cover made of two thicknesses of material with a filling of wool (cotton ...) and stitched through
Dialect : Urmiah
This word is of Arabic origin [<--??]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hilepu_zpsac40a7b6.jpg


Wikipedia




Psalm 137:1-20 (http://www.biblegateway.com/audio/mclean/kjv/Psa.137.1-Psa.137.20)
21st Century King James Version (KJ21)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahluptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlipuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlipu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlaptu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahlapanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halapu.jpg


AKKADIAN ([U]the examples are key)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahulap.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahulap2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahulap3.jpg


SURETH (Geoffrey Khan's "Barwar" volumes)
Note: x ~ ḥ
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/xlapa.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:03 ----------

Connect with the "moon" posts, above.

INDO-EUROPEAN

year (n.)
O.E. gear (W.Saxon), ger (Anglian) "year," from P.Gmc. *jæram "year" (cf. O.S., O.H.G. jar, O.N. ar, Dan. aar, O.Fris. ger, Du. jaar, Ger. Jahr, Goth. jer "year"), from PIE *yer-o-, from root *yer-/*yor- "year, season" (cf. Avestan yare (nom. sing.) "year;" Gk. hora "year, season, any part of a year," also "any part of a day, hour;" O.C.S. jaru, Boh. jaro "spring;" L. hornus "of this year;" O.Pers. dušiyaram "famine," lit. "bad year"). Probably originally "that which makes [a complete cycle]," and from verbal root *ei- meaning "to do, make."

http://www.etymonline.com

Humanist
2012-10-06, 02:57
Something else in the news, that may hit close to "home." In some of my past posts I have stated that I believe a good many of my ancestors may have "originated," several centuries ago, from or near the area of Arbil, in what is today northern Iraq.



New Assyrian town discovered in northern Iraq (http://ferrelljenkins.wordpress.com/2012/10/04/new-assyrian-town-discovered-in-northern-iraq/)
Posted on October 4, 2012

An article in Al Arabiya informs us that foreign archaeologists have discovered a new Assyrian site near the Arbil (Erbil) city center. Arbil is located southeast of the modern Kurdish city of Mosul, the area of Assyrian cities such as Nineveh, Calah, and Khorsabad.


From UNESCO (World Heritage site)


Erbil Citadel Town, which is situated dramatically on top of an artificial, 32-meters high earthen mound, and visually dominating the expansive modern city of Erbil, is believed to have been in continuous existence for 7000 years or even more. Thus, it may be regarded as the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in the world. Because of its past fortifications and steeply inclined mound, which is at some locations nearly 45 degrees, it has managed to survive numerous sieges and fierce attacks. The existing fabric, however, goes back to several hundred years but is, nevertheless, of extreme vernacular architectural and urban interest, not only for Iraq but also for humanity at large.

Humanist
2012-10-06, 05:12
SURETH
'dana
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) rare : a single grain ; 2) a berry ; 3) used in numbering : a unit , a element , an item ; ܐܸܡܵܐܐ ܕܵܢܹ̈ܐ : one hundred units , 100 units ; 4) Al Qosh, = Classical Syriac ܕܲܢܵܐ : an earthenware cask / vat , an amphora (?) ; 5) Oraham : single , anything that stands alone , solitary
Dialect : Urmiah

(Source: G. Khan)
dana : time; point in time; period of time

ḥdanaia
[Numbers]
English : 1) Maclean : masculine : singular ; feminine : ܚܕܵܢܵܝܬܵܐ ; arithmetic : plural :ܚܕܵܢܵܝܹ̈ܐ: units ; 2) Oraham : singular , single , being a single unit , individual , separate (?) , private (?)
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu.jpg


SUMERIAN
danna(KASKAL.GÍD), da-na double hour (a distance measure, ca. 6.6 miles)

Humanist
2012-10-06, 06:10
1
SURETH
'ṭapé
English : 1) with ܒ : to stick , to adhere , to cleave , intransitive : to fasten on , trade union ... : to join (?) ; 2) to be lighted , to be kindled , to be set on fire ; ܠܵܗܵܐ ܛܦܹܐ ܠܹܗ ܒ : the flame set fire to , the flame kindled the ...; ܚܸܡܬܵܐ ܛܦܝܼܬܵܐ ܝܠܵܗܿ ܒܝܸܢ : wrath is kindled against us ; 3) NENA : to wrestle , to come to grips (?) / to grapple (?) / to scuffle (?) ; 4) to catch up , to come to , to catch hold of , to grasp ; 5) with ܒ : to banter , to tease , to joke ; 6) with ܒ : to urge , to press upon ; 7) disease ... : to be catching , to be infectious / contagious ; 8) with ܒ : Luc : 3, 14 : to ill-use , ill-treat , to mistreat , to bully ; ܛܦܹܐ ܠܹܗ ܠܸܒܝܼ : I was tired , I was sick of it (?) / I had it (?)
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Al Qosh


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapu-1.jpg


2
SURETH
atana
[Animals]
English : Ass , male donkey ; stupid fellow
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/atanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-06, 08:00
SURETH
'aila
[Animals]
English : 1) a stag , the full-grown male of various large deer , a hart , a buck ; feminine : ܐܲܝܠܬܵܐ : a hind ; 2) Genesis : 36,41 : Elah
Dialect : Urmiah

'ailta / élta
[Animals → Wild]
English : a hind , a female deer / a doe ; masculine : ܐܲܝܠܵܐ : a stag , a hart , a male deer , a buck
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajalu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajalatu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 03:00 ----------

PCA and similar analyses from studies that included Assyrian Y-DNA samples:


Mendez et al. (2011)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pca_ydna_4611.jpg


Harutyunyan et al. (2011)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/PC_assyrian_ydna1.jpg


Lashgary et al. (2011)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lash_iran.jpg


Yepiskoposian et al. (2006)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/PC_YEPISKOPOSIAN2.jpg


Grugni et al. (2012) (Marsh Arabs, Baghdadi Arabs, and Assyrians in cyan)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/grugni_et_al_B.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-06, 11:19
The first entry is from one of the dead links:

1
SURETH
'oṣa
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) an arrow ; 2) a bullet , a cartridge , a shell , a missile / projectile
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/usu.jpg



2
SURETH
umana
[Professions]
English : workman , a maker , a craftsman , an artificer , a carpenter , a manualist , a worker , a laborer
Dialect : Classical Syriac

iumanuta
[Professions]
English : workmanship , art , artistry , craft , skill , artifice , guile
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ummanu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ummanuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ummanuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ummanutu.jpg



3
SURETH
'ḥabra
[Humanities → Language]
English : 1) information , news , tidings , Oraham : a report , an account , a rumour / rumor , an unverifed word , a story circulating by common talk , gossip ; ܠܲܝܬ ܠܝܼ ܚܲܒܪܵܐ : I have not heard ; ܒܹܐ ܚܲܒܪܵܐ : uninformed , ignorant , not in the loop , philistine (?) ; ܐܝܼܬ ܠܹܗ ܚܲܒܪܵܐ ܒ : he is privy to the matter , he is in the know , he is in the loop , he knows about it ; ܟܬ݂ܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܚܲܒܪܵܐ : a newspaper , a magazine ; ܒܹܐ ܚܲܒܪܵܐ ܡܸܢ : without the knowledge of , not knowing , without being aware of , without being cognizant of ; 2) common in NENA, Azerbaijan, less usual in Urmiah : a word , song : a lyric (?) ; 3) a vote , an opinion ; ܗܵܘܹܐ ܒܚܲܕ݇ ܚܲܒܪܵܐ : to agree ; 4) a price asked or offered for a thing ; ܟܵܠܹܐ ܥܲܠ ܚܲܒܪܘܼܗܝ : to stick to the price named / agreed ; 5) a thing , a matter ; 6) a request , a command / an order , advice ; ܚܲܒܪܘܼܟ݂ / ܚܲܒܪܘܼܟ݂ ܝܼܠܹܗ : true ! , indeed it's true ! , literally : "your word (is true)"
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, NENA, Al Qosh, Azerbaidjan

'ḥbara
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) to be informed , to be notified of , to be tipped off , to be given notice of , to get wind of , to be given notice (?) , to be warned (?) ; 2) to take notice , to heed
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habratu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/habaru.jpg



4
SURETH (I found this one interesting.)
ḥulmaṭa
[Animals → Reptiles]
English : 1) Maclean : a sand-lizard , an iguana (?) ; 2) a chameleon
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN (Note the second term as well.)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hulamesu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hulamesu2.jpg


5
SURETH
'ṣaarta [ṣawarta? --> verb is ṣawər??]
[Human → Speech]
English : revilement , the act of reviling , cursing , swearing at / using swear-words against , insulting , dishonoring , disgracing / putting to shame
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaru3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saburtu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 06:19 ----------

SURETH
msatranuta
[Army → Peace]
English : protection , the act of keeping in safety , the defence / defense , guardianship , the preservation , the shelter (protection) , the conservancy , conservation , shielding (?) , buffering (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

mzahrana
[Human → Speech]
English : a warner , one who warns or puts on guard , an admonitor (who admonishes) , an admonisher , a monitor , one who gives notice , an adviser (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

matṭarta
[Army → Military]
English : 1) watch , a keeping awake (for the purpose of guarding, protecting or attending ...) , sentry duty , a vigil (?) ; 2) a harbour , a harbor , a haven , a harbourage , a fortress
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/massartu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/massaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masiru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-06, 11:53
SUMERIAN
urudu ha-zi(-in) : axe


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hassinnu2.jpg


SYRIAC
ḥasṣina
[Army → Weapons]
English : an adze , a hatchet , a small axe with a short handle used with one hand
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Also found in the following Aramaic dialects, according to the CAL: Hatran, Jewish Literary Aramaic Targumic, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Locations of Hatran ("A"), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic ("D"), below. Points "B" and "C" represent the Assyrian cities of Assur and Nineveh respectively.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/axe_locations.jpg


Perhaps another, for the "royalty" category? It was a loan in Hittite, from Akkadian.


INDO-EUROPEAN

hatchet (n.)
c.1300 "small ax" (mid-12c. in surnames), from O.Fr. hachete, dim. of hache "ax, battle-axe, pickaxe," possibly from Frankish *happja or some other Germanic source, from P.Gmc. *hæbijo (cf. O.H.G. happa "sickle, scythe"), from PIE root *kop- "to beat, strike" (cf. Gk. kopis "knife;" Lith. kaplys "hatchet," kapoti "cut small;" O.C.S. skopiti "castrate").

In Middle English, hatch itself was used in a sense "battle-axe." In 14c., hang up (one's) hatchet meant "stop what one is doing." Phrase bury the hatchet (1794) is from Native American peacemaking custom. Hatchet-man was originally California slang for "hired Chinese assassin" (1880), later extended figuratively to journalists who attacked the reputation of a public figure (1944).

Humanist
2012-10-06, 13:12
1
SURETH
gami šadiamma ["gami" is our word for "boat."]
[Animals → Wild]
English : a hippopotamus
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'susé nahra (?)
[Animals → Wild]
English : a hippopotamus , a "river-horse"
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saddidu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamtu.jpg


2
SURETH
'kalbad 'miia
[Animals → Wild]
English : a beaver , (a water-dog)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kalab_me.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-06, 14:19
SURETH

'marid
[Government]
English : to rebel , to revolt , to mutiny
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

This word sounds akin to the Biblical name Nimrod

maroda
[Government]
English : 1) rebellious , engaged in rebellion , rebel , insurgent , resisting lawful authority by force , resistant , refractory , mutineering (?) ; note : this word sounds linked to the Biblical name "Nimrod" . 2) Yoab Benjamin : a rebel , an insurgent , a mutineer ; 3) yoab Benjamin : totalitarian , despotic , tyrannical
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


Perhaps it was not Nimrod. :)


Wikipedia


Marduk-zakir-shumi II was a Babylonian nobleman who served briefly as King of Babylon for a few months in 703 BC, following a revolt against the rule of the Assyrian king Sennacherib. He was soon overthrown and replaced by the former Chaldean king, Marduk-apal-iddina II.



Marduk-apla-iddina II, cuneiform spelling ᴰMES.A.SUM-na, (the biblical Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan, lit. Marduk has given me an Heir.) (reigned 722 BC – 710 BC, 703 BC – 702 BC) was a Chaldean prince who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC. Marduk-apla iddina II was also known as one of the kings who maintained Babylonian independence in the face of Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade.

Sargon of Assyria repressed the allies of Marduk-apla-iddina II in Elam, Aram and Israel and eventually drove (ca. 710 BC) him from Babylon. After the death of Sargon, Marduk-apla-iddina II briefly recaptured the throne from a native Babylonian nobleman. He reigned nine months (703 BC – 702 BC). He returned from Elam and ignited rebellion in Babylonia. He was able to enter Babylon and be declared king again. Nine months later he was defeated near Kish by the Assyrians, but managed to flee to Elam. He died in exile a couple of years later.

Merodach-Baladan, King of Babylon, Enfeoffs A Vassal, from the original in the Altes Museum, Berlin

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/04/Marduk-apla-iddina_II.jpg/393px-Marduk-apla-iddina_II.jpg


This Akkadian term may be of some relevance. Maybe not.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-06, 17:40
Please compare this Indo-European word, with what is contained in the above post. Not necessarily related, of course.

INDO-EUROPEAN

maraud (v.)
1690s, from Fr. marauder (17c.), from M.Fr. maraud "rascal" (15c.), of unknown origin, perhaps from French dialectal maraud "tomcat," echoic of its cry. A word popularized in several languages during the Thirty Years War (cf. Sp. merodear, Ger. marodiren "to maraud," marodebruder "straggler, deserter") by punning association with Count Mérode, imperialist general. Related: Marauded; marauding.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=maraud

---------- Post Merged at 12:40 ----------


Wikipedia:
The myth of Enlil and Ninlil discusses when Enlil was a young god, he was banished from Dilmun, home of the gods, to Kur, the underworld for raping a goddess named Ninlil. Ninlil followed him to the underworld where she bore his first child, Nergal, and/or the moon god Sin (Sumerian Nanna/Suen). After fathering three more underworld-deities (substitutes for Sin), Enlil was allowed to return to Dilmun.[3][4]


Humanist: When I saw the word, "kawran," the first thing that came to mind was the word "kawra," which I take to mean damnation. My mother, when she uses the term, attaches this meaning to it.

Hopefully Birko will contribute here, as he knows the language, whereas I am an illiterate. Here is my unlearned attempt at translating "Tammuz d-kawran aw-hy" (Tammuz, of the grave, he will be). I reckon I am way off.

AKKADIAN (not necessarily related)

ekur

Wikipedia


Kuara (also known as Kisiga, Ku'ara, modern Tell al-Lahm site, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) is an archaeological site located on the western bank of the mouth of the Euphrates, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of Ur.[1] According to the Sumerian king list, Kuara was also the home of Dumuzid, the fisherman, legendary third king of Uruk .[2] The city's patron deity was Meslamtaea (Nergal).[3] In Sumerian mythology, Kuara was also considered the birthplace of the god Marduk (Asarluhi), Enki's son. The cults of Marduk and Ninehama were centered in Kuara.[4][5]

Kuara was established ca. 2500 BC, during the Sumerian Early Dynastic II period. It was a seaport to the Persian Gulf, and traded with the port of Dilmun.[6] In 709 BC, the Assyrian king Sargon II was trying to capture Marduk-apal-iddina II, who fled to Kuara, whereupon Sargon's army laid siege and destroyed the city. [7] Alluvial soil carried by the Euphrates continually extended the land farther into the Persian Gulf; thus the modern site is far from the sea, even though it was a sea port 4500 years ago.

Humanist
2012-10-07, 01:27
SURETH
'qavva (['qawwa] --> ['qabba]?)
[Feeding → Drink]
English : a mug , an earthen or metallic drinking cup / tankard with a handle
Dialect : Urmiah

kuba
[Feeding → Drink]
English : a goblet , a kind of cup or drinking vessel without a handle
Dialect : Other



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kappu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qabutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-07, 04:25
My ancestors ate udders, and camel humps?


AKKADIAN (NEO-BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbu2.jpg


SURETH
'gabba
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) hump, a protuberance on the back , the hump of a camel 2) a spoke
Dialect : Urmiah



Wikipedia


A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. The two surviving species of camel are the dromedary, or one-humped camels, which are native to the Middle East and the Horn of Africa; and Bactrian, or two-humped camels, which inhabit Central Asia. Both species have been domesticated; they provide milk, meat, hair for textiles or goods such as felted pouches, and are working animals.

....

Camels do not directly store water in their humps as was once commonly believed. The humps are actually reservoirs of fatty tissue. Concentrating body fat in their humps minimizes heat-trapping insulation throughout the rest of their bodies, which may be an adaptation to living in hot climates.[3] When this tissue is metabolized, it acts as a source of energy, and yields more than 1 g of water for each 1 g of fat converted through reaction with oxygen from air. This process of fat metabolization generates a net loss of water through respiration for the oxygen required to convert the fat.[4]

....

A camel carcass can provide a substantial amount of meat. The male dromedary carcass can weigh 400 kg (900 lb) or more, while the carcass of a male Bactrian can weigh up to 650 kg (1,400 lb). The carcass of a female camel weighs less than the male, ranging between 250 and 350 kg (550 and 770 lb). The brisket, ribs and loin are among the preferred parts. The hump contains "white and sickly fat", which can be used to make the khli (preserved meat) of mutton, beef or camel.[30] Camel meat is reported to taste like coarse beef, but older camels can prove to be very tough. The meat from older camels is best prepared by slow cooking. Camel meat is low in fat, and can thus taste dry. The Abu Dhabi Officers' Club serves a camel burger, as this allows the meat to be mixed with beef or lamb fat, improving both the texture and taste. In Karachi, Pakistan, the exclusive Nihari restaurants prepare this dish from camel meat, while the general restaurants prepare it with either beef or water buffalo meat.

Camel meat has been eaten for centuries. It has been recorded by ancient Greek writers as an available dish in ancient Persia at banquets, usually roasted whole. The ancient Roman emperor Heliogabalus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elagabalus) enjoyed camel's heel. Camel meat is still eaten in certain regions, including Somalia (where it is called hilib geel), Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Kazakhstan, and other arid regions where alternative forms of protein may be limited or where camel meat has had a long cultural history. In the Middle East, camel meat is the rarest and most prized source of pastırma.[citation needed] Not just the meat, but also the blood, is a consumable item as is the case in northern Kenya, where camel blood is a source of iron, vitamin D, salts and minerals. Camel meat is also occasionally found in Australian cuisine, for example, a camel lasagne is available in Alice Springs and Indian restaurants in Sydney serve curried camel.


Perhaps, in the case of cattle and sheep, this is what they were referring to?

Wikipedia


An udder is an organ formed of the mammary glands of female quadruped mammals, especially ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep and deer. The udder is a single mass hanging beneath the animal, consisting of pairs of mammary glands. In cattle there are normally two pairs, in sheep, goats and deer there is one pair, and in some animals such as pigs there are many pairs.

http://s3.amazonaws.com/files.posterous.com/guykawasaki/tjjjDelDrhylvgtpqGqFotwgJIGljzxtfHouhJljqzeiDFHIHf BsDgwDgEek/media_httpfarm6static_alpci.jpg.scaled500.jpg?AWSA ccessKeyId=AKIAJFZAE65UYRT34AOQ&Expires=1349580306&Signature=amiR%2B%2FfpKQ06Zr%2BhUt%2B%2BK0cVNt0%3D


Apparently, they are edible. USDA guidelines (not necessarily consistent with practices 2500+ years ago :) ):

Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA


§ 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands.
(a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without opening the milk ducts or sinuses. If pus or other objectionable material is permitted to come in contact with the carcass, the parts of the carcass thus contaminated shall be removed and condemned.
(b) Nonlactating cow udders may be saved for food purposes provided suitable facilities for handling and inspecting them are provided. Examination of
udders by palpation shall be done by a Program employee. When necessary, in the judgment of the Program employee for adequate inspection, the official establishment employees shall incise udders in sections no greater than 2 inches in thickness. All udders showing disease lesions shall be condemned by a
Program employee. Each udder shall be properly identified with its respective carcass and kept separate and apart from other udders until its disposal has been accomplished in accordance with the provisions of part 311 of this subchapter.
(c) Lactating mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall not be saved for edible purposes.
(d) The udders from cows officially designated as ‘‘Brucellosis reactors’’ or as ‘‘Mastitis elimination cows’’ shall be condemned.

Humanist
2012-10-07, 06:20
My ancestors ate udders, and camel humps?


AKKADIAN (NEO-BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbu2.jpg


SURETH
'gabba
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) hump, a protuberance on the back , the hump of a camel 2) a spoke
Dialect : Urmiah


Perhaps, in the case of cattle and sheep, this is what they were referring to?


https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTHj77n2g7e-iiQihS2PmfrlBFxros_CRXHFENvXFpjRcXr1L3Ctw


Apparently, they are edible. USDA guidelines (not necessarily consistent with practices 2500+ years ago :) ):

Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA

SUMERIAN
gaba breast, chest; front, edge, facing side; coast (of the sea); frontier; surface


SURETH
'giba
English : 1) side, aspect , part regarded as contrasted with some other ; 2) preposition : toward , in the direction of ; Al Qosh, Azerbaijan : ܠܓܹܒܵܐ ܕ : = ܓܹܒܵܐ ܕ = Urmiah : ܠܟܸܣ : to ; Azerbaijan : ܓܸܒܟ݂ܘܿܢ : to you ; NENA, Shamisdin : ܒܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ / ܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ : beside , by the side of ; ܡܸܢ ܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ / ܡܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ : from , from beside ; ܠܐܵܗ ܓܹܒܵܐ on this side ; ܠܗܵܘ ܓܸܒܵܐ : on the other side , over there , abroad ; ܠܐܵܗ ܓܹܒܵܐ ܠܗܵܘ ܓܹܒܵܐ : to and fro ; ܡܹܢ ܐܘܿܪܡܝܼ ܓܹܒܵܐ : 1) From the Neighbourhood of Urmi ; 2) concerning Urmi , about Urmi (?) ; ܡܸܢ ܓܸܒܵܐ ܕ : because of
Dialect : NENA [Urmia]

Humanist
2012-10-07, 11:04
SURETH
laḥuša
[Religion → Magic]
English : a charmer , a snake-charmer , one who uses the power of enchantment , a sorcerer / a magus (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'lḥaša
[Human → Speech]
English : intransitive verb : 1) to murmur , to utter complaints in a low half-articulated voice ; 2) to mutter incantations , to charm , to use charms (spells ...)

'mušta
[Human → Body]
English : the fist , a stroke (hit) with the fist , a punch (a blow with the fist)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahasu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muslahhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lihsu-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lihsu2.jpg


SUMERIAN
muš snake, serpent
mùš, múš countenance, appearance, aspect; halo, aura; (a kind of crown); temple base or emplacement (George, AV Black 113)


Wikipedia

"Cobra hood"

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Cobra_hood.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 05:51 ----------

Linguistic paleontology... ;)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVEhnoYJtok

---------- Post Merged at 06:02 ----------

http://www.hapkido-online.com/uploads/1/0/8/2/10822456/1435293_orig.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 06:04 ----------


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amasu1.jpg

Adding to above.

Humanist
2012-10-07, 12:23
More "royalty?" Something else? Or nothing?


INDO-EUROPEAN

Wikipedia


Knut (Norwegian and Swedish), Knud (Danish), or Knútur (Icelandic) is a Scandinavian first name, of which the anglicised form is Cnut or Canute. In Germany both "Knut" and "Knud" are used. In Spanish and Portuguese Canuto is used which comes from the latin version Canutus. The name is derived from the Old Norse Knútr meaning "knot".

It is the name of several medieval kings of Denmark, two of whom also reigned over England during the first half of the 11th century.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kananu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinutuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinutuB2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunnuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanutu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanutu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-07, 14:04
SURETH
ḥarupa
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) sharp , keen , having a thin edge , ending in a fine point , pointed , whetted (?) , sharpened , facial features ?, contrast ?, blow ?, cry ?, frost ?, eyesight ? : sharp (?) ; 2) food : hot , pungent , spicy , peppery (?)
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN (note the comment regarding the "camel-thorn")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harubu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harubu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harubu3.jpg




My ancestors ate udders, and camel humps?


AKKADIAN (NEO-BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabbu2.jpg


SURETH
'gabba
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) hump, a protuberance on the back , the hump of a camel 2) a spoke
Dialect : Urmiah


Perhaps, in the case of cattle and sheep, this is what they were referring to?

Apparently, they are edible. USDA guidelines (not necessarily consistent with practices 2500+ years ago :) ):

Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA


SUMERIAN
gaba breast, chest; front, edge, facing side; coast (of the sea); frontier; surface


SURETH
'giba
English : 1) side, aspect , part regarded as contrasted with some other ; 2) preposition : toward , in the direction of ; Al Qosh, Azerbaijan : ܠܓܹܒܵܐ ܕ : = ܓܹܒܵܐ ܕ = Urmiah : ܠܟܸܣ : to ; Azerbaijan : ܓܸܒܟ݂ܘܿܢ : to you ; NENA, Shamisdin : ܒܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ / ܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ : beside , by the side of ; ܡܸܢ ܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ / ܡܓܹܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܕ : from , from beside ; ܠܐܵܗ ܓܹܒܵܐ on this side ; ܠܗܵܘ ܓܸܒܵܐ : on the other side , over there , abroad ; ܠܐܵܗ ܓܹܒܵܐ ܠܗܵܘ ܓܹܒܵܐ : to and fro ; ܡܹܢ ܐܘܿܪܡܝܼ ܓܹܒܵܐ : 1) From the Neighbourhood of Urmi ; 2) concerning Urmi , about Urmi (?) ; ܡܸܢ ܓܸܒܵܐ ܕ : because of
Dialect : NENA [Urmia]


SURETH
'gamla
[Animals]
English : a camel (with one or two humps) , dromadary; ܟܸܬܘܵܐ ܕܓܲܡܠܵܐ : a thistle
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'gumla
[Animals]
English : a dromadary / an Arabian camel with one hump , a Bactrian camel with two humps ; feminine Al Qosh : ܓܘܼܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ : a she-camel ; ܟܸܬܘܵܐ ܕܓܘܼܡܠܵܐ : a thistle
Dialect : NENA

'bukša
[Animals]
English : a weaned camel foal , a young or small camel
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gammalu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gungulipu_mod.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bakru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baqasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buqqusu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buqasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-07, 21:39
SURETH
'qaqnos
[Religion → Myths]
English : a phœnix , the embodiment of Ra (the sun-god) viewed as an eagle
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaqu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaqu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaqanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-07, 23:12
It is interesting that the Akkadian word, above, is last attested in Middle Babylonian (1532 BC - 1000 BC). This does not mean it was not later used, of course.

What I find interesting is that the Middle Babylonian period included the era of the Amarna letters.


The Amarna tablets are named after the site Tell el-Amarna (in middle Egypt) where they were discovered. The first Amarna tablets were found by local inhabitants in 1887. They form the majority of the corpus. Subsequent excavations at the site have yielded less than 50 out of the 382 itemized tablets and fragments which form the Amarna corpus known to date.

The majority of the Amarna tablets are letters. These letters were sent to the Egyptian Pharaohs Amenophis III and his son Akhenaten around the middle of the 14th century B.C. The correspondents were kings of Babylonia, Assyria, Hatti and Mitanni, minor kings and rulers of the Near East at that time, and vassals of the Egyptian Empire.

Almost immediately following their discovery, the Amarna tablets were deciphered, studied and published. Their importance as a major source for the knowledge of the history and politics of the Ancient Near East during the 14th Century B.C. was recognized. The tablets presented several difficulties to scholars. The Amarna tablets are written in Akkadian cuneiform script and present many features which are peculiar and unknown from any other Akkadian dialect. This was most evident in the letters sent from Canaan, which were written in a mixed language (Canaanite-Akkadian). The Amarna letters from Canaan have proved to be the most important source for the study of the Canaanite dialects in the pre-Israelite period.

Shlomo Izre'el


Wikipedia


Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Amarnamap.png/772px-Amarnamap.png

Humanist
2012-10-08, 11:34
SURETH
'arna
[Animals → Wild]
English : a rat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnuC.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-08, 12:59
1

Wikipedia


Shiksa (Yiddish: שיקסע, Polish: siksa) or shikse, is a Yiddish and Polish word that has moved into English usage, mostly in North American Jewish culture, as a term for a non-Jewish woman, initially and sometimes still pejorative but now often used satirically. Shiksa usually refers to an attractive (stereotypically blonde) gentile woman or girl who might be a temptation to Jewish men or boys, e.g., for dating, intermarriage, etc.

....

Among Orthodox Jews, the term may be used to describe a Jewish girl or woman who fails to follow Orthodox religious precepts.[2]

The word shiksa is etymologically partly derived from the Hebrew term שקץ, sheketz, which means "abomination", "impure," or "object of loathing", depending on the translator.[3]


AKKADIAN (last attested, STANDARD BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siksu.jpg



2
SURETH
'wazna
[Army → Weapons]
English : a cartridge , a reed filled with gunpowder
Dialect : Eastern Syriac
Turkish word


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/azannu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 07:59 ----------

I get the impression, from my time spent going through the volumes of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, that there has never been a comparison of the complete Akkadian lexicon and Indo-European. I sincerely believe that the information contained in the 21 volumes of the CAD may contribute significantly to our understanding of longstanding questions regarding world history, and related topics (e.g. language family "urheimats").

Perhaps, we can bring genetics into this again as well. Posted previously, several times. The below frequencies are likely even greater for the Alawites.

This does not mean, necessarily, an east to west gene flow.


Links in the chain.

The Assyrian primary R1b group. There are six haplotypes in this group. Of the six, three are unique at 12 markers.

60631 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30
83734 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30
205749 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30

The "Ancestral Origins" page at FTDNA, based on the three haplotypes above, reports the following percentages of men from the countries listed, with either an exact 12/12 match, or one step off match to one of the three haplotypes in the principal Assyrian cluster:


Population Exact 1 Step % of All Men in Country Matching
Spain 2.5% 15.5% 18.0%
Scotland 1.5% 12.2% 13.7%
Ireland 2.1% 11.5% 13.6%
Wales 1.0% 12.2% 13.2%
N Ireland 1.3% 11.1% 12.4%
France 1.2% 11.0% 12.2%
UK 1.0% 10.6% 11.6%
Switzerland 1.2% 10.1% 11.3%
England 1.2% 9.9% 11.1%
Belgium 0.8% 9.0% 9.8%
Netherlands 0.7% 8.4% 9.1%
Portugal 0.9% 7.5% 8.4%
Canada 0.3% 7.3% 7.6%
Iceland 0.0% 7.6% 7.6%
Australia 1.4% 6.1% 7.5%
Germany 0.7% 6.4% 7.1%
PR 1.7% 4.0% 5.7%
Italy 0.8% 4.7% 5.5%
Mexico 0.2% 5.1% 5.3%
Norway 0.6% 4.4% 5.0%
Austria 0.8% 3.6% 4.4%
US 0.4% 3.9% 4.3%
Bahamas 0.9% 2.7% 3.6%
Sweden 0.2% 3.4% 3.6%
South Africa 0.0% 3.1% 3.1%
Israel 0.8% 1.6% 2.4%
Greece 0.4% 1.4% 1.8%
Hungary 0.1% 1.6% 1.7%
Slovakia 0.0% 1.6% 1.6%
Poland 0.1% 1.4% 1.5%
Turkey 0.2% 1.3% 1.5%
Lithuania 0.1% 0.8% 0.9%
Ukraine 0.1% 0.8% 0.9%
Romania 0.0% 0.8% 0.8%
Kazakhstan 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%
Slovenia 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%
Russia 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%


INDO-EUROPEAN

Wiktionary.com


Proto-Indo-European/akʷā-

Etymology
There is no consensus regarding the laryngeal form of *akʷ-, if one existed. Hypothetical reconstructions such as *h₂ekʷ- have little support and can only be established for Western Indo-European languages at best. Hittite and Tocharian evidence points to *h₁ēgʷʰ-, yet this cannot explain Latin and Gothic reflexes that point to *akʷ-.

Noun
*akʷ-ā- (perhaps from *h₂ekʷ-eh₂-)
water

And two related terms:


ea

English

Etymology 1

From Middle English, from Old English ēa (“running water, water, stream, river”), from Proto-Germanic *ahwō (“waters, river”), from Proto-Indo-European *akʷā- (“water, flowing water”). Cognate with North Frisian ia (“river”), Eastern Frisian äi (“river”), Dutch aa (“water, stream”), German Ache (“water, stream, river, flood”), Swedish å (“stream, creek”), Icelandic á (“stream, river”), Latin aqua (“water”).

ea (plural eas)
(dialectal) A river or watercourse.


abhainn

Scottish Gaelic

Etymology

From Old Irish aub, from Proto-Celtic *abū (compare Welsh afon), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- (“water”). The form abhainn was originally the dative singular of abha, but is now widely used as the nominative/accusative as well.

abhainn f (genitive aibhne, plural aibhnichean)
river, stream



AKKADIAN (first from SUMERIAN)
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/agu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/habu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/abbu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/arittu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-08, 14:49
SURETH
'niḥa
[Transport]
English : slow , not swift
Dialect : Urmiah

'niaḥa
[Human → Sleep]
English : rest , repose / refreshment of the body , siesta (?) , a break , cessation of motion / exertion / labor
Dialect : Urmiah

'niaḥta
[Human → Sleep]
English : rest , repose / relaxation , leisure / recreation / refreshment / diversion , a break (?) , freedom from disturbance or uneasiness , unwinding / load loosening
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anihu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nehtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-09, 01:25
SURETH
'arna
[Animals → Wild]
English : a rat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnuC.jpg

SURETH
arnuwa [arnuba?]
[Animals → Wild]
English : a hare , a wild rabbit
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, NENA, Other

arnwa [arnba?]
[Animals]
English : 1) a hare , a wild rabbit ; 2) Oraham : a tumor
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arnabu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-09, 02:30
Wikipedia


Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Standard literary Assyrian is based on the Urmian dialect and is known as "General Urmian" (since the 1830s), with a second standard dialect derived from General Urmian developing in the 20th century, known as "Iraqi Koine".



------------------------------------------------------------------

SURETH
'birka/'burka
[Human → Body]
English : a knee ; ܡܵܚܹܐ ܒܸܪܟܵܐ / ܒܵܪܸܟ ܒܸܪܟܵܐ : to kneel / to kneel down (?) ; ܡܵܚܹܐ ܒܸܪ̈ܟܵܟܹܐ : " to strike one's knees" , by bad news : to be appalled / horrified / dismayed / shocked ; ܒܸܪ̈ܟܵܟܘܼܗܝ ܟܸܠܝܹܐ ܝܢܵܐ : he is tired out / exhausted / pooped
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac,


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birkuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birkuB2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-09, 04:27
SURETH
'birṣa
[Industry]
English : a perforation , act of piercing , boring through , a hole
Dialect : Urmiah

'braṣa
[Industry]
English : 1) to bore , to pierce , to drill a hole in , to perforate 2) to transfix
Dialect : Urmiah

'bariz
[Country → Plants]
English : 1) to dry , to dry up , to wither , humans : to pine away ; 2) metaphor : to fear greatly
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Is this word of Arabic origin ? [<-- ????]

baruza
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) dry , withered ; feminine
Dialect : Urmiah

'birza
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) dry land ; another variant : ܒܹܪܙܵܐ ; 2) plural : ܒܸܪܙܹܐ : drought 2) stubborn
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'birqa / 'barqa
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) lightning ; 2) physical sciences : electricity
Dialect : NENA

bušala
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : 1) any cooked dish ; 2) a pottage , Assyrian soup (with curdled milk and vegetables) , porridge
Dialect : Classical Syriac

bahura
[Human → Senses]
English : dusky , somewhat dark , swarthy , dim , obscure
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'bara / bahra
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) light ; 2) Classical Syriac : dim light ; 3) Yoab Benjamin : a colour (?) , a light colour (?) , adjective for a colour ? : light (?) , pale (?)
Dialect : Urmiah, NENA

bahir
[Human → Senses]
English : NENA, Al Qosh : 1) to brighten , to illumine , to lighten ; 2) to get light , to dawn
Dialect : NENA, Other

arṭita [previously compared to Akkadian word for flatulence]
[Human → Body]
English : 1) a fart , a flatulency ; 2) an eruction
Dialect : Urmiah

erata
[Human → Body]
English : 1) to fart , to eject gas from the bowels through the rectum ; 2) (horse ...) : to neigh , to whinny , to snicker (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

uraṭa
[Human → Body]
English : an eructation , a fart / flatus / flatulence / flatulency , wind / gas ejected from the stomach (especially through the rectum) , a burp / a belch
Dialect : Urmiah


[U]AKKADIAN (note STANDARD BABYLONIAN ("SB"))

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bursa.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birsu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birsu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birsu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pirsu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pirsu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barasu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busalu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bararu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birratu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barari.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arurtu.png

Humanist
2012-10-09, 07:03
A few bits from the Jewish Virtual Library (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0001_0_00636.html) article on Akkadian ("Standard Babylonian" in bold).


Assyrian

It should be noted that the Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions are written in Standard Babylonian, as are the inscriptions of the dynasties ruling southern Babylonia in the first millennium B.C.E. The relative absence of legal material from the private sector seems to be due to an increasing use of Aramaic.

Babylonian

Post-Old Babylonian Akkadian literature from all centers is usually written in a linguistic register which is an artificial literary offshoot of Old Babylonian, and is influenced by archaic forms current in the older poetic dialect, called Standard Babylonian. Standard Babylonian was cultivated by the scribes for literary purposes from the middle of the second millennium and through the first millennium B.C.E. until Akkadian ceased to be used. Standard Babylonian suppressed literary creativity in local dialects, e.g., Assyrian, but it tends to show a strong influence of the locally spoken tongue.

Neo-Babylonian is likewise represented mainly by a large corpus of non-literary sources, especially letters and economic documents. The use of the last surviving "living" dialect, Late Babylonian, petered out completely during the Seleucid period. Standard Babylonian continued to be in use in the temple scriptoria, in the transmission of canonical compositions, and in the compilation of astronomical texts which are the last remnant of the Mesopotamian tradition. The latest datable text so far recognized is an astronomical almanac written in 385 Seleucid era (74/75 C.E.).

---------- Post Merged at 01:49 ----------

Cluster and Neighbor-Joining analyses for "West Asians," based on the data from the most recent Eurogenes update:

CLUSTER

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cluster_westasia.jpg


NEIGHBOR-JOINING

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/neighborjoining_westasia.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:03 ----------

Adding MDS:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mds_westasia.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-09, 09:50
Nothing. And I mean nothing (save for the work of trained professionals) in this thread should be taken without a very healthy dose of skepticism. Most of my posts are not much more than streams of consciousness.

Wikipedia


Waterfowl hunting (also called wildfowling or waterfowl shooting in the UK) is the practice of hunting ducks, geese, or other waterfowl for food and sport. In many western countries, commercial waterfowl hunting is prohibited, and duck hunting is primarily an outdoor sporting activity.

Many types of ducks and geese share the same habitat have overlapping or identical hunting seasons, and are hunted using the same methods. Thus it is possible to take different species of waterfowl in the same outing. Waterfowl can be hunted in crop fields where they feed, or, more frequently, on or near bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, sloughs, or oceanic coastlines.

Wild waterfowl have been hunted for food, down, and feathers worldwide since prehistoric times. Ducks, geese, and swans appear in European cave paintings from the last Ice Age, and a mural in the Ancient Egyptian tomb of Khum-Hotpe (c. 1900 BC) shows a man in a hunting blind capturing swimming ducks in a trap. Muscovy ducks were depicted in the art of the Moche culture of ancient Peru by 200 BC, and were likely hunted by many people of the Americas before then.[1]

....

Duck season takes place in the fall and winter where the weather can be harsh. Waterproof clothing is critical to duck hunting. Most duck hunters hunt over water, and they stand in water or in a boat. In order to stand in the water and stay dry the hunter must wear waders. Waders are waterproof pants (usually made of a neoprene like material) that have attached boots and are completely waterproof. Typical waders are chest high, but waist high and knee high waders are sometimes used in shallow water. Duck hunting is a cold sport and the hunter must be well insulated from the cold. Ducks also have great vision and can see color,so this is why hunters must wear clothing that is well camouflaged. Camouflage clothing is various shades of brown or green or brown and green combined. Therefore hunter wear camouflage similar to the area they are hunting so the ducks do not see the hunters. Face masks are often worn so the ducks do not see the hunters faces and camouflage gloves are also worn.

Wikipedia


List of birds of Iraq

....

Ducks, geese and swans

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Iraq.

A Directory of Wetlands in the Middle East (http://www.wetlands.org/RSIS/WKBASE/MiddleEastDir/IRAQ1.htm)

^^ Will post again, including coordinates for sites listed at the above page. The Assyrian Eurogenes median SPA point is within miles of what appear to be significant water fowl hunting areas in Mesopotamia.


SURETH
av / aw [ab ???]
[Sport → Hunting]
English : to hunt , hunting , the act or practice of one who pursues game
Dialect : Urmiah

'parra
[Animals → Birds]
English : a feather / quill
Dialect : Urmiah


Some will snicker, I am sure, but I am confident that any unbiased individual, familiar with the totality of the evidence, will not dismiss outright, what I refer to below. That is not to say it is necessarily relevant. It may not be. However, all evidence should be considered.

Around 5:40 of the clip, below. The name of the outer vest, "abaja."


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abaja1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abaja2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paru.jpg


The next two may not be of any particular significance.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-09, 12:11
SURETH
av / aw [ab ???]
[Sport → Hunting]
English : to hunt , hunting , the act or practice of one who pursues game
Dialect : Urmiah

'parra
[Animals → Birds]
English : a feather / quill
Dialect : Urmiah


Some will snicker, I am sure, but I am confident that any unbiased individual, familiar with the totality of the evidence, will not dismiss outright, what I refer to below. That is not to say it is necessarily relevant. It may not be. However, all evidence should be considered.

Around 5:40 of the clip, below. The name of the outer vest, "abaja."


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abaja1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abaja2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paru.jpg


The next two may not be of any particular significance.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabu.jpg

SURETH
'zawa [zaba??]
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : an Assyrian river : Zab
Dialect : Classical Syriac


Note the "Zab" rivers:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zab.jpg


It annoys me that I must even make this preface, but please leave the politics out of this thread. The below bit is posted because it is relevant to the comparison.

Wikipedia


The Assyrian Democratic Movement (Syriac: ܙܘܥܐ ܕܝܡܘܩܪܛܝܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ; Zawʻá Demoqraṭáyá ʼÁṯuráyá) popularly known as Zowaa ("The Movement" in Syriac) is an ethnic Assyrian political party in Iraq, and is currently the only Assyrian-based political party to be voting in the Iraqi parliament. The party was established on April 12, 1979 to satisfy the political objectives of the Assyrian people in Iraq, in response to the oppressive brutality of the Al-Baath regime...

Wikipedia


ERIM is the capital letter-(majuscule) sumerogram for the Akkadian language word army, or "troops". The akkadian language word for army is ("sābu"-using s-dot, the special s); consequently the cuneiform character for ERIM is also equivalent to sab, zab, etc.-(also using s-dot).

The cuneiform-compound for the enclosed use of the 'army' cuneiform character is the akkadian language word for battle, or warfare, akkadian "tāhāzu"-(also a sumerogram: MÈ-no. 098, Parpola). In the Yašdata letter with the place-name for Hannathon, the determinative is used at the beginning of the word battle, then tāhāzu is spelled ta-ha-(zu).

A Cuneiform-compound enclosing the cuneiform character for army, or troops.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/B053ellst.png/170px-B053ellst.png



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zabbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabu-1.jpg


SUMERIAN
ab, ab-ba, a-ab-ba, a-aba sea
a-ab-ba, a-aba (water of the) sea (cf. ab)
mè battle, war [<-- Very similar to the word for "water," in Akkadian and Sureth]



----------------------------------------

Reminds me of this. :)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/09/DVD_cover_of_the_movie_Real_Men.jpg

Wikipedia


Real Men is a 1987 comedy/science fiction film starring James Belushi and John Ritter as the heroes: suave, womanizing CIA agent Nick Pirandello (Belushi) and weak and ineffectual insurance agent Bob Wilson (Ritter).

Plot

The film opens with Agent Pillbox (played by John Ritter) walking through a forest, when he is shot and killed by an unseen assassin. Pillbox had been engaged on a dry run for a meeting that was to take place with a group of aliens seeking to help humans eliminate a chemical that will end all life on Earth, which scientists accidentally dumped in the ocean.

The fee for this lifesaving miracle? The aliens want a glass of water. However, the Russians, along with a rogue element in the FBI, would like to get to the aliens first because they have also offered something called the "Big Gun" - a gun so big that it could destroy a planet.

Humanist
2012-10-09, 14:01
SURETH
'ḥarma
[Nature]
English : savage , ferocious , fierce , untamed , uncultivated
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (the explanations are necessary)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harmu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harmitu.jpg


Wikipedia


Dumuzid or Dumuzi, called "the Shepherd", from Bad-tibira in Sumer, was, according to the Sumerian King List, the fifth predynastic king in the legendary period before the Deluge. The list further states that Dumuzid ruled for 36,000 years.

"Dumuzid the Shepherd" is also the subject of a series of epic poems in Sumerian literature. However, he is described in these tablets as king of Uruk, the title given by the King List to Dumuzid the Fisherman — a distinct figure said to have ruled sometime after the Flood, in between Lugalbanda "the Shepherd" and Gilgamesh.

Among the mythical compositions involving Dumuzid the Shepherd are:

Inanna's descent to the netherworld: Inanna, after descending to the underworld, is allowed to return, but only with an unwanted entourage of demons, who insist on taking away a notable person in her place. She dissuades the demons from taking the rulers of Umma and Bad-tibira, who are sitting in dirt and rags. However, when they come to Uruk, they find Dumuzid the Shepherd sitting in palatial opulence, and seize him immediately, taking him into the underworld as Inanna's substitute.

Dumuzid and Ngeshtin-ana: Inanna gives Dumuzid over to the demons as her substitute; they proceed to violate him, but he escapes to the home of his sister, Ngeshtin-ana (Geshtinanna). The demons pursue Dumuzid there, and eventually find him hiding in the pasture.

Dumuzid and his sister: Fragmentary. Dumuzid's sister seems to be mourning his death in this tablet.

Dumuzid's dream: In this account, Dumuzid dreams of his own death and tells Ngeshtin-ana, who tells him it is a sign that he is about to be toppled in an uprising by evil and hungry men (also described as galla, 'demons') who are coming to Uruk for the king.[1] No sooner does she speak this, than men of Adab, Akshak, Uruk, Ur, and Nippur are indeed sighted coming for him with clubs. Dumuzid resolves to hide in the district of Alali, but they finally catch him. He escapes from them and reaches to the district of Kubiresh, but they catch him again. Escaping again to the house of Old Woman Belili, he is again caught, but then escapes once more to his sister's home. There he is caught a last time, hiding in the pasture, and killed.

Inanna and Bilulu: This describes how Inanna avenges her lover Dumuzid's death, by killing Old Woman Bilulu (or Belili).



Tammuz was the name of a Sumerian god of food and vegetation.

---------- Post Merged at 09:01 ----------

SURETH
'agha
[Government]
English : master , mister , lord , sir , one who has power or authority
Dialect : Urmiah

Turkish : ağa «master, land-owner»
This word is of Turkish origin


AKKADIAN (from SUMERIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aguB.jpg


Wikipedia


Etymology

The word agha entered English from Turkish,[2] and the Turkish word comes from the Old Turkic aqa, meaning "elder brother".[4] Ultimately the Old Turkic word, along with the Mongolian word aga, has its origins in the proto-Altaic word "ák'v".[citation needed]

Humanist
2012-10-09, 16:18
INDO-EUROPEAN

Wiktionary.com


Proto-Indo-European/akʷā-

Etymology
There is no consensus regarding the laryngeal form of *akʷ-, if one existed. Hypothetical reconstructions such as *h₂ekʷ- have little support and can only be established for Western Indo-European languages at best. Hittite and Tocharian evidence points to *h₁ēgʷʰ-, yet this cannot explain Latin and Gothic reflexes that point to *akʷ-.

Noun
*akʷ-ā- (perhaps from *h₂ekʷ-eh₂-)
water

And two related terms:


ea

English

Etymology 1

From Middle English, from Old English ēa (“running water, water, stream, river”), from Proto-Germanic *ahwō (“waters, river”), from Proto-Indo-European *akʷā- (“water, flowing water”). Cognate with North Frisian ia (“river”), Eastern Frisian äi (“river”), Dutch aa (“water, stream”), German Ache (“water, stream, river, flood”), Swedish å (“stream, creek”), Icelandic á (“stream, river”), Latin aqua (“water”).

ea (plural eas)
(dialectal) A river or watercourse.


abhainn

Scottish Gaelic

Etymology

From Old Irish aub, from Proto-Celtic *abū (compare Welsh afon), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- (“water”). The form abhainn was originally the dative singular of abha, but is now widely used as the nominative/accusative as well.

abhainn f (genitive aibhne, plural aibhnichean)
river, stream


AKKADIAN (first from SUMERIAN)
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/agu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/habu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/abbu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/arittu.jpg


INDO-EUROPEAN (wiktionary.com)

From Middle English wett (“wet, moistened”), past participle of Middle English weten (“to wet”), from Old English wǣtan (“to wet, moisten, water”), from Proto-Germanic *wētanan (“to water, wet”), from Proto-Indo-European *wed-, *wod- (“wet”), *wódr̥ (“water”). Cognate with Icelandic væta (“to wet”). Compare also Middle English weet (“wet”), from Old English wǣt (“wet, moist, rainy”), from Proto-Germanic *wētaz (“wet, moist”), related to West Frisian wiet (“wet”), Norwegian våt (“wet”), Danish våd (“wet”).


AKKADIAN (from SUMERIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/id.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-09, 19:56
I am again reminded of this Sureth word:

SURETH
(Sureth Online Dictionary)
gašuqi
[Human → Senses]
English : to look , to stare , to gaze , to behold
Dialect : Urmiah

gašiq
[Human → Senses]
English : Look ! ; Have a look ! Behold !
Dialect : Urmiah

(Geoffrey Khan)
gyš : to fumble to find; to feel by touch


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
giš ig : door
igi : eye; sight, vision, view; face, countenance; front, cf. igi-na in front of him
igi - bar to look at (-šè), gaze at, regard; to look into (-a), examine (Zólyomi, Analyzing Sum. Lit. 316ff.; Krecher, AV Kutscher 108-111)
igi - saĝ5(LAK 159)/zàĝ(ŠID) to examine, check; to select (nasāqu, bêru) (Proto Ea 557)
igi - sè(g) to look at, inspect
igi-šè before, in(to) the presence of; often in the phrases igi PN-ak-šè or igi-PRONOUN-šè
ĝišgal pedestal; (astral) station (manzāzu) (cf. Lugale I 24)
ĝiš-zi(-da) (side) wall (Powell, BSA 6, 112, argues against standard reading iz-zi, q.v.; perhaps two different words?)



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agasgu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-10, 22:09
I have two items that I would like to share. I may post them as documents on Academia.edu (http://www.academia.edu/). They will not be of scholarly caliber, of course, since I am not a scholar, but I would like to have them "out there," in case they are of significance. One item is rather speculative, but should be of interest to many. It has to do with Herodotus, and Babylon. The other topic has to do with the Mandaeans, and their origin(s). I am not often confident regarding the items that I post (for good reason). Including my past posts regarding Mandaean origins. However, in this case, I believe it is probable that I have stumbled upon something that may shed light on certain questions regarding the Mandaean past. It may also raise more questions than it answers.

Humanist
2012-10-11, 22:47
Obviously, this may be nothing. However, I am beginning to believe it is more "something," than "nothing." Particularly in cases such as the one below, since it is again the Standard Babylonian dialect of Akkadian.


SURETH
'ḥuvva ['ḥuwwa --> 'ḥubba??)
[Animals → Reptiles]
English : masculine : a snake , a serpent
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hubbu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-12, 01:52
Obviously, this may be nothing. However, I am beginning to believe it is more "something," than "nothing." Particularly in cases such as the one below, since it is again the Standard Babylonian dialect of Akkadian.


SURETH
'ḥuvva ['ḥuwwa --> 'ḥubba??)
[Animals → Reptiles]
English : masculine : a snake , a serpent
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hubbu.jpg

Note the Hebrew terms below, for "snake," and "magic, sorcery..." (source: Wiktionary.com):


Hebrew

Noun
נָחָשׁ (nakhásh) m
snake (the animal)

Noun
נַחַשׁ (nákhash) m
magic, sorcery, spell, enchantment, augury

Verb
נִחֵשׁ (nichésh)
(It/he) divined, figured out by use of magic
(by extension) (It/he) guessed

Humanist
2012-10-12, 08:57
The Ibratu Shrines of Babylon and Herodotus?

Two sections from Book 1 of Herodotus' The Histories are central to this brief communication. They appear below, in their entirety, as translated by A.D. Godley1:

I.196: This is the equipment of their persons. I will now speak of their established customs. The wisest of these, in our judgment, is one which I have learned by inquiry is also a custom of the Eneti in Illyria. It is this: once a year in every village all the maidens as they attained marriageable age were collected and brought together into one place, with a crowd of men standing around. Then a crier would display and offer them for sale one by one, first the fairest of all; and then, when she had fetched a great price, he put up for sale the next most attractive, selling all the maidens as lawful wives. Rich men of Assyria who desired to marry would outbid each other for the fairest; the ordinary people, who desired to marry and had no use for beauty, could take the ugly ones and money besides; for when the crier had sold all the most attractive, he would put up the one that was least beautiful, or crippled, and offer her to whoever would take her to wife for the least amount, until she fell to one who promised to accept least; the money came from the sale of the attractive ones, who thus paid the dowry of the ugly and the crippled. But a man could not give his daughter in marriage to whomever he liked, nor could one that bought a girl take her away without giving security that he would in fact make her his wife. And if the couple could not agree, it was a law that the money be returned. Men might also come from other villages to buy if they so desired. This, then, was their best custom; but it does not continue at this time; they have invented a new one lately [so that the women not be wronged or taken to another city]; since the conquest of Babylon made them afflicted and poor, everyone of the people that lacks a livelihood prostitutes his daughters.

I.199: The foulest Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land to sit in the temple of Aphrodite and have intercourse with some stranger once in her life. Many women who are rich and proud and disdain to mingle with the rest, drive to the temple in covered carriages drawn by teams, and stand there with a great retinue of attendants. But most sit down in the sacred plot of Aphrodite, with crowns of cord on their heads; there is a great multitude of women coming and going; passages marked by line run every way through the crowd, by which the men pass and make their choice. Once a woman has taken her place there, she does not go away to her home before some stranger has cast money into her lap, and had intercourse with her outside the temple; but while he casts the money, he must say, “I invite you in the name of Mylitta” (that is the Assyrian name for Aphrodite). It does not matter what sum the money is; the woman will never refuse, for that would be a sin, the money being by this act made sacred. So she follows the first man who casts it and rejects no one. After their intercourse, having discharged her sacred duty to the goddess, she goes away to her home; and thereafter there is no bribe however great that will get her. So then the women that are fair and tall are soon free to depart, but the uncomely have long to wait because they cannot fulfill the law; for some of them remain for three years, or four. There is a custom like this in some parts of Cyprus.

The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (“CAD”)2 provides the following definition, for the Akkadian term ibratu: “open-air shrine (a niche in a corner on the street or in a court).” The CAD elaborates:

“[T]he ibratu was situated outside the temple and in streets or private houses.”

“Since it is mentioned in parallelism with pitqu, pitiqtu and imdu as well as muḥru (see usage b), it seems to have been a raised mud structure upon which a nēmedu-altar was placed.”

“Women seem to have gathered there, as is shown by the Sumerian proverb...'(since) my sister stays at the corner shrine and my mother is (chatting) at the river, I must die of hunger'.”

“These gatherings of women could be connected with the fact that the [Sumero-Akkadian] bilingual references...refer to shrines of goddesses, and the mention of 180 niches for Ištar in the description of the City of Babylon...as well as...after an enumeration of names of Ištar.”


Julia Assante refers to the ibratu shrines, when discussing depictions of the Warring Ištar in Babylonian plaque art: “[H]er popularity with the non-elite for unofficial religious practices is evidenced in the numbers of local shrines...built to her and in her later title, 'Lady who owns ibratu-shrines'....”3 Heather D. Baker also mentions the ibratu shrines, in her study of urban Babylonia: “[S]treet shrines were often associated with goddesses (especially Ištar)....”4

Thus, perhaps we can imagine Herodotus' Babylon as a city where ibratu shrines were a ubiquitous sight. Shrines that were apparently associated, in particular, with the goddess Ištar, where women congregated, and where “unofficial religious practices” took place, involving the “non-elite” of Babylonian society. Whatever purpose(s) the ibratu shrines ultimately served, it is not unreasonable to imagine that the ibratu shrines may have provided the basis for what became the “wisest” and “foulest” of Babylon's customs in The Histories.

The degree of truth behind Herodotus' descriptions, and the nature of the ibratu shrines, it is possible, may be further elucidated by a comparison of the Akkadian word ibratu, and the Sureth (vernacular Syriac) word 'brata. The Sureth Online Dictionary defines 'brata, as follows: “a girl, a lass, a young maiden, a daughter.”5 Although of unspecified origin, and if it is not a recent loan, the Sureth word 'barat, meaning “money-order” or “bank-check,” may be of some consequence.6

---------- Post Merged at 03:57 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibratu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibratu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibratu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibratu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nibretu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubartu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemedu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pitiqtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pitqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muhra1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muhra2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/imdu.jpg


Wikipedia

The Babylonian Marriage Market is a 1875 painting by the British painter Edwin Long of young women being auctioned into marriage. It received attention for its provocative depiction of women being sold and its attention to historical detail. It was inspired by a passage in the Histories by Herodotus, and the artist painstakingly copied some of the images from Assyrian artifacts.

It is currently held in the Picture Gallery of Royal Holloway College, after being bought by Thomas Holloway in 1882, where it fetched a then-record price for a painting by a living artist at £6,615.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/800px-Edwin_Long_001.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-12, 21:51
Jtest K14 - the Eurogenes Ashkenazim ancestry test (http://bga101.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/eurogenes-ashkenazim-ancestry-test-files.html)


[A] 3D genetic map based on the loadings from this PCA analysis.

Assyrians on left.

http://imageshack.us/a/img717/4008/pca12s.png

Humanist
2012-10-13, 22:17
Previously compared. Additional source may shed light on its etymology in Sureth. The Akkadian term is from Standard Babylonian. It is a loan from Sumerian.


SURETH
'kaka / 'kika
[Human → Body]
English : a tooth ; animal : a fang (?) [The standard word for "tooth" in my dialect]


SUMERIAN
ka(k), ka(g) mouth; opening; origin, beginning, inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)


AKKADIAN (first, CAD, second, A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, by Jeremy A. Black)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakugallu_CAD.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakugallu_black.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-14, 00:30
Previously compared. Additional source may shed light on its etymology in Sureth. The Akkadian term is from Standard Babylonian. It is a loan from Sumerian.


SURETH
'kaka / 'kika
[Human → Body]
English : a tooth ; animal : a fang (?) [The standard word for "tooth" in my dialect]


SUMERIAN
ka(k), ka(g) mouth; opening; origin, beginning, inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)


AKKADIAN (first, CAD, second, A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, by Jeremy A. Black)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakugallu_CAD.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakugallu_black.jpg

AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eqequ.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uquqqu.jpg



kakugallu (incantation priest / exorcist)
kak/kag (mouth, opening...)
kaka/kika (tooth...)
eqequ / egegu (tongue-tied)
uquqqu (muteness)

Humanist
2012-10-14, 02:38
Babylonian bounces back (http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/gone-but-not-forgotten-babylonian-bounces-back/)

September 29, 2010

Almost 2,000 years after its last native speakers disappeared, the sound of Ancient Babylonian is being lined up for an unlikely comeback, in an online audio archive.

From the the FAQ, located here: http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/faqs/


Given they are dead, how can one tell how Babylonian and Assyrian were pronounced?

The main things to work with are: comparison with related languages (e.g. Arabic, Hebrew, Ethiopic); sources in which Babylonian and Assyrian words are written in the Greek or Aramaic alphabets; sources in which Greek and other foreign words are written in Babylonian and Assyrian script; patterns within the spellings of Babylonian and Assyrian words.

Much about their pronunciations is still being discovered, though for obvious reasons much else is lost forever.


How about including Sureth? I mean, I am sure it was included in the efforts to bring Akkadian "back to life," but, then again, it would not surprise me if it was more or less ignored.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezC9zA4Ari0

---------- Post Merged at 21:08 ----------

The first few lines from: The Epic of Gilgameš, Standard Version, Tablet XI, lines 1-29, read by Stephanie Dalley (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/the-epic-of-gilgame-standard-version-tablet-xi-lines-1-29-read-by-stephanie-dalley.html)


1 gilgameš ana šâšumma izakkara ana ūta-napištim rūqi 1 Gilgamesh spoke to him, to Ūta-napišti the Far-Away:
2 anaṭṭalakkumma ūta-napišti 2 "As I look at you, Ūta-napišti,
3 minâtuka ul šanâ kī yâtimma atta 3 Your form is no different, you are just like me,
4 u atta ul šanâta kī yâtimma atta 4 You are not different at all, you are just like me.


There certainly are many words ending in a vowel. A feature of our language as well.

---------- Post Merged at 21:38 ----------

The first few lines from: The Šamaš Hymn, lines 15-52 (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/the-ama-hymn-lines-15-52-read-by-martin-west.html), read by Martin West


15 šamaš ana aṣîka kitmusā tenēšēti 15 O Šamaš, humankind kneels at your rising,
16 […] gimiršina mātāti 16 ((this line contains a large lacuna, and is not read))
17 [m]ušnammir pētû eklēti ṣerret šam[āmi] 17 Illuminator of darkness, opener of heaven's bosom,
18 mušahmiṭ ziqnat urrī mēreš šêm napiš[ti] māti 18 hastener of the beard(?) of the day, the grain field, life of the land,
19 šadî bīrūti errima šalummatka 19 Your splendour envelops distant mountains,
20 namrirrūka imlû sihip mātāti 20 your glare has filled all the lands,

Humanist
2012-10-14, 04:02
When you see "tš," "tch," and "č," in the Sureth words, imagine a "k."

SURETH
kilzuza
[Human → Body]
English : the chin
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

tšanikta
[Human → Body]
English : the chin
Dialect : Urmiah

'zanqa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) Maclean : the flesh under the chin , the larynx ; 2) ܙܲܢܩܵܐ : Yoab Benjamin : the chin , a bridle
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanzuzu.jpg


INDO-EUROPEAN (Wiktionary.com)


Etymology
Compare Dutch kin, English chin, German Kinn, Old English ċinn, West Frisian kin.

(Iranian Persian)
Noun
چانه • (čâne)
chin
jaw

Humanist
2012-10-14, 06:56
SURETH
gaḥuka
[Animals → Birds]
English : 1) a seagull , a sea-gull ; 2) face features : a dimple. Literally : one who laughs
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'gaḥik
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) to laugh , to burst out laughing ; 2) with ܒ / ܥܲܠ or ܠ : to laugh at , to scoff , to deride , to mock , to make fun of
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

gaḥuka
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) a smiler , one who smiles , a laugher , a scoffer (?) / a derider (?) , a humorist (?) ; 2) a dimple , a small hollow on the cheek
Dialect : Urmiah

'giḥka
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) laughter, smile ; 2) laughing stock , derision
Dialect : NENA



[U]AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gahhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gihlu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:56 ----------

SURETH
'zipa
[Legal]
English : fraud , deception , wile , trick , deceit , artifice , guile , cunning
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-14, 07:44
SURETH
paroṭa
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) ferocious , cruel , ruthless , fierce , savage , brutal , harsh , hard-hearted , barbarous , unfeeling , inhuman , truculent / fell , wild ; 2) a tearer one who tears / rends / cuts to pieces (?) , a butcher -figurative sense- (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'prata
English : transitive verb : to rip , to divide / separate the parts of by tearing , to tear off / out by violence , to make a rent / rents in , to rend , to unpick / unstitch / undo -a seam, a hem- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

prṭ
[Humanities → Language]
English : to burst , to split



AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian) (Please read the explanations)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birit.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-14, 15:34
SURETH
av / aw [ab ???]
[Sport → Hunting]
English : to hunt , hunting , the act or practice of one who pursues game
Dialect : Urmiah

Some will snicker, I am sure, but I am confident that any unbiased individual, familiar with the totality of the evidence, will not dismiss outright, what I refer to below. That is not to say it is necessarily relevant. It may not be. However, all evidence should be considered.

Around 5:40 of the clip, below. The name of the outer vest, "abaja."


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abaja1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abaja2.jpg


The next two may not be of any particular significance.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajabu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ebelu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-14, 21:14
SURETH
laḥuša
[Religion → Magic]
English : a charmer , a snake-charmer , one who uses the power of enchantment , a sorcerer / a magus (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'lḥaša
[Human → Speech]
English : intransitive verb : 1) to murmur , to utter complaints in a low half-articulated voice ; 2) to mutter incantations , to charm , to use charms (spells ...)

'mušta
[Human → Body]
English : the fist , a stroke (hit) with the fist , a punch (a blow with the fist)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahasu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muslahhu.jpg

(adding) *

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amasu.jpg


SUMERIAN
muš snake, serpent
mùš, múš countenance, appearance, aspect; halo, aura; (a kind of crown); temple base or emplacement (George, AV Black 113)

Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses ( http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/numuda/ )


Numušda (god)

Patron deity of the city of Kazallu, he was the son of the moon god Nanna/Suen.

Functions

Numušda had aspects related to nature and fertility but he was also closely connected to the gods Meslamtaea, Ninazu, and Marduk. In the third millennium BCE he appears to have been associated with underworld deites (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 612), but later this function seems to disappear.

Most of our information about Numušda's functions come from a hymn to the god written in the name of king Sîn-iqīšam of Larsa (r. 1840-1836 BCE). In addition to fertility and nature functions, he was apparently associated with warfare: "(Numušda), foremost in warfare, (it is) you, who can compete with you?" (Hymn Sîn-iqīšam A, l. 17, ETCSL 2.6.7.1).

Astronomically, Numušda is part of the constellation Centaur (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 613).

Divine Genealogy and Syncretisms

Numušda was considered to be the son of the moon god Nanna/Suen and his wife Ningal, though this filiation does not appear in his third millennium attestations. His wife was the goddess Namrat ("Shining One"), and his daughter was the goddess Adgar-kidu, who was married to the god Amurru/Martu. Their marriage is narrated in the mythological tale "The Marriage of Martu" (ETCSL 1.7.1).

In his astral functions, Numušda was also associated with the weather god Adad (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 613).

....

Time Periods Attested

Numušda is first attested in the Early Dynastic IIIa period and appears in several god lists (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 612). Already by the Old Babylonian period there are but few attestations of this deity. After this he only survives into the first millennium within scholarly circles, mainly as an astral deity (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 613).

Iconography

Thus far, nothing is known about Numušda's iconography.

Name and Spellings

Thus far it has been impossible to explain Numušda's name etymologically, leading to the assumption that it the name is not Sumerian (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 612). Various native folk etymologies of Numušda as a star explain the name as "Numušda: he who lets it rain constantly," "Numušda = creatures," "Numušda = the crier" (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d ibid.).

Written forms: dnu-muš-da, dnu-umuš.muš-da, Emesal TT : nu-mu-uš-ta (Cavigneaux and Krebernik 1998-2001d: 611). mulnu-muš-da (N. as star)



*
Wikipedia

Catalepsy (from Greek κατάληψις "catch") is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli, as well as decreased sensitivity to pain.[1]

I wonder if "dnu" has anything to do with this. Perhaps not. Obviously, a good deal of this material is "over my head."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dannu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 16:14 ----------

Same source as above ("upenn"):


Aya (goddess)

Goddess of light and wife of Šamaš, who was worshipped in the cities of Sippar and Larsa. In the Akkadian language, this goddess's name is Aya (da-a) whilst in the Sumerian language she is known as Šerida (šè-ri5-da or dŠÈ.NIR-da) (see Krebernik, 2010 for Šerida).

....

Divine genealogy and syncretisms

Aya is the wife of the sun god Šamaš (Utu). In Ugarit, Aya was equated with a deity, who shared the same name (Galter, 1999). A late recension of the god list An-Anum from Achaemenid Uruk (c.550-331 BCE) syncretises several other goddesses with Aya (Ninkar, Sudag, Sudgan, Ninmulguna, Munusulšutag) (CAMS SpTU 1, 126+ [An Anum 3]).

Cult place(s)

Aya was worshipped with the sun god Šamaš at his two principal temples in the cities of Sippar and Larsa, which were both called E-babbar ('white house').

Time periods attested

The cult of Šerida is attested in the early dynastic and Old Babylonian periods (Krebernik, 2010). Šerida appears in the Sumerian literary composition Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru (ETCSL 1.5.1) dating to the Old Babylonian period (ca. 1800 BCE).

The goddess's Akkadian name, Aya, is found in personal names as early as the Presargonic period (before c.2400 BCE) (Galter, 1999). Aya was a particularly popular goddess during the Old Babylonian Period (c.2000-1595 BCE). In Old Babylonian Sippar, Aya was a common divine element in the personal names of female slaves who were owned by priestesses (nadītu). (Harris, 1977).

In the first millennium BCE Aya appears in Neo-Assyrian, Achaemenid and Seleucid period scholarly texts, including the Standard Babylonian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh [CAMS SpTU 4, 124] plus new year rituals and a ritual to avert portentious evil (namburbû) from Seleucid period Uruk [CAMS SpTU 2, 018 and TCL 06, 40]. Aya became particularly popular again during the Neo-Babylonian Period, during which king Nabonidus of Babylon from 556-539 BCE, restored Šamaš's E-babbar temple in Sippar (Beaulieu 1989).


SURETH
'aia [<-- I pronounce the word, "aya"]
English : Al Qosh and Zakho Jews : 1) this ; = ܐܵܗܵܐ ; 2) she ; = ܗܿܝ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

^^ I do not know why only Al Qosh and Zakho (Jewish) are listed. It means the same in my dialect. It can mean, in general, "this," (feminine), or it can mean "she."

Humanist
2012-10-15, 00:53
I will write a good deal more, including additional terms that may be of some significance, at a later time. Since I said I would post something, here are the few bits I have so far. I may also post it to Academia.edu.


------------------------------------------------------------------

The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran consider the “Haran Gawaita” to be a reliable account of their origins. It begins, “... and Haran Gawaita receiveth him and that city in which there were Nasoraeans, because there was no road for the Jewish rulers.” The word Haran, it is thought by many, refers to a geographical location (i.e. the city in SE Turkey and the Wadi Hawran). The word gawaita has been translated as “inner.” From that, we get the “Inner Harran.” The earliest attestation of the Mandaeans by that name, by the Church of the East clergyman Theodore bar Koni, may help bring clarity to questions regarding the meaning of the word “gawaita,” or at least Theodore bar Koni's (mis)interpretation of the word.

The Mandaean scholar Lady Drower stated the following, when discussing Theodore bar Koni's statements regarding the Mandaeans:


As for Arab observers, from the earliest time they were dependent upon hearsay, and their reports can only be accepted as such. The same may be said about the earliest account we have about the Mandaeans, that of the Syriac writer Bar Konai (in the Scholion, A.D. 792), who writes as a controversialist, ready to belittle a heretic sect. This writer does, however, give us clues which go far to disprove his own account of the Mandaeans.

To quote Theodore bar Koni, from the Scholion, his view on the Mandaeans begins: “Adu, as they say, was from Adiabene and came as a beggar with his family to the district of Mesene.” The word for “to beg” / “beggar” in Syriac and Sureth is very similar to the word for “inner,” or “gawaita.”

ܓܵܒ݂ܹܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' ga: wi:
English : 1) to beg , to be a beggar ; 2) NENA : to collect subscriptions ; 3) Al Qosh, Classical Syriac : to collect , signatures, rain-water ? ... : to collect ; 4) to choose ; 5) to foam up , to boil over

Compare to the Sureth and Syriac word for “inner,” below:

ܓܵܘܵܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' ga: va: / ' ga: wa:
English : inside , inner , the inner part , inward , the interior , the internal portion ; 2) congregation : a whole , world : the whole ; ܒܗܿܘ ܓܵܘܵܐ : adverb : Al Qosh : a) thereupon ; b) thereabouts , in the vicinity , roughly ; c) during that time , in the meantime , meanwhile

Humanist
2012-10-15, 01:57
SURETH
'riṣna
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) a rill , a very small brook , a rivulet , a runlet , a runnel , a streamlet ; 2) an oozing drop , a seepage , a very small trickling leakage , an infiltration which oozes / trickles (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/risnuC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/risnuC2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/risnuA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/risnuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-15, 05:36
This one is interesting.


SURETH
daghala
[Legal]
English : a cheat , one who cheats , a deceiver , an impostor , a liar
Dialect : Classical Syriac

daguli
[Human → Speech]
English : to lie , to utter falsehood with an intention to deceive
Dialect : Urmiah

daggaluta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : lying , telling falsehoods , to deceive , imposture ;
Dialect : Urmiah

'dail/dal/dgal/dale
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) to look intently , to watch , to gaze at ; 2) commandment : to observe , to follow / to obey , to live by , to abide by / to keep
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dagalu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dagilu.jpg


HEBREW and ARABIC (Wiktionary.com)
Hebrew: שקרן (shakran) m, שקרנית (shakranit) f one who tells lies
Arabic: كاذب (kāðeb) m one who tells lies

Humanist
2012-10-15, 08:31
Also, from Lady Drower's "The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore." 1937


This, kneaded in the hand and baked in ashes like the fatira is a roll about 4 inches long. In a recent article ('The Kaprana' in Orient and Occident l , The Gaster Anniversary Volume, London, Taylor's Foreign Press, 1937) I have pointed out the similarity of the sa [dough] to the Nestorian [Assyrian Christian] kaprana, a dough object of identical shape which plays a part in the Qurbana, and appears to be a relic of some ancient fertility and life cult. That the sa is a phallic emblem one would suspect from its form and size. The reference which puzzled Lidzbarski (Q. 107), pihla d *l shum hiia pla, obviously refers to it.

Perhaps Lady Drower's bit, above, is relevant to what is contained below. Both, it should be noted, may not be connected to the Sureth word that appears at bottom.


Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer
Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer


The Marriage of Inanna & Dumuzi

Inanna spoke:
"What I tell you
Let the singer weave into song.
What I tell you,
Let it flow from ear to mouth,
Let it pass from old to young:

My vulva, the horn,
The Boat of Heaven,
Is full of eagerness like the young moon.
My untilled land lies fallow.

As for me, Inanna,
Who will plow my vulva!
Who will plow my high field!
Who will plow my wet ground!

As for me, the young woman,
Who will plow my vulva!
Who will station the ox there!
Who will plow my vulva!"

Dumuzi replied:
"Great Lady, the king will plow your vulva.
I, Dumuzi the King, will plow your vulva."

Inanna:
"Then plow my vulva, man of my heart!
Plow my vulva!"

At the king's lap stood the rising cedar. [<-- The Sureth word for penis is very similar to the Sureth word for cluster of trees/thicket/brush. Both, to me, resemble the Akkadian word for pistachio tree, among other words of possible significance.]
Plants grew high by their side.
Grains grew high by their side.
Gardens flourished luxuriantly.


SURETH
'kalu
[Human → Family]
English : the bride , a woman newly-married or about to be married
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qallu-1.jpg




SURETH
paroṭa
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) ferocious , cruel , ruthless , fierce , savage , brutal , harsh , hard-hearted , barbarous , unfeeling , inhuman , truculent / fell , wild ; 2) a tearer one who tears / rends / cuts to pieces (?) , a butcher -figurative sense- (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'prata
English : transitive verb : to rip , to divide / separate the parts of by tearing , to tear off / out by violence , to make a rent / rents in , to rend , to unpick / unstitch / undo -a seam, a hem- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

prṭ
[Humanities → Language]
English : to burst , to split



AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian) (Please read the explanations)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birit.jpg


AKKADIAN (may be an edged weapon)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/purtu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 03:31 ----------

SURETH
barirariuta
[Animals]
English : fierceness , fury , savageness , violence , rage
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bariritu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barbartu.jpg