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Humanist
2012-10-15, 11:08
Adding to the "Haran Gawaita" post from above.


Acording to Dirk Kruisheer, Theodor bar Koni's three listed heresies—Kantaeans, Dosithaeans, and Nerigaeans— can all be related to the Mandaeans.

The Great Stem of Souls: Reconstructing Mandaean History
Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dastu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dastu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 06:08 ----------

The mention of gods and deities in the Akkadian word above is interesting, considering this Indo-European word (Wiktionary.com):

deus


Etymology
From *dẹ̄os, from Old Latin deiuos, from Proto-Indo-European *deiwós (cf. Welsh duw, Lithuanian dievas, Persian دیو (div) ‘demon’), o-stem derivative from *di̯ḗus ‘sky; sky-god’ (compare Latin diēs, Welsh dydd), from *dei- ‘to shine’. Doublet of dīvus; related to Iūpiter.

Noun
deus (genitive deī); m, second declension (nom. plural deī or dī)
god, deity

In principio erat Verbum et Verbum erat apud Deum et Deus erat Verbum.
In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and God was the Word.

an imperial epithet (for deified emperors)
vocative singular of deus

Humanist
2012-10-15, 14:52
SURETH
barirariuta
[Animals]
English : fierceness , fury , savageness , violence , rage
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bariritu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/barbartu.jpg

Wiktionary.com


barbarus

Etymology
From Ancient Greek βάρβαρος (barbaros, “foreign, strange”) onomatopoeic (mimicking foreign languages, akin to 'blah blah').
Adjective
barbarus m (feminine barbara, neuter barbarum); first/second declension
foreign
savage
uncivilized

Humanist
2012-10-15, 17:24
I take it there is some relationship to the word for "axe?" At least for some of these words.


SURETH
'ḥisna
[Army → Military]
English : a fortress , a citadel , a fortified place , a large and permanent fortification
Dialect : Urmiah

ḥaiustana
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : full of pity , feeling pity for , feeling empathy for , charitable , generous (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

ḥasina
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) water, gas, demands, charm, suffering, physics ..? : impervious , airtgiht (?) / waterproof (?) , sealant (?) ; 2) demands, charm, suffering ... : impervious / dead (?) , cold-hearted (?) , unfeeling (?) , insensible (?) , callous (?) , indifferent (?) , unperturbed (?) ; 3) invincible , invulnerable , untouchable (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ḥasin
English : strong ; ܡܕܝܼܢ݇ܬܵܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܬܵܐ : a strong city ; ܩܵܠܵܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܵܐ : a violent voice , a loud voice ; ܓܲܪܒܝܵܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܬܵܐ : a strong North wind ; ܩܪܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܵܐ : a great war ; ܫܘܼܪܵܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܵܐ : a strong wall ; ܓܒ݂ܵܪܵܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܵܐ : a strong and powerful man
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN (need to search further)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hisnu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanu2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hazannu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-15, 21:56
SURETH
burbizza
English : scattered , dispersed , strewn loosely , not bunched
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buru-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bassu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/purruru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busasu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/basis.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pisu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bissu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/besuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/besu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/beesu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-15, 23:08
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezC9zA4Ari0

---------- Post Merged at 21:08 ----------

The first few lines from: The Epic of Gilgameš, Standard Version, Tablet XI, lines 1-29, read by Stephanie Dalley (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/the-epic-of-gilgame-standard-version-tablet-xi-lines-1-29-read-by-stephanie-dalley.html)

There certainly are many words ending in a vowel. A feature of our language as well.

---------- Post Merged at 21:38 ----------

The first few lines from: The Šamaš Hymn, lines 15-52 (http://www.soas.ac.uk/baplar/recordings/the-ama-hymn-lines-15-52-read-by-martin-west.html), read by Martin West




SURETH
burbizza
English : scattered , dispersed , strewn loosely , not bunched
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buru-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bissu.jpg

Screenshot, from the clip posted a few days ago, of the Assyrian woman reciting a poem in East Sureth. I am going to again ask that this not be made into a political issue. However, what she says, and the graphic, may be very relevant to the comparison (around 2:35 of the clip). It is difficult to argue otherwise, after reading the words (and explanations) posted above, and viewing the image below.


Wikipedia


Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bur.jpg



"Basa Burbizze"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/burbizza_.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-16, 00:53
Wikipedia


Theodore bar Koni wrote in the late 8th century, and belonged to the Church of the East (Nestorian). He was a teacher at the school of Kashkar in Beth 'Aramaye (near the Arab city of Wasit). According to Assemani's Bibliotheca Orientalis (ii.440; iii.1,198) he was promoted by his uncle, the Nestorian Catholicos John IV, to the bishopric of Lashom in 893. He was the author of the Liber scholiorum.

If "Koni," in Theodore bar Koni is of unknown origin, the word below may be of some interest.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunnu-1.jpg


Edit. The "bar," in Theodore bar Koni means "son of," if I am not mistaken. It also means, generally, "to come after," or "follow."

Other words of possible significance.

SURETH
'bar
English : after , later in time , next , subsequent , succeeding , behind , following ; intensified form : ܒܵܬ݇ܪܵܗܿ ܒܵܬ݇ܪ / ܒܵܬ݇ܪܵܐ ܒܵܬ݇ܪܵܐ : always after , always behind ; with affixes ; NENA / Urmiah : ܒܵܬ݂ܪܹܗ / ܒܵܬ݇ܪܘܼܗܝ : behind him ; Tiari : ܒܵܬ݂ܪܵܗܿ ܕ : after ; Urmiah : ܒܵܬ݇ܪ ܗܵܕܵܐ / ܒܵܬ݇ܪ ܗܵܕܵܟ݂ / Al Qosh : ܒܵܬܲܪ ܗ݇ܕܵܟ݂ / ܒܵܬܲܪ ܗ݇ܕܸܟ݂ : afterwards , after that , subsequently , thereafter , later / then , next ; Al Qosh : ܐܸܬ݂ܝܵܐ ܒܵܬ݂ܲܪ : fallen behind ; Ashita : ܒܵܬ݇ܪܕܹܐ ܕܝܵܘܡܵܐ : the next day / the morrow ; Al Qosh : conjunction : ܒܵܬ݂ܲܪ ܡܵܐ ܕ : after that
Dialect : Urmiah, Other

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baaru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baaru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buuru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-16, 03:17
Esther: A Commentary
Jon D. Levenson

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hadassah1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hadassah2-1.jpg


I am curious, again, what difference there is, between the two words below, where one is attested in Standard Babylonian, and the other is listed as a possible West Semitic loan. The "a" and "u"?


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hadassatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hadassutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hadassu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasadu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 22:17 ----------

This is the word for "myrtle," in Sureth and Akkadian:


SURETH
'asa
English : 1) masculine : myrtle ; 2) 2 Chronicles : 14, 1 : Asa (King of Juda) ; 3) Tergawar : adverb : certainly, truly , assuredly , definitely , absolutely , undoubtedly, doubtless , without fail ; 4) Oraham : a carcass , a dead body , a corpse , the dead body of a human being
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-16, 04:45
Last post for a while.


SURETH
'ruta
[Religion]
English : literally : "the evening" : Friday
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

[I]n the (Assyrian) Church of the East, most of the holy days fall on Fridays and bear a name of their own, if all cannot be kept before the Fast / Lent some are omitted and others combined.

'rota
[Time → Day of week]
English : Friday , the sixth day of the week (the eve of the Sabbath)
Dialect : Urmiah



Monday (Trin Habshaba) is governed by Sin; Tuesday (Thlatha Habshaba) by Nirigh; Wednesday (Arba Habshaba) by 'Nbu; and Thursday (Hamsha Habshaba) by Bil (Bel), also by Melka Ziwa 'from the morning of Thursday till Friday noon, when Liwet has power'. Friday (Yuma d Rahatia) is the day of [U]Libat, and Yuma d Shafta or Saturday is the day of Kiwan. Friday afternoon and night are supposed to be unlucky and under the general influence of the King of Darkness.

Abstracted from : Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, E.S. Drower, Leiden, 1962


Wikipedia:


Ishtar was the goddess of love and war, above all associated with sexuality: her cult involved sacred prostitution;[2][3] her holy city Uruk was called the "town of the sacred courtesans"; and she herself was the "courtesan of the gods".[4] Ishtar had many lovers; however, as Guirand notes,

"Woe to him whom Ishtar had honoured! The fickle goddess treated her passing lovers cruelly, and the unhappy wretches usually paid dearly for the favours heaped on them. Animals, enslaved by love, lost their native vigour: they fell into traps laid by men or were domesticated by them. 'Thou has loved the lion, mighty in strength', says the hero Gilgamesh to Ishtar, 'and thou hast dug for him seven and seven pits! Thou hast loved the steed, proud in battle, and destined him for the halter, the goad and the whip.' Even for the gods Ishtar's love was fatal. In her youth the goddess had loved Tammuz, god of the harvest, and—if one is to believe Gilgamesh—this love caused the death of Tammuz.[4]

Ishtar was the daughter of Ninurta.[4] She was particularly worshipped at the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Ashur and Arbela.[4]

Besides the lions on her gate, her symbol is an eight-pointed star.[5]

In the Babylonian pantheon, she "was the divine personification of the planet Venus".[4]



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/libat.jpg

The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: Their Cults, Customs, Magic Legends, and Folklore
By E. S. Drower, Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley


Did not know this:

Wikipedia


In Islam, Friday corresponds to Sunday in Christianity and Saturday in Judaism, as a holy day. Friday observance includes attendance at a mosque for congregation prayer or Salat AlJumu'ah. As well as a day of rest it is considered a day of peace and mercy - even condemning a slave is forbidden on a Friday under Muslim law. (see Jumu'ah).

According to some Islamic traditions, the day is stated to be the original holy day ordained by God, but that now Jews and Christians recognize the days after.[9][10] In some Islamic countries, the week begins on Sunday and ends on Saturday, just like the Jewish week and the week in some Christian countries. In most other Islamic countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Somalia and Iran the week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. Friday is also the day of rest in the Bahá'í Faith.[11]

Searching Akkadian. They may not be of any significance.

AKKADIAN

The first word, although perhaps completely distinct, reminded me of a word in Urdu. The word is "randi." And it means "promiscuous." At least, that is my understanding.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ruttu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ruttu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ruttuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ruttu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakrutu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakrutu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haradu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haratu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-16, 08:44
I will write a good deal more, including additional terms that may be of some significance, at a later time. Since I said I would post something, here are the few bits I have so far. I may also post it to Academia.edu.

------------------------------------------------------------------

The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran consider the “Haran Gawaita” to be a reliable account of their origins. It begins, “... and Haran Gawaita receiveth him and that city in which there were Nasoraeans, because there was no road for the Jewish rulers.” The word Haran, it is thought by many, refers to a geographical location (i.e. the city in SE Turkey and the Wadi Hawran). The word gawaita has been translated as “inner.” From that, we get the “Inner Harran.” The earliest attestation of the Mandaeans by that name, by the Church of the East clergyman Theodore bar Koni, may help bring clarity to questions regarding the meaning of the word “gawaita,” or at least Theodore bar Koni's (mis)interpretation of the word.

The Mandaean scholar Lady Drower stated the following, when discussing Theodore bar Koni's statements regarding the Mandaeans:

As for Arab observers, from the earliest time they were dependent upon hearsay, and their reports can only be accepted as such. The same may be said about the earliest account we have about the Mandaeans, that of the Syriac writer Bar Konai (in the Scholion, A.D. 792), who writes as a controversialist, ready to belittle a heretic sect. This writer does, however, give us clues which go far to disprove his own account of the Mandaeans.
To quote Theodore bar Koni, from the Scholion, his view on the Mandaeans begins: “Adu, as they say, was from Adiabene and came as a beggar with his family to the district of Mesene.” The word for “to beg” / “beggar” in Syriac and Sureth is very similar to the word for “inner,” or “gawaita.”

ܓܵܒ݂ܹܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' ga: wi:
English : 1) to beg , to be a beggar ; 2) NENA : to collect subscriptions ; 3) Al Qosh, Classical Syriac : to collect , signatures, rain-water ? ... : to collect ; 4) to choose ; 5) to foam up , to boil over

Compare to the Sureth and Syriac word for “inner,” below:

ܓܵܘܵܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' ga: va: / ' ga: wa:
English : inside , inner , the inner part , inward , the interior , the internal portion ; 2) congregation : a whole , world : the whole ; ܒܗܿܘ ܓܵܘܵܐ : adverb : Al Qosh : a) thereupon ; b) thereabouts , in the vicinity , roughly ; c) during that time , in the meantime , meanwhile



Last post for a while.

Actually, this will be the last post for a while. I promised to post more, and although these are only the words, and perhaps of no consequence, here they are:

SURETH (source: G. Khan)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qama.jpg

And I would like to add this:

qami : to defeat, or prevailing against an opponent, or opponents in a contest. For example, if you are asking who is winning the baseball game, or who is in first place in the standings.



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kawatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimitu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamuB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamituBC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu4.jpg


---------------------------------------------------------

And a separate word, I also wanted to post. There are many more. Not enough time, unfortunately.

SURETH
asiruta
[Legal]
English : captivity , state of being a prisoner , bondage
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asirutu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-16, 21:37
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasadu2.jpg

Did not want to forget about this, since it just came to mind. May not have any connection.

Wikipedia


Hasidim/Chasidim (Hebrew: חסידים‎) is the plural of Hasid (חסיד), meaning "pious". The honorific "Hasid" was frequently used as a term of exceptional respect in the Talmudic and early medieval periods. In classic Rabbinic literature it differs from "Tzadik"-"righteous", by instead denoting one who goes beyond the legal requirements of ritual and ethical Jewish observance in daily life. The literal meaning of "Hasid" derives from Chesed-"kindness", the outward expression of love of God and other people. This spiritual devotion motivates pious conduct beyond everyday limits. The devotional nature of its description lent itself to a few Jewish movements in history being known as "Hasidim". Two of these derived from the Jewish mystical tradition, as it could tend towards piety over legalism.

As a personal honorific, both "Hasid" and "Tzadik" could be applied independently to a same individual with both different qualities. The 18th-century Vilna Gaon, for instance, while the head of Rabbinic opposition to the new Jewish mystical movement that itself became known as "Hasidism", was renowned for his righteous life. His scholarship became popularly honored with the formal title of "Genius", while amongst the Hasidic movement's leadership, despite his fierce opposition, he was respecfully referred to as "The Gaon, the Hasid from Vilna".


Characteristic ideas

The teachings of Hasidism are founded on two theoretical conceptions: (1) religious Panentheism, or the omnipresence of God, and (2) the idea of Devekus, communion between God and man. "Man," says the Besht (Baal Shem Tov), "must always bear in mind that God is omnipresent and is always with him; that God is the most subtle matter everywhere diffused... Let man realize that when he is looking at material things he is in reality gazing at the image of the Deity which is present in all things. With this in mind man will always serve God even in small matters."

Deveikus (communion) refers to the belief that an unbroken relationship takes place between the world of God and the world of humanity. According to it, not only does the Deity influence the acts of man, but also that man exerts an influence on the will of the Deity. Every act and word of man produces a corresponding effect in the upper spheres. From this conception is derived the chief practical principle of Hasidism, cleaving to God for the purpose of uniting with the source of life and of influencing it. This communion is achieved through the concentration of thoughts on God, and consulting Him in all the affairs of life.

The tzadik (righteous person) is in constant communion with God, even in their worldly affairs, since they also feel His presence in daily life. A special form of communion with God is prayer. In order to render this union complete the prayer must be full of fervor, ecstatic, and the soul of the person who prays must, during their devotions, detach itself from its material dwelling. For the attainment of ecstasy, recourse can be had to mechanical means, to enthusiastic bodily motions, to shouting and singing. According to the Besht, the path to God is in sincerity and fervour, rather than cold intellectual reasoning. Learning of Jewish texts and halakhic lore are important ways to approach God, but ultimately are useful as a means of producing an exalted religious elevation and communion. It is often more helpful to read books of moral and spiritual inspiration, than to engage in over-analytical approaches in study of the Talmud and Rabbinical literature. In the performance of rites the mood of the believer is of more importance than the externals, so therefore formalism and superfluous ceremonial details are an impediment. In later Hasidic articulations, a synthesis was made with the value of traditional, Lithuanian study and analysis. Many Hasidic Masters gained admiration from the non-Hasidic world, for being great scholars of Talmudic and Rabbinic works. The intellectual school of Chabad, founded by Schneur Zalman of Liadi, can be seen as a separate offshoot of general Hasidism. Mainstream Hasidism gives special emphasis to emotions, so that study of the "revealed" or "inner" dimensions of Judaism can inspire greater faith and emotional fervour, as well as knowledge of Rabbinic thought. In Chabad, Schneur Zalman emphasised the mind as the route to internalising the emotions of the heart more fully. The systematic analysis of Hasidic philosophy in Chabad can integrate and synthesise "revealed" Jewish thought with the mystical.

Humanist
2012-10-17, 00:38
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPw-3e_pzqU


Bold by Humanist.


The surviving royal correspondence from barûs comprises a dozen letters and some 350 divinatory queries and reports from the reigns of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal (SAA 10: 173–184; SAA 4). The letters cannot be dated exactly, but some refer explicitly to events in Esarhaddon’s reign and in the early years of Assurbanipal. About half are from the chief haruspex Marduk-šumu-usur, the rest (where assignable) to scholars who also wrote Queries and Reports. As Starr (SAA 4: XIII) and others have already noted, there was a shift in the diviners’ technical writings in the late 650s BC. During Esarhaddon’s time and for the first decade or so of Assurbanipal’s reign, the diviners presented written Queries to the sungod Šamaš, putting the king’s question to the deity and inviting a response which disregards the possibility that any aspect of the ritual was mis-performed.

Empirical scholarship in the Neo-Assyrian court
by Eleanor Robson
in G. Selz and K. Wagensonner (eds.), The Empirical Dimension of Ancient Near Eastern Studies (Wiener Offene Orientalistik 6), Vienna 2011, 603–30.


SURETH
'bari
[Industry]
English : 1) to create ; 2) NENA : to be born , to be , to become , to grow ; 3) with ܡܸܢ : to leave off , to have done with , to cease , to let alone , not to interfere ; 4) impersonal verb : to be possible , to be fitting ; Urmiah, rare : ܠܹܐ ܒܵܪܝܵܐ / NENA : ܠܵܐ ܟܒܵܪܝܵܐ : it is impossible ; 5) NENA : to happen , to occur , to take place ; ܡܵܐ ܒܒܵܪܹܐ ܡܸܢ : what will become of ; 6) NENA : ܒܵܪܹܐ ܡܸܛܪܵܐ : to rain ; 7) NENA : ܒܵܪܹܐ ܬܲܠܓܵܐ : neiger ["neiger" = "to snow"]
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baruB2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-17, 04:02
This may not be anything.

SURETH
miztana [If I had to transliterate, and although it should not be trusted, I would say, "maeṣṭana."]
[Human → Body]
English : hairy , having or covered with hair , rough with hair , bushy (with hair) , shaggy (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'mizta [If I had to transliterate, and although it should not be trusted, I would say, "maeṣṭa."]
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : a hair (a slender threadlike outgrowth of an animal) , bristle (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mustenu.png

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mustu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-17, 06:36
1
SURETH
'mna
[Numbers]
English : transitive verb : to count , to number , to make an enumeration , to reckon , to calculate (?) , to compute (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'mané
[Science → Mathematics]
English : to number , to reckon , to count , to amount to (?) , see ܕܵܩܹܪ ; Urmiah : ܒܵܢܹܐ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA

'mni
[Science → Mathematics]
English : Daniel : 5, 25 : "Mene" , numbered
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manuB2.jpg


2
Wikipedia

Ancient Mesopotamian units of measurement

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mana.jpg


SURETH
'mana
[Feeding]
English : a dish , a platter , a plate or a bowl (a vessel used for serving up food at the table)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manu.jpg


3
SURETH
'minna
[Clothing]
English : fur , a dressed pelt worn as trimming or a a garment for warmth
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/menunianu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/menu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/menu2.jpg


4
SURETH
kakušta
[Animals → Wild]
English : a weasel , a carnivorous animal (allied to the mink and the polecat)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakku.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:36 ----------

SURETH
honana [<-- Not " ḥ "]
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : masculine : wise , prudent , intelligent , endowed with understanding and reason , intellectual , politic , sensitive / acute
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

^^ I would add, "well-behaved," and "docile." For instance, when referring to a child, or dog.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/unnunu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-17, 09:27
Now this is interesting.


SURETH
'rdida
[Clothing]
English : a bridal veil , a bridal outer garment
Dialect : Urmiah

ardida
[Clothing]
English : a bridal veil
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/didu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/didu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/didu3.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-17, 10:28
SURETH
šqaqa
[Transport]
English : 1) a lane , a narrow passage (not much travelled) , an alley , a path / pathway , a track , a trail , highway : a lane (?) ; 2) Yoab Benjamin : a cleavage ; 3) Lishani : a gorge / a mountain valley , a crack in a ceiling, in the ground ...
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suqaqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-17, 18:56
Whenever I think about it, I do not know whether to be excited or frustrated. With all due respect to the academic community (and that is sincere), something does not add up. This is what I wrote, a little over a couple of years ago, for the Aramaic DNA project intro page:


The Aramaic DNA Project hopes to bring together all Aramaic (also known as Modern or Neo-Aramaic) speaking people and people of Aramaic-speaking heritage of the world. For 3000 years, and despite unrelenting strife of every conceivable sort, the Aramaic language has steadfastly retained a continuous presence in the region known as the Fertile Crescent.

The people who retained a form of the Aramaic language as their mother tongue offer a tremendous opportunity to catch a glimpse many centuries, and perhaps even millennia, into the past. The testing of DNA, specifically one's mtDNA and Y-DNA, is ideally suited for discovering one’s deep ancestral roots. This is because mtDNA and Y-DNA remain more or less unchanged for thousands of years. If we wish to understand the origins of the Aramaic-speaking people, it is imperative to undertake this task now. The growing diasporic aspect of many, if not all, Aramaic-speaking communities is at the root of this urgency. If this project were not undertaken, or pursued with sufficient zeal, we may forever squander our ability to peer, with least obstruction, back to the dawn of our civilization.

So, when I say that "something does not add up," I mean, genetically, geographically, historically, linguistically...


Some will say this is much ado about nothing. That is fine. However, I will place my faith in the sciences. Given enough resources, and unbiased examination (to the extent possible), the reality of our true past will come into focus. This is not about disproving any faith's god, messiah, or what have you. I have bishop, priest, deacon, and other clergymen relatives. Heck, the below clip can still bring a tear to my eye. It is a beautiful message. However, we must recognize instances where an idea, or ideas may compromise the truth (in the scientific sense). If we fail to do so, one error may lead to another. A cascade of errors may soon follow. What we are left with, in my opinion, is akin to the present reality. A reality in which the pieces do not reconcile.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pjBuOBG8_0


Edit: The fact that I used a Christian clip, above, should not be construed as a specific attack on Jesus, or Christianity.

Sargon999
2012-10-17, 20:44
What is it that exactly does not add up?

Humanist
2012-10-17, 23:47
What is it that exactly does not add up?

I will elaborate at a later time. I am just an amateur, however. My opinion does (and should) not carry weight. If I hit upon something of substance, perhaps a scholar will one day come upon it, and consider it. For instance, see the Sureth word below. If Mesopotamia, in antiquity, and before Christianity's rise, was dominated by those of the Jewish faith, and Assyro-Babylonian faith(s), among other religions, one or more of the Akkadian entries that follow, in my opinion, given the totality of the evidence, may be crucial in determining the etymology of "Peshitta."

Wikipedia

The Peshitta (Classical Syriac: ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‎ for "simple, common, straight, vulgate", sometimes called the Syriac Vulgate) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.

SURETH

'pšiṭa
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : simple , uncompounded , not blended with anything else / pure , pure and simple , free from complexity or intricacy , unsophisticated , plain , easy
Dialect : Urmiah

'pšitṭa
[Religion]
English : the Peshitta - the (As)Syriac version of the Holy Scriptures commonly used in the Assyrian Church of the East since early in the Vth century, apparently the New Testament was translated by bishop Rab Kula before the year 411, when he required it to replace the other Assyriac versions
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuC.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuE.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasittu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/passithe.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pissatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu6.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu7.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu8.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu9.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasertu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasiratti.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-18, 02:26
I will elaborate at a later time. I am just an amateur, however. My opinion does (and should) not carry weight. If I hit upon something of substance, perhaps a scholar will one day come upon it, and consider it. For instance, see the Sureth word below. If Mesopotamia, in antiquity, and before Christianity's rise, was dominated by those of the Jewish faith, and Assyro-Babylonian faith(s), among other religions, one or more of the Akkadian entries that follow, in my opinion, given the totality of the evidence, may be crucial in determining the etymology of "Peshitta."

Wikipedia


The Peshitta (Classical Syriac: ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‎ for "simple, common, straight, vulgate", sometimes called the Syriac Vulgate) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.

SURETH
'pšiṭa
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : simple , uncompounded , not blended with anything else / pure , pure and simple , free from complexity or intricacy , unsophisticated , plain , easy
Dialect : Urmiah

'pšitṭa
[Religion]
English : the Peshitta - the (As)Syriac version of the Holy Scriptures commonly used in the Assyrian Church of the East since early in the Vth century, apparently the New Testament was translated by bishop Rab Kula before the year 411, when he required it to replace the other Assyriac versions
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuC.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatuE.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasatu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasittu.jpg


A few bits from something I read a couple of weeks back.

MONKS, MANUSCRIPTS, AND MUSLIMS: SYRIAC TEXTUAL CHANGES IN REACTION TO THE RISE OF ISLAM
MICHAEL PHILIP PENN
MOUNT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

Emphasis added.


Even a brief perusal of extant manuscripts shows that Syriac scribes did not simply reproduce the works that they were copying. Instead, their own beliefs occasionally motivated them to modify texts in ways that reflected particular ideological biases.

....

In the last century and a half, there have been numerous studies on the differences between the Old Syriac and the Peshitta. For at least one ancient reader this variation was not merely academic. He became so upset at the variances that, in the course of just two folios, he inserted nine words, removed twenty-four, and changed over a hundred in order to make the text correspond with the Peshitta. After expending so much energy on only four pages,faced with over one hundred and twenty more, he apparently gave up.

....

Textual changes often stemmed from more fundamental disagreement with a manuscript’s content than simply a difference in bible translations.

....

Syriac Christians did not take manuscript changes lightly. Syriac manuscripts contain anathemas attempting to protect codices from erasure, marginalia cursing individuals who erased part of a text, and requests asking later readers to fill-in previously erased data. A canon from the famed School of Nisibis even proclaims that whoever erases ownership notices from the school’s manuscripts will be expelled.

Humanist
2012-10-18, 03:46
1
SURETH
erada
[Industry]
English : transitive verb : 1) to darn , to mend (rents or hole with stitches of thread or yarn) ; 2) to tattoo , to make patterns on the skin
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arratuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arratu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arratu2.jpg


2
SURETH
ruḥanuta
[Religion]
English : animism
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ruḥa
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) breath , wind , the air inhaled / exhaled in respiration , the breath of life , a puff (?) / whiff of air (?) ; 2) religion : a spirit , a sprite , a ghost , a spectre / specter , a wraith , a spook , a phantom , an apparition ; ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܕܕܘܼܓܠܵܐ : a lying spirit
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ruhu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-18, 05:09
Another possibility.

SURETH
badolta
[Humanities → Language]
English : 1) a legend ; 2) a fairy
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batultu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batultu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batultu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batultu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batultu5a.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bitiltu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-18, 06:10
The "h," at the beginning of "haggaga," I reckon, may suggest a W Semitic/Arabic origin? The Akkadian words do not seem like a good fit.

SURETH
haggaga
[Human → Senses]
English : an illusion , an apparition , an unreal image presented to the bodily or mental vision , a deceptive appearance , a mirage (?) , a phantom , a ghost , a spectre , a supernatural apparition
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ugu_u.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agagu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uggugu.jpg


http://iusd.org/vv/literacy_heroes/index_files/Page418.htm


Humbaba [Huwawa]

Gilgamesh blamed Humbaba, the terrifying demon guarding the cedar forest. A quest was made for Gilgamesh to kill Humbaba. Enkidu was scared, but found courage for Shamhat. The finest battle gear was made for them as they left to slay Humbaba. This time Gilgamesh was troubled by horrid dreams and Enkidu comforted him every night. In the forest, trees were so thick that Gilgamesh and Enkidu had to leave their chariots behind and chop through the forests alone. Humbaba was furious with them for coming to his domain, breathing fire and smoke he said "I will tear you apart". Lightning flashed, thunder roared, and smoke blinded the two warriors. Gilgamesh felt himself being lifted into the sky. However, a sudden gust of wind luckily blew the smoke away. Quickly Gilgamesh jammed his spear between the monster's jaws, Humbaba fell snarling as Gilgamesh and Enkidu sliced off his head.

Humanist
2012-10-18, 08:38
Posting a few words, and bits, that may be of interest to some. Not necessarily anything new.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Cranach%2C_adamo_ed_eva%2C_uffizi.jpg


Wikipedia
Adam and Eve is a double painting by German Renaissance master Lucas Cranach the Elder, dating from 1528,[1] now housed in the Uffizi Gallery of Florence, Italy.

http://iusd.org/vv/literacy_heroes/index_files/Page418.htm

Humbaba [Huwawa]

Gilgamesh blamed Humbaba, the terrifying demon guarding the cedar forest. A quest was made for Gilgamesh to kill Humbaba. Enkidu was scared, but found courage for Shamhat. The finest battle gear was made for them as they left to slay Humbaba. This time Gilgamesh was troubled by horrid dreams and Enkidu comforted him every night. In the forest, trees were so thick that Gilgamesh and Enkidu had to leave their chariots behind and chop through the forests alone. Humbaba was furious with them for coming to his domain, breathing fire and smoke he said "I will tear you apart". Lightning flashed, thunder roared, and smoke blinded the two warriors. Gilgamesh felt himself being lifted into the sky. However, a sudden gust of wind luckily blew the smoke away. Quickly Gilgamesh jammed his spear between the monster's jaws, Humbaba fell snarling as Gilgamesh and Enkidu sliced off his head.


http://www.templeofsumer.org/myth13.html

Gilgamesh and Huwawa

1 One day Gilgamesh's thoughts came to be focused upon the living one's mountain. He was thinking of death and the legacy that he would leave the world when his time finally came.

26 "You are capable people," declared Huwawa, lord of the living one's mountain, "but you will never return home." The monster let his aura of power flow into him and Gilgamesh found himself paralyzed where he stood.

38 The lord of the living one's mountain reached out to take the hand of the lord of Kullab and king of Uruk. He prostrated himself upon the ground before his captor and pleaded tearfully for his life.

37 "Please Gilgamesh, let me have my freedom. Let me say a word to the sun god." The lord of the living one's mountain turned his attention upwards to the sun god. "Utu, please hear me. I never knew my parents. I was born here on this mountain, and it was you who raised me. Gilgamesh swore by the realms of An, Ki, and the Kur."



SURETH
'ḥuvva ['ḥuwwa --> 'ḥubba??)
[Animals → Reptiles]
English : masculine : a snake , a serpent
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hubbu.jpg



SURETH
'ḥawa
[Human being]
English : Eve , a woman's name
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'ḥu
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) = ܬܚܘܿܬ݂ : under , underneath , beneath ; 2) Ashita : imperative of ܚܵܝܹܐ : live ! / be alive ! , see ܚܵܘܵܐ : Eve
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Ashita

'ḥwa

English : 1) to darken , to be deprived of light , to grow dim ; 2) literally and metaphorically : to be blinded
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

ḥabuša [<-- Also, JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC, according to the CAL]
[Country → Fruits]
English : 1) an apple ; 2) Exodus : 25, 31 : the knob of a candlestick ; 3) Tkhuma : ܚܲܒܘܼܫܵܐ ܕܦܲܐܬ݂ܵܐ : the cheek
Dialect : Classical Syriac

[COLOR="#000000"]ḥayi
English : 1) to live , to be alive ; 2) to be saved , to recover of a sickness , to save one's life ; past participle masculine ܚܝܼܵܐ / feminine : ܚܝܼܬܵܐ : lived , saved , recovered of a sickness / healed / cured
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'ḥubba
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : love , a feeling of strong personal attachment , ardent affection , strong liking ; ܚܘܼܒܘܼܟ݂ : your health ! , see ܢܵܢܹ ܠܘܼܟ݂ ; ܚܘܼܒܵܐ ܫܡܝܼܛܵܐ ܝܠܹܗ : a quarrel has arisen
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

Humanist
2012-10-18, 10:34
SUMERIAN
ra-gaba, rá-gaba mounted messenger, courier, rider


SURETH

v --> w --> ? b

rakkava
[Army]
English : a rider , a horseman , a cavalryman , a mounted person , one who rides an animal / a vehicle , a cyclist , a motorcyclist / motorbiker
Dialect : Urmiah

'rkava
[Transport → Surface]
English : 1) to ride , to be on horseback , to be carried on the back of an animal , to mount , to bestride / astride , to straddle ; 2) to be borne in a vehicle / to drive (?) , to catch (?) / take (?) -train, bus, plane, ride ...- ; 3) to put together , to piece , to assemble , to compose , to set up , to arrange , to compound , to compile (?) , to indite (?) , to mix (?) , cooking : to cook , to prepare , story : to make up , to invent
Dialect : Urmiah

'rkava
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) being on heat / rut , being sexually excited / hot , randy (?) ; 2) rut , sexual excitement / heat ; 3) to cover (a female) / to copulate , to introduce semen / inseminate ; 4) coition / coitus , copulation , sexual intercourse , making love
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakabu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 05:34 ----------




SURETH
'rappa
[Animals → Birds]
English : 1) a shelf , a board / ledge set or attached horizontally into a wall to hold things ; 2) a nest , a brood
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rappu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rappu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rappu3.jpg


SUMERIAN
giš rab clamp, stock (cf. gušur x)


Leather neck stock (http://www.sykesregulars.org/equipment/images/Clothing/dress_uniform/neck_stock/UDB_Neck_Stock_01.jpg)
http://www.sykesregulars.org/equipment/images/Clothing/dress_uniform/neck_stock/UDB_Neck_Stock_03.jpg



brood
noun
1.a number of young produced or hatched at one time; a family of offspring or young.
2.a breed, species, group, or kind: The museum exhibited a brood of monumental sculptures.

verb (used with object)
3.to sit upon (eggs) to hatch, as a bird; incubate.
4.(of a bird) to warm, protect, or cover (young) with the wings or body.
5.to think or worry persistently or moodily about; ponder: He brooded the problem.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/brood

Humanist
2012-10-18, 17:54
SURETH
'druš
[Moral life → Fault]
English : harsh , stern , severe , disagreeable
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/darasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-18, 19:11
I know it may seem like I am sticking to a theme, but I am really not. One word leads to another, and so on. Obviously, this word, and others (e.g. "'ḥawa" or Eve), capture one's interest more than, say, "rappa." Anyway, this does not necessarily mean much of anything, apart from being another Sureth word that appears to be from Akkadian. At least in my opinion.

SURETH
'zaqip
[Religion]
English : 1) to crucify ; 2) to write the vowel "Zqapa" ; past participle : ܙܩܝܼܦܬܵܐ : having "Zqapa" ; 3) NENA : to rise against
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'zqapa
[Legal]
English : 1) Maclean: verbal noun of ܙܵܩܸܦ : crucifixion , writing the vowel "Zqapa" = â / [a:] ; 2) the vowel Zqapa ; 3) Oraham : to crucify , to fasten to a cross , hair ... : to bristle , to stand erect (hair ...) , to prickle , to fluff up (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'zqipa
[Religion]
English : a cross , a crucifix
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'zqapta
[Legal]
English : crucifixion , nailing or fastening to a cross for the purpose of putting to death
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqapu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqiptu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqipu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziqipta.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-18, 20:59
May not be of significance. Need to search Akkadian further.

SURETH
'zlima
[Science → Mathematics]
English : 1) Oraham : oblique , not erect , not perpendicular , not upright , not level ; 2) Yoab Benjamin : infamous , shameful
Dialect : Other [<-- I do not know what this means]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salamu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silmu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:59 ----------

SURETH
'ṣliva ['ṣliwa --> 'ṣliba??]
[Religion]
English : a cross
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

'ṣlava ['ṣlawa --> 'ṣlaba??]
[Humanities → History]
English : transitive verb : to crucify , to fasten / put to death to a cross
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salapu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siliptu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-18, 23:13
Additional "familiar" words for body parts. I will need to make a list, soon, of the "body part" words.

SURETH
'šḥata
[Human → Body]
English : the armpit , the underarm , the axilla , the oxter
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'kira
[Human → Body]
English : the armpit , the underarm , the hollow or pit beneath the junction of the arm and the shoulder
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kirru.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 18:13 ----------

SURETH
takaka
[Country → Plants]
English : a stem , the main body / part of a plant which supports leaves or flowers , a stalk , a vine , a liana (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i48.tinypic.com/90rl1c.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 00:31
This is probably nothing. Though, the CAD explanations are interesting.

SURETH
saḥopa
[Industry]
English : a destroyer , a destructive person
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i46.tinypic.com/jztpqb.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:31 ----------



Perhaps it is something, considering this:


SUMERIAN
húb, hub to heap up; to smite, destroy (in this meaning better reading is tu11, tu10) [<-- emphasis added]

Humanist
2012-10-19, 01:24
MANDAIC (source: CAL)
ʿntn div. the angel of darkness


SURETH
'imṭa
[Sky → Climate]
English : darkness , obscurity , the state of being dark , absence of light , gloom , blackness , cloudiness
Dialect : Urmiah

umṭana
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) gloomy / glum , dismal / dreary / grim / drab (?) , affected with gloom , melancholy , dejected , despondant , dispirited , feeling blue , cheerless ; 2) imperfectly illuminated , dim , dark , bleak ; 3) cloudy
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/imtu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/imtu2.jpg
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/imtu3.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/imtanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 03:21
SURETH
'druš
[Moral life → Fault]
English : harsh , stern , severe , disagreeable
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/darasu.jpg


SURETH
'duš
[Industry]
English : 1) to push , to make a thrust , to shove , to press against with force ; 2) to tread , to step on
Dialect : Urmiah

daša
[Transport]
English : 1) to tread , to step on , to walk on , to beat or press with the feet , to trample ; 2) metaphor : transitive verb (old age bends a man) : to bend ; 3) -?- metaphor : rule, right, law, commandment, order ...? : to transgress (?) , to contravene (?) , to defy (?) , to break (?) , to overstep (?) , to sin (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'daiš
[Human → Body]
English : 1) to tread , to trample on , to tread down , law, rights, authority ? : to flout openly (?) / to scorn , hopes ? : to crush (?) ; 2) metaphor : old age bends a man : to (cause to) bend down , to cause to yield (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

'diaša
[Army → War]
English : 1) to tread , to step or walk on , to beat or press with the feet ; 2) to throw (as in wrestling) , to trip , to make (a person) fall down (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'daša
[Army → War]
English : 1) to tread , to set the foot on , to trample , to tread under foot ; 2) to down (wrestling) , to defeat
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ṭaiṣ
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) to indent ; 2) to prick , to pierce , knife, blade ... : to stick into , to thrust into ; 3) with ܒ : to stick fast ; ܩܲܪ݇ܢܘܼܗܝ ܕܥܝܼܨܵܐ ܠܹܗ : "his horn is pierced" , he is dead , he died , he passed away , he kicked the bucket
Dialect : Classical Syriac

daṣa
[Army → Weapons]
English : to thrust , to drive in (sharp instrument) , to plant , to pierce
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

daiuša
[Army → War]
English : 1) a treader , a trampler , one who sets foot , one who steps on ; 2) an oppressor
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/dasuB.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/dais.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 06:34
There may not be a connection, but I think there is a chance.


Wikipedia


Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, which is generally harder and darker. (The difference is not rigidly defined, and the two names are often used interchangeably.) Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration.

The bow drill was used to drill holes into carnelian in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BC.[2] Carnelian was recovered from Bronze Age Minoan layers at Knossos on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts;[3] this use dates to approximately 1800 BC. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to carnelian.[4] Sard was used for Assyrian cylinder seals, Egyptian and Phoenician scarabs, and early Greek and Etruscan gems.[5] The Hebrew odem (translated sardius), the first stone in the High Priest's breastplate, was a red stone, probably sard but perhaps red jasper.[5]

Carnelian intaglio with a Ptolemaic queen, Hellenistic artwork, Cabinet des Médailles

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Carnelian_intaglio_Prolemaic_queen_CdM_Paris.jpg/220px-Carnelian_intaglio_Prolemaic_queen_CdM_Paris.jpg



SURETH
samt
[Army → Military]
English : 1) direction -to go to a place- (?) , management (?) ; 2) a guiding / authoritative instruction / message
Dialect : Urmiah

'zadga
[Nature → Minerals]
English : carnelian , cornelian , a translucent red / orange variety of chalcedony (quartz)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/samtu.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/simtu1.jpg
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/simtu2.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/saddu.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/situ.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/simittu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:34 ----------

I am curious whether the "ZI.GA" in the second to last Akkadian word above, has anything to do with these previously discussed Sureth and Sumerian words:

SURETH
ziga
[Religion]
English : a bell
Dialect : Urmiah

SUMERIAN
zi(g) to rise, raise; to get excited; to muster, levy (workers or troops); to remove, expend; to be excepted, left out (NABU 1994/ 82
zi-ga mobilization, levy; (something) raised

Humanist
2012-10-19, 07:54
SURETH
agora
[City → Buildings]
English : a brick
Dialect : Classical Syriac

agiruta
English : renting, hiring, hired service, temporary engagement
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/agurru1.jpg
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/agurru2.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/agrutu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:20 ----------

SURETH
gamgumi
[Army → Weapons]
English : to thunder , to roar ( (like cannon-fire or thunder) , to boom , to peal (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

gamgamta
[Sky → Climate]
English : thundering , roaring , heavy sound of some continuance
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/sagamu.jpg

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/saggumutu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:54 ----------

SURETH
'šiḥta
[Human → Hygiene]
English : 1) dirt , any foul / filthy substance , filth , muck , grime ; 2) rust
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/sihtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 09:13
SURETH (source: G. Khan)
qly I (qale, qlele, qlaya) : to fry


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/qalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 10:21
Wikipedia


Simele or Sumail is a town located in the Iraqi province of Dohuk. The city is on the main road that connects Iraq to its neighbour Turkey. It is 14 kilometers west of the city of Dohuk.

Etymology

The town was mentioned by Yaqut al-Hamawi as "Simwel" which is though to be a corruption of the Syriac Simmala (ܣܡܠܐ) meaning "left". Another possible origin could be the Syriac Shmaʻ ʼIl (ܫܡܥ ܐܝܠ), which means "listen lord".[1]


SURETH
bit simmala
[Religion]
English : the damned , those rejected on the Last Day , those on the left-hand side
Dialect : Urmiah

simalta
[Industry]
English : a ladder
Dialect : Urmiah

sibilta
[City → Buildings]
English : a staircase , a flight of stairs with their supporting framework , a stairway / a stairwell
Dialect : Eastern Syriac



AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/sumelu.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/sumelaB.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/simmiltu.jpg


:) You never know.


[T]he stairway of the Great Ziggurat of Ur (reconstructed)

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-PfWyNe8iMbY/T4nEuRe-XcI/AAAAAAAADe0/MjXw7MokP0Y/s640/Iraq+%2529ct+2011-Ur+%25282%2529use.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 11:25
SURETH
'iṣra
[Country → Agriculture]
English : Tiari, Al Qosh : a barn , a store-room , a granary (?) , a silo (?) ; NENA : a wicker bin / chest
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/isru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 15:16
The genetic record does not contradict the historical record, below. Our blood is principally from the east. There is no need for the "almost unique phenomenon in world history."

Official and Vernacular Languages: The Shifting Sands of Imperial and Cultural Identities in First Millennium B.C Mesopotamia
Paul-Alain Beaulieu

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramaeans-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 19:20
SURETH
'awṣra
[Trade]
English : a warehouse , a building in which goods are stored , a storehouse
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/usaruA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/usaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ussuru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asarru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-19, 23:54
SURETH
tarka
[Animals → Domestic]
English : horseriding : the pillion , the space behind a horse-rider where a second person may ride pillion , the croup of the horse (?) , the hindquarters (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian - NOTE Sargon II)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkubtu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkubtu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-20, 01:13
I am curious what the age estimate would be, if Dienekes ever ran a rolloff analysis of Assyrians. It would be interesting if the estimate turned out to be ~3345 years, give or take a century or two.


Ashur-uballit I, (reigned c. 1365–1330 BC), king of Assyria during Mesopotamia’s feudal age, who created the first Assyrian empire and initiated the Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th century BC). With the help of the Hittites he destroyed the dominion of the Aryan Mitanni (a non-Semitic people from upper Iran and Syria who had subjugated Assyria), ravaged Nineveh (near present Mosul, Iraq), and sent off the image of Assyria’s deity Ishtar to the Egyptian pharaoh (early 14th century). Later, allied with the Kassite successors in Babylonia, Ashur-uballit ended Hittite and Hurrian rule. By intermarriage he then influenced the Kassite...

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/38426/Ashur-uballit-I

Humanist
2012-10-20, 06:07
I am fairly confident this word is in Iranian as well.


SURETH
zaḥma
[Human → Body]
English : masculine : 1) bold , energetic , courageous , brave , gallant , bold , daring , adventurous , stout-hearted ; 2) Oraham : burly , having a large and strong body , stout , strong ; feminine : ܙܲܚܡܹܐ ; 3) Al Qosh : difficult , hard
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, NENA, Al Qosh

zaḥim
[Moral life → Quality]
English : to be bold
Dialect : NENA, Al Qosh


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zahimu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahamu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahmu-1.jpg



SUMERIAN
sa6(-ga), ša6(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing
sa7(g) to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa6)
suh-(h)a, suh5-ha selected, select, first quality; elite (troops)




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1nVsCcKHwI

Humanist
2012-10-20, 08:20
SURETH
'ṣalma
[Art]
English : 1) an image , an imitation of any person or thing (sculpture / drawing ...) , a figure , a form , a picture ; 2) Al Qosh, Azeri Jews : a cheek , a face , a surface ; 3) a page of a book
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salmu-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-20, 17:34
SURETH
dikkana
[Trade]
English : a shop , a store , a building in which goods or wares are sold , a stall in a bazaar
Dialect : NENA

dukana
[Trade]
English : a shop , a stall , a store (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

diqnana [<-- The words above, reminded me of this word]
[Human → Body]
English : bearded
Dialect : Urmiah

'duka / 'dukta [<-- The words above, reminded me of this word]
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a place , a position , a spot , an area ; 2) room , space ; ܕܘܼܟܵܐ ܕܫܪܵܝܬܵܐ : an abode , a lodging , a home , a place of residence , Matthew : 8, 20 : birds : a nest ; ܕܘܼܟܵܐ ܥܝܼܩܬܵܐ ܝܠܵܗܿ : there is no room , ['du: ka: ' iq té la:] ; ܕܘܼܟܬܘܼܗܝ ܝܼܠܵܗܿ : serves him right , ['duk tu: ' i: la:] ; ܕܘܼܟܬܘܼܗܝ ܡܘܼܫ̃ܟ̰ܸܚܬܘܼܗܝ ܝܼܠܵܗܿ : serves him right , [' duk tu: mu: ' tšiḥtu: ' i: la:] ; ܕܘܼܟܬܘܼܗܝ ܡܲܒܝܘܼܢܹܐ ܝܠܵܗܿ : he is missed , [' duk tu: ma ' biu: ni:] ; ܝܵܗܒܸܠ ܕܘܼܟܵܐ ܩܵܐ : to make way for
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN

New Light on Secret Knowledge in Late Babylonian Culture
Paul-Alain Beaulieu
Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archaeologie 82 (1992) 98-111


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu4.jpg


This word is mentioned in the bits from the paper, above.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku4.jpg


SUMERIAN

The word, "KI.GIŠGAL" is mentioned in the bits from the paper, above.

ki place; ground, earth; (a term for the netherworld); place where (as relative pronoun); used before a GN to designate a state, e.g. ki Lagaški "the state of Lagaš"; used to express spatial ideas with PN's or pronouns, e.g. ki PN-ak-šè "to PN's location > to PN," ki-bi-ta "from there," ki-ba "here"
da, da(g) side; near (cf. Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39); cf. da-gu10 at my side (Or ns 54, 57:18)
DA → á
da-ga-an, da-ga-na, daggan(KI.GIŠGAL) bedroom, private room (Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39; Civil, AV Biggs 18) (dakkannu)
da-gi4-a, dag-gi4-a district, ward, city quarter (bābtu); cf. ùsar da-gi4-a neighbor (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 242f.)

Humanist
2012-10-20, 22:25
Perhaps he exaggerates a bit (?), but, I wonder how many folks, upon reading this piece regarding Middle Eastern sheep from Herodotus, dismissed it as more fiction than fact:

Herodotus, The Histories 3.106-116

One other thing is remarkable enough to deserve a mention - the sheep. There are two kinds, such as are found nowhere else: one kind has such long tails - not less than 4½ feet - that if they were allowed to trail on the ground, they would develop sores from the constant friction; so to obviate this, the shepherds - who, fortunately, have sufficient knowledge of carpentry - make little carts and fix one of them under the tail of each sheep, to keep it clear of the ground. The other kind have flat tails, 45 centimeters broad.



The Way God Intended: Looking at Fasting in Nature

In Persia, there exists a variety of sheep called fat-tailed sheep, that has an enormous tail made up of fat and other stored food elements. During seasons of plenty the sheep stores up large quantities of food in its tail--prize specimens often developing such heavy tails that their owners provide them with small carts which are placed under the tails and fastened to prevent the tails from dragging the ground. When pasturage becomes scarce the sheep draw upon the food reserves stored in their tails for nutriment. This is a literal example of "cutting off the tail of a hungry dog and feeding it to him."

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agripedia/breeds/sheep/fattai01.jpg



The land most famous in the ancient Near East for its shepherds and sheep was Assyria. A bas-relief on the stairways of the Apadana at Persepolis portrays the subject peoples of the Achaemenid Empire delivering their tribute to king Xerxes. Each region brings the tribute upon which the economic strength of that nation is based. The Lydians, for example, with their long side-locks, deliver measures of gold-dust to the Great King. The Assyrians are there too. They bring fleeces and live sheep. (John Hicks, The Persians (Time Life, 1978) pp. 36-7) The Assyrian kings of the Neo-Assyrian epoch were regularly portrayed wearing robes trimmed with woollen fringes and grasping in their right hands the Assyrian symbol of royal authority and power — the shepherd’s crook. The pharaohs of Egypt also used the shepherd’s crook as a symbol of kingly authority, but its use in this context appears to have been unknown before the Hyksos Age. Who then could have introduced such a royal symbol to Egypt but the sheep-rearing people of northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrian Shepherd Kings?

Ages in Alignment by Emmet Sweeney


Probably nothing, but still interesting.


SURETH
zubana
[Trade]
English : the sale , the selling
Dialect : Urmiah

zabanta
[Trade]
English : selling , the sale
Dialect : Urmiah

(m)zabin
[Trade]
English : to sell ; with ܒ : for a price
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibbanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/subban.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-20, 23:47
SURETH
zda
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to fear , to be afraid of , to consider with emotion of alarm , to have misgivings (apprehension)
Dialect : Urmiah

'zadi
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : with ܡܸܢ or ܩܵܕ݇ܡ ܡܸܢ = of : to fear , to be afraid ; with ܒ : to tremble at ; Al Qosh : ܟܹܐ ܙܵܕܥܸܢ / [ k ' zé din] : I fear
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

[G. Khan]
zd': to fear


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu6.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sajadu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 18:47 ----------



SURETH (G. Khan)
zyx II m-zyx (mzayəx, mzuyəxle, mzayoxe) : to celebrate (a festival)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-21, 01:50
SURETH
'mzabil
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) transitive verb : to manure , to spread fertilizer ; 2) animals : to litter , humans : to litter , to leave refuse / trash / garbage behind
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zabalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zabalu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:50 ----------


Probably nothing, but still interesting.

SURETH
zubana
[Trade]
English : the sale , the selling
Dialect : Urmiah

zabanta
[Trade]
English : selling , the sale
Dialect : Urmiah

(m)zabin
[Trade]
English : to sell ; with ܒ : for a price
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibbanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/subban.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibanu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-21, 02:17
SURETH (G Khan)
ṣrx I (ṣarəx, ṣrixle, ṣraxa) to shout; to scream; to cry



AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarahu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-21, 03:50
The meaning of the Akkadian word is unknown. Just throwing it out there. The Akkadian word is from Standard Babylonian.

SURETH
'nšapa
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to drain , to flow off or out gradually , to lose wetness in degrees ; 2) to purify , to rub clean , to polish (?) / to shine (?) / to furbish (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

manšupi
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : to drain , to exhaust of liquid contents by drawing them off , to make gradually dry or empty , to spill (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

(G. Khan)
nšp : to leak; to drain off
m-nšp: to let (water) drip


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasabu.jpg


Wikipedia


Cup of Jamshid

The Cup of Jamshid (Cup of Djemscheed or Jaam-e Jam, in Persian: جام جم) is a cup of divination which, in Persian mythology, was long possessed by the rulers of ancient Greater Iran. The cup has also been called Jam-e Jahan nama, Jam-e Jahan Ara, Jam-e Giti nama, and Jam-e Kei-khosrow. The latter refers to Kaei Husravah in the Avesta, and Sushravas in the Vedas.

The Cup of Jamshid has been the subject of many Persian poems and stories. Many authors ascribed the success of the Persian Empire to the possession of this artifact. It appears extensively in Persian literature.

The cup ("Jām") was said to be filled with an elixir of immortality and was used in scrying. As mentioned by Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda, it was believed that one could observe all the seven heavens of the universe by looking into it (از هفت فلک در او مشاهده و معاینه کردی). It was believed to have been discovered in Persepolis in ancient times. The whole world was said to be reflected in it, and divinations within the Cup were said to reveal deep truths. Sometimes, especially in popular depictions such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan, the cup has been visualized as a crystal ball. Helen Zimmern's English translation of the Shahnameh uses the term "crystal globe".[1]



Scrying

Scrying (also called seeing or peeping) is a magic practice that involves seeing things psychically in a medium, usually for purposes of obtaining spiritual visions and less often for purposes of divination or fortune-telling. The most common media used are reflective, translucent, or luminescent substances such as crystals, stones, glass, mirrors, water, fire, or smoke. Scrying has been used in many cultures as a means of divining the past, present, or future. Depending on the culture and practice, the visions that come when one stares into the media are thought to come from God, spirits, the psychic mind, the devil, or the subconscious.

Although scrying is most commonly done with a crystal ball, it may also be performed using any smooth surface, such as a bowl of liquid, a pond, or a crystal.




---------------------------------------------

This Akkadian word reminded me of "nephilim."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napalu.jpg


Wikipedia


The Nephilim were the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" according to Genesis 6:4; and gigantic men who inhabited Canaan according to Numbers 13:33. A similar biblical Hebrew word with different vowel-sounds is used in Ezekiel 32:27 to refer to dead Philistine warriors.

The Fall of the Rebel Angels by Hieronymus Bosch is based on Genesis 6:1-4

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Hieronymus_Bosch_-_The_Fall_of_the_Rebel_Angels_%28obverse%29_-_WGA2572.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-21, 06:29
SURETH
'zalim
[Government]
English : 1) with ܥܲܠ : to oppress , to be cruel to , to bully , to extort , to exact wrongfully , to browbeat ; 2) adjective : cruel , = ܙܵܠܝܼܡ ; 3) NENA, Al Qosh : wicked , unjust
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

'zlama
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to torment , to rack , to persecute , to oppress , to abuse , to mistreat , to inflict excruciating misery upon mind or body , to bully (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

(G. Khan)
ẓlm, zlm I (zaləm, zlimle, zlama) to oppress; to wrong


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salamu-1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salamu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salamu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salamu3.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-21, 08:07
SURETH
'zaqit
English : to sting , to prick , to stimulate , to urge
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ziqta
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) a goad , a pointed instrument used to urge a beast 2) anything that urges or stimulates , a stimulation ; 3) the bow of a musical instrument
Dialect : Urmiah

'ziqta
English : 1) a spike , a point ; 2) a tent-peg
Dialect : Al Qosh

(G. Khan)
zqt I (zaqət, zqitle, zqata) to prod with a goad


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian for verb)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziqtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-21, 22:37
Whenever I think about it, I do not know whether to be excited or frustrated. With all due respect to the academic community (and that is sincere), something does not add up. This is what I wrote, a little over a couple of years ago, for the Aramaic DNA project intro page:



So, when I say that "something does not add up," I mean, genetically, geographically, historically, linguistically...


Some will say this is much ado about nothing. That is fine. However, I will place my faith in the sciences. Given enough resources, and unbiased examination (to the extent possible), the reality of our true past will come into focus. This is not about disproving any faith's god, messiah, or what have you. I have bishop, priest, deacon, and other clergymen relatives. Heck, the below clip can still bring a tear to my eye. It is a beautiful message. However, we must recognize instances where an idea, or ideas may compromise the truth (in the scientific sense). If we fail to do so, one error may lead to another. A cascade of errors may soon follow. What we are left with, in my opinion, is akin to the present reality. A reality in which the pieces do not reconcile.


Edit: The fact that I used a Christian clip, above, should not be construed as a specific attack on Jesus, or Christianity.


This clip, captures that "message" well. At least in my mind.




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gd2Uix4L1uc


Edit: From what I know, I have no reason to doubt the existence of the man we have come to know as Jesus. I question some of the details, however. For example, that he was a carpenter. And, generally, I question the story regarding his humble origins. This does not mean he could not have been a great man, responsible for a great many good deeds. Anyway, do not wish to discuss religion too much, but it is a bit unavoidable, given the nature of the subject.

Humanist
2012-10-22, 03:52
Sureth ("mindi"/"mdi"/"mindiyana") See this Wikipedia article, Placeholder name (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placeholder_name), to get an idea how "mindi" is used in my dialect of Sureth. Although the word "mindiyana" is listed simply as the plural of "mindi," as I understand it, it is used more often to say "thing," and "mindi" is used more often as a "placeholder name" word. At least in my dialect (well, by me). Sureth "mindi" is pronounced like the English feminine name "Mindy."

One of my favorite "familiar" words. Found something in Neo-Assyrian too. I will post the Babylonian words again as well.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mindanu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mindu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/menimeni_Sureth_mindi.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/memeni.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 22:52 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/middatu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-22, 04:30
SURETH

(G. Khan)
nðy I (naðe, nðele, nðaya) : to leap [<-- I would add, "to jump"]

My mother, many years ago, when attempting to wake me up in the morning for school (no easy task!), would often command me to, "'di!"

(Humanist)
manði : to spill, splash (ordinarily in the context of eating or preparing food) [<-- Not certain about this]

'mandi (only French!)
[Country → Plants]
French : 1) causatif de : ܢܵܕܹܐ ; 2) lancer , jeter ; 3) Tergawar : féminin : un légume / une herbe utilisée en soupe et en fromage
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Other

Google Translate
lancer : launch
jeter : throw


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/manditu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-22, 05:31
Comparing some of the Akkadian and Sureth verbs has made me recall something from elementary physics.

Wikipedia


Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries,[1] and can be summarized as follows:

First law: If an object experiences no net force, then its velocity is constant: the object is either at rest (if its velocity is zero), or it moves in a straight line with constant speed (if its velocity is nonzero).[2][3][4]

Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., F = ma.

Third law: When a first body exerts a force F1 on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force F2 = −F1 on the first body. This means that F1 and F2 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.



Reaction (physics)

The third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics states that forces always occur in pairs. This is related to the fact that a force results from the interaction of two objects. Every force ('action') on one object is accompanied by a 'reaction' on another, of equal magnitude but opposite direction. The attribution of which of the two forces is action or reaction is arbitrary. Each of the two forces can be considered the action, the other force is its associated reaction.

Humanist
2012-10-22, 07:14
Not sure if this is of any significance.

SURETH
'zaqir
[Industry]
English : to weave , to interlace , to knit
Dialect : Classical Syriac


(Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
zqr vb. #2 to weave
G
1 to weave Syr.
2 to besiege (questionable hapax) Syr. [hapax = "[I]s a word which occurs only once within a context, either in the written record of an entire language, in the works of an author, or in a single text."]

Gt
1 to be woven Syr.
2 to be composed Syr.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqaru7.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:00 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqru3.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 02:14 ----------




SURETH
'bluṭa
[Human → Body]
English : a pimple
French : un bouton d'acné , une pustule
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/billatu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-22, 08:40
I am not using the word “afterlife” arbitrarily, because in modern historiography the dominant model of the fate of assyria and its culture after the imperial collapse of the last quarter of the seventh century is that of sudden death followed by collective amnesia. To what degree assyrian culture survived the demise of the assyrian state is still largely a subject for future research, although some efforts have been made in recent years to revise the notion that all had been quickly and happily forgotten.2 for instance, when we look at the unprecedented scale on which scholars working in nineveh for ashurbanipal collected and edited texts of all sorts, we are justified to ask: what happened to that great library? was everything quickly forgotten until archaeologists unearthed it in the nineteenth century? Did the intellectual achievements of the last great assyrian king fail to radiate throughout mesopotamia and, especially, babylonia, leaving no trace of its existence? The library of alexandria vanished completely, but its memory and intellectual legacy continued to radiate through the middle ages to reach the modern era. Did babylonia truly fail to carry on any memory of the library of ashurbanipal after the sack of nineveh in 612?

The Afterlife of Assyrian Scholarship in Hellenistic Babylonia
Paul Alain Beaulieu

Humanist
2012-10-22, 18:57
This may not be of significance. However, movement and divinity appear to be somewhat of a theme in the explanations of the Akkadian word provided by the CAD. The Akkadian words are not verbs. I wonder if it is at all related to the honorific title in Islam, "Sayyid."

SURETH
zyr I (zayər, zirre, zyara) to visit (on pilgrimage) [<-- Listed as loan from Arabic by G. Khan]



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru7.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru8.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru10.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru15_sirutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siru16_saidu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-22, 20:22
SURETH
'kadir
[Moral life → Fault]
English : to meddle , to interfere in other people's business
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian)
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/kadaru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-22, 22:42
1
SURETH (G. Khan)
rxš I (defective, no present base: xišle, xaša) to go (Urm.); to walk


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/hasuC.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/rahasu.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/rahasuB.jpg



2
SURETH (G. Khan)
xpr I (xapər, xpirre, xpara) to dig


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/heperu.jpg



3
SURETH (G. Khan)
xšk II m-xšk (mxašək, mxušəkle, mxašoke) to darken (tr.), to blind


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/hasuB.jpg



4
SURETH (G. Khan)
xzy I (xaze, xzele, xzaya) to see; to find
xyr I (xayər, xirre, xyara) to watch; to look


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/hasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-23, 00:03
SURETH
ianuquta
[Feeding]
English : suckling , giving suck to , nursing at the breast
Dialect : Urmiah


(Humanist)
niqwa - female [<-- We do (did) not sacrifice female animals. Only males.]



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enequ1-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uniqu1.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 19:03 ----------

Sacrifices in the Sumerian Culture

By

Lillian Helstad


These exquisite necklaces were found against the end of the royal tomb the remains of nine "court ladies" wearing gala headdresses and remarkable necklaces like the one you can see here. It is possible that the Queen, in common with the rest of the great ensemble was herself a victim, and had died from the contents of a gold cup that was found near her hand. The custom of wives accompanying their husbands into the next world is ancient and almost universal. (Davies, 29)

The golden leafs on the necklace at the top probably symbolizes fertility, which is usually what one hope to gain when someone is sacrificed. In this case, fertility of the land is not the reason for the sacrifice of the woman wearing it. This leads one to wonder why the women were wearing such jewelry when sacrificed. The Sumerians believed that by scarifying oneself one could follow the king into the next world or afterlife; therefore; the ceremony was highly celebrated. One has to not forget that in the Sumerian culture, the people were created to serve the gods.

Humanist
2012-10-23, 02:38
SURETH
ianuquta
[Feeding]
English : suckling , giving suck to , nursing at the breast
Dialect : Urmiah


(Humanist)
niqwa - female [<-- We do (did) not sacrifice female animals. Only males.]



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enequ1-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uniqu1.jpg



Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' ur za
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur - ša to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursunu_zps7970fb8a.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursanu_zpsfac55bbb.jpg

When people speak of Hebrew, I must confess to being a bit confused. If, on one hand, we are referring to pre-exilic Hebrew, it is one thing. However, if it is attested during the period following the first Assyrian conquest, it is a different question.

There were a good many Israelites and Judaeans in Mesopotamia, so, it is possible that our words are from Hebrew. However, from what I have seen, I am skeptical of western (Levantine) origins for a great many things these days. With at least one key exception. Christianity in Mesopotamia. I still believe that the most likely driving force of Christianity in Mesopotamia were the exiled and converted Jews. So, I do count Israelites, Judaeans, and Mesopotamian converts to Judaism among my ancestors. Thus, Hebrew influence is certainly possible. However, again, if you refer to the words above (and below), from Sumerian and Akkadian, the etymology of the Sureth words are not that difficult to reconstruct (I think).

HEBREW

"Language Log"


The word for 'female', /nekeva/, is of the same root as /nekev/, 'puncture', presumably indicative of the vagina. As for the word for 'male', /zaxar/, I cannot see any connection with anything having to do with a penis. It's of the same root as the verb 'remember' (and in fact, in Modern Israeli Hebrew they're homophones [no pun intended]; in older varieties of Hebrew there were two different /a/ vowels, distinguished by either length or height).


Also, same theme:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajalu.jpg


SURETH (Humanist)
jala : boy


HEBREW (Wiktionary.com)
Noun
יֶלֶד (yéled) m (plural indefinite form יְלָדִים, singular construct form ילד, plural construct form ילדי)
A (male) child, a (male) kid, a boy: a young (male) person.
(specifically) A son, a (male) child, a (male) kid, a boy: a person's (male) offspring.


SUMERIAN
lulim, lu-lim stag

ARAMAIC (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
ʿlym, ʿlymʾ (ˁlaym/ˁŭlēm, ˁlaymā/ˁŭlēmā) n.m. boy

1 boy Official Aramaic, Judaean Aramaic, Christian Palestinian Aramaic, Syriac
2 servant, slave Official Aramaic, Palmyrene, Syriac
3 adult Syriac
4 fawn Syriac

---------- Post Merged at 21:38 ----------

Refer to the bit above, regarding the Hebrew word for "male."

PERSIAN (source: Wiktionary.com)
کیر
Noun
کیر • (kir)
(anatomy, vulgar) penis

Humanist
2012-10-23, 05:15
When people speak of Hebrew, I must confess to being a bit confused. If, on one hand, we are referring to pre-exilic Hebrew, it is one thing. However, if it is attested during the period following the first Assyrian conquest, it is a different question.

There were a good many Israelites and Judaeans in Mesopotamia, so, it is possible that our words are from Hebrew. However, from what I have seen, I am skeptical of western (Levantine) origins for a great many things these days. With at least one key exception. Christianity in Mesopotamia. I still believe that the most likely driving force of Christianity in Mesopotamia were the exiled and converted Jews. So, I do count Israelites, Judaeans, and Mesopotamian converts to Judaism among my ancestors. Thus, Hebrew influence is certainly possible. However, again, if you refer to the words above (and below), from Sumerian and Akkadian, the etymology of the Sureth words are not that difficult to reconstruct (I think).

HEBREW

"Language Log"


The word for 'female', /nekeva/, is of the same root as /nekev/, 'puncture', presumably indicative of the vagina. As for the word for 'male', /zaxar/, I cannot see any connection with anything having to do with a penis. It's of the same root as the verb 'remember' (and in fact, in Modern Israeli Hebrew they're homophones [no pun intended]; in older varieties of Hebrew there were two different /a/ vowels, distinguished by either length or height).


Refer to the bit above, regarding the Hebrew word for "male."

PERSIAN (source: Wiktionary.com)
کیر
Noun
کیر • (kir)
(anatomy, vulgar) penis


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haruC.jpg


Not any less serious. These words have an origin too.

SURETH
ḥiara
[Feeding → Food]
English : a cucumber
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

This feminine word is of Arabic / Persian / Turkish origin

Edit: The word for "to remember," in Sureth, is "taḥir."

---------- Post Merged at 23:45 ----------

I believe there may be a distinct etymology for "cucumber." However, it is Semitic, and may have something to do with the word for ground, "ara."

---------- Post Merged on 2012-10-23 at 00:15 ----------

This is getting very interesting.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hairu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hairu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hairu2.jpg


SURETH
takhir
[Moral life → Conscience]
English : to remember , to recall , to recollect ; past participle : ܕܟ݂ܝܼܪܵܐ : aforesaid , with ܒܛܵܒ݂ܬܵܐ : of blessed memory

Humanist
2012-10-23, 05:38
4
SURETH (G. Khan)
xzy I (xaze, xzele, xzaya) to see; to find <--Compare to the Akkadian word, posted at bottom.
xyr I (xayər, xirre, xyara) to watch; to look <--Compare to the two Akkadian words, posted immediately above.


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/hasu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu1.jpg



This calls for a YouTube clip. :) Actually, I just want an excuse to post this.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FAyDmJvjxbg

Humanist
2012-10-23, 07:03
SURETH
aputa
[Human → Body]
English : the forehead , the brow
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbuttu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-24, 18:50
Dienekes' "globe10 (http://dodecad.blogspot.com/2012/10/globe10-calculator.html)," again, outlines the most apparent (autosomal) genetic differences between Mesopotamians and Levantines, and Islamic and pre-Islamic populations.

Mesopotamia v. Levant/E Med (sorted in descending order, by the "West Asian" component)
55.1 Assyrian_D
55.1 Iranian_Jews
54.7 Azerbaijan_Jews
53.6 Iraq_Jews
52.7 Uzbekistan_Jews
45.3 Druze
43 Syrians
42.3 Samaritan_All
40.6 Lebanese
40.2 Cypriots
39.1 Jordanians
38.6 Palestinian

Difference of 2.4 between populations in bold. Difference of 7.4 between Uzbek Jews and Druze.


Islamic v. Pre-Islamic (sorted in descending order, by the "Neo-African" component) <-- Direct Correlation with mtDNA L ?
6.2 Palestinian
6.1 Jordanians
4.3 Syrians
2.8 Lebanese
1.6 Druze (A population isolate for ~1000 years)
0.3 Cypriots
0.2 Samaritan_All
0.1 Iranian_Jews
0.1 Azerbaijan_Jews
0.1 Iraq_Jews
0 Assyrian_D
0 Uzbekistan_Jews

Humanist
2012-10-24, 20:24
This looks like a possibility:

SURETH
šaplupi
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to sob , to weep convulsively , to snivel ; 2) to supplicate , to beseech , to ask for / beg / pray -someone- earnestly and humbly , to implore / to beg / to entreat as a supplicant
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapalu_zpsb465162b.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:24 ----------



SURETH
'zaqip
[Religion]
English : 1) to crucify ; 2) to write the vowel "Zqapa" ; past participle : ܙܩܝܼܦܬܵܐ : having "Zqapa" ; 3) NENA : to rise against
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqapu.jpg


SURETH
šqapa
[Army → War]
English : (transitive verb) : to batter , to beat repeatedly , to bruise , to dash against the ground , to hit , to buffet , to clobber , to strike against , to bully , to contuse , to smite , to thrash , to pommel , to buffet , to slap / to cuff , to knock
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqapu_zps677729a5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqaru_zpsabf52bad.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-24, 22:10
This looks like a possibility:

SURETH
šaplupi
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to sob , to weep convulsively , to snivel ; 2) to supplicate , to beseech , to ask for / beg / pray -someone- earnestly and humbly , to implore / to beg / to entreat as a supplicant
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapalu_zpsb465162b.jpg


SURETH
'špala
[Human → Disease]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to become paralyzed , to lose the power of voluntary motion in any part of the body (especially the limbs) ; 2) to be (become) feeble / weak , to weaken / to flag ; 3) to be (become) weary / worn out / exhausted / drained of energy ; 4) to give way , to sag , to yield / to sink (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


(Humanist)
tschappula : smack/slap across the face. (Compare with meaning #5, above, for the Akkadian term)

Humanist
2012-10-25, 00:09
Refer to posts #1058 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1016283&viewfull=1#post1016283), #1061 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1016447&viewfull=1#post1016447) and #1062 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1016465&viewfull=1#post1016465). There may be no connection. But, the fact that the sense of sight, marriage, and love, seem to be related in some way, is interesting. Particularly if one takes into account what is written below:

Women's Roles in Ancient Mesopotamia
Karen Nemet-Nejat

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/veil_assyria.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-25, 03:51
This one is known.

SURETH
'laiša [more like "leiša," in my opinion]
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : dough , moisted but not baked flour
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lesu.jpg


SUMERIAN
sila11(ĝ), silaĝ(ŠID) to knead
sila11-ĝá dough

---------- Post Merged at 22:51 ----------



SURETH
šaḥlapta
[Industry]
English : 1) changing , altering by substituting , replacing , exchanging , transferring ; 2) a succession / substitution of one thing in the place of another , a swapping , a replacement ; 3) variety
Dialect : Urmiah

(Humanist)
šaḥlip : to change


The related word, "ḥalap," or "to exchange," posted previously.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahatu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lapatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halapu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-25, 05:22
"Shoe-Throw Is Arab World's Heartiest Insult" (http://www.newser.com/story/45374/shoe-throw-is-arab-worlds-heartiest-insult.html)


SURETH
'rapsa [When I think of this word, I imagine a kick to the behind]
[Human → Body]
English : a kick , a blow / thrust / stroke with the foot or feet
Dialect : Urmiah

r'pasa ["rapasa"?]
[Sport → Dance]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to kick / boot , animal : to kick out (?) ; 2) dancing : to beat / stamp the ground with the foot
Dialect : Urmiah


ARABIC (Wiktionary.com)
Arabic: رفس (ar) (ráfasa) strike with or raise the foot or leg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rapasu.jpg

Zert
2012-10-25, 10:38
Humanist, ever heard of the stele in the following blog entry?

http://lepzerin.wordpress.com/2012/10/24/the-kelashin-stele/#

Humanist
2012-10-25, 17:17
Humanist, ever heard of the stele in the following blog entry?

http://lepzerin.wordpress.com/2012/10/24/the-kelashin-stele/#

Hi Zert. No. Cannot say that I have. Thanks for the link.

Humanist
2012-10-26, 01:42
This looks like a possibility:

SURETH
šaplupi
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to sob , to weep convulsively , to snivel ; 2) to supplicate , to beseech , to ask for / beg / pray -someone- earnestly and humbly , to implore / to beg / to entreat as a supplicant
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapalu_zpsb465162b.jpg


SURETH
'špala
[Human → Disease]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to become paralyzed , to lose the power of voluntary motion in any part of the body (especially the limbs) ; 2) to be (become) feeble / weak , to weaken / to flag ; 3) to be (become) weary / worn out / exhausted / drained of energy ; 4) to give way , to sag , to yield / to sink (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


(Humanist)
tschappula : smack/slap across the face. (Compare with meaning #5, above, for the Akkadian term)


Posted previously. Relevant to the above comparison. Geoffrey Khan makes a note in his Barwar volumes that may be relevant to the below word, in particular, the first letter, and "tsch," in "tschappula."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-26, 03:33
I do not believe sufficient consideration is given to the resettlement and deportation policies instituted by the Neo-Assyrians. It may contribute to the genetic landscape now observed among Near Eastern minority populations (see list of populations below). They were on a scale never-before-seen in the history of man, and unparalleled in the pre-Roman era. The Babylonians (e.g. Judea) and others did the same, but on a scale not closely approaching that seen during the Neo-Assyrian era. One Dodecad component that I suggest may in part be a remnant of this past mixing of peoples, is the "Caucasus" component.

^^ Please note the "may" and "part."


I have mentioned several times about our mtDNA affinities, including an Eastern signal.


Several paternal lines, including my own G1*, appear to have links to the south (Persian Gulf and Arabia). A recent post, from the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


Considering the ties between this [J1*] line, Marsh Arabs, and Arabians, it is not unreasonable to speculate about a southern, perhaps Babylonian, Chaldean, or Arabian origin.


Roads and Mass Deportations in the Neo-Assyrian Empire
David Danzig

Red and blue bold by Humanist

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/from_to_assyrian_heartland.jpg


Deportations from the SE (defined as "Southern Zagros/ Elam & Babylonia") accounted for 53.6% (67/125) of all deportations to the Assyrian heartland. By far, the "SE" was the source for the greatest number of deportations to the Assyrian heartland.

Humanist
2012-10-26, 15:40
Following up on the previous post.


# % Origin Points for Deportations TO Assyrian Heartland
67 53.6% Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia
18 14.4% Middle and South Levant
13 10.4% Anatolia
9 7.2% Northern Zagros and Foothills
7 5.6% North Levant / Upper Euphrates Elbow
4 3.2% Euphrates and Tigris Sources
4 3.2% Lakes Van and Urmia
3 2.4% Habur Area / Jazira

So, ~61% for Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia and Northern Zagros and Foothills.

---------- Post Merged at 10:40 ----------

Posted a while back.


A new beginning? I think it is a possibility. I think this would go toward explaining the Assyrian and Babylonian strata in our vernacular. Not to mention, the same for the genetics.


As cultural capital of the ancient Near East, even a politically powerless Babylon was an important city, which created a problem to the Assyrian kings, who conquered Babylonia in the eighth century. From Tiglath-pileser III (744-727) on, they had themselves enthroned as kings of both Assyria and Babylon: by uniting the city in a personal union with their empire, they wanted to express their respect for the Babylonian civilization, institutions, and science. However, the Babylonians revolted under Marduk-apla-iddin (703; the Biblical Merodach Baladan), and king Sennacherib sacked the city in 689 - an act of terrible impiety, because he broke the "axis" between heaven and earth. Babylon's population was deported to Nineveh and the site was left alone for some time.

Finally, king Esarhaddon (680-669) allowed the people to return. A text says that the gods had decreed the Babylon was to be in ruins for seventy years, but that they regretted their harshness, turned the tablet of destiny upside down, and allowed the people to return after eleven year (in cuneiform, the numbers 70 and 11 relate to each other as our 6 and 9).


Livius.org

Humanist
2012-10-26, 19:10
I have mentioned several times about our mtDNA affinities, including an Eastern signal.


Several paternal lines, including my own G1*, appear to have links to the south (Persian Gulf and Arabia). A recent post, from the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


Roads and Mass Deportations in the Neo-Assyrian Empire
David Danzig

Red and blue bold by Humanist

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/from_to_assyrian_heartland.jpg


Deportations from the SE (defined as "Southern Zagros/ Elam & Babylonia") accounted for 53.6% (67/125) of all deportations to the Assyrian heartland. By far, the "SE" was the source for the greatest number of deportations to the Assyrian heartland.

Twenty-three deportations to the "SW" (Middle and South Levant). Of these 23 deportations, the source for 19, or 82.6%, was the "SE" (Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia).

Humanist
2012-10-27, 01:34
SURETH
nira
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a yoke
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niru.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 20:34 ----------

SURETH
paddana
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) Classical Syriac : a plow / a plough ; 2) a yoke , see ; 3) [Yoab Benjamin] : an acre
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/padanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-27, 08:18
1
SURETH (Geoffrey Khan)
burra : pot for preserving yoghurt (submerged in water to keep cool) or for storing date syrup or yeast.


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
bur (stone) bowl, vessel (Yuhong, AV Klein 391)
bùru(d) (bùr) n. hole, pit, depths; depth; v. to make a hole, pierce, break into, burgle; to be deep, deepen; to penetrate, understand; adj. deep


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/buru.jpg



2
SURETH
'lvaḥa [lawiḥ]
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : 1) (intransitive verb) : to ignite , to take fire , to begin to burn , to inflame , to burst into fire , to catch fire ; 2) to take hold , to grasp , to catch ; 3) (health) : to be morbidly congested with inflammation , to become irritated
Dialect : Urmia


'laḥma
[Feeding → Food]
English : bread
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamuC.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lahamu.jpg


2b
SURETH
lḥama
[Industry]
English : to fit , to be suitable to , to be becoming , to be proper , to suit , to be in conformity , to be adapted
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lemu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lemu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lemu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lemu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lemu5.jpg



3
SURETH
šaruyi [šari : begin!]
[Industry]
English : (intransitive verb) : to begin , to start , to commence , to set about an action
Dialect : Urmia


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surru.jpg



4
SURETH
rša'a
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) to become wicked / evil / ungodly , to do wickedness , to act impiously , to turn away from the right way ; 2) -?- to be superstitious (?)
Dialect : Urmia


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu3.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-27, 10:21
SURETH
ḥaṭurta
[Animals]
English : 1) Oraham : a (camel) hump ; 2) Maclean : Al Qosh, Ashita : a stick
Dialect : Urmiah

ḥaṭura
[Professions]
English : 1) Oraham : a carder (of wool, flax ...) , a pounder , a beater ; 2) Maclean : a pounder , a stick used for beating clothes or wool when washed
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ḥuṭra
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) a stick , a staff , a walking stick , a rod , a scepter / a sceptre , a pastoral staff , a shepherd's crook ; 2) a pestle

(Humanist)
ḥuṭra : book containing church rituals


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutartu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hutaruC.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-27, 11:26
SURETH
'qiṣtad innana
[Sky → Climate]
English : a rainbow
Dialect : Urmiah


kašṭa
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) a bow (weapon) ; 2) anything bent or in the form of a rainbow , an arch , an archivolt
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qastu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-27, 19:23
SURETH
'kassi <-- How our Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, is addressed.
[Religion]
English : 1) My lord , my master (a title usually reserved to the patriarchal immediate family) 2) my friend , my beloved
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussi__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi4.jpg




Royal land (land designated as makkur šarri or, in the fifth century[BCE], as bit kussî, literally throne land) was under direct management or it was leased to rent farmers. (Bold by Humanist.)

Michael Jursa
University of Vienna, Institut für Orientalistik

Taxation and Service Obligations in Babylonia from Nebuchadnezzar to Darius and the Evidence for Darius’ Tax Reform

R. Rollinger/B. Truschnegg/R. Bichler (Hrsg.), Herodot und das Persische Weltreich -- Herodotus and the Persian Empire (= CLEO: Classica et Orientalia, Vol. 3), Harrassowitz-Verlag, Wiesbaden: 2011, 431-448


Some may be interested to view this:

The current Kassi of the Church of the East is Mar Dinḥa IV. I put this video together a couple of years back, from some old footage of the Church of the East Patriarch:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IpI271WeUfw



A possibility?


SURETH
Dinḥa : See above, the Patriarch, Mar Dinḥa IV.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anhu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dananu.jpg


SUMERIAN
diĝir (conventionally dingir) god, goddess

du8(h/r) (duh) to release, free, let go of; to fall away, hang down, fall free; to wean; to redeem, ransom; to open, untie, take off; to bake; to caulk, spread. Note that ePSD distinguishes du8 'bake, spread, caulk" versus duh 'loosen'.

Humanist
2012-10-27, 22:23
Following up on the previous post.


# % Origin Points for Deportations TO Assyrian Heartland
67 53.6% Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia
18 14.4% Middle and South Levant
13 10.4% Anatolia
9 7.2% Northern Zagros and Foothills
7 5.6% North Levant / Upper Euphrates Elbow
4 3.2% Euphrates and Tigris Sources
4 3.2% Lakes Van and Urmia
3 2.4% Habur Area / Jazira

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/from_to_assyrian_heartland.jpg

Of the 25 deportations destined for the "East" (i.e. beyond Mesopotamia, after excluding Babylonia), the source for 19, or 76.0%, was the "SW" (Middle and South Levant). Perhaps this shuffling of populations contributed to the high J1 diversity observed in some parts of the region. A map below, of J1 frequencies, among select populations.

I could not find the source data for the J1 frequencies. This is the source data for Y-DNA L. It may be slightly different from the J1 source data.

Blue : J1-P58 > J1*
Black : Unknown distribution
Red : J1* > J1-P58



PopID Language Source
Druze__ Semitic Arabic Behar et al., Flores et al., Al-Zahery et al., Shlush et al.
PlChris Semitic Arabic Fernandes et al.*
Alawi Semitic Arabic Donbak et al.* [<-- This requires adjustment]
Assyr Semitic Aramaic FTDNA, 23andMe (Pred. “Nestorian”)
IraqJ Semitic Hebrew Behar et al.
IranJ Semitic Hebrew Behar et al.
Maloula Semitic Aramaic/Arabic Chiaroni et al.
Armen Indo-European Armenian Hererra et al.
NiqJ Semitic Hebrew/Aramaic Nebel et al.
GrkOrt Semitic Arabic Haber et al.
Maron Semitic Arabic/Aramaic Haber et al.
YemeJ Semitic Hebrew/Arabic Behar et al.
Bakht Indo-Iranian (IE) Luri Roewer et al.*
S_Tlsh Indo-Iranian (IE) Talysh Roewer et al.*
Gilak Indo-Iranian (IE) Gilaki Roewer et al.*
Mazan Indo-Iranian (IE) Mazandarani Roewer et al.*
N_Tlsh Indo-Iranian (IE) Talysh Roewer et al.*


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Map_Middle_East_J1-1.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 17:23 ----------

2 Kings 17:6 (http://www.biblegateway.com/audio/mclean/niv/2Kgs.17) <-- Audio link.


In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the Israelites to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, in Gozan on the Habor River and in the towns of the Medes.


2 Kings 18:11


The king of Assyria deported Israel to Assyria and settled them in Halah, in Gozan on the Habor River and in towns of the Medes.


It should be noted that Assyrians from the Syriac Orthodox Church, based on a limited sample, appear to be J1-P58 > J1*.

Humanist
2012-10-28, 00:04
I have come across something of potential significance in my search of the CAD. I may post it to Academia.edu, in the form of a brief communication. It has something to do with the period of Alexander, Mesopotamia, and Macedonia/Greece.


------------------------------------------------------------------
Separate from above.


SURETH
eta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : (transitive verb) : to defraud , to deprive of some right / interest / property by a deceitful device , to victimize , to deprive by deceit , to swindle , to gyppe , to be fraudulent / a crook
Dialect : Urmiah

itta
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) a fraud , a deception deliberately practiced with a view to gaining an unlawful / unfair advantage , deceit , cunning / craft , a knavery ; 2) an attempt / disposition to deceive or lead into error , a lie / a misleading declaration that causes to believe what is false , falsehood , untruth , a flam ; 3) a villainy , depravity / turpitude (?) / deprevation (?) ; 3) a criminal / vicious act
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ittu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ittil_imut.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ettutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ettutu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/etu.jpg


------------------------------------------------------------------


Ma'loula ("Western Aramaic")


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNZk9dFw1-k


^^ Sounds very different to these ears. Actually, I can barely understand a word. I will post a Sureth clip ("Eastern Aramaic") later.

Humanist
2012-10-28, 01:10
SURETH
naṭuruta
[Army → Military]
English : keeping (a weather-eye open) , guarding against danger , being on guard duty / sentinel duty , observance , watch , look out (?) , patrolling (?) , wakefulness (?) / watchfulness (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/etiru1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eteruA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eteruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru2.jpg



SURETH ("Eastern Aramaic")
It should at least provide some basis for comparison to the clip posted in the previous post.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ysoup40xAU

---------- Post Merged at 20:10 ----------

SURETH
matṭarta
[Army → Military]
English : 1) watch , a keeping awake (for the purpose of guarding, protecting or attending ...) , sentry duty , a vigil (?) ; 2) a harbour , a harbor , a haven , a harbourage , a fortress
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/MASSARTU.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/massartu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-28, 02:09
1
SURETH (and HATRAN, according to the CAL)
'niša
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) an aim , a goal / a cause , an object / a target / the focus , the purpose , the pretext (?) / pretense (?) , an ulterior motive (?) , a cause (to fight for) ; 2) an ensign , a banner , a standard , a flag (?) / -flying- colours (?) , a protest-sign (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40171000/gif/_40171644_iraq_hatra_203map.gif



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nisu.jpg



2
SURETH
šaša
[Human → Body]
English : (intransitive verb) : to shake , to tremble , to quake , to shiver , to shudder , to quiver (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN (See also meaning #7, for "nasu" verb, above)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasuB.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 22:09 ----------


3
SURETH
'pirṭa
[Human → Body]
English : hair
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pirtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-28, 05:21
SURETH
'karta
[Transport]
English : a burden , what is borne or carried , a load , a cargo (?) , a consignment (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karuB.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:21 ----------

SURETH
'šḥaṭa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : 1) to damage , to cause damage to , to harm , to impair , to mar , to prejudice (?) , to deteriorate , to spoil , to violate , chances, efficiency, safety, victory ... : to jeopardize (?) , to compromise (?) , to endanger (?) ; 2) -?- person : to violate (?) / rape (?) / to ravish (?) / to outrage (?) ; 3) -?- law, taboo, peace ... : to violate (?) / infringe (?) , to trespass (?) , to contravene (?) , to run afoul of (?) / to conflict (?) , to transgress
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahatuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-28, 08:36
I have come across something of potential significance in my search of the CAD. I may post it to Academia.edu, in the form of a brief communication. It has something to do with the period of Alexander, Mesopotamia, and Macedonia/Greece.

I am not sure if I will get to it soon, so, here is what I was referring to, above.

Wikipedia


Edessa (Greek: Έδεσσα, Édessa, [ˈeðesa]), is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece. It was also the capital of the defunct province of the same name.

The ancient Greek name Édessa (Ἔδεσσα) was commemorated by Seleucus I Nicator in refounding an ancient city in northern Mesopotamia. It has been associated by modern scholars with the Phrygian vedi (βέδυ - "water").[2] Vedi is linguistically connected to the Greek words hydor (Greek: ύδωρ - "water"), bidra (Greek: βίδρα - "Otter"), idros (Greek: ίδρως - "sweat") and idrosa (Greek: ίδρωσα - "sweated"). Similarly, it was ascribed an Illyrian origin by Ulrich Wilcken in his biography of Alexander the Great,[3] the "town of the waters", due to its renowned waterfall and generally abundant water resources. These views gain some support if the later Slavic-derived name Vodena (Greek: Βοδενά, Old Church Slavonic: Водьнъ, from voda, "water") is considered. The modern Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavic name of the city is Voden (Воден). In Turkish, the city is known as Vodina, and in Aromanian the city is known as either Edessa, Vudena or Vodina.

Edessa's waterfall

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Vodena.JPG/800px-Vodena.JPG


Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I (given the surname by later generations of Nicator, Greek : Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i.e. Seleucus the Victor) (ca. 358 BC – 281 BC) was a leading officer of Alexander the Great's League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. His kingdom would be one of the last holdouts of Alexander's former empire to Roman rule. They were only outlived by the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt by roughly 34 years.

After the death of Alexander, Seleucus was nominated as the satrap of Babylon in 320 BC. Antigonus forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, he was able to return in 312 BC. Seleucus' later conquests include Persia and Media. He was defeated by the emperor of India, Chandragupta Maurya and accepted a matrimony alliance for 500 elephants after ceding the territories considered as part of India. Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and Lysimachus in the battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. He was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus during the same year. His successor was his son Antiochus I.

Seleucus founded a number of new cities, including Antioch and Seleucia, now part of present-day Turkey and Iraq, respectively.

Bust of Seleucus I

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Seleuco_I_Nicatore.JPG/220px-Seleuco_I_Nicatore.JPG


Edessa is regarded by many as the birthplace of "Syriac" Christianity, and the language Syriac (Syriac and Sureth are not the same thing).


And, it may have an Akkadian etymology. Also, it may be the origin for the Indo-European word, "douche."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eddesu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eddesu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu11.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu12.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-28, 10:04
SURETH
'rsisa
[Sky → Climate]
English : drizzle , fine rain , gentle showers , a sprinkling , small drops of rain
Dialect : Urmiah

šaruzi
[Humanities]
English : (transitive verb) : to acquaint , to advise , to make to know , to make familiar with , to give experimental knowledge of , to familiarize , to instruct / to apprise , to advise (?) / to inform (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu.jpg



Wikipedia

Wadi (Arabic: وادي‎ wādī; also: Vadi) is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley. In some cases, it may refer to a dry (ephemeral) riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain or simply an intermittent stream.

---------- Post Merged at 06:04 ----------

SURETH
'vara [wara]
[Transport]
English : transitive verb 1) to pass / go (along, over, past, over, across, beyond) , to overpass , to overtake , to overstep , to pass from one side to another / to cross ; 2) to enter, to penetrate , to get into , to pervade (?) / permeate (?) , to soak in (?) , to fathom -secret, thoughts- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


magvuri [magwuri ?]
[Human → Family]
English : to give (a girl) into marriage (father or guardian) , to cause to marry , to cause to enter into wedlock with a husband , to force to marry
Dialect : Urmiah


'ṭri
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) to drive , to impel or urge onward , to cause to move on ; 2) to plow , to plough , to turn up with a plow , to till the ground with a plow
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aru.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-28, 11:02
SURETH
šoṭuyi
[Measures]
English : (transitive verb) : to extend , to stretch / draw out , to lay out at full length , fabric ... : increase the size (?) , budget , ressources , patience, person ... : push to the limit (?) , get the most of (?) , to exploit (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadadu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-10-29, 20:26
I believe there is a chance that at least NENA was (is) more of a creole, or something akin to a creole, than has been previously thought. Or (and?) that it was a language influenced significantly by the scholars and scribes of late Mesopotamian society.


In the Dur-Sharrukin cylinder inscription, the task of linguistic unification is given to the Assyrian monarch Sargon II, who ruled from 722 to 705 B.C.:

"Peoples of the four regions of the world, of foreign tongue and divergent speech, dwellers of mountain and lowland, all that were ruled by the light of the gods, lord of all, I carried off at Assur, my lord's command, by the might of my scepter. I made them of one mouth..."

William M. Schniedewind
Kershaw Chair of Ancient Eastern Mediterranean Studies
Professor of Biblical Studies & Northwest Semitic Languages
University of California, Los Angeles

---------- Post Merged at 16:26 ----------


SURETH
'šḥaṭa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : 1) to damage , to cause damage to , to harm , to impair , to mar , to prejudice (?) , to deteriorate , to spoil , to violate , chances, efficiency, safety, victory ... : to jeopardize (?) , to compromise (?) , to endanger (?) ; 2) -?- person : to violate (?) / rape (?) / to ravish (?) / to outrage (?) ; 3) -?- law, taboo, peace ... : to violate (?) / infringe (?) , to trespass (?) , to contravene (?) , to run afoul of (?) / to conflict (?) , to transgress
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahatuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihtu.jpg

The word "razzia" appears as a meaning in the second Akkadian term above.
Dictionary.com


raz·zi·a (rz-)
n.
A plundering raid.

razzia [ˈræzɪə]

(Historical Terms) History a raid for plunder or slaves, esp one carried out by Moors in North Africa

Humanist
2012-10-31, 23:38
No electricity, so have not had an opportunity to post too often the last few days.


SURETH (Humanist)
šinya min geiḥga [<-- Or something along those lines]
English : uncontrollable laughter


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanau.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanau2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanau3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sinitu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guhhu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gahhu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-01, 17:27
Perhaps another Mesopotamian-Indian/Pakistani-European nobility mtDNA link. This time, it is a possible aDNA connection. From a previous post:

Wikipedia:

[U7] was present in Northern Europe before the Middle Ages, and it was carried by a wealthy woman, perhaps of their Royal Clan, buried in the Viking Oseberg ship in Norway.

Dienekes' blog:

An ancient DNA perspective on the Iron Age “princely burials” from Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany.

Lee et al.


"We successfully obtained mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from seventeen individuals that showed different haplotypes, which were assigned to nine haplogroups including haplogroups H, I, K, U5, U7, W, and X2b."



---------------------------------------------------------------------


Assyrian mtDNA U breakdown:

U
U1a1
U1a3
U1a3
U2e1
U3
U3
U3b
U4
U5
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
K
K1b1


---------------------------------------------------------------------

In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

Al-Zahery et al.


On the maternal side, a significant (East/Southwest) Asian component (11.8%) is present among Marsh Arabs as testified to by Hgs B4, M, R2 and U7. The B4 mtDNAs carry control-region motifs observed in Iran, Kirghizstan, Western Siberia, Vietnam, Korea [51-53] attesting to contact with Central and East Asia. This observation is likely due to recent gene flow, although it is worth noting that the ancient Silk Road passed through the Iraqi region from Basra to Baghdad. On the other hand, the majority of M, R2 and U7 mtDNAs display control-region motifs observed in South West Asian and in particular in India [47,54-57].


Neither M nor R2 have been observed in Assyrians. U7, of course, has. Unfortunately, we have only one U7 sample tested at FTDNA. The one Assyrian sample that is tested has a transition at HVR1 locus 16093.

There is one U7 sample listed on Ian Logan's U7 GenBank page with this transition:

AY714004(India) Palanichamy

The FTDNA U7 project has three samples with the transition at 16093:

N96539 Punjabi (Lahore) U7 16093C, 16218T, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C
N12921 India U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16352C, 16519C
N12396 Nicolosi, Dagata, Italy U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

The HVR1 mutations for the Assyrian U7 sample match the Nicolosi, Sicilian sample, without either of the additional mutations (see underlined) found in N96539 and N12921.

62118 Assyrian Jacob U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

Polako posted about new aDNA results, here: Ancient mtDNA from Don Scythians (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/38191-Ancient-mtDNA-from-Don-Scythians?p=1021451&viewfull=1#post1021451)


Balanovsky et al.

Scythians EUROPE. Ancient times (about 2500 years ago) is presented in this study for the European Scythians (Table 3). The observed spectrum of mtDNA haplogroups (in order of T, U5a, H, I, D, A, C, F, U2e, U7)...


Wikipedia

Haplogroup U7

Many European populations lack Haplogroup U7, but its frequency climbs over 4% in the Near East and up to 5% in Pakistan, reaching nearly 10% level in Iranians. However, it was present in Northern Europe before the Middle Ages, and it was carried by a wealthy woman, perhaps of their Royal Clan, buried in the Viking Oseberg ship in Norway. In India, haplogroup U7 frequency peaks at over 12% in Gujarat, the westernmost state of India, while for the whole of India its frequency stays around 2%. Expansion times and haplotype diversities for the Indian and Near and Middle Eastern U7 mtDNAs are strikingly similar. The possible homeland of this haplogroup spans Indian Gujarat and Iran because from there its frequency declines steeply both to the east and to the west. If the origin were in Iran rather than in India, then its equally high frequency as well as diversity in Gujarat favors a scenario whereby U7 has been introduced to the coastal western India either very early, or by multiple founders.[4]

^^ Obviously, they have no idea about the frequency (and possible diversity?) of U7 in Assyrians. Or, for that matter, Marsh Arabs.

A map, with the rough Eurogenes (http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/) SPA points for Iranians ("B") and Assyrians ("C"), north of Tehran and slightly west of Babylon respectively. Gujarat is "A."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/map_u7.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-02, 00:14
The Akkadian terms are again relevant.

SURETH
mḥasianuta
[Religion]
English: propitiation , the act of making propitious , atonement , atoning sacrifice , what appeases the divine justice and conciliates the divine favor
Dialect: Urmiah

mḥasiana
[Legal]
English : absolving , shriving , setting free (from an obligation, a debt, or consequences of a sin) , releasing (of an obligation) , propitiation , pardoning , amnesty
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hisnu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanu1-2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanu2-2.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-03, 02:41
AKKADIAN HEALING THERAPIES IN THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD
M. J. Geller
2004

Abstract


The Babylonian Talmud preserves some of the very latest traditions from Babylonia from the period when cuneiform script was still legible, and one of the last uses of cuneiform tablets was to consult the ancient 'sciences' of astronomy (including astrology), mathematics, omens, and healing (medicine including magic). The present study will argue that throughout the third century CE rabbis in Babylonia continued to acquire technical information from Babylonian scholars who could read cuneiform [emphasis added by Humanist], and some of this information was translated into Aramaic and was recorded haphazardly in the academic discussions of the Talmud. The nature of the Talmudic sources and the final redaction of the complex work meant that traditions from Graeco-Roman Palestine were mixed in with local traditions from Babylonia, and the dichotomy is particularly evident in fields of medicine and magic, in which clear distinctions can be made between Greek and Akkadian approaches to healing. The present work, in two parts, is an attempt to sort out the source material according to whether it originates from Babylonia or not, and to focus on Akkadian parallels to Talmudic discussions of healing therapies.

---------- Post Merged at 22:41 ----------


I believe there is a chance that at least NENA was (is) more of a creole, or something akin to a creole, than has been previously thought. Or (and?) that it was a language influenced significantly by the scholars and scribes of late Mesopotamian society.

Actually, I believe it is more than simply a chance (technical ignorance notwithstanding). Also, I am not sure if "creole" is a proper term for what I had in mind.

Humanist
2012-11-04, 00:26
I believe one or more of the Akkadian terms were listed previously. Perhaps I am wrong.

SURETH
'kvaza [kwaza --> kbaza??]
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to shrink from (a duty) , to withdraw (from danger) , to retire (from danger) , to decline action from fear , to recoil , to hesitate (before acting) , to waver
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gabasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kapasuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabasu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-04, 09:17
Electricity is back! :)


1
SURETH
'silqa
[Country → Plants]
English : a beet (Beta Vulgaris) , a chard
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


'šulqa
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : boiled , stewed , subjected to boiling , parboiled
Dialect : Urmiah


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/silqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salaqu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saliqatu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saliqatu2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salqu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salqu2.jpg



2
SURETH
'šqala
[Army → War]
English : (transitive verb) : to take , to get , to lift up , to lay hold of , to grasp , to clutch , to seize , to take by force , to usurp , to assume / to appropriate (to oneself) / to seize without authority (?) , to impound (?) , to impress (?) / to commandeer (?) / to requisition (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakalu.jpg


3
SURETH

The History of the Patriarchal Succession of the D'Mar Shimun Family
Theodore d'Mar Shimun

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/surma.jpg

(source: http://marshimun.com)
http://173.254.74.242/~marshimu/new/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/MB-SK3.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saramu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sirmu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-04, 10:32
SURETH (Humanist)
šulluḥ : busy, crowded (for instance, when referring to a shopping mall or the designs, colors, etc. of a garment)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salahu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-04, 17:51
Palisto, on his Kurdish DNA blog (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2012/11/biogeographical-ancestry-using-dodecad.html), has mapped some locations based on Dodecad globe13 results. My rough spot, below:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/globe13_spot.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 12:34 ----------

OK. Found the coordinates for my calculated spot. I am 27.89 miles from Duhok/Nuhadra.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dod134.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 12:51 ----------

Saint Hormizd Monastery (Chaldean Catholic)

http://kaldaya.net/2007/4_DailyNews_April2007/MEMOREL_RABBAN_HORMIZD/Apr19_2.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-04, 20:25
From Palisto's Kurdish DNA Blog (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/). A screenshot of all Assyrians. The two Iraqi Mandaeans are the same color as the Assyrians (purple), but do not have the black dot in the middle of the marker. The screenshot captured a few Armenians (red), and one Alevi Kurd from Turkey (blue).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrians_palisto_kurdish_dna_blog.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-04, 23:38
1

The History of the Patriarchal Succession of the D'Mar Shimun Family
Theodore d'Mar Shimun

From the same source as above.


SURETH
rab ḥaila

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rab_hela.jpg

(source:http://marshimun.com)
http://173.254.74.242/~marshimu/new/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/RKD1.jpg


SUMERIAN
kala(g) (kalag), kal-la(-g) to be strong, mighty; to strengthen, mend
kal-ga (or kalag-ga) strong, mighty; hard (/kalag+a/ > /kalga/ like /uzud+a/ > /uzda/)
gul, gu-ul to destroy
gul, gu-ul to add, augment, make great(er) (verbal by-form of gal)
hul, hulu to be bad, evil; to ruin, damage, destroy
hul(-a) adj. evil, bad; adv. evilly
hu-luh. huluh, ha-luh to tremble, be afraid; to be fearsome; to scare, frighten (Sjöberg, AV Klein 300 + n. 14; Civil, AV Biggs 28)
ha-lam to be lost, forgotten; to destroy, annihilate, obliterate (Emesal gel-le-èĝ) (Civil, AV Biggs 19) (halāqu)
giš ha-lu-úb oak(?) (cf. PSD B 88)

rib, ri(b), ri-ba great, surpassing, huge


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halilu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haluppu.jpg



2

SURETH
šaruzi
[Humanities]
English : (transitive verb) : to acquaint , to advise , to make to know , to make familiar with , to give experimental knowledge of , to familiarize , to instruct / to apprise , to advise (?) / to inform (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasu.jpg

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eresu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ersu.jpg


SUMERIAN
a-ra-zu, a-rá-zu, rá-zu prayer, supplication (for writings see Bauer, AV Klein 24-25)


SURETH
'arza
[Government]
English : a petition , an earnest request from an inferior to a superior , a document which contains a written request , a supplication , a written complaint (?) / a written grievance (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-05, 00:53
SURETH
'šqala
[Army → War]
English : (transitive verb) : to take , to get , to lift up , to lay hold of , to grasp , to clutch , to seize , to take by force , to usurp , to assume / to appropriate (to oneself) / to seize without authority (?) , to impound (?) , to impress (?) / to commandeer (?) / to requisition (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakalu.jpg


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-05, 02:49
Assyriologist Simo Parpola on Assyrian identity (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmkyH9CA3D4)

The bits pertaining to Asurayu --> Surayu, and Asureth --> Sureth).


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assuru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assuru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assuru3.jpg


In my dialect (from Iran), we do not call the vernacular "Sureth." We call it "Sura." Diacritical marks not displayed.


Sureth
Assyrian (man) : Suraya
Assyrian (woman) : Suraita


To be a "Non-Assyrian"
Lorenzo Verderame
with M. Rivaroli, in W.H. van Soldt, Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia. Papers Read at the 48th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, 1-4 July 2002, Leiden, 2005, pp. 290-305

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_identity.jpg


Sureth
Kristianuta [<-- One of the two words I use]
[Religion]
English : Christianity , the body of Christian believers , Christiandom
Dialect : Urmiah

Mšiḥaiuta [<-- One of the two words I use]
[Religion]
English : Christianity , the body of Christian believers , Christendom , the religion of Christians
Dialect : Urmiah

(Source: G Khan's Barwar volumes)
Surayuta
English : Christianity


The first two make complete sense. The third is interesting, when one thinks about what is written in the bit above, regarding Assyrian identity.

Humanist
2012-11-05, 03:51
Wikipedia

Jerusalem


A city called Rušalimum or Urušalimum (Foundation of Shalem)[29] appears in ancient Egyptian records as the first two references to Jerusalem, dating back to the 19th and 18th centuries BCE.[30][31] The name recurs in Akkadian cuneiform as Urušalim, in the Amarna tablets datable to the 1400-1360 BCE. The name “Jerusalem” is variously etymologised to mean “foundation (Sumerian yeru, ‘settlement’/Semitic yry, ‘found’) of the god Shalem”, ‘dwelling of peace’, ‘founded in safety’,[32] or to mean ‘Salem gives instruction’ (yrh, ‘show, teach, instruct’). The god Shalem has a special relationship with Jerusalem.[33] Others dismiss the Sumerian link, and point to yarah, Semitic/Hebrew for ‘to lay a cornerstone’, yielding the idea of laying a cornerstone to the temple of the god Shalem, who was a member of the West Semitic pantheon (Akkadian Shalim, Assyrian Shulmanu), the god of the setting sun and the nether world, as well as of health and perfection.[34]

The form Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the book of Joshua. This form has the appearance of a portmanteau (blend) of Yireh (an abiding place of the fear and the service of God) [35] The meaning of the common root S-L-M is unknown but is thought to refer to either "peace" (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.[36][37] The name gained the popular meanings "The City of Peace"[29][38] and "Abode of Peace",[39][40] alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian theology.[41] Typically the ending -im indicates the plural in Hebrew grammar and -ayim the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name refers to the fact that the city sits on two hills.[42][43] However, the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.


SUMERIAN
úr leg(s), hip(s), loin(s); lap; private parts; bottom, base, foundation, foot (of a tree)
giš úr tree trunk; log
ùr to sweep over/away, wipe off/away, flatten, level, destroy; to slide, slither, drag
ùr roof, ceiling (cf. ĝiš-ùr) For roof construction methods see Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 173f.

silim to be well, whole, healthy, safe, at peace, in good condition; to fulfill an office or term
silim(-eš) - du11 to greet, salute; to boast (Attinger, Eléments 673-678)
silim-ma adj. whole, well; in good condition (as of plows in Nik I 287); n. well-being
silim-ma Be well! (imperative)


SURETH
urišlim
[Humanities → Geography → Countries]
English : Jerusalem
Dialect : Urmiah


'ur
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) prefix of city-names : Ur ; Genesis 11,28 : ܐܘܿܪ ܕܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ : Ur of the Chaldees ; 2) Shamizdin : wood (material) , a beam
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Humanist
2012-11-05, 07:11
This Akkadian word reminded me of "Mitanni."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madnanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-05, 22:36
From Palisto's Kurdish DNA Blog (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/). A screenshot of all Assyrians. The two Iraqi Mandaeans are the same color as the Assyrians (purple), but do not have the black dot in the middle of the marker. The screenshot captured a few Armenians (red), and one Alevi Kurd from Turkey (blue).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrians_palisto_kurdish_dna_blog.jpg

Also from Palisto's blog, a neighbor-joining tree, based on the same Dodecad data, and including some labels and notes added by me.


"A Tale of Two ["Semites?"]"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palisto_neighbor_joining_mod.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-06, 07:56
Recall, again, our word for sheep, "irba," and the Akkadian term "irbu," meaning, among other things, "offering," and "gifts, presents (to a god or king)." Interestingly, "irdu," in Akkadian, means "a sheep with a certain disease."


SURETH
'imra
[Sky → Astronomy → Constellations → Zodiac]
English : 1) a lamb ; 2) Aries , the sign of the zodiac represented by the image of a lamb
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/immeru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/imru.jpg


SUMERIAN (need to search further)
am wild bull
amar calf; young of other animals


Wikipedia



Aries

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Aries.svg/50px-Aries.svg.png
Zodiac Symbol Ram
Duration (Tropical, Western) 20 March – 19 April (2012, UTC)
Constellation Aries
Zodiac Element Fire
Zodiac Quality Cardinal
Sign ruler Mars
Detriment Venus
Exaltation Sun
Fall Saturn

Humanist
2012-11-09, 03:34
Posting a bit more on a Sureth term I have mentioned previously. Posting bits from a few different posts. Hopefully it does not confuse.


SURETH
'kiš
English : 1) check (to the king) , in the game of chess a word of warning denoting that the king is in danger 2) (an expression used to drive away chickens or other fowls) , go away ! , beat it ! , hit the road ! , get lost ! , vanish into thin air !
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
kaš4 running, race; runner (also lú-kaš4-e)
kaš4/kas4 - du11 to run; to hasten (Attinger, Eléments 578-586)
kéš(d/r) to be bound, tied, joined; to be locked, closed, blocked, stopped, sealed. The root has a /d/ or /r/ Auslaut, and the full finite root may be kešedr; cf. OBGT 12, 5: saĝ kéš-šè-ra-ab = kişşar and see Steinkeller, JNES 46, 57. The past participle is written kéš-da (kešdada) or kešda(KÉŠ). Cf. giškirid


It is worth reading the entire Wikipedia article on Kiš:


Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiŝki; cuneiform: ;[1] Akkadian: kiššatu[2]) is modern Tell al-Uhaymir (Babil Governorate, Iraq), and was an ancient city of Sumer. Kish is located some 12 km east of Babylon, and 80 km south of Baghdad (Iraq).

Kish was occupied beginning in the Jemdet Nasr period (ca. 3100 BC), gaining prominence as one of the pre-eminent powers in the region during the early dynastic period.

The Sumerian king list states that it was the first city to have kings following the deluge,[3] beginning with Jushur. Jushur's successor is called Kullassina-bel, but this is actually a sentence in Akkadian meaning "All of them were lord". Thus, some scholars have suggested that this may have been intended to signify the absence of a central authority in Kish for a time. The names of the next nine kings of Kish preceding Etana are all Akkadian words for animals, e.g. Zuqaqip "scorpion". The Semitic nature of these and other early names associated with Kish reveals that its population had a strong Semitic component from the dawn of recorded history.[4]

The 12th king of Kish appearing on the list, Etana, is noted as "the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries". Although his reign has yet to be archaeologically attested, his name is found in later legendary tablets, and Etana is sometimes regarded as the first king and founder of Kish himself. The 21st king of Kish on the list, Enmebaragesi, said to have captured the weapons of Elam, is the first name confirmed by archaeological finds from his reign. He is also known through other literary references, where he and his son Aga of Kish are portrayed as contemporary rivals of Dumuzid, the Fisherman and Gilgamesh, early rulers of Uruk.

Some early kings of Kish are known through archaeology, but are not named on the King list. These include Utug or Uhub, said to have defeated Hamazi in the earliest days, and Mesilim, who built temples in Adab and Lagash, where he seems to have exercised some control.

The Third Dynasty of Kish is unique in that it begins with a woman, previously a tavern keeper, Kubau, as "king". She was later deified as the goddess Kheba.

Afterwards, though its military and economic power was diminished, it retained a strong political and symbolic significance. Just as with Nippur to the south, control of Kish was a prime element in legitimizing dominance over the north. Because of the city's symbolic value, strong rulers later added the traditional title "King of Kish", even if they were from Akkad, Ur, or Babylon. One of the earliest to adopt this title upon subjecting Kish to his empire was King Mesannepada of Ur. A few governors of Kish for other powers in later times are also known.

Sargon of Akkad came from the area of Kish.

The city's patron deity was Zababa (or Zamama) in Akkadian times, along with his wife, the goddess Inanna.

Kish continued to be occupied through the old Babylonian, Kassite, and Neo-Assyrian periods, and into classical times, before being abandoned.


http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/zababa/

Zababa (god)


Zababa is a warrior god, patron deity of Kiš and consort of goddesses Baba and Ištar.

Functions

As a warrior god, Zababa was credited with strength and prowess in battle. The epithet "Crusher of stones" highlights his fearsome nature. In a similar vein, the Zababa Gate at Baylon was known as "It Hates Its Attacker" (Van de Mieroop 2003).

Ur-Zababa


Ur-Zababa is a name of an ancient lord listed on the Sumerian King List as the second king of the 4th Dynasty of Kish. The king list also says Sargon of Akkad was a cup-bearer for Ur-Zababa before becoming ruler of the Akkadian Empire.

Ur-Zababa was a son of King Puzur-Suen. His mother is unknown.[1][2]

His grandmother was famous Queen Kubaba.[3]

Sargon legend is a Sumerian text purporting to be Sargon's biography. In the text Ur-Zababa is mentioned, who awakens after a dream. For unknown reasons, Ur-Zababa appoints Sargon as a cupbearer. Soon after this, Ur-Zababa invites Sargon to his chambers to discuss a dream of Sargon's, involving the favor of the goddess Inanna. Ur-Zababa was deeply frightened.

When Sargon returns to Ur-Zababa, the king becomes frightened again, and decides to send Sargon to King Lugal-zage-si of Uruk with a message on a clay tablet asking him to slay Sargon.[4][5]


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/1239219_com_sumer3.jpg


Genesis 10:8-10:12 http://www.biblegateway.com/audio/mclean/niv/Gen.10.10

Cush was the father of Nimrod, who grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth.
He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD."
The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in Shinar.
From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah
and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lud.jpg


This may not be of relevance:


A Sealed Double Cremation at Middle Assyrian Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

Peter Akkermans & E. Smits (2008)

In: D. Bonatz, R.M. Czichon & F.J. Kreppner (eds.) Fundstellen – Gesammelte Schriften zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altvorderasiens ad honorem Hartmut Kühne. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag (2008), pp. 251-261.


Recent excavation at Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria has exposed a very substantial part of a Middle Assyrian fortified farmstead or dunnu, dated ca. 1225-1120 BCE. From its foundation early in the reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, the dunnu was maintained by a number of high-ranking officials affiliated with the Assyrian royal house and each bearing the titles of “grand vizier” and “king of Ḫanigalbat”: successively, Aššur-iddin, Šulmānu-mušabši and Ilī-padâ.

An extraordinarily rich cremation which dates somewhere between 1180-1140 BCE (building level 4) and which must be associated with the local administration at the site. So far, 38 graves have been uncovered in the dunnu at Tell Sabi Abyad, of which 29 were inhumations and nine were cremations.

The cylinder-seal impression* on the obverse of the sealing shows a galloping, winged horse followed by a foal (fig. 1), produced in the typical Middle Assyrian iconographic style of the 12th century BCE (see e.g. Matthews 1990, 1992).

Special attention is drawn to the presence of the (burnt) third phalange of a lion, which points to the inclusion of a lion-skin cloak on the funeral pyre. The dead may either have rested upon the skin or it may have covered them as a shroud. This find recalls the occurrence of bear claws in Neolithic cremation graves in northwestern Europe (see e.g. Parker Pearson 1999: 7; Smits 2000).

The richness of finds in this grave is remarkable, when taking into account that almost all other cremations at Tell Sabi Abyad contained either simply a small number of beads or no goods at all (there is only one other cremation with a comparable inventory; cf. Akkermans/Wiggermann, in print). Before it was stated that this cremation contained the burnt remains of two young adults – a man and a woman. Both persons must have died at more or less the same time and both were subsequently cremated and buried together. In view of their sex and age, it is tempting to consider them as spouses, tied to each other both in the terrestrial world and in the hereafter. Although the dead remain unknown to us, they undeniably must have been people of status and wealth. Moreover, the clay sealing with its typical Middle Assyrian representation suggests that they (or their mourners who carried out the burial) were affiliated with the Assyrian administration at Tell Sabi Abyad. Further proof in this respect is provided by the location of the grave in the immediate vicinity of the buildings of the living – it is unlikely that any outsiders to the local community were allowed to bury their dead here. The burial vessel, too, is entirely of Middle Assyrian style and origin in terms of shape and finish, as is the jewellery found in it (see e.g. Ohuma/Numoto 2001). In short, there can be no doubt that both the dead and their mourners were part of the local community at Tell Sabi Abyad, the more so if we take into account the sheer magnitude and obvious visibility of the practice of cremation: The burning and burial were not individual acts but involved the entire community. Somewhere on the site there must have been a large funeral pyre, on which the deceased were placed together, fully dressed and equipped with adornments and covered by a lion-skin cloak. A ram was slaughtered for the occasion and its meat was consumed by the mourners either shortly before or during the fire; the remains were thrown into the flames. After the corpses had been burnt, the remains selected for burial from the surface of the extinguished pyre were stored in an urn which was subsequently covered and sealed and finally buried in a specific area very close to the houses of the living.

* "Fig. 1...[R]econstruction of the seal impression."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/middle_assyrian_cremation_seal_reconstruction_.jpg

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The fortress of Ili-pada.
Middle Assyrian architecture at Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria
Peter M.M.G. Akkermans (2006)

In: P. Butterlin, M. Lebeau, J.-Y. Monchambert, J. Montero & B. Muller (eds.), Les espaces Syro-Mésopotamiens. Dimensions de l’expérience humaine au Proche-Orient ancien. Turnhout: Brepols (2006), pp. 201-211.


The fortress had many faces...: it was a military outpost on the western frontier of Assyria; it was an administrative center in control of the westernmost province of the kingdom; and it provided custom facilities on the route from Carchemish to the Assyrian capital of Assur.

However, it was not only the interests of the Assyrian state but also the private interests of the Assyrian officials themselves that were served at Sabi Abyad. For much of its lifetime, the fortress was in the hands of Ili-pada*, grand vizier of Assyria, viceroy of Hanigalbat, member of one of the most prominent lineages of Assyria, and related to the royal family. The stronghold was Ili-pada's rural estate, used by him for the agricultural exploitation of many dozens of square kilometres in the Balikh valley and elsewhere. The occurrence of texts belonging to Assur-iddin, Ili-pada's father and likewise grand vizier, suggests that the estate had been family property for a long time; it may have served as the family's power base in the province, which presented them with the revenues to finance their private court in the capital and to support their political ambitions.

*

Wikipedia :


Two of his [Ili-pada] sons were to follow him in attaining high office. Mardukija became governor of Katmuḫi and served his term as limmu early, during the reign of Aššur-dan I, his nephew and Ilī-padâ’s grandson. Ninurta-apal-Ekur, after a period stationed in Babylonia, presumably on official business, was to triumph in his campaign to succeed Enlil-kudurri-usur as Assyrian King, thereby establishing a royal line that endured until at least the eighth century.

The Assyrian King's list, beginning with Ili-pada's son, mentioned above:

Ninurta-apal-Ekur (1182 BCE to 1180 BCE) --> Ashur-dan I --> Ninurta-tukultī-Aššur --> Mutakkil-Nusku --> Ashur-resh-ishi I --> Tiglath-Pileser I --> Asharid-apal-Ekur --> Assur-bel-kala --> Eriba-Adad II --> Shamshi-Adad IV --> Ashurnasirpal I --> Shalmaneser II --> Ashur-nirari IV --> Ashur-rabi II --> Ashur-resh-ishi II --> Tiglath-Pileser II --> Ashur-dan II --> Adad-nirari II --> Tukulti-Ninurta II --> Ashurnasirpal II --> Shalmaneser III --> Shamshi-Adad V --> Adad-nirari III --> Shalmaneser IV --> Ashur-dan III --> Ashur-nirari V (755 BCE to 745 BCE). The line is broken by Tiglath-Pileser III.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Archaeology of Death and Burial (1999)
by Mike Parker Pearson

page 7

I do not know why the author in the Assyrian Cremations article is referring to the European bear claws as Neolithic. Unless it is the "Smits" source one must refer to.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pearson_cremation_.jpg

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Perhaps of no connection:

Wikipedia on Hercules:


To kill the Nemean lion
The Nemean lion was a large ferocious monster with a hide that could not be pierced by any weapon.[5] This made it near impossible to kill, but Hercules managed to strangle the monster with his bare hands, using his unusual strength. After he had strangled the lion, he used one of its claws to skin the monster and he wore the hide, which retained its magical properties, until his death.


A bit of truth in the myths of old? Compare Herodotus, and Genesis Chapter 10, above. Note the Lydians and Nimrod.

Source: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu

Herodotus, The Histories
A. D. Godley, Ed.

1.7


Now the sovereign power that belonged to the descendants of Heracles fell to the family of Croesus, called the Mermnadae, in the following way. *Candaules, whom the Greeks call Myrsilus, was the ruler of Sardis; he was descended from Alcaeus, son of Heracles; Agron son of Ninus, son of Belus, son of Alcaeus, was the first Heraclid king of Sardis and Candaules son of Myrsus was the last. *The kings of this country before Agron were descendants of Lydus, son of Atys, from whom this whole Lydian district got its name; before that it was called the land of the Meii. *The Heraclidae, descendants of Heracles and a female slave of Iardanus, received the sovereignty from these and held it, because of an oracle; and they ruled for twenty-two generations, or five hundred and five years, son succeeding father, down to Candaules son of Myrsus.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: http://www.maicar.com/GML/HERACLIDES.html

Agron 2. Agron 2 is said to be the first of the HERACLIDES to become king of Sardes (Lydia) (see also Croesus). He is son of Ninus, the Assyrian who founded Nineveh. Ninus was son of Belus 3, son of Alcaeus 6, son of Heracles 1 and Omphale (Hdt.1.7).

Belus 3. Son of Alcaeus 6, son of Heracles 1 & Omphale. Belus 3, who is counted among the HERACLIDES, is also called father of Ninus, the founder of Nineveh and husband of Semiramis (see also Croesus) (Hdt.1.7).

Ninus. Son of Belus 3. Father of Agron 2. King of Assyria and founder of Nineveh. He was murdered by his wife Semiramis, founder and Queen of Babylonia (see also Croesus) (Dio.2.7.1; Hdt.1.7; Hyg.Fab.240; Ov.Met.4.88; Strab.2.1.31).


Clash of the Gods: Hercules
http://youtu.be/NiijdeuvJhE

Humanist
2012-11-09, 05:20
SURETH
'dapa

English : 1) a long and broad board , a plank ; 2) sailing : a rudder ; 3) a tablet ; 4) a movable slab on the altar
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac


[I]THE TABLET HOUSE: A SCRIBAL SCHOOL IN OLD BABYLONIAN NIPPUR

ELEANOR ROBSON


As described so far, there is nothing to distinguish House F from its immediate neighbours. However, while most houses excavated in Area TA yielded at most a few handfuls of tablets totalling 209, House F produced 1,425 fragments, over 85% of the entire number found in TA that season (Fig. 5; McCown and Haines 1967: pl. 160 D). And whereas the tablets in the other houses were a roughly equal mixture of administrative and legal documents, Sumerian literature, and elementary school tablets, in House F only 2% of the tablets are clearly archival in character. Over 50% contain Sumerian literature, 42% are other school documents, and 6% remain to be identified (Fig. 7).
....

The Sumerian word for school, eduba, is often understood to mean “tablet house” after the Akkadian bit tuppim.10 The huge numbers of literary and scholarly tablets in House F strongly suggest that it functioned as a school as well as a house. But House F was a tablet house in another sense too: the tablets were built into the very floors, walls, and furniture of the rooms. The large number of joins between rooms and across substrata implies that the tablets are a homogeneous group (Fig. 8). The number of tablets comes down to about 1,300 after known joins, but that total should decrease further, to less than a thousand, as more fragments are identified.

How do we know that the tablets were not taken from some other place to be used as building material?11 The answer lies in some of the household furnishings (Fig. 3). In the northern corner of courtyard 192, next to one of the benches, a baked-brick box had been sunk into the floor. When excavated it contained a large storage jar filled with small pots.

At the other end of the bench, by the doorway to room 189, a smaller box was later used. A further box was discovered at the eastern end of the bench in 205. It had been built of whole tablets plastered over, and was found filled with tablet fragments and clay (McCown and Haines 1967: 64, pl. 160 E-F). These boxes, it appears, functioned as recycling bins, into which old tablets could be thrown for soaking, reshaping and re-using (Faivre 1995).

[I have circled the excavated area, "TA," in red.]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/robson_scribal_school_TA_site_.jpg

---------- Post Merged on 2012-11-09 at 00:20 ----------

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tapu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dappu1.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-09, 06:53
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sindu.jpg


SURETH (Loan from Persian, likely. But, this form is very similar, save for the "h," to the Akkadian, i.e. it is not "hindawaja", but rather "hindaja")
hindaia [~hindaja?]
[Humanities → Geography → Countries]
English : Indian , of India ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

The main Wikipedia article on Sindh fails to mention the fact that the term is attested in Akkadian (see Sennacherib, reigned 705 – 681 BCE), but it is referred to in the second article.

Sindh


Origin of the name

The province of Sindh and the people inhabiting the region had been designated after the river' s name prior to partition as the Sindhu River, now known as the Indus River. In Sanskrit, síndhu means "river, stream", and refers to the Indus river in particular. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind from the word Sindh and when the British arrived here in the 17th century, they followed that example and applied the name to the entire subcontient calling it India, once again from the word Sindh.

History of Sindh

Sindh has been known by various names in the past, the name Sindh comes from the Indo-Aryans. In Sanskrit, the province was called Sindhu meaning the river Sindh and the people living on its banks. The Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) knew the region as Sinda, the Persians Hindush, the Greeks Indos, the Romans Sindus or Indus, the Chinese Sintu, while the Arabs dubbed it Sind. A legend claims that the Indus River flowed from the mouth of a lion or Sinh-ka-bab.


1
SURETH
Eastern phonetic : daqa
English : transitive verb : to crush , to make small or smaller , to break into minute pieces by a blow
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakaku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duqququ.jpg



2
SURETH
'nata
[Human → Body]
English : an ear (the organ of hearing -humans, animals-)
Dialect : Urmiah

'tpata
[Human → Disease]
English : (intransitive verb) : to sneeze
Dialect : Urmiah

'tpatta
[Human → Disease]
English : sneezing , sneeze , sternutation
Dialect : Urmiah

'pudi
[Human → Body]
English : mucus , snot
Dialect : Urmiah

'pta [pitya(m) / petita(f) : wide, roomy]
[Measures → Area]
English : (intransitive verb) : to widen , to grow wide(r) , to broaden , to spread , to expand
Dialect : Urmiah

'ptaḥa [putuḥ!]
[City → Buildings]
English : transitive verb : to open , to render open , to turn or remove a door (covering ...) , to become open , to unlock , to unbar ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/petuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/petuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/petu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/teptitu.jpg


Not sure here.

3
SURETH
mašaḥatṭuta
[City → Inn]
English : Sojourning , dwelling in a place as a temporary resident or as a stranger , being a hotel cutomer (?) / a vacationer (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhitu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhitu2.jpg


4
SURETH
manšuyi [manši!]
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) to forget , not to remember , to lose the remembrance of , to let go / dismiss from the memory ; 2) to slight , to disregard , to cut (ignore) , to neglect , to underestimate (?) , to take no heed , to ignore , to pass over / by (?) , to shrug off -a rumor ...- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


'šiaṭa
[Moral life → Fault]
English : (transitive verb) : to neglect , to disregard , to ignore , to slight / humiliate (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sau.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/satu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/satu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/satu3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/satu4-1.jpg



-------------------------------------------------------------------


Here is the map from a few days ago (Palisto's points using Dodecad "globe13")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Palisto_update_map.jpg


There are not many samples to work with, but, here are the median (average where N=2) points for Assyrians, or Suraye (Catholics, "Nestorians" and Orthodox), and the two Iraqi Mandaeans.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/median_asy_man.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/map_spots.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-09, 14:50
I take it this is from Greek?


SURETH
isṭartigha
[Army]
English : a militaryman , one who is engaged in military service , a commander of an army
Dialect : Urmiah

GREEK
Stratègika (GR): generalship.
Stratègion (LA): commander's tent.
Stratègos (GR): general; commander.
Strateuma (GR): military campaign.
Strateusis (GR): military campaign.
Stratia (GR): army.
Tagma (GR): military unit.
Tagos (GR): Thessalian commander-in-chief.
Asthetairos (GR): ‘city companion’; title borne by Macedonian infantryman, possibly an alternative name for the pezhetairoi (GR) from the northern districts of the kingdom.
Asthippos (GR): ‘city cavalryman’; title borne by some Macedonian mounted troops.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tegu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qablu-1.jpg



-----------------------------------------------------------


????

http://profile.ak.fbcdn.net/hprofile-ak-prn1/50352_93674472013_9187_n.jpg


Wikipedia

The etymology is disputed: the Molinari company states that the name Sambuca comes from an Arabic word: Zammut. This was the name of an anise-flavoured drink that arrived to the port of Civitavecchia by ships coming from the East.[2] The Oxford English Dictionary states, however, that the term comes from the Latin word sambucus, meaning "elderberry".

Other proposals[by whom?] are that it could have come from the Tamil name for fennel, soambu, where it is a regular ingredient in cooking, or that it comes from "sambuq", a type of Arabic ship which may originally have been used to import the drink and may hence have given it its name.

The Greek word Sambuca was first used as the name of another elderberry liquor that was created in Civitavecchia about 130 years ago.[2]

The first commercial version of such a drink started at the end of 1800 in Civitavecchia, where Luigi Manzi started selling Sambuca Manzi. In 1945, soon after the end of Second World War, commendatore Angelo Molinari started producing Sambuca Extra Molinari, which helped popularise Sambuca throughout Italy.


Sambucus (elder or elderberry) is a genus of between 5 and 30 species of shrubs or small trees in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae. It was formerly placed in the honeysuckle family, Caprifoliaceae, but was reclassified due to genetic evidence. Two of its species are herbaceous.

The genus is native in temperate-to-subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. It is more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere; its Southern Hemisphere occurrence is restricted to parts of Australasia and South America.

The leaves are pinnate with 5–9 leaflets (rarely 3 or 11). Each leaf is 5–30 cm (2.0–12 in) long, and the leaflets have serrated margins. They bear large clusters of small white or cream-colored flowers in late spring; these are followed by clusters of small black, blue-black, or red berries (rarely yellow or white).

http://www.spicesmedicinalherbs.com/sambucus-nigra.html

Sambucus Nigra
http://www.spicesmedicinalherbs.com/img/sambucus-nigra.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanbuku.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-09, 22:03
Looks like this post was lost. I will post the Akkadian words again later. For now, here is another source that may be of some relevance.

Sieges and Terror Tactics: The Assyrian empire at war. Ancient Warfare V-4: 6-9.
Mark Schwartz

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sha_shepe.jpg


SURETH
'šepa
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a site , a location , the place where anything is / is to be fixed , the position , a place , the situation / whereabouts (?) , the spot / seat , a stead ; 2) a footprint , a footmark , a trace (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-09, 23:33
Genes, Languages, and Geography

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/median_asy_man_language.jpg


http://almashriq.hiof.no/general/400/410/Semitic-Lang.Map.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-10, 01:30
Looks like this post was lost. I will post the Akkadian words again later. For now, here is another source that may be of some relevance.

Sieges and Terror Tactics: The Assyrian empire at war. Ancient Warfare V-4: 6-9.
Mark Schwartz

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sha_shepe.jpg


SURETH
'šepa
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a site , a location , the place where anything is / is to be fixed , the position , a place , the situation / whereabouts (?) , the spot / seat , a stead ; 2) a footprint , a footmark , a trace (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

SURETH
'qupsa
[Science → Mathematics]
English : a checker , a small square , a cube , a square tablet
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'kipad 'qupsi
[Sport]
English : games : a pawn
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

(Humanist)
kipa
English: rock, stone


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu4-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu5-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu6-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu8-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu9-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu10-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu11.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu12.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kibsu13.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-10, 05:24
INDO-EUROPEAN? (etymonline.com)

bride (n.)
O.E. bryd "bride, betrothed or newly married woman," from P.Gmc. *bruthiz "woman being married" (cf. O.Fris. breid, Du. bruid, O.H.G. brut, Ger. Braut "bride"). Gothic cognate bruþs, however, meant "daughter-in-law," and the form of the word borrowed from Old High German into Medieval Latin (bruta) and Old French (bruy) only had this sense. In ancient Indo-European custom, the married woman went to live with her husband's family, so the only "newly wed female" in such a household would be the daughter-in-law. On the same notion, some trace the word itself to the PIE verbal root *bru- "to cook, brew, make broth," as this was the daughter-in-law's job.


Wikipedia


The Babylonian Marriage Market is a 1875 painting by the British painter Edwin Long of young women being auctioned into marriage. It received attention for its provocative depiction of women being sold and its attention to historical detail. It was inspired by a passage in the Histories by Herodotus, and the artist painstakingly copied some of the images from Assyrian artifacts.

It is currently held in the Picture Gallery of Royal Holloway College, after being bought by Thomas Holloway in 1882, where it fetched a then-record price for a painting by a living artist at £6,615.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/Edwin_Long_001.jpg/800px-Edwin_Long_001.jpg

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Review of: Pfoh, Emanuel, The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives
Jeremy Hutton
University of Wisconsin-Madison

In the final sections of this chapter, Pfoh relates the patronage structures of the Hebrew Bible (as a literary text) to his preceding observations on the nature of patronage; the concept is particularly valuable in analyzing the berit (“covenant”) and the corresponding theologoumenon of Moses as “broker” (143–49). It is equally valuable in analyzing the royal ideology of the wider ancient Near East (150–55).


cov·e·nant   [kuhv-uh-nuhnt] Show IPA
noun
1.an agreement, usually formal, between two or more persons to do or not do something specified.
2.Law . an incidental clause in such an agreement.
3.Ecclesiastical - a solemn agreement between the members of a church to act together in harmony with the precepts of the gospel.
4.History/Historical
a.National Covenant
b.Solemn League and Covenant.
5.Bible
a.the conditional promises made to humanity by God, as revealed in Scripture.
b.the agreement between God and the ancient Israelites, in which God promised to protect them if they kept His law and were faithful to Him.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/covenant

---------------------------------------------------------------------


The Ibratu Shrines of Babylon and Herodotus?

Paul Givargidze

Two sections from Book 1 of Herodotus' The Histories are central to this brief communication. They appear below, in their entirety, as translated by A.D. Godley1:


I.196: This is the equipment of their persons. I will now speak of their established customs. The wisest of these, in our judgment, is one which I have learned by inquiry is also a custom of the Eneti in Illyria. It is this: once a year in every village all the maidens as they attained marriageable age were collected and brought together into one place, with a crowd of men standing around. Then a crier would display and offer them for sale one by one, first the fairest of all; and then, when she had fetched a great price, he put up for sale the next most attractive, selling all the maidens as lawful wives. Rich men of Assyria who desired to marry would outbid each other for the fairest; the ordinary people, who desired to marry and had no use for beauty, could take the ugly ones and money besides; for when the crier had sold all the most attractive, he would put up the one that was least beautiful, or crippled, and offer her to whoever would take her to wife for the least amount, until she fell to one who promised to accept least; the money came from the sale of the attractive ones, who thus paid the dowry of the ugly and the crippled. But a man could not give his daughter in marriage to whomever he liked, nor could one that bought a girl take her away without giving security that he would in fact make her his wife. And if the couple could not agree, it was a law that the money be returned. Men might also come from other villages to buy if they so desired. This, then, was their best custom; but it does not continue at this time; they have invented a new one lately [so that the women not be wronged or taken to another city]; since the conquest of Babylon made them afflicted and poor, everyone of the people that lacks a livelihood prostitutes his daughters.

I.199: The foulest Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land to sit in the temple of Aphrodite and have intercourse with some stranger once in her life. Many women who are rich and proud and disdain to mingle with the rest, drive to the temple in covered carriages drawn by teams, and stand there with a great retinue of attendants. But most sit down in the sacred plot of Aphrodite, with crowns of cord on their heads; there is a great multitude of women coming and going; passages marked by line run every way through the crowd, by which the men pass and make their choice. Once a woman has taken her place there, she does not go away to her home before some stranger has cast money into her lap, and had intercourse with her outside the temple; but while he casts the money, he must say, “I invite you in the name of Mylitta” (that is the Assyrian name for Aphrodite). It does not matter what sum the money is; the woman will never refuse, for that would be a sin, the money being by this act made sacred. So she follows the first man who casts it and rejects no one. After their intercourse, having discharged her sacred duty to the goddess, she goes away to her home; and thereafter there is no bribe however great that will get her. So then the women that are fair and tall are soon free to depart, but the uncomely have long to wait because they cannot fulfill the law; for some of them remain for three years, or four. There is a custom like this in some parts of Cyprus.

The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (“CAD”)2 provides the following definition, for the Akkadian term ibratu: “open-air shrine (a niche in a corner on the street or in a court).” The CAD elaborates:

“[T]he ibratu was situated outside the temple and in streets or private houses.”

“Since it is mentioned in parallelism with pitqu, pitiqtu and imdu as well as muḥru (see usage b), it seems to have been a raised mud structure upon which a nēmedu-altar was placed.”

“Women seem to have gathered there, as is shown by the Sumerian proverb...'(since) my sister stays at the corner shrine and my mother is (chatting) at the river, I must die of hunger'.”

“These gatherings of women could be connected with the fact that the [Sumero-Akkadian] bilingual references...refer to shrines of goddesses, and the mention of 180 niches for Ištar in the description of the City of Babylon...as well as...after an enumeration of names of Ištar.”

Julia Assante refers to the ibratu shrines, when discussing depictions of the Warring Ištar in Babylonian plaque art: “[H]er popularity with the non-elite for unofficial religious practices is evidenced in the numbers of local shrines...built to her and in her later title, 'Lady who owns ibratu-shrines'....”3 Heather D. Baker also mentions the ibratu shrines, in her study of urban Babylonia: “[S]treet shrines were often associated with goddesses (especially Ištar)....”4

Thus, perhaps we can imagine Herodotus' Babylon as a city where ibratu shrines were a ubiquitous sight. Shrines that were apparently associated, in particular, with the goddess Ištar, where women congregated, and where “unofficial religious practices” took place, involving the “non-elite” of Babylonian society. Whatever purpose(s) the ibratu shrines ultimately served, it is not unreasonable to imagine that the ibratu shrines may have provided the basis for what became the “wisest” and “foulest” of Babylon's customs in The Histories.

The degree of truth behind Herodotus' descriptions, and the nature of the ibratu shrines, it is possible, may be further elucidated by a comparison of the Akkadian word ibratu, and the Sureth (vernacular Syriac) word 'brata. The Sureth Online Dictionary defines 'brata, as follows: “a girl, a lass, a young maiden, a daughter.”5 Although of unspecified origin, and if it is not a recent loan, the Sureth word 'barat, meaning “money-order” or “bank-check,” may be of some consequence.6


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit11.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birit_birit.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birtu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/birtu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/siddu_birtu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/siddu_birtu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/biritu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/bartu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/bartu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/bartu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/bartu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/barutu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/baru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/baruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/baruB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/baruC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/baruC2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/beru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/beru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Photobucket%20Desktop%20-%20PAUL-PC/beruB.jpg

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Weddings of Ancient Israel - A Picture of the Messiah"
(an article from Return to God Magazine, Volume 1 Number 2, page 22)

What does Scripture mean when it refers to the church as a bride and Jesus as a bridegroom? Is this just flowery language? Is it
merely indicating God's love for His people? Understanding ancient Jewish wedding practices makes the meaning of Scripture clear.
The wedding is a picture of the covenant Jesus made and reveals His plans to return for His bride, the church. The people of ancient
Israel understood what Jesus was going to do because they understood the model of the wedding. The analogy between a wedding and
Christ and the Church is described in Ephesians 5:31-32 "For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his
wife, and the two will become one flesh." This is a profound mystery -- but I am talking about Christ and the church." The following
overviews the practices of an ancient Jewish betrothal and wedding. In parallel, it shows how Jesus has fulfilled the betrothal portion
of the wedding and how He may fulfill the remainder when He comes again for His bride, the church.

ANCIENT WEDDING PRACTICE: MARRIAGE COVENANT AND BRIDE PRICE
When a young man desired to marry a young woman in ancient Israel, he would prepare a contract or covenant to present to the
young woman and her father at the young woman's home. The contract showed his willingness to provide for the young woman and
described the terms under which he would propose marriage. The most important part of the contract was the bride price, the price that
the young man was willing to pay to marry the young woman. This payment was to be made to the young woman's father in exchange
for his permission to marry. The bride price was generally quite high. Sons were considered to be more valuable than daughters since
they were physically more able to share in the work of farming and other heavy labor. The bride price compensated the young
woman's family for the cost to raise a daughter and also indicated the love that the young man had for the young woman -- the young
woman was very valuable to the young man! The young man would go to the young woman's house with the contract and present his
offer to the young woman and her father.

JESUS' FULFILLMENT: MARRIAGE COVENANT AND BRIDE PRICE
Jesus came to the home of His bride (earth) to present His marriage contract. The marriage contract provided by Jesus is the new
covenant, which provides for the forgiveness of sins of God's people. Jesus paid the bride price with His life. At the last supper, when
breaking bread, He spoke of the price He was paying: "...This is my body given for you..." --Luke 22:20. Hebrews 8:15 makes it clear
that Jesus died as the price for the new covenant: "...Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive
the promised eternal inheritance -- now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant.
Other Scripture references include 1 Corinthians 6:19-20, 1 Peter 1:18-19, Acts 20:28 and John 3:29. The marriage contract, the new
covenant, is described throughout Scripture: "...This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the
LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people... they will all
know me, from the least of them to the greatest," declares the LORD. "For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins
no more." -- Jeremiah 31:31-34.

Humanist
2012-11-10, 08:17
SURETH
paḥḥara
[Professions]
English : 1) a potter / a maker of earthenware , a ceramist ; 2) pottery , ceramics , china / porcelain , crockery
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'quqa
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : a cauldron / caldron , a large (usually earthen) kettle / boiler , a large earthen pot
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paharu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/quB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukkubu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-10, 09:32
If this is not a foreign word, I suppose it is a possibility.

SURETH
lgina
[City → Hotel]
English : a flask , narrow-tube vessel , a bottle
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lukannu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulukanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/laginu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ligimu.jpg



INDO-EUROPEAN (etymonline.com)

legume (n.)
plant of the group of the pulse family, 1670s, from Fr. légume (16c.), from L. legumen "pulse, leguminous plant," of unknown origin. One suggestion ties it to L. legere "to gather" (see lecture (n.)), because they can be scooped by the handful. Used in Middle English in the Latin form legumen (late 14c.).

Humanist
2012-11-10, 11:40
SURETH
sumaquta
[Human → Body]
English : ruddiness , being of a red color , having a healthy reddish color , a flush / a blush (shyness, embarrassment ...)
Dialect : Urmiah

Again, not intending to be political, but this part of the world, as everyone knows quite well, has had its share of problems. I think all would agree, after reading what is written in the Wikipedia article below, and comparing to the Akkadian terms, there may be something here.


Simko Shikak (also known as "Simitquh";[1] born Ismail Agha Shikak in 1887; died 1930) was a Kurdish chieftain of the Shakak tribe. He was born into a prominent Kurdish feudal family based in Chihriq castle located near Baranduz river in Urmia region in northwestern Iran. By 1920 parts of Iranian Azerbaijan located west of Lake Urmia were under his control[2]. He led Kurdish farmers into battle and defeated the Iranian army on several occasions. [3] The Iranian government had him assassinated in 1930[4].Simko took part in the massacre of the Assyrians of Khoy[5] and instigated the massacre of 1000 Assyrians in Salmas.[6]

....

In March 1918, under the pretext of meeting for the purpose of cooperation, Simko arranged the assassination of the Assyrian Nestorian patriarch, Mar Shamon, ambushing him and his 150 guards as Mar Shimon was entering his carriage. After the murder of Mar Shimun, the Hakkari Christians took revenge on the Muslim population of Salmas and most of the villages of Salmas County, while Simko and his men massacred Christians in Khoy.

I do not ordinarily rely on this next author's opinions, for various reasons, but what he writes may be relevant:

The Kurds: A Concise History and Fact Book
By Mehrdad R. Izady

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/izady.jpg


AKKADIAN (see terms 3 and 4, in particular, for possible Simko etymology)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sumukku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samaku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/summuku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samku.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-11, 00:12
This Sureth word:

šammara
[Country → Plants]
English : fennel
Dialect : Urmiah

Reminded me of this IE word:


(etymonline) shamrock (n.)
1570s, from Ir. seamrog, dim. of seamar "clover."

And then "clover."


(Wikipedia) A common idiom is "to be (live) in clover", meaning to live a carefree life of ease, comfort, or prosperity. This originally referred to the fact that clover is fattening to cattle.[7]

Searching the CAD, I came across these Akkadian terms (I cannot find the word I had originally come across, leading to "maru," second group below):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sammu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samaruB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samaruA.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sammaru.jpg


Reference to this Akkadian word:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maruC.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marratu.jpg


Leading, finally, to this:


(Wikipedia) Bone marrow in cuisine

Many cultures have used bone marrow as food throughout history. Anthropologists believe that early humans were scavengers rather than hunters in some regions of the world. Marrow would have been a useful food source (largely due to its fat content) for tool-using hominids, who were able to crack open the bones of carcasses left by apex predators such as lions.[9]


(etymonline) marrow (n.)
late 14c., from O.E. mearg "marrow," earlier mærh, from P.Gmc. *mazga- (cf. O.N. mergr, O.S. marg, O.Fris. merg, M.Du. march, Du. merg, O.H.G. marg, Ger. Mark "marrow"), from PIE *mozgo- "marrow" (cf. Skt. majjan-, Avestan mazga- "marrow," O.C.S. mozgu, Lith. smagenes "brain"). Figurative sense of "inmost or central part" is attested from c.1400.

---------- Post Merged at 19:12 ----------

Hey, you never know. :)



http://youtu.be/Ds7ePMtz9m8

Humanist
2012-11-11, 02:11
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sammaru.jpg

It goes without saying, but take this with a grain of salt. For now at least. :)


Wikipedia


The Tuatha Dé Danann ("peoples of the goddess Danu", Modern Irish pronunciation: [t̪ˠuːəhə dʲeː d̪ˠan̪ˠən̪ˠ], Old Irish: [t̪uːaθa d̪ʲeː d̪an̪an̪]) are a race of people in Irish mythology. In the invasions tradition which begins with the Lebor Gabála Érenn, they are the fifth group to settle Ireland, conquering the island from the Fir Bolg.

The Tuatha Dé Danann are thought to derive from the pre-Christian deities of Ireland. When the surviving stories were written, Ireland had been Christian for centuries, and the Tuatha Dé were represented as mortal kings, queens and heroes of the distant past; however there are many clues to their former divine status. A poem in the Book of Leinster lists many of them, but ends "Although [the author] enumerates them, he does not worship them." Goibniu, Creidhne and Luchta are referred to as Trí Dé Dána ("three gods of craftsmanship"), and the Dagda's name is interpreted in medieval texts as "the good god." Even after they are displaced as the rulers of Ireland, characters such as Lugh, the Morrígan, Aengus and Manannán mac Lir appear in stories set centuries later, showing all the signs of immortality. They also have many parallels across the Celtic world: Nuada is cognate with the British god Nodens; Lugh is a reflex of the pan-Celtic deity Lugus; Tuireann is related to the Gaulish Taranis; Ogma to Ogmios; the Badb to Catubodua.

The translation of Tuatha Dé Danann as "peoples of the goddess Danu" is necessarily imprecise. Old Irish tuath (plural tuatha) means "people, tribe, nation"; and dé is the genitive case of día, "god, goddess, supernatural being, object of worship"[1] (they are often referred to simply as the Tuatha Dé, a phrase also used to refer to the Israelites in early Irish Christian texts).[2]

Danann is also a genitive, for which the nominative case is not attested. It has been reconstructed as Danu, which by analogy with Anu is taken to be a female name. The name of the river Danube is believed to be Celtic in origin, and Celtic river deities are usually female; Hindu mythology has a goddess called Danu, who may be an Indo-European parallel. However, this reconstruction is not universally accepted.[3] It is also written Donann and Domnann,[4] which may link them with the Fir Domnann ("men of the Domnainn"), a people associated with the Fir Bolg in myth,[5] who are historically attested in Connacht and may be related to the British Dumnonii.[6]

....

A poem in the Lebor Gabála Érenn says of their arrival:

It is God who suffered them, though He restrained them
they landed with horror, with lofty deed,
in their cloud of mighty combat of spectres,
upon a mountain of Conmaicne of Connacht.
Without distinction to descerning Ireland,
Without ships, a ruthless course
the truth was not known beneath the sky of stars,
whether they were of heaven or of earth.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dandannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dandannu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dananu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dunnuna.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dunnu.jpg


Wikipedia

In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, Consort of Antu, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara. His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat.

He was one of the oldest gods in the Sumerian pantheon, and part of a triad including Enlil, god of the air and Enki, god of water. He was called Anu by the later Akkadians in Babylonian culture. By virtue of being the first figure in a triad consisting of Anu, Enlil, and Enki (also known as Ea), Anu came to be regarded as the father and at first, king of the gods. Anu is so prominently associated with the E-anna temple in the city of Uruk (biblical Erech) in southern Babylonia that there are good reasons for believing this place to have been the original seat of the Anu cult. If this is correct, then the goddess Inanna (or Ishtar) of Uruk may at one time have been his consort. [these claims need references]

Ur III Sumerian cuneiform for An (and determiner for deity DINGIR)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Cuneiform_sumer_dingir.svg/200px-Cuneiform_sumer_dingir.svg.png

---------- Post Merged at 20:38 ----------

History of Leprechauns
By: Helen Polaski


The history of leprechauns is filled with mystery, ancient tales and surreal incidents, but reports are conflicting. It's hard to know which part is fact and which part is fiction. The only thing that is a sure bet is that the history of the Little People is surrounded by magic.

Leprechaun History
According to local Irish folklore, the history of leprechauns has its beginning in magic. The general belief is that leprechauns are descendants of the Tuatha De Danaan, who were the people of the Goddess Danu. The Tuatha De Danaan were a group of magical beings led by Lugh the Long-Armed Warrior, who used a rainbow as a sling weapon. The Tuatha De Danaan arrived in Ireland aboard flying ships hundreds of years before the Celts invaded the island. After winning horrendous battles with the Fir Blog, the people who had inhabited Ireland before their arrival, the Tuatha De Danaan lived on Irish soil until the Celts invaded the island some 2,500 years ago. The Celts had entered into the age of iron, and with them came the one weapon able to pass through the Tuatha De Danaan's magic force field: the iron sword. It is said that the Celts came in waves comprised of small groups that raided seaside towns and scavenged and pillaged their way up through the hills, eventually overtaking the island and making it their own. To escape the Celts' powerful iron swords, the Tuatha De Danaan created many magical entrances into Ireland's damp underground, then disappeared into the soil. One of the most recognized magical entrances is at Brugh na Boinne in Newgrange.

Modern Leprechauns
To this day the Tuatha De Danaan still remain in the underground realm. Using their magical doors, they can return to Ireland's soil whenever they choose, although they usually come out at night. Folklore has it that the Fenian Cycle, a legendary Irish poem that depicts Ireland's past, has a verse in which a harp-playing dwarf named Cnu Deireoil claimed that Lugh the Long-Armed Warrior was his father. This information has led some to believe that leprechauns, who also are small in stature and who hide their pots of gold at the end of the rainbow, are descendants of Cnu Deireoil.

Leprechauns make their way in the magical world as cobblers for the fairy folk. Due to their ancestry, leprechauns are also very skilled musicians. Dancing leprechauns play traditional Irish instruments, such as the Irish harp and the tin whistle. They also have magical powers and are able to disappear back into their underground world in the blink of an eye through one of their magical doors. It is widely reported that leprechauns also hide their pots of gold at the end of the rainbow.

Differing Accounts
There is much confusion within Irish mythology. Whether these historical tales are fact or fiction is anyone's guess. Thousands of years have passed since the Tuatha De Danaan were said to have appeared; since then many hands have dipped into the inkwell to write and rewrite Ireland's history.
Based on facts and stories that have been passed down, some people believe that leprechauns are magical creatures that do exist. Others believe leprechauns are simply creatures of imagination. Magical creatures can be anything an individual wants them be: fact to some and fiction to others.

---------- Post Merged at 20:49 ----------

A few past posts.


GENETIC AFFINITY OF ASSYRIANS LIVING IN ARMENIA TO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE NEAR EAST AND SOUTH CAUCASUS

Biolog. Journal of Armenia, 4 (63), 2011
A.S. HARUTYUNYAN
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Armenia


[T]he high frequency of Atlantic Modal Haplotype belonging to R1b lineage rather strongly demonstrates that the ancient Assyrians had significant genetic contacts with the peoples who migrated to North-West Europe, where the vast majority of Y-chromosomal lineages belong to R1b haplogroup.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------


Atlantic Modal Haplotype
13-24-14-11-11-14-12-12-12-13-13-29

Druze R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Shlush et al.)
13-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29
12-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29

Alawite R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Dönbak et al.)
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-14-13-30
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-13-13-29

Assyrian R1b modal haplotype (FTDNA)
13-24-14-10-11-14-12-12-12-14-13-30



EliasAlucard: Something that really surprised me when I had recently gotten my 23andMe results (v2), and began sharing with various people on 23andMe, was the high similarity I got with some Irish individuals. Though certainly not the case with every Irish person on 23andMe, it wasn't unusual that I scored up to 74.15% with some Irish 23andMe members. At first I was confused and speculated if this could be the result of Galatian admixture in Anatolia, then I asked myself if it could be Iberian admixture in the British isles.


Links in the chain.

The Assyrian primary R1b group. There are six haplotypes in this group. Of the six, three are unique at 12 markers.

60631 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30
83734 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30
205749 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30

The "Ancestral Origins" page at FTDNA, based on the three haplotypes above, reports the following percentages of men from the countries listed, with either an exact 12/12 match, or one step off match to one of the three haplotypes in the principal Assyrian cluster:


Exact One Step % of All Men in Country Matching
Spain 2.5% 15.5% 18.0%
Scotland 1.5% 12.2% 13.7%
Ireland 2.1% 11.5% 13.6%
Wales 1.0% 12.2% 13.2%
N Ireland 1.3% 11.1% 12.4%
France 1.2% 11.0% 12.2%
UK 1.0% 10.6% 11.6%
Switzerland 1.2% 10.1% 11.3%
England 1.2% 9.9% 11.1%
Belgium 0.8% 9.0% 9.8%
Netherlands 0.7% 8.4% 9.1%
Portugal 0.9% 7.5% 8.4%
Canada 0.3% 7.3% 7.6%
Iceland 0.0% 7.6% 7.6%
Australia 1.4% 6.1% 7.5%
Germany 0.7% 6.4% 7.1%
PR 1.7% 4.0% 5.7%
Italy 0.8% 4.7% 5.5%
Mexico 0.2% 5.1% 5.3%
Norway 0.6% 4.4% 5.0%
Austria 0.8% 3.6% 4.4%
US 0.4% 3.9% 4.3%
Bahamas 0.9% 2.7% 3.6%
Sweden 0.2% 3.4% 3.6%
South Africa 0.0% 3.1% 3.1%
Israel 0.8% 1.6% 2.4%
Greece 0.4% 1.4% 1.8%
Hungary 0.1% 1.6% 1.7%
Slovakia 0.0% 1.6% 1.6%
Poland 0.1% 1.4% 1.5%
Turkey 0.2% 1.3% 1.5%
Lithuania 0.1% 0.8% 0.9%
Ukraine 0.1% 0.8% 0.9%
Romania 0.0% 0.8% 0.8%
Kazakhstan 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%
Slovenia 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%
Russia 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%

I am not suggesting a bunch of Assyrians populated Europe. What I am suggesting is that this part of the world (E Anatolia, N Levant, N Mesopotamia, NW Iran) is an extremely significant part of the R-M269 story.

---------- Post Merged at 21:11 ----------


Changing the subject.


S19-237: Religious World of Late Antiquity
11/19/2012
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
Room: S504d – McCormick Place
Becoming a People of the Book: How Exposure to Islam may have Facilitated the Codification of Mandaean Religious Literature
Jennifer Hart, Stanford University


This paper is an exploration of the theory that one of the leading factors that brought about a codification of Mandaean religious literature was a Mandaean desire to be able to present their community as a people of the book (ahl al-kitab) and thereby gain protected status (ahl al-dhimmi) within the newly forming Muslim Empire. I present a three part argument for recognizing exposure to Islam and a concern for how Mandaeism would be perceived by Muslims as a motive for the redaction and consolidation of the primary theological texts of the Mandaean corpus. In part one, we consider evidence from the colophons of Mandaeism’s two main books, the Ginza and The Book of John, which demonstrates that although some of the writings that make up these composite texts predate Islam it was during the Islamic period that both the Ginza and The Book of John emerged as fully formulated pieces of religious literature. An analysis of the extensive scribal lists that accompany these books demonstrates that they were first compiled soon after the Muslims began to establish themselves as the new ruling elite in Persian Gulf marshlands that the Mandaeans called home. Moving from the scribal lists to the commentary that the scribes interspersed among their names, the second part of the paper focuses on instances in which the scribes self-consciously attest to their efforts to actively create an authoritative textual tradition for the Mandaeans during the first century of Muslim rule. Of particular interest in these examples is one scribe’s description of his canonizing ambitions that closely parallels early Muslim accounts of the process by which the Qur’an was recorded. In the third part of the paper, we turn our attention to another important Mandaean text, Haran Gawaita, which includes a supposedly historical narrative about how a prominent member of the Mandaean community presented Muhammad with “the Mandaean book” and thereby secured protected status for the Mandaeans. This story, together with the evidence treated in parts one and two of the paper strongly suggest that the Mandaeans were aware of the benefits to be gained by being labeled as people of the book, and as such they underwent a process of codifying their literature so as to claim this title.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



These Assyrians, Christians in Mesopotamia since their conversion in 70 AD., were, at the time of the Arab conquest of their country, granted a firman issued by the Prophet himself permitting them to practice their religion without hindrance. Under this sanction they flourished greatly, sent missionaries to China, and founded a colony, which still exists, in India.

Will update with source.

Humanist
2012-11-11, 03:24
Dienekes : Investigating East Asian admixture in Balkans/Anatolia/Caucasus (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/11/investigating-east-asian-admixture-in.html)

Gens = Estimated number of generations since admixture event(s). G

Populations
Dai = Dai
Mia = Miaozu
She = She
Jpn = Japanese

Age in Yrs SINCE admixture event(s) = Generations x 29 years


Gens Pop Age in Yrs +/- Gens +/- years
94.68 Dai 2745.72 51.36 1489
60.37 Mia 1750.73 34.15 990
43.13 She 1250.77 30.09 873
52.99 Jpn 1536.71 19.71 572

A caveat, from Dienekes:

Some populations may possess "South Asian" admixture which may be mistaken for East Asian

Some possible sources from history, based on the Dai estimate (source is Wikipedia):


Tiglath-Pileser III was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BC (ruled 745–727 BC)[2][3] and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[4][5]

Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne during a civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. Assyrian forces became a standing army. Tiglath-Pileser III subjected Babylonia to tribute, severely punished Urartu, and defeated the Medes and the Hittites. He reconquered Syria (destroying Damascus) and the Mediterranean seaports of Phoenicia. Tiglath-Pileser III also occupied Philistia and Israel. Later in his reign, Tiglath-Pileser III assumed total control of Babylonia.

Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule, with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire. He is considered to be one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death.


Some possible sources from history, based on the Mia, She, and Jpn estimates:


In modern times the Mongols are primarily Buddhist, but in previous eras, especially during the time of the Mongol "empire" (13th–14th centuries), they were primarily shamanist and had a substantial minority of Christians, many of whom were in positions of considerable power.[1][2] Overall, Mongols were highly tolerant of most religions, and typically sponsored several at the same time. Many Mongols had been proselytized by Nestorian Christians since about the 7th century,[3] and some tribes' primary religion was Nestorian. In the time of Genghis Khan, his sons took Christian wives of the Kerait clan, and under the rule of Genghis Khan's grandson, Möngke, the primary religious influence was Christian.


The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians or Nasrani, are an ancient body of Christians from Kerala, India who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The community was historically united in leadership and liturgy, but since the 17th century have been split into several different church denominations and traditions.

Historically the Saint Thomas Christian community was part of the Church of the East, centred in Persia. They were organised as the Ecclesiastical Province of India in the 8th century, served by bishops and a hereditary Archdeacon. In the 16th century the overtures of the Portuguese padroado to bring the Saint Thomas Christians into the Catholic Church led to the first of several rifts in the community and the establishment of Syrian Catholic and Malankara Church factions. Since that time further splits have occurred, and the Saint Thomas Christians are now divided into several different Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox, and independent bodies, each with their own liturgies and traditions.

The Saint Thomas Christians represent a single ethnic group. Saint Thomas Christian culture is largely developed from East Syrian influences blended with local customs and later elements derived from indigenous Indian and European colonial contacts. Their language is Malayalam, the local tongue of Kerala.


Disregard the "East Syrian," in the last Wikipedia bit. They are referring to us. Not "Syrians" from the east.

Humanist
2012-11-11, 06:22
Most people who have read my posts, I hope, realize that I am not making these comparisons between Akkadian and other languages out of some desire to hurt the feelings of certain groups and/or individuals.

This sentiment is not unique, of course, but I would like to repeat something I have said before:


I think there stands a good chance we are reaching faulty conclusions as a result of a fundamental misunderstanding of history, and its players.

The above quote can certainly be extended to linguistics. Whether it can be extended to the instant case, to some degree, I am obviously not qualified to answer.


Wikipedia

Adonis, in Greek mythology, is the god of beauty and desire, and is a central figure in various mystery religions. His religion belonged to women: the dying of Adonis was fully developed in the circle of young girls around the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, about 600 BCE, as revealed in a fragment of Sappho's surviving poetry.[1]

Adonis is one of the most complex figures in classical times. He has had multiple roles, and there has been much scholarship over the centuries concerning his meaning and purpose in Greek religious beliefs. He is an annually-renewed, ever-youthful vegetation god, a life-death-rebirth deity whose nature is tied to the calendar. His name is often applied in modern times to handsome youths, of whom he is the archetype. Adonis is often referred to as the mortal god of Beauty.

The Greek Ἄδωνις (Greek pronunciation: [ˈadɔːnis]), Adōnis was a borrowing from the Semitic word adon, "lord",[2] which is related to Adonai, one of the names used to refer to the God (אֲדֹנָי) in the Hebrew Bible and still used in Judaism to the present day. Syrian Adonis is Gauas[3] or Aos, to Egyptian Osiris, to the Semitic Tammuz and Baal Hadad, to the Etruscan Atunis and the Phrygian Attis, all of whom are deities of rebirth and vegetation.[4]


AKKADIAN (in Sureth, "danna" means "time", "point in time.")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu7.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis5.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-11, 17:50
AKKADIAN (in Sureth, "danna" means "time", "point in time.")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu1.jpg

SURETH (Humanist)
dena : loan, debt


--------------------------------------------------------------

Not to sound like a sourpuss, but somebody has to say something. I am grateful that researchers are studying ME populations, but the inexplicable neglect of Mesopotamian populations continues. Chaldean Catholics, "Nestorians," and Syriac Orthodox may have distinct Y-DNA profiles. The uniparental profiles of Mandaeans are a near complete mystery. The mtDNA profiles of Chaldean Catholics and Syriac Orthodox are largely unknown. The thing is, people do not understand who we are. And one wonders why I make such a big deal about the continued misidentification of our population as "Syrians." So, perhaps it is not so inexplicable. However, it is unfortunate, because some populations, such as Mandaeans, are in the twilight of their existence. That is not being melodramatic. There is more to the Middle East than Arabs, Jews, and the Levant.

ASHG PDF (http://www.ashg.org/2012meeting/pdf/38731_poster_complete.pdf)

Jethro's descendants: a journey of 1000 years.

E. Friedman et al.


The Druze people enumerate ∼1000000 people worldwide, share common
beliefs and social practices, rarely marry outside of their faith and have a
high rate of consanguinity. These features likely make the Druze people a
genetic isolate. Previous attempts to define the genetic structure of the
Druze people were based on unrelated individuals, primarily from Israeli
residing Druze and using Y chromosome markers and mitochondrial DNA.
The current study attempted to comprehensively decipher the genetic struc-
ture of geographically diverse residing Druze, based on parents-offspring
trios. Forty parent-offspring trios from Beit Jan and the Golan Heights (20
each) were recruited, each trio representing a seemingly distinct geographi-
cal origin (=Hamulas). Genotyping was done using Affymetrix 6.0 platform
and PCA, IBD sharing and Structure analysis as well as haplotype sharing
were subsequently assessed by JMP Genomics, GERMLINE and STRUC-
TURE. Druze clustered with other Middle Eastern groups, and when com-
pared with Bedouins, and Palestinians genotyped by the HGDP, the Druze
formed its own distinct cluster, indicating the shared ancestry and relative
isolation of each of those groups. The relative positions of the population
clusters observed by PCA were confirmed by structure and IBD analysis.
The closest genetic distance was noted between Golan Heights residing
Druze and the Druze, Palestinian and Bedouin from HGDP panel. Haplotype
and phasing are ongoing to accurately define common ancestor. This is the
first study targeting Druze individuals that attempted to define common
ancestor by geographical origin and facilitate future studies aimed at gene-
disease interaction using the powerful tool of trios structure.


North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters.

C. Campbell et al.


North African Jews constitute the second largest Jewish Diaspora group.
Yet, their relatedness to each other, to European, Middle Eastern, and
other Jewish Diaspora groups and to their former North African non-Jewish
neighbors has not been well-defined. Here, genome wide analysis of five
Jewish groups (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban and Libyan) and
comparison with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinc-
tive North African Jewish population clusters with proximity to other Jewish
populations and variable degrees of Middle Eastern, European and North
African admixture. These populations showed a high-degree of endogamy
and were part of a larger Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish group. Two
major sub-groups were identified by principal component, neighbor joining
tree, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis - Moroccan/Algerian and Djer-
ban/Libyan that varied in their degree of European admixture. The Libyan,
Tunisian and Djerban Jewish populations showed the highest degree of
within-population and cross-population IBD sharing. STRUCTURE and
Xplorigin analysis demonstrated an enrichment of European ancestry in
Moroccan and Algerian Jews, most likely of recent origin. By principal compo-
nent analysis, all North African Jewish groups were orthogonal to contempo-
rary populations from North and South Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia,
Libya and Egypt. Thus, this study is compatible with the history of North
African Jews - founding during Classical Antiquity with proselytism of local
populations, followed by genetic isolation with the rise of Christianity and
then Islam, and admixture following the emigration of Sephardic Jews during
the Inquisition.



Towards understanding the population substructure and ancestry in Kuwaiti population.

R. Rajagopalan et al.


Owing to high rate of consanguinity and well known genealogy in most
families, the population of Kuwait offers a great opportunity in genetic epide-
miology to map recessive components of monogenic and complex disorders
as well. While much has been published in rare monogenic disorders from
this region, we present here for the first time the genetic makeup of Kuwaiti
population in the context of genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH)
and Identity-By-Descent (IBD) among unrelated individuals. 124 unrelated
Kuwaiti individuals were genotyped using Illumina Human OmniExpress
platform and more than 700,000 SNPs were used in this analysis. We used
fastIBD algorithm in Beagle software to find
shared genomic regions that are IBD in this dataset and found 13,097
segments greater than 2 Mb and average length of a segment was 4.4 Mb.
There were 716 long IBD segments (>10 Mb) between 360 unique pairs of
individuals and the average IBD length in that subset was 23.4 Mb. 119 out
of 124 individuals had at least one IBD segment that is greater than 10 Mb.
We then used PLINK [Purcell S et. al. 2007] to find 3074 ROH segments
that are greater than 2 Mb with mean ROH size of 3 Mb. Total ROH length
ranged from 11 Mb to 533 Mb with a mean of 75 Mb and number of segments
ranged from 8 to 79 with a mean of 25. To find common ROHs, we calculated
the frequency of each SNP falling into an ROH segment using a sliding
window approach and found 23 segments in chromosomes 1, 10 and 17
with greater than 30% of individuals having an ROH, of which 10 with greater
than 40%. We also inferred regions that are homozygous-by-descent (HBD)
using Beagle to compare with ROH statistics from PLINK. Though, the
number of ROH segments seems to be overestimated (mostly due to error
in genotype calls), the total amount of HBD is nearly the same (r2 = 0.99).
Results from IBD and ROH analyses suggest the existence of both recent
and ancient shared ancestry among Kuwaiti population placing them
between outbred and population isolates. This could well be used in advan-
tage to better understand the population substructure of Kuwait and in
general the Arabs. With high prevalence of complex diseases like Obesity
and Diabetes in the region, we hope this will also serve as a tool to find
recessive components of complex diseases and may help explain some of
the missing heritability.


[B]Global genome-wide variations comparisons show a generally homogeneous Levant that has been recently structured by culture.

M.Haber et al.


Background: The Levant is a region in the Middle East with an impressive
record of continuous human existence and major cultural developments that
has been well documented since the Paleolithic. Genetic and archeological
studies present solid evidence in placing the Middle East and the Arabian
Peninsula as the first stepping grounds outside Africa. There is however
little understanding of how the Middle East, and more precisely the Levant,
was populated since the first Out of Africa Expansion, and how the
Levantines genetically relate to each other and to their neighbors. Methods:
We analyze newly generated genome-wide data from 1,341 subjects from
Lebanon with complete demographic information in the context of already
published data of 994 individuals from 48 global populations. We implement
a series of cluster and structure-like analyses on unlinked SNPs (more than
200,000 SNPs), we also construct a co-ancestry matrix using information
from haplotypes phased from more than 500,000 linked SNPs. We use this
information to generate a novel population relationship tree and to identify
genetic components specific to the Levantines. Results: We show that
fine stratifications within the Levant are highly influenced by the religious
affiliation of the populations within the region. We find a Levantine sub-
structure that is distinctly split into two ancestral branches; one sharing more
genetic characteristics with modern day Europeans and Central Asians while
the other sharing more genetic characteristics with other Middle Easterners
and Africans. Finally, we identify a Levantine component that has diverged
from other Middle Easterners ∼23,700–15,500 years ago during the last
glacial period, and diverged from Europeans ∼15,900–9,100 years ago at
the start of the Neolithic. Conclusions: We show for the first time that the
Levantines are today genetically closer to Europeans than to other Middle
Easterners. We found that the Levantines and Europeans diverged at the
start of the Neolithic age, giving support to a replacement model of Neolithic
expansion rather than upper Paleolithic continuity of Europeans. Finally,
we show that although population movements and expansions during the
Epipaleolithic marked the emergence of a Levantine component and made
the Levantines genetically similar, recent cultural developments, such as
the inception and spread of religion, have had an impact on fine-scale
population stratifications in the Levant.

Humanist
2012-11-11, 20:16
The Irish stuff, posted yesterday, is a bit "out there." However, regarding the Akkadian-Sureth links, it is quite the opposite.

SURETH
'šala
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) to ask , to interrogate or inquire about , to put a question to or about , to question ; 2) to request , to sollicit / entreat / beg / implore / beseech / pray
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-11, 22:17
This has a chance, I think.


SURETH
iawalta
[Trade]
English : giving , bestowing , granting , conferring , an allowance , a grant , a pension (?) , a benefit (?) , leeway (?)
Dialect : Urmiah, Tiari


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aladu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aladu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 17:17 ----------


I am not sure if I will get to it soon, so, here is what I was referring to, above.

Wikipedia


Edessa (Greek: Έδεσσα, Édessa, [ˈeðesa]), is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece. It was also the capital of the defunct province of the same name.

The ancient Greek name Édessa (Ἔδεσσα) was commemorated by Seleucus I Nicator in refounding an ancient city in northern Mesopotamia. It has been associated by modern scholars with the Phrygian vedi (βέδυ - "water").[2] Vedi is linguistically connected to the Greek words hydor (Greek: ύδωρ - "water"), bidra (Greek: βίδρα - "Otter"), idros (Greek: ίδρως - "sweat") and idrosa (Greek: ίδρωσα - "sweated"). Similarly, it was ascribed an Illyrian origin by Ulrich Wilcken in his biography of Alexander the Great,[3] the "town of the waters", due to its renowned waterfall and generally abundant water resources. These views gain some support if the later Slavic-derived name Vodena (Greek: Βοδενά, Old Church Slavonic: Водьнъ, from voda, "water") is considered. The modern Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavic name of the city is Voden (Воден). In Turkish, the city is known as Vodina, and in Aromanian the city is known as either Edessa, Vudena or Vodina.

Edessa's waterfall

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Vodena.JPG/800px-Vodena.JPG


Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I (given the surname by later generations of Nicator, Greek : Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i.e. Seleucus the Victor) (ca. 358 BC – 281 BC) was a leading officer of Alexander the Great's League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. His kingdom would be one of the last holdouts of Alexander's former empire to Roman rule. They were only outlived by the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt by roughly 34 years.

After the death of Alexander, Seleucus was nominated as the satrap of Babylon in 320 BC. Antigonus forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, he was able to return in 312 BC. Seleucus' later conquests include Persia and Media. He was defeated by the emperor of India, Chandragupta Maurya and accepted a matrimony alliance for 500 elephants after ceding the territories considered as part of India. Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and Lysimachus in the battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. He was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus during the same year. His successor was his son Antiochus I.

Seleucus founded a number of new cities, including Antioch and Seleucia, now part of present-day Turkey and Iraq, respectively.

Bust of Seleucus I

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Seleuco_I_Nicatore.JPG/220px-Seleuco_I_Nicatore.JPG


Edessa is regarded by many as the birthplace of "Syriac" Christianity, and the language Syriac (Syriac and Sureth are not the same thing).


And, it may have an Akkadian etymology. Also, it may be the origin for the Indo-European word, "douche."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eddesu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eddesu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu11.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edesu12.jpg

SURETH (Humanist)
duša : honey, similar to honey

dešu dešu : packed, crowded (with customers, patrons, etc.)

šáršir : spillover

šira : faucet, sugary residue (something sticky)


SUMERIAN (the Akkadian term below refers to this word)
šár to be or make numerous, multiply, increase
šár the numeral 3600; adj. numerous, many, innumerable, manifold, myriad, all; n. multitude


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dussu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dussu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dussu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dussu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dussu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dussu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dusu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saru.jpg


^^ Iranian-speaking folks will find a good deal of what is posted above familiar.

Humanist
2012-11-11, 23:52
SURETH(Humanist)
dešu dešu : packed, crowded (with customers, patrons, etc.)

Yikes. Forgot this one!

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/desu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-12, 01:36
Probably from Greek?

SURETH
'diada
[Sport]
English : game of chess : a pawn
Dialect : Urmiah


Wikipedia

The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, "Successors") were the rival generals, family and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for the control of Alexander's empire after his death in 323 BC. The Wars of the Diadochi were the turbulent opening of the Hellenistic period.

When Alexander the Great died (June 10, 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which comprised many essentially independent territories. Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east. It included parts of the present day Balkans, Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Babylonia, and most of the former Persia, except for some lands the Achaemenids formerly held in Central Asia.

....

Historical uses as a title

Aulic rank title
Ironically in the formal 'court' titulature of the Hellenistic empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been proven to be the lowest in a system of official rank titles, known as Aulic titulature, conferred – ex officio or nominatim – to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank (for protocol) to various military and civilian officials. Notably in Ptolemaic Egypt, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes.



The pawn (♙♟) is the most numerous and (in most circumstances) weakest piece in the game of chess, historically representing infantry, or more particularly armed peasants or pikemen. Each player begins the game with eight pawns, one on each square of the rank immediately in front of the other pieces. (In algebraic notation, the white pawns start on a2, b2, c2, ..., h2, while black pawns start on a7, b7, c7, ..., h7.)

---------- Post Merged at 20:14 ----------

Actually, no need to wonder.

Glossary of ancient Greek military terms (http://members.tripod.com/~S_van_Dorst/Ancient_Warfare/Greece/greek_glossary.html)


Stratia (GR): army.
Stratiootès (GR): soldier.
Stratiootika (GR): (1) military affairs; (2) military service.


SURETH
isṭraṭiuṭa
[Army]
English : soldier , a private in military service , a rank and file soldier , trooper not an officer
Dialect : Urmiah
Note: This word is of Greek origin Greek - στρατιώτης

---------- Post Merged at 20:36 ----------

Different subject.

Wikipedia


Umman Manda (Akkadian for host of Manda) is a term used in the early second and first millennia BC for a poorly known people in ancient near east whom by some scholars are identified as to be of Indo-European origin. The homeland of Ummanda seems to be somewhere from Central Anatolia to north or northeastern Babylonia in what later came to be known as Mitanni, Mannae and Media, respectively. Zaluti, a leader of Ummanda Manda is mentioned, whose name seems to have an Indo-Iranian etymology. He is even suggested to be identified with Salitis the founder of the Hyksos, the Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.

The principal literary source is the so-called Cuthaean Legend of Naram-Sin, a composition that deals with the third-millennium king of Agade (Akkad) Naram-Sin and his struggles against the Umman-manda. As a literary topos, the Umman-manda represent a socio-cultural phenomenon with a strong theological basis: The Umman-manda are created by the gods and called forth from their homeland on the northeastern frontier of Mesopotamia by the chief god, be it Enlil, Marduk, or Aššur, for some particular work of destruction; since this destruction is divinely ordained, human beings are powerless to stop it, and in fact are enjoined against interfering; when the destruction is completed, the gods themselves will destroy the Umman-manda. In the literary topos, the Umman-manda is the enemy of civilization. The question of who the original Umman-manda were remains a mystery. [1]

In the first millennium BC, the term denoted Cimmerians and/or Medes.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/umman_mandu.jpg

Ferdinand Hennerbichler



Getting closer to identifying the split between European and West Asian R-L23?

Modal, for the men thus far confirmed derived for Z2105, and with a European country listed as paternal country of origin, compared to the AMH:


12 24 15 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 12 29 H1614
12 24 15 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 H1621
12 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 108347
12 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 14 13 13 28 127630
13 24 14 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 29 84950
12 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 37486
12 23 14 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 12 29 235098
12 22 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 N23635
12 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 99230
12 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 64409
12 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 14 14 29 95875
12 24 15 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 14386
12 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 16910
12 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 14 13 13 28 140135
11 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 134236
13 24 14 11 10 11 12 12 12 13 13 29 E12439
12 24 14 10 11 14 12 13 13 13 13 29 217513
12 24 14 10 11 14 11 12 12 13 14 29 226720

12 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 Modal Z2105
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 AMH

The two men who have tested Z2105- are listed in the Jewish DNA project at FTDNA.

I have suggested (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/21710-Ashina-and-Dad-s-23andme-results?p=771062&viewfull=1#post771062) the area below as a possible point of expansion for R-L23:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turkey_rm269.jpg


^^ Probably make more sense to simply say Central/Western Anatolia.

Humanist
2012-11-12, 04:39
SURETH (previously posted "gura," meaning "large, important, head of...")
'kar'a
[Feeding → Food]
English : butter, breastmilk
Dialect : Urmiah, Classical Syriac, NENA


SUMERIAN
gur4, kur4, gur to be thick, enlarged, swollen; to be proud, (self-)important; to fatten (animals)
gur4(-ra) fat, fattened, thick; proud


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-12, 06:01
Abgar V the Black or Abgarus V of Edessa (Syriac: ܐܒܓܪ ܚܡܝܫܝܐ ܐܘܟܡܐ‏; ʾAḇgar Ḥəmīšāyā ʾUkkāmā) BC – AD 7 and AD 13–50) was a historical Syriac ruler of the kingdom of Osroene, holding his capital at Edessa. (Compare to the region that was referred to as Armenian Mesopotamia[1] by the Greeks and Ashur in the Old Testament). According to an ancient legend, he was converted to Christianity by Addai,[2] one of the Seventy-two Disciples. According to Armenian historian Moses of Khorene he was Sanatruk's relative.

Abgar V was, according to Syriac tradition, one of the first Christian kings in history, having been converted to the faith by the Apostle Thaddeus of Edessa.[3] Other accounts[citation needed] regard this as mere legend, equating the Abgar in the story with the Syrian Abgar IX, a late 2nd-century convert to Christianity. Moses of Khoren suggests that the name of the legendary figure is a corruption of an individual's title: "…Because of his uncommon modesty and wisdom, and his old age, this Abgaros was given the title of "Avag Hair" (Senior Father in Armenian). The Greeks and Assyrians, unable to articulate his name correctly, called him Abgar."[4]

The legend tells that Abgar, king of Edessa, afflicted with an incurable sickness, had heard the fame of the power and miracles of Jesus and wrote to him, acknowledging his divinity, craving his help, and offering him asylum in his own residence; the tradition states that Jesus wrote a letter declining to go, but promising that after his ascension, he would send one of his disciples, endowed with his power.

The 4th century church historian Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, records a tradition[6] concerning a correspondence on this occasion, exchanged between Abgar of Edessa and Jesus. Eusebius was convinced that the original letters, written in Syriac (Aramaic), were kept in the archives of Edessa. Eusebius also states that in due course, after Christ's ascension, Thaddeus, namely Addai (called Addaï), or one of the seventy-two Disciples, called Thaddeus of Edessa, was sent by Thomas the Apostle in AD 29. Eusebius copies the two letters into the text of his history.

Icon of Abgar holding the mandylion, the image of Christ (encaustic, 10th century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Abgarwithimageofedessa10thcentury.jpg/250px-Abgarwithimageofedessa10thcentury.jpg


SUMERIAN
ab-ba, ábba(ABxÁŠ) old man, elder, wise man; father; witness

ku10(g), kukku5 black, dark; darkness (often reduplicated: ku10-ku10 or kúkku; see also gíg) (Civil, EBLA 1975-1985, 155 n. 32)
kúm v. to heat; adj. hot

gùr to bear, carry; to be clad with
gur4, kur4, gur to be thick, enlarged, swollen; to be proud, (self-)important; to fatten (animals)
gur4(-ra) fat, fattened, thick; proud
gur "kor" (a capacity measure = 30 bán = 300 silà = ca. 250 liters in Ur III and OB)


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/abu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/abuB.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/ukkumu1.jpg
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/ukkumu2.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/kummulu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garsu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garasu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garru.jpg


(Sureth --> "garusa" means "large.")

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/gurrusu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/gurru.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/hamisiu.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/hamasu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 01:01 ----------

Also

SURETH
'garwa [garba]
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) leprosy ; 2) scab , mange , any skin disease
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA

'girva [girwa --> girba]
[Human → Disease]
English : Urmiah, Al Qosh : voir ܓܲܪܒ݂ܵܐ 1) leprosy ; 2) scab , mange , any skin disease ; 3) = ܓܘܼܪܒ݂ܵܐ : a sock , a stocking
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garbu.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garabu.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/garubu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-12, 07:53
SURETH
ḥarbuta
[Army → War]
English : destruction
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ḥarabutha
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) Maclean : a desert , a waste / a wasteland , the wilderness , an uncultivated region ; 2) place, village, field ... : ruin , desolation , desertedness (?) / being deserted (?) , being idel (?) / overgrown (?) / fallow (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ḥaraba
[Art → Architecture]
English : 1) a desert / a waste ; 2) a ruin , a desolate or uninhabited place , a deserted place , a ruined building , a desolation ; 3) adjective masculine and feminine : desert , deserted , lonely , forsaken / forlorn , abandoned / bleak / desolate , ruined (?) / waste , field : undeveloped / idle / overgrown
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ḥarba
[Army → War]
English : 1) Classical Syriac : adjective = ܚܸܪܒܵܐ : bad , evil , grievous ; 2) Classical Syriac : a sword ; ܚܲܪܒܵܐ ܕܦܕܵܢܵܐ : a ploughshare / a plowshare ; 3) Yoab Benjamin : war , warfare ; 4) Yoab Benjamin : a dagger , an arrowhead / an arrow-head , see ܠܘܿܠܝܼܬܵܐ ; 5) Lishani : a bayonet
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ḥurba
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a waste , a desolate place , a deserted place or region , a desert , a barren land (?) , a barren wilderness ; 2) a deserted place , a devastated place (?) , a looted place (?), a ravaged place (?) , a harried place (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hurbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harapu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harbuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harbutu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harabu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbu.jpg



SUMERIAN
hur to scratch; to incise, draw
hur, hur-ru-um hole in the ground, cave (Civil, JNES 31, 385)

Humanist
2012-11-12, 22:53
I found the similarity between the Akkadian words at bottom quite interesting, given the bits of info below.



Torah made of gazelle skin, sown with the animal's tendons and with large writing. It is kept in a richly decorated box.

http://www.spainisculture.com/export/sites/cultura/multimedia/galerias/obras_excelencia/obras_excelencia_sf/rollo_tora_museo_sefardi_toledo_m1396_002_002.jpg_ 1306973099.jpg

http://www.spainisculture.com/en/obras_de_excelencia/museo_sefardi/biblia_tora.html


Wikipedia


Parchment is a thin material made from hide; often calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, and often split. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript. It is distinct from leather in that parchment is limed but not tanned; therefore, it is very reactive to changes in relative humidity and is not waterproof. Finer-quality parchment is called vellum.

Parchment was developed in Pergamon, alternately Pergamo [1] from which name it is believed the word "parchment" evolved,[2] under the patronage of either Eumenes I, who ruled 263–241 BCE; or Eumenes II, who ruled 197–158), as a substitute for papyrus, which was temporarily not being exported from Alexandria, its only source.

Herodotus mentions writing on skins as common in his time, the 5th century BCE; and in his Histories (v.58) he states that the Ionians of Asia Minor had been accustomed to give the name of skins (diphtherai) to books; this word was adapted by Hellenized Jews to describe scrolls.[3] Parchment, however, derives its name from Pergamon, the city where it was perfected (via the Latin pergamenum and the French parchemin). In the 2nd century BCE a great library was set up in Pergamon that rivalled the famous Library of Alexandria. As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment.

Writing on prepared animal skins had a long history, however. David Diringer noted that "the first mention of Egyptian documents written on leather goes back to the Fourth Dynasty (c. 2550-2450 BCE), but the earliest of such documents extant are: a fragmentary roll of leather of the Sixth Dynasty (c. twenty-fourth century BCE), unrolled by Dr. H. Ibscher, and preserved in the Cairo Museum; a roll of the Twelfth Dynasty (c. 1990-1777 BCE) now in Berlin; the mathematical text now in the British Museum (MS. 10250); and a document of the reign of Ramses II (early thirtheenth century BCE).".[4] Though the Assyrians and the Babylonians impressed their cuneiform on clay tablets, they also wrote on parchment from the 6th century BCE onward. Rabbinic literature traditionally maintains that the institution of employing parchment made of animal hides for the writing of ritual objects such as the Torah, mezuzah, and tefillin is Sinaitic in origin, with special designations for different types of parchment such as gevil and klaf.[5] Early Islamic texts are also found on parchment.


Papyrus ( /pəˈpaɪrəs/) is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus,[1] a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty), but it was also used throughout the Mediterranean region. Ancient Egyptians used this plant as a writing material and for boats, mattresses, mats, rope, sandals, and baskets. Chemically, papyrus is composed of 57% cellulose, 27% lignin, 9% minerals, and 7% water.[2]

Papyrus was first manufactured in Egypt as far back as the third millennium BC.[3] In the first centuries BC and AD, papyrus scrolls gained a rival as a writing surface in the form of parchment, which was prepared from animal skins.[4] Sheets of parchment were folded to form quires from which book-form codices were fashioned. Early Christian writers soon adopted the codex form, and in the Græco-Roman world, it became common to cut sheets from papyrus rolls to form codices.

Codices were an improvement on the papyrus scroll, as the papyrus was not pliable enough to fold without cracking and a long roll, or scroll, was required to create large-volume texts. Papyrus had the advantage of being relatively cheap and easy to produce, but it was fragile and susceptible to both moisture and excessive dryness. Unless the papyrus was of perfect quality, the writing surface was irregular, and the range of media that could be used was also limited.



Leather scrolls and the alphabetic script

The other scribe, however, is shown writing with a pen on a leather scroll; he is extremely unlikely to be using the cuneiform script which is quite cumbersome to record on a flat writing surface. This scribe is most certainly depicted writing in the Aramaic language, using an alphabetic script that is closely related to the Phoenician and Greek alphabets from which our own modern writing system ultimately derives. No original leather scrolls have survived from Ancient Assyria, but the frequent references to "Aramaic scribes" illustrate that their services were widely used after this writing system had been introduced to Mesopotamia from the West in the early first millennium BC.

http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/images/essentials/writingmaterials/bm-ane-118882.jpg

A pair of scribes, one with a clay tablet and one with a writing scroll, filing reports after the conquest of a Babylonian city; detail from the stone decoration of Tiglath-pileser III's Central Palace at Nimrud (BM ANE 118882). Photo by Eleanor Robson.

Karen Radner, 'Assyrian writing materials: clay tablets, writing-boards and leather scrolls', Knowledge and Power, Higher Education Academy, 2010 [http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/essentials/writingmaterials/]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramu6.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-13, 00:30
Wikipedia


Pumbedita Academy (sometimes Pumbeditha, Pumpedita, or Pumbedisa; Hebrew: ישיבת פומבדיתא) was a Jewish Yeshiva academy in Babylon, during the era of the Jewish Amora and Geonim sages. The academy was founded at the beginning of the second generation of the Amora era, by R. Judah ben Ezekiel, and was active as an influential and dominant Jewish academy for about 800 years, along with the Sura Academy.

After Abba Arika ("Rav") and Samuel of Nehardea died, at the end of the 1st generation of the Amoraim, along with the designation of Rav Huna as dean of the Yeshiva Academy of Sura, R. Judah ben Ezekiel went to Pumbedita city and had established a new Yeshiva there, the Pumbedita Yeshiva Academy, that was active for about 800 years, during the course of the Amora, Savora, and Geonim eras, and up until the days of Hai Gaon. The city of Pumbedita was previously settled by Jews for a long time before the academy's establishment, since the days of Second Temple of Jerusalem.[1] Pumbedita city was situated on the Bedita river, that was a Stream of the Euphrates river, on the waterside (Pum = in Aramic "mouth" or "lips") of Bedita river, and thus it was named Pumbedita. The modern-day city of Fallujah stands in its place.


The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Mesopotamia from roughly 589 CE to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM). The key work of these academies was the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud, started by Rav Ashi and Ravina, two leaders of the Babylonian Jewish community, around the year 550. Editorial work by the Savoraim or Rabbanan Savoraei (post-Talmudic rabbis), continued on this text for the next 250 years; much of the text did not reach its final form until around 700.[1] The two most famous academies were located at Sura and Pumbedita; the Sura Academy was originally dominant, but its authority waned towards the end of the Geonic period and the Pumbedita academy's Gaonate gained ascendancy.[2] Major yeshivot were also located at Nehardea and Mahuza.

Pumbedita = "A"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pumbedita.jpg


SURETH (Humanist)
puma : mouth
kaka : tooth


SUMERIAN (quick search only)
ka(k), ka(g) mouth; opening; origin, beginning, inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)
ka - ba to open the mouth; to talk, speak (cf. Krecher, AV Kutscher II 117f.)
ka-mè opening, beginning of battle
pú well, well-pit (see also túl)
pa4, pa5 irrigation ditch


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bitu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/id.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eduC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eduC2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eduB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/edu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ituB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/itu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ettu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ettu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bititu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-13, 03:31
My MDLP World-22 ADMIXTURE and ORACLE results. Assyrians are not a reference population. Jewish populations in red.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 West-Asian 42.86
2 Near_East 24.08
3 Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic 23.56
4 Indian 3.12
5 Indo-Iranian 2.44
6 North-East-European 2.24
7 South-America_Amerind 0.69
8 Indo-Tibetan 0.59
9 South-African 0.35
10 North-Amerind 0.06

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Jew_Azerbaijan (derived) 6
2 Jew-Uzbekistan (derived) 6.83
3 Jew_Georgia (derived) 7.15
4 Jew_Iraqi (derived) 7.3
5 Jew_Tat (derived) 7.48
6 Jew_Kurd (derived) 8.16
7 Iraqi (derived) 8.27
8 Armenian (derived) 8.36
9 Jew-Iraqi (derived) 8.5
10 Turk (derived) 8.93
11 Druze (derived) 9.48
12 Lebanese (derived) 9.6
13 Jew-Iran (derived) 9.68
14 Kurd (derived) 10.27
15 Syrian (derived) 10.61
16 Iranian (derived) 11.76
17 Azeri (derived) 11.95
18 Jew_Syria (derived) 13.46
19 Cypriot (derived) 13.84
20 Georgian_Laz (derived) 15.43

Humanist
2012-11-13, 04:34
Perhaps another Mesopotamian-Indian/Pakistani-European nobility mtDNA link. This time, it is a possible aDNA connection. From a previous post:

Wikipedia:


[U7] was present in Northern Europe before the Middle Ages, and it was carried by a wealthy woman, perhaps of their Royal Clan, buried in the Viking Oseberg ship in Norway.

Dienekes' blog:

An ancient DNA perspective on the Iron Age “princely burials” from Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany.

Lee et al.


"We successfully obtained mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from seventeen individuals that showed different haplotypes, which were assigned to nine haplogroups including haplogroups H, I, K, U5, U7, W, and X2b."



---------------------------------------------------------------------


Assyrian mtDNA U breakdown:

U
U1a1
U1a3
U1a3
U2e1
U3
U3
U3b
U4
U5
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
K
K1b1


---------------------------------------------------------------------

In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

Al-Zahery et al.


On the maternal side, a significant (East/Southwest) Asian component (11.8%) is present among Marsh Arabs as testified to by Hgs B4, M, R2 and U7. The B4 mtDNAs carry control-region motifs observed in Iran, Kirghizstan, Western Siberia, Vietnam, Korea [51-53] attesting to contact with Central and East Asia. This observation is likely due to recent gene flow, although it is worth noting that the ancient Silk Road passed through the Iraqi region from Basra to Baghdad. On the other hand, the majority of M, R2 and U7 mtDNAs display control-region motifs observed in South West Asian and in particular in India [47,54-57].

Neither M nor R2 have been observed in Assyrians. U7, of course, has. Unfortunately, we have only one U7 sample tested at FTDNA. The one Assyrian sample that is tested has a transition at HVR1 locus 16093.

There is one U7 sample listed on Ian Logan's U7 GenBank page with this transition:

AY714004(India) Palanichamy

The FTDNA U7 project has three samples with the transition at 16093:

N96539 Punjabi (Lahore) U7 16093C, 16218T, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C
N12921 India U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16352C, 16519C
N12396 Nicolosi, Dagata, Italy U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

The HVR1 mutations for the Assyrian U7 sample match the Nicolosi, Sicilian sample, without either of the additional mutations (see underlined) found in N96539 and N12921.

62118 Assyrian Jacob U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

From a post by saran, in another thread:


How about the ones reported in a Polish study - were they Sumerians or Mitanni?

"Henryk Witas of the University of Łódź in Poland presented preliminary evidence of ancient mitochondrial DNA from human teeth from a half-dozen skeletons at two sites in eastern Syria dated to various times in the 3rd millennium B.C.E. Most of the DNA was related to [haplogroup] M, which is not found in people living in the Middle East today but is common among those now living in northern Pakistan, India, and Tibet. Witas concluded that people migrated from the northern part of the Indian subcontinent along trade routes to the west as early as 2500 B.C.E." http://www.ahnenkult.com/2012/06/21/mtdna-haplogroup-m-in-bronze-age-syria/

Humanist
2012-11-13, 05:38
On possible etymologies for Beth Arbaye and Beth Qardu.


I am sure the "Arbaye" bits have been mentioned.


Wikipedia

Carduchoi in Xenophon

A people called the Carduchoi are mentioned in Xenophon's Anabasis. They inhabited the mountains north of the Tigris in 401 BC, living in well-provisioned villages. They were enemies to the king of Persia, as were the Greek mercenaries with Xenophon, but their response to thousands of armed and desperate strangers was hostile. They had no heavy troops who could face the battle-hardened hoplites, but they used longbows and slings effectively, and for the Greeks the "seven days spent in traversing the country of the Carduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost them more suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of the king and Tissaphernes put together."[11]

They have been also mentioned as Gordi by Hecataeus of Miletus ca 520 BC.


Karduniaš, or Karduniash (also Karaduniyaš, or Karaduniše),[1] is a Kassite term used for the kingdom centered on Babylonia and founded by the Kassite dynasty. It is used in the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence, and is also used frequently in Middle-Assyrian and Neo-Assyrian texts to refer to the kingdom of Babylon. The name Karaduniyaš is mainly used in the letters written between Kadashman-Enlil I, or Burna-Buriash, the Kings of Babylon, and the Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt-(called: Mizri), letters EA 1-EA 11, a subcorpus of letters, (EA for 'el Amarna'). Much later [1st millennium CE], a version of the name was used in the Babylonian Talmud as Kardunya referring to similar locations.[2]



SURETH
qarduḥi
English : 1) to buffet , to slap / smack on the face , to cuff ; 2) to stem , to stop the growth of , to curb ; 3) to subjugate , to subdue , to submit , to overpower , to enslave , to vanquish / conquer
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
kúr v. and adj. (to be) different, strange, foreign; (to be) hostile, inimical; to change, alter
kár to be bright, shining; to light up, flare up; to provoke, incite (cf. nu-kár-kár-dè without provocation); to insult, slander. Written GANA2 (non-tenû) in OS; for writing history see Veldhuis, AV Black 382.

Restoring some of the Akkadian links.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qardu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qarradu.jpg


Wikipedia


Main localities in Syriac Christianity in Northern Mesopotamia and Syria showing historical borders between the Persian and Roman empires.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/800px-N-Mesopotamia_and_Syriasvg.png



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-13, 07:05
AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbu-1.jpg


INDO-EUROPEAN
(etymonline)

Arbor Day
the day set aside for the planting of trees, first celebrated 1872 in Nebraska, the brainchild of U.S. agriculturalist and journalist J. Sterling Morton (1832-1902). From L. arbor "tree," of unknown origin.


-----------------------------------------------------


SURETH
ṣarbuyi
[Sky → Climate]
English : 1) to drench , to cover with water or other liquid thrown or precipitated upon the object , to soak , to wet completely , to saturate with water ; 2) to stain , to spot (?) / soil -with a liquid- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbis.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbillu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarsaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu2.jpg


Wikipedia


Nergal actually seems to be in part a solar deity, sometimes identified with Shamash, but only a representative of a certain phase of the sun. Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice that brings destruction, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle.


The cult of Ninurta can be traced back to the oldest period of Sumerian history. In the inscriptions found at Lagash he appears under his name Ningirsu, "the lord of Girsu", Girsu being the name of a city where he was considered the patron deity.

Ninurta appears in a double capacity in the epithets bestowed on him, and in the hymns and incantations addressed to him. On the one hand he is a farmer and a healing god who releases humans from sickness and the power of demons; on the other he is the god of the South Wind as the son of Enlil, displacing his mother Ninlil who was earlier held to be the goddess of the South Wind. Enlil's brother, Enki, was portrayed as Ninurta's mentor from whom Ninurta was entrusted several powerful Mes, including the Deluge.

He remained popular under the Assyrians: two kings of Assyria bore the name Tukulti-Ninurta. Ashurnasirpal II (883—859 BCE) built him a temple in the capital city of Calah (now Nimrud). In Assyria, Ninurta was worshipped along with Aššur and Mulissu.

In the late neo-Babylonian and early Persian period, syncretism seems to have fused Ninurta's character with that of Nergal. The two gods were often invoked together, and spoken of as if they were one divinity.

In the astral-theological system Ninurta was associated with the planet Saturn, or perhaps as offspring or an aspect of Saturn. In his capacity as a farmer-god, there are similarities between Ninurta and the Greek Titan Kronos, whom the Romans in turn identified with their Titan Saturn.

Humanist
2012-11-13, 10:34
There is one U7 sample listed on Ian Logan's U7 GenBank page with this [16093] transition:

AY714004(India) Palanichamy

The FTDNA U7 project has three samples with the transition at 16093:

N96539 Punjabi (Lahore) U7 16093C, 16218T, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C
N12921 India U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16352C, 16519C
N12396 Nicolosi, Dagata, Italy U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

The HVR1 mutations for the Assyrian U7 sample match the Nicolosi, Sicilian sample, without either of the additional mutations (see underlined) found in N96539 and N12921.

62118 Assyrian Jacob U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula
Abu-Amero et al.
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:45
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-45


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/u7_saudi.jpg

http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/figures/1471-2148-8-45-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-14, 00:41
SURETH (Humanist)
šáršir : spillover

šira : faucet, sugary residue (something sticky)

šaraita
[Industry]
English : beginning , starting , the act of doing what begins anything , the commencement of an action , the start of an action , setting on , setting out
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (the Akkadian term below refers to this word)
šár to be or make numerous, multiply, increase
šár the numeral 3600; adj. numerous, many, innumerable, manifold, myriad, all; n. multitude


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saru.jpg


SURETH
ṣarbuyi
[Sky → Climate]
English : 1) to drench , to cover with water or other liquid thrown or precipitated upon the object , to soak , to wet completely , to saturate with water ; 2) to stain , to spot (?) / soil -with a liquid- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbis.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbillu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarsaru.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/serserri.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seretu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/serserru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sertu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seruC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seruC2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/seruC3.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-14, 02:02
SURETH
'rda
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : (intransitive verb) : to flow , to move , to proceed , to progress , to go / carry on , to go forward / advance , to move ahead , to move along , to stream (?) , river : to run (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

radvada [radwada]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) danger, peril ... : to rid , to remove ; 2) to free , to rescue , to deliver , to save , to redeem (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aradu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wuddi1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wuddi2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wuddi3.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-14, 04:12
Although this deals with Israel and Jews, it is also applicable to groups such as Assyrians, Persians, Arabs, and others in the region.

The Politics of Israel's Past: The Bible, Archaeology and Nation-Building (edited by Emanuel Pfoh and Keith W. Whitelam; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, forthcoming 2013).
Emanuel Pfoh


This collection of articles, written by biblical scholars, archaeologists, anthropologists and historians, adresses topics like the appearance of Judaism and its relation to the production of biblical literature, the politics of archaeological practice in Israel, the role of archaeology in the production of nationalist narratives of the past, the relationship between genetic studies and Jewish nationalism, and the prospects for writing critical histories of ancient Palestine beyond biblical images and religious and political aspirations. Each of these articles illustrates the close relationship between the Bible, archaeology and processes of nation-building in the State of Israel. The Politics of Israel’s Past engages in the ways contemporary politics affects the knowledge of the past and how constructions of an ancient past legitimate modern political situations.

Contributions by Nadia Abu El-Haj, Ingrid Hjelm, Niels Peter Lemche, Firas Sawah, Thomas L. Thompson, Raz Kletter, Gideon Sulimani, James Crossley, Terje Oestigaard, Philippe Wajdenbaum, Keith W. Whitelam and Emanuel Pfoh.

Emphasis added.

Humanist
2012-11-14, 05:28
The Akkadian word may have been listed previously. I do not recall if it was compared to the same Sureth words.

SURETH
'saḥip
[City → Buildings]
English : 1) to invert , to turn upside down , to overthrow , to upset , to disrupt ; 2) Yoab Benjamin : to ruin
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA

msaḥputa
[City → Buildings]
English : ruin , the act of falling / tumbling down , what has fallen down from decay , the remains / rubble
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

msaḥpati / sḥipati
[City → Buildings]
English : ruins
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahapu2_.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-14, 06:37
SURETH (Humanist)
puma : mouth
kaka : tooth


SUMERIAN (quick search only)
ka(k), ka(g) mouth; opening; origin, beginning, inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)
ka - ba to open the mouth; to talk, speak (cf. Krecher, AV Kutscher II 117f.)
ka-mè opening, beginning of battle
pú well, well-pit (see also túl)
pa4, pa5 irrigation ditch


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pu-1.jpg

Adding to Sureth.

SURETH
'kima / 'kuma
[Human → Body]
English : Al Qosh, Ashita : 1) the mouth ; 2) metaphor : river: the edge, the bank , the strand , the shore , sea : the coast (?) ; 3) an opening , market, job ... : an opening (?)
Dialect : Other

Humanist
2012-11-14, 08:48
Need to search both further. Not necessarily anything here.

SURETH
la'im
[Industry]
English : to weld , to braze (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'malim
[Industry]
English : to weld , to solder , to braze (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'lvaḥa ['lwaḥa]
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : 1) (intransitive verb) : to ignite , to take fire , to begin to burn , to inflame , to burst into fire , to catch fire ; 2) to take hold , to grasp , to catch ; 3) (health) : to be morbidly congested with inflammation , to become irritated
Dialect : Urmiah


"How to Make a Pattern Welded Viking Sword"
http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-new/ehow/images/a06/fh/uh/make-pattern-welded-viking-sword-800x800.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lamuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lehu-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-14, 09:53
"Echoes of Gilgamesh in the Jacob Story," JBL 130 (2011): 625-42
by Esther J Hamori
Union Theological Seminary, New York


It was popular for some time to seek apparent Near Eastern parallels to biblical narratives. The methodology employed was at times problematic, and conclusions were often overstated, as similarities between texts explicable in any number of ways were attributed to direct relationship. For some biblical texts, of course,there is stronger evidence for Near Eastern influence. I propose that this is the case in regard to one text for which a Near Eastern counterpart has not previously been suggested: the story of Jacob’s wrestling match in Gen 32:23–33 (Eng. 32:22–32).There is reason to believe that the Israelite author knew some form of Gilgamesh, and particularly the scene of the wrestling match between Gilgamesh and Enkidu.

The case presented here is not simply one of a shared motif or logical grouping of elements, but one of an unexpected and striking series of correspondences between two texts. The two stories in question share several elements that are each highly unusual and that bear no inherent relation to one another. Moreover, these features occur in the same order in the two texts. This is not to suggest that the author of the Israelite text sat looking at a copy of Gilgamesh. However, the unlikely cluster of correspondences, with the same sequence of uncommon elements,implies the author’s familiarity with the story. I will argue here that the Israelite author utilized—and skillfully subverted—the framework familiar from Gilgamesh in composing the story of Jacob’s wrestling match, and that this use sheds light on the aim of the Genesis passage.

While the larger stories of Jacob and Gilgamesh are very different, each includes a critical scene featuring a type of unarmed combat notably distinct from representations of fighting found in other ancient Near Eastern literature. Many significant elements of the wrestling scenes are shared by the two stories, including the manner, purpose, and outcome of the fight; each of these elements stands out from common portrayals of fighting found elsewhere in the Near East. The text with the relevant material is found already in the Old Babylonian version of the Gilgamesh Epic (Pennsylvania tablet [P] 200–239).

Humanist
2012-11-14, 20:02
This is one of those words that "looks Akkadian." At least to me. But, whether the given meanings in the CAD are that great a fit with the Sureth word is a different question. Will need to continue searching the CAD.

SURETH
pakka
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) a mass / quantity of matter cohering together so as to make one , a lump ; 2) a mass of excrement...(?) ; 3) a buffet , a blow , a stroke , a hit / strike , a knock ; 4) Yoab Benjamin, Lishani : a cheek


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pakku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pakku2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pakku3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pakku4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pakuttu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-15, 01:13
2
SURETH
'nata
[Human → Body]
English : an ear (the organ of hearing -humans, animals-)
Dialect : Urmiah

'tpata
[Human → Disease]
English : (intransitive verb) : to sneeze
Dialect : Urmiah

'tpatta
[Human → Disease]
English : sneezing , sneeze , sternutation
Dialect : Urmiah

'pudi
[Human → Body]
English : mucus , snot
Dialect : Urmiah

'pta [pitya(m) / petita(f) : wide, roomy]
[Measures → Area]
English : (intransitive verb) : to widen , to grow wide(r) , to broaden , to spread , to expand
Dialect : Urmiah

'ptaḥa [putuḥ!]
[City → Buildings]
English : transitive verb : to open , to render open , to turn or remove a door (covering ...) , to become open , to unlock , to unbar
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/petuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/petuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/petu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/teptitu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/natalu1__.jpg


The Restitution of the Ear

Jeremy Naydler


This essay traces the historical process by which the sense of sight usurped the sense of hearing as the primary metaphor of human mental functions. It argues that through the reinstatement of listening rather than looking as the basis of our model for relating to the world, it becomes possible for a more open, responsive, and participative relationship with nature to arise.The essay is based on a talk given for the Oxford Centre for Human Relations entitled “The Seeing and Listening Mind.”


IN QUEST OF THE MIND'S EAR
We have become so accustomed to thinking of our mental processes under the metaphor of the sense of sight that we scarcely notice we do it—let alone reflect on its significance. Words abound in our vocabulary, which express functions of the mind in terms of visual functions: we have “views,” we “look” at things from a certain “perspective,” we “speculate,” we “focus” on some issue, are “short-sighted,” “far-sighted,” or even “visionary,” and when we have gained “insight” into someone’s “point of view” we “see” what they mean.

Why is it that the sense of sight has assumed this role of the model on which we tend to represent to ourselves the workings of our minds? What is the deeper meaning of the fact that our modern Western consciousness finds in the visual experience—rather than the experience of touch, taste, smell, or hearing—the one that most closely approximates our experience of thinking and understanding? For it has not always been so. In the ancient civilization of Sumeria, it would seem that the ear was felt to be the sense organ that corresponded in its functioning most closely to that of the mind. Enki, the Sumerian god of wisdom, who was said to know all things, was described as “he whose ears are wide open.” And when the great goddess Inanna contemplated her initiatory journey into the Underworld, we read that she “opened her ear to the Great Below.”

....

Whereas the eye shows us the surfaces of things—their extension in space, their form and color—the ear reveals to us that which is hidden from the eye. The ear, unlike the eye, is physiologically a very internal organ; and what is expressed in sound pertains more to the inner nature of a thing or creature. The sound an animal makes gives us an experience of what is happening in its soul, which no amount of looking would communicate to us.

Humanist
2012-11-15, 02:31
Following up on the previous post.

Posted previously.

SURETH
dagala
[Legal]
English : a cheat , one who cheats , a deceiver , an impostor , a liar
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'dugla
[Human → Speech]
English : masculine : a lie , falsehood
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other, [Urmia]

'(m)dagil
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) to lie , to tell a lie / a falsehood , to fib ; 2) with ܒ : to lie to , to deceive , to lead into error ; ܡܕܵܓܸܠ ܕܘܼܓܠܵܐ : to tell lies , to lie , to fib ; 3) to deal falsely with ܒ : against, with , to deceive , to mislead ; 4) to disappoint , to let down
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'dal
[Human → Senses]
English : to look intently at, to observe
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dagalu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/diglu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dagaluB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-15, 08:43
Some entertainment.

A song about a son's love for his mother? My late grandfather is the one singing (from the 1960s?). He would break out in song, I am told, when he drank. :) Some lyrics, "my clothes were torn, she sewed them, my clothes were dirty, she cleaned them." The word "dadi" may be a loan from Persian/Turkish, according to the Sureth Online Dictionary. Well, at least the word "dad (http://www.premiumwanadoo.com/cuneiform.languages/syriac/dosearch.php?searchkey=19929&language=id)."


AKKADIAN (meaning #2)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dadu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dadu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dadu4.jpg


SURETH

EDIT: YouTube is not working. Let me try this: Son singing about his mother ("dadi"). (http://vocaroo.com/i/s0ZvbuzwdnW7) <-- Link

Humanist
2012-11-15, 17:28
I suppose there might be something here.

SURETH
šughara
[Moral life → Fault]
English : vileness , the state of being vile / mean / worthless , lowness , meanness , baseness , corruptness , worthlessness , being morally contaminated, turpitude , villainy / unworthiness (by lack of higher values)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sugguru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tasgirtu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tasgirtu2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 12:28 ----------

FWIW

SUMERIAN
šu - ĝar to set the hand to, do something (good, worthy), do a favor, favor
šu-ĝar - gi4 (also šu - gi4) to avenge, take vengeance on, repay (lit. "to return, send back what was done")

Humanist
2012-11-15, 19:51
WIKIPEDIA



There is a strict division between Mandaean laity and the priests. According to E.S. Drower (The Secret Adam, p. ix):

[T]hose amongst the community who possess secret knowledge are called Naṣuraiia—Naṣoreans (or, if the emphatic ‹ṣ› is written as ‹z›, Nazorenes). At the same time the ignorant or semi-ignorant laity are called 'Mandaeans', Mandaiia—'gnostics'. When a man becomes a priest he leaves 'Mandaeanism' and enters tarmiduta, 'priesthood'. Even then he has not attained to true enlightenment, for this, called 'Naṣiruta', is reserved for a very few. Those possessed of its secrets may call themselves Naṣoreans, and 'Naṣorean' today indicates not only one who observes strictly all rules of ritual purity, but one who understands the secret doctrine.[24]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru8a.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru6.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru7.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru3.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-15, 21:52
To be a "Non-Assyrian"
Lorenzo Verderame
with M. Rivaroli, in W.H. van Soldt, Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia. Papers Read at the 48th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, 1-4 July 2002, Leiden, 2005, pp. 290-305

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_identity.jpg


Sureth
Kristianuta [<-- One of the two words I use]
[Religion]
English : Christianity , the body of Christian believers , Christiandom
Dialect : Urmiah

Mšiḥaiuta [<-- One of the two words I use]
[Religion]
English : Christianity , the body of Christian believers , Christendom , the religion of Christians
Dialect : Urmiah

(Source: G Khan's Barwar volumes)
Surayuta
English : Christianity


The first two make complete sense. The third is interesting, when one thinks about what is written in the bit above, regarding Assyrian identity.



WIKIPEDIA


There is a strict division between Mandaean laity and the priests. According to E.S. Drower (The Secret Adam, p. ix):

[T]hose amongst the community who possess secret knowledge are called Naṣuraiia—Naṣoreans (or, if the emphatic ‹ṣ› is written as ‹z›, Nazorenes). At the same time the ignorant or semi-ignorant laity are called 'Mandaeans', Mandaiia—'gnostics'. When a man becomes a priest he leaves 'Mandaeanism' and enters tarmiduta, 'priesthood'. Even then he has not attained to true enlightenment, for this, called 'Naṣiruta', is reserved for a very few. Those possessed of its secrets may call themselves Naṣoreans, and 'Naṣorean' today indicates not only one who observes strictly all rules of ritual purity, but one who understands the secret doctrine.[24]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaru2-1.jpg

George Percy Badger. The Nestorians and their rituals (1842-1844)


[T]he following extract from the Khudra plainly teaches that the Nestorians refer the origin of their priesthood to a much higher antiquity, and that they regard the Christian priesthood to be a continuation, through Christ, of that same ordination which was first given to man by God Himself in the beginning of the world.


Blessed is He Who hath given to the priesthood a degree ascending up to heaven. O glorious priesthood, open to me the store of your riches, that from your wealth I may fill the treasury of my thoughts. Thou wast highly exalted, but didst stoop low, and wast given to those of dust, O Thou mirror which hast been handed down to all generations! To the former people [the Jews] the horn of oil ; but to us the priesthood of Christ.


It is possible, I believe, that our ethnonym (in the east, "Suraya," in the west, "Suroyo") may mean something along the lines of "those possessing/guarding the secret/privileged knowledge/truth."


From another thread:

From (roughly) the positions predicted in Palisto's mapping of Dodecad globe13 results.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/800px-N-Mesopotamia_and_Syria_east_west_assyrian_-2.png

---------- Post Merged at 16:52 ----------

Etymonline

Christ
title given to Jesus of Nazareth, O.E. crist, from L. Christus, from Gk. khristos "the anointed" (translation of Heb. mashiah; see messiah), verbal adj. of khriein "to rub, anoint" (see chrism). The L. term drove out O.E. hæland "healer" as the preferred descriptive term for Jesus. A title, treated as a proper name in O.E., but not regularly capitalized until 17c. Pronunciation with long -i- is result of Irish missionary work in England, 7c.-8c. The ch- form, regular since c.1500, was rare before. Capitalization of the word begins 14c. but is not fixed until 17c.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jesus: The Complete Guide (2006)
J. L. Houlden

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syriac_healer1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/syriac_healer2.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-15, 22:31
I asked someone about this. The saying, they believe, is "meš-meš-uḥ mam-ṭun-ae."

mamṭuyi
[Transport]
English : transitive verb : to bring , to take / to carry / to convey to a destination


As stated in the quoted bit, it is ordinarily directed at someone who is misbehaving. That is my understanding.


There is a word in my dialect that I think I may have come across. I could not find it in the Aramaic sources so I am a bit uncertain of its origin. I will probably butcher the transliteration, but it is something along the lines of "meš-meš-uḥ." Basically, when you tell it to someone, you are saying that you will soon be "putting them in order." Would like to hear Birko's opinion. The spelling is not all that different from our word for apricot. :)


[Dead link to Akkadian word for "exorcist."]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mesu7.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-17, 01:34
Another singleton, and another post regarding the deity, Nabu.

Nabu, an important god to all "Semites."

Source: Sureth Dictionary

Eastern phonetic : ' nba:
Western phonetic : ' nbo:
[Religion → Divination]
English : transitive verb : to prophesy , to predict / to make a prediction , to foretell , to prognosticate , to forecast , to foresee , to augur (?) , to divine , to bode (?) , to betoken (?)

Source: CAL

nby vb. to predict, prophesy
D
1 to predict, prophesy JLAtg, Syr, LJLA.

Dt
1 to act as a prophet BA, JLAtg, Gal, PTA, CPA, Syr, LJLA. --(a) to rave (as does a prophet) Syr. --(b) to predict Syr, JBA.
2 to predict (i.e. to prophesy transitive) Gal, Syr.

Wikipedia:

Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.

Originally, Nabu was a West Semitic deity introduced by the Amorites into Mesopotamia, probably at the same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[1] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.

The etymology of his name is disputed. It could be derived from the root nb´ for "to call or announce", meaning something like "He who has called".

His power over human existence is immense, because Nabu engraves the destiny of each person, as the gods have decided, on the tablets of sacred record. Thus, He has the power to increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life.

Nabu is mentioned in the Nevi'im of the Tanakh as Nebo in Isaiah 46:1.

A statue of Nabu from Calah, erected during the reign of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III is on display in the British Museum.

In late Babylonian astrology, Nabu was connected with the planet Mercury. As the god of wisdom and writing, he was equated by the Greeks to either Apollo or Hermes, the latter identified by the Romans with their own god Mercury.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Nabu-Lawrie-Highsmith.jpeg/170px-Nabu-Lawrie-Highsmith.jpeg


Eastern Syriac

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu1_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu2_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nabu3_.jpg


From the Mandaic Book of John (http://rogueleaf.com/book-of-john/2012/07/27/54-abel-radiance-goes-to-jerusalem/) blog.

Translation by Dr. James McGrath (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/)

A few lines from: "54 – Abel-Radiance Goes to Jerusalem" [emphasis added]


When he heard, Adunai called Spirit and said to her
“Who from the offspring of Life came here?
They are taking over from us!
Come, write a book of iniquity and falsehood
To captivate generations and worlds.”
And then Spirit spoke a word,
And Mercury and the Seven wrote the Torah and compiled it,
These wrote the book of Torah and compiled it
And placed it in the hand of the Sun, Adunai.
Adunai through his mighty works
called Moses the son of Amram onto Mount Sinai.
They made him stay for forty days,
Abstaining from food and drink –
From food and drink he abstained!
And the book of iniquity was given to him
To captivate generations and worlds.

Humanist
2012-11-17, 02:40
Moses ~ Nabu ?

I need to read that Simo Parpola paper again.

Following up on the previous post. Refer to the Sureth words for "Mercury," and the Wikipedia article on "Nabu."


The Torah (/ˈtɔːrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching") is the Jewish name for the first five books of the Jewish Bible. In Hebrew the five books are named by the first phrase in the text: Bereshit ("In [the] beginning", Genesis), Shemot ("Names", Exodus), Vayikra ("He called", Leviticus[1]), Bamidbar ("In the desert", Numbers) and Devarim ("Words", Deuteronomy).

In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both these five books, Torah Shebichtav (תורה שבכתב, "Torah that is written"), and an Oral Torah, Torah Shebe'al Peh (תורה שבעל פה, "Torah that is spoken"). The Oral Torah consists of the traditional interpretations and amplifications handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation and now embodied in the Talmud (תַּלְמוּד) and Midrash (מדרש).[2] The words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a sofer on parchment in Hebrew. A Torah portion must be read publicly at least once every three days, in the halachically prescribed tune, in the presence of a congregation,[3] which is the basis for Jewish communal life.

According to religious tradition, all of the laws found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God to Moses, some of them at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, and all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah we have today. According to a Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and was used as the blueprint for Creation.[4] Most modern biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian exilic period (c. 600 BCE) and that it was completed by the Persian period (c. 400 BCE).[5]

The word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hifil conjugation means "to guide/teach" (cf. Lev. 10:11). The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the commonly accepted "law" gives a wrong impression.[6] Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, theory, guidance,[7] or system.[8]

The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both rabbinic Judaism's written law and oral law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, and the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law"[9] may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal that is summed up in the term talmud torah (תלמוד תורה, "study of Torah").[2]

The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses". This title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua (8:31–32; 23:6) and Kings (I Kings 2:3; II Kings 14:6; 23:25), but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works (Mal. 3:22; Dan. 9:11, 13; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Neh. 8:1; II Chron. 23:18; 30:16) was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" (Ezra 6:18; Neh. 13:1; II Chron. 35:12; 25:4; cf. II Kings 14:6) and "The Book of the Torah" (Neh. 8:3), which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God" (Neh. 8:8, 18; 10:29–30; cf. 9:3).[10]

Scholars usually refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the Pentateuch, a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria,[11] meaning five books, or as the Law, or Law of Moses. Muslims refer to the Torah as Tawrat (توراة, "Law"), an Arabic word for the revelations given to the Islamic prophet Musa (موسى, Moses in Arabic).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/ReadingOfTheTorah.jpg/770px-ReadingOfTheTorah.jpg



Moses (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה‎, Modern Moshe Tiberian Mōšéh ISO 259-3 Moše ; Arabic: موسى‎ Mūsā ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, Lit. "Moses our Teacher/Rabbi"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism,[1][2] and is also considered an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths.

The existence of Moses as well as the veracity of the Exodus story is disputed amongst archaeologists and Egyptologists, with experts in the field of biblical criticism citing logical inconsistencies, new archaeological evidence, historical evidence, and related origin myths in Canaanite culture.[3][4][5] Other historians maintain that the biographical details, and Egyptian background, attributed to Moses imply the existence of a historical political and religious leader who was involved in the consolidation of the Hebrew tribes in Canaan towards the end of the Bronze Age.

According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Children of Israel, were increasing in number and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might help Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, Jochebed, hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed, and the child was adopted as a foundling by the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slave-master, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian where he encountered the God of Israel in the form of a "burning bush". God sent Moses to request the release of the Israelites. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land.

Rabbinical Judaism calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE;[6] Christian tradition has tended to assume an earlier date.[7]

"Moses and the tablets of law"

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Moses041.jpg/342px-Moses041.jpg

The biblical text explains the name Mošeh משה as a derivation of the root mšh משה "to draw", in Exodus 2:10:
"[...] she called his name Moses (משה): and she said, Because I drew him (משיתהו) out of the water." (KJV).[8]

The name is thus suggested to relate to drawing out in a passive sense, "the one who was drawn out". Those who depart from this tradition derive the name from the same root but in an active sense, "he who draws out", in the sense of "saviour, deliverer".[9] The form of the name as recorded in the Masoretic text is indeed the expected form of the Biblical Hebrew active participle.[10] Josephus argued for an Egyptian etymology, and some scholarly suggestions have followed this in deriving the name from Coptic terms mo "water" and `uses "save, deliver", suggesting a meaning "saved from the water".[11]
Another suggestion has connected the name with the Egyptian ms, as found in Tuth-mose and Ra-messes, meaning "born" or "child".[8][12]


"Moses with the tablets of the Ten Commandments, painting by Rembrandt (1659)"

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_079.jpg/456px-Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_079.jpg

"Moses rescued from the Nile, 1638, by Nicolas Poussin"

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/MosesRescued_FromTheNile.JPG/240px-MosesRescued_FromTheNile.JPG


Another SURETH bit (will provide source later)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ephrem_.jpg



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Td_l2rKg-Q

Humanist
2012-11-17, 06:41
Neo-Babylonian Entrepreneurs
Cornelia Wunsch


The majority of Neo-Babylonian contracts fit in the palm of a hand, with fifteen to twenty-five lines of text. Because clay is a durable material, tablets easily can survive millennia once they are buried in the ground, be it accidentally or on purpose. Museums around the world house nearly 100,000 such tablets and fragments from the Neo-Babylonian period alone; about 16,000 are published [Emphasis added].8 Most of them were dug up by local people or licensed excavators in the late 1800s, before controlled excavations by modern standards began.

Wow.

---------- Post Merged at 01:41 ----------

Here is an idea for a paper, National Geographic’s Genographic Project. Who was the patriarch of this R1b line? :)

The estimates may not be precise. But, from what I know about this line, they do probably provide a general idea.

From the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


Based on Marko's 67 STR R tree.

Five of the Assyrian R-L584 men are tested through 67 markers.

The year estimates are not necessarily precise.

R1b1a2a1b (L584)

Assyrian #1, kit # 205749: TMRCA of 1848 years with Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men.

Assyrian #2, kit # 213562: TMRCA of 2239 years with Assyrian #1 and Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men. Another 1011 years (3250 years), connects him to four men. One of the men lists France as an origin.


The first man, kit # 205749 has tested positive for L943 as well. Consistent with a Cohanim man. I have yet to test any other Assyrian for L943. Two Armenians tested for L943, but they were negative (i.e. ancestral).

Humanist
2012-11-17, 08:21
Wikipedia

Enlil (nlin), (EN = Lord + LÍL = Storm, "Lord (of the) Storm")[1] was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in Sumerian religion, and later in Akkadian, Hittite, Canaanite and other Mesopotamian clay and stone tablets. The name is perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian, Hittite, and Canaanite literature. In later Akkadian, Enlil is the son of Anshar and Kishar.

Enlil was considered to be the god of breath, wind, loft and breadth (height and distance).[2]

....

Enlil is associated with the ancient city of Nippur, sometimes referred to as the cult city of Enlil.[7] His temple was named Ekur, "House of the Mountain."[8] Enlil was assimilated to the north "Pole of the Ecliptic".[9] His sacred number name was 50.[10]

As Enlil was the only god who could reach the heaven god An he held sway over the other gods who were assigned tasks by his agent and would travel to Nippur to draw in his power. He is thus seen as the model for kingship.[11]


SURETH
'noša
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) breath , breath of life , air inhaled and exhaled in respiration , animal or physical life / a soul ; 2) self
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

rab 'neša
[Moral life → Quality]
English : magnanimous , dictated by / exhibiting nobleness of soul , high-minded , great-hearted , honorable , noble , elevated , exalted, gallant / lofty, chivalrous , knightly
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (a previous entry, "nasu," may be a better match)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesakku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesakku2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesakku3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesakku4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nesakku5.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-17, 20:36
SURETH
barabu
[Religion]
English : a collection / gathering for the poor
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN (there are additional potentially relevant Akkadian terms)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/baru__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biri.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bira1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bira2.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 15:36 ----------

From a reference in the last bit from "bira," immediately above.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/maharu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitharis.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitharu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-17, 22:59
Here is an idea for a paper, National Geographic’s Genographic Project. Who was the patriarch of this R1b line? :)

The estimates may not be precise. But, from what I know about this line, they do probably provide a general idea.

From the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:

The first man, kit # 205749 has tested positive for L943 as well. Consistent with a Cohanim man. I have yet to test any other Assyrian for L943. Two Armenians tested for L943, but they were negative (i.e. ancestral).

Ordered L943 for the second Assyrian. Results in a few weeks, hopefully.

Humanist
2012-11-18, 00:06
SURETH
ṣarbuba
[Animals → Insects]
English : cochineal / kermes , the dried bodies of the females of certain scale insects containing carmine coloring matter
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (Not exclusive. Recall "Sarpu" and other words previously posted)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarbu__.jpg


Wikipedia

In the late Babylonian astral-theological system Nergal is related to the planet Mars. As a fiery god of destruction and war, Nergal doubtless seemed an appropriate choice for the red planet, and he was equated by the Greeks either to the combative demigod Heracles (Latin Hercules) or to the war-god Ares (Latin Mars) -- hence the current name of the planet. In Babylonian ecclesiastical art the great lion-headed colossi serving as guardians to the temples and palaces seem to symbolise Nergal, just as the bull-headed colossi probably typify Ninurta.

....

The cult of Nergal does not appear to have spread as widely as that of Ninurta, but in the late Babylonian and early Persian period, syncretism seems to have fused the two divinities, which were invoked together as if they were identical. Hymns and votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers frequently invoke him, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Cuthah. Sennacherib speaks of one at Tarbisu to the north of Nineveh, but significantly, although Nebuchadnezzar II (606 BC - 586 BC), the great temple-builder of the neo-Babylonian monarchy, alludes to his operations at Meslam in Cuthah, he makes no mention of a sanctuary to Nergal in Babylon. Local associations with his original seat—Kutha—and the conception formed of him as a god of the dead acted in making him feared rather than actively worshipped.

Being a deity of the desert, god of fire, which is one of negative aspects of the sun, god of the underworld, and also being a god of one of the religions which rivaled Christianity and Judaism, Nergal was sometimes called a demon and even identified with Satan. According to Collin de Plancy and Johann Weyer, Nergal was depicted as the chief of Hell's "secret police", and worked as an "an honorary spy in the service of Beelzebub".


Wikipedia

Beelzebub (play /biːˈɛlzɨbʌb/ bee-EL-zə-bub or /ˈbiːlzɨbʌb/ BEEL-zə-bub; (Hebrew: בעל זבוב‎, Baʿal Zəvûv Arabic: بعل الذباب‎, Ba‘al az-Zubab;, literally "Lord of the Flies"; Greek: Βεελζεβούλ, Velzevoúl; Latin: Beelzebūb), with numerous archaic variants,[1] is a Semitic deity that was worshiped in the Philistine city of Ekron. In later Christian and Biblical sources, he is referred to as another name for Satan,[2] and in demonology, is one of the seven princes of Hell.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Beelzebub_and_them_with_him.jpg/250px-Beelzebub_and_them_with_him.jpg

Hebrew Bible

The source for the name Ba‘al Zebûb / Beelzebub is in 2 Kings 1:2-3, 6, 16, where King Ahaziah of Israel, after seriously injuring himself in a fall, sends messengers to inquire of Ba‘al Zebûb, the god of the Philistine city of Ekron, to learn if he will recover.

Ahaziah fell through the lattice in his upper chamber at Samaria and was injured. So he sent messengers whom he instructed: "Go inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover from this injury." (JPS translation)

Elijah the Prophet then condemns Ahaziah to die by Yahweh's words because Ahaziah sought counsel from Ba‘al Zebûb rather than from Yahweh.

Ba‘al Zəbûb is variously understood to mean "lord of the flies"[3][4][5][6] or "lord of the (heavenly) dwelling".[7][8][9] Originally the name of a Philistine god,[10]

Ba'al, meaning "Lord" in Ugaritic, was used in conjunction with a descriptive name of a specific god. Jewish scholars have interpreted the title of "Lord of Flies" as the Hebrew way of calling Ba'al a pile of dung and comparing Ba'al followers to flies.[11][12] The Septuagint renders the name as Baalzebub (βααλζεβούβ) and as Baal muian (βααλ μυιαν, "Baal of flies"), but Symmachus the Ebionite may have reflected a tradition of its offensive ancient name when he rendered it as Beelzeboul.[13]

Scholars are divided, in regard to the god of Ekron, between the belief that zebub may be the original affix to Baal and that it is a substitute for an original zbl which, after the discoveries of Ras Shamra, has been connected with the title of "prince", frequently attributed to Baal in mythological texts.[citation needed] In addition to the intrinsic weakness of this last position, which is not supported by the versions, is the fact that it was long ago suggested that there was a relationship between the Philistine god and cults of fly or apotropaic divinities appearing in the Hellenic world, such as Zeus Apomyios or Myiagros.[citation needed] It is exactly this last connection which is confirmed by the Ugaritic text when we examine how Baal affects the expulsion of the flies which are the patient's sickness.[citation needed] According to Francesco Saracino (1982) this series of elements may be inconclusive as evidence, but the fact that in relationship to Baal Zebub, the two constituent terms are here linked, joined by a function (ndy) that is typical of some divinities attested in the Mediterranean world, is a strong argument in favor of the authenticity of the name of the god of Ekron, and of his possible therapeutic activities, which are implicit in 2 Kings 1:2-3, etc.[14]

Humanist
2012-11-18, 04:10
Wikipedia


Beelzebub as depicted in Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal (Paris, 1863)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Beelzebub.png

Humanist
2012-11-18, 06:42
“After Eltekeh: royal hostages from Egypt at the Assyrian court.“
In H.D. Baker, K. Kaniuth & A. Otto (ed.), Stories of long ago: Festschrift für Michael D. Roaf. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 397 (Münster 2012) 471-479.

Karen Radner

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/radner_egypt.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-18, 17:25
Dr. James McGrath: Online Version of #SBLAAR Conference Paper: Revisiting the Relationship between the Mandaean Book of John and the New Testament (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2012/11/online-version-of-sblaar-conference-paper-revisiting-the-relationship-between-the-mandaean-book-of-john-and-the-new-testament.html)

Have not had a chance to read it yet.

---------- Post Merged at 12:25 ----------

Not sure if there is anything here.

SURETH
tara
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to contemplate , to view or consider with continued attention , to regard thoughtfully , to meditate on , to study ; 2) to come to one's senses , to come to reason , to become reasonable ; 3) to suggest , to intimate , to summon (?) / instruct (?) / tell with authority (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/darru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/darru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daru.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-18, 23:09
Again, I am not singling out Judaism. But, what is one to do, when there is so much in common? Ignore it. No. And, contrary to what some believe, I sincerely doubt that this has all been covered before. Since, to the best of my knowledge, there has never been a comparison of our vernacular Sureth, and the entire contents of the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. This particular term is from Syriac, and may originally be from Hebrew or Greek. It may have been discussed previously. At least a comparison between Syriac and Hebrew.

SURETH
'bim
[Religion]
English : 1) the bema (a raised space between the sanctuary wall of a church and the nave) ; 2) rarely : the sanctuary of a church ; 3) Néhémie : 8, 4 : a pulpit , an elevated bench in a church from which a sermon is delivered ; 4) Maclean : a judgement seat , a throne ; 5) Néhémie : 9,4 : a plateform , stairs
Dialect : Classical Syriac
Hebrew : bima «theatre stage» «scène de théâtre»



Wikipedia


A bimah (among Ashkenazim, derived from Hebrew בּמה, almemar (from Arabic al-minbar) or tebah (among Sephardim) is the elevated area or platform in a Jewish synagogue which is intended to serve the place where the person reading aloud from the Torah stands during the Torah reading service. The bimah is sometimes misdescribed as an altar or tower. The bimah was located in the centre of the synagogue most likely just as the temporary wooden bimah (this is the origin of the term) was central to the "women's courtyard" of the Temple in Jerusalem during the Hakhel ceremony.[1] While the original meaning of the word referred to the platform, the table from which the Torah scroll is read can also be referred to as the bimah, even when it is not on a platform. This later became a sign of the Orthodox synagogue in the mid-nineteenth century. The Reform (Neolog) temples moved the bimah to the front of the temple facing the congregation. One of the well-known decrees of the Chatam Sofer was that the bimah must remain in the centre of an Orthodox synagogue.


The bimah is typically elevated by two or three steps, as was the bimah in the Temple. At the celebration of the Shavuot holiday when synagogues are decorated with flowers, many synagogues have special arches that they place over the bimah and adorn with floral displays. The importance of the bimah is to show that the reader is the most important at that moment in time, and to make it easier to hear their reader of the Torah. A raised bimah will typically have a railing. This was a religious requirement for safety in bimah more than 10 handbreadths high (somewhere between 83 and 127 centimeters). A lower bimah (even one step) will typically have a railing as a practical measure to prevent someone from inadvertently stepping off.

"Interior of the Amsterdam Esnoga: We see the tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) in the background."
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/SPAmster.JPG


Another article on Wikipedia (suggesting a Greek origin for the term):


The Bema (originally from the Ancient Greek language and the ancient Greek verb βαίνω, that means move on, step forward, in modern Greek language βήμα, and not from the Hebrew: בּמה, “High Place”) means a raised platform. In antiquity it was probably made of stone, but in modern times it is usually a rectangular wooden platform approached by steps.

The original use of the bema in Athens was as a tribunal from which orators addressed the citizens as well as the courts of law (see Pnyx). In Greek law courts the two parties to a dispute presented their arguments each from separate bemas. Bema was also used as the name for a place of judgement, that is the raised seat of the judge, as described in the New Testament, in Matthew 27:19 and John 19:13, and further, as the seat of the Roman emperor, in Acts 25:10, and of God, in Romans 14:10, when speaking in judgment.

The bema became a standard fixture in Jewish synagogues (see bemah) from which a selection ("parashah") from the Torah and the Haftarah are read. In Orthodox Judaism, the bema is located in the center of the synagogue, separate from the Ark. In other branches of Judaism, the bema and the Ark are joined together.

The ceremonial use of a bema carried over from Judaism into early Christian church architecture. It was originally a raised platform with a lectern and seats for the clergy, from which lessons from the Scriptures were read and the sermon was delivered. In Western Christianity the bema developed over time into the chancel (or presbytery) and the pulpit.

In Eastern Christianity bema remains the name of the platform which composes the sanctuary; it consists of both the area behind the iconostasion and the platform in front of it from which the deacon leads the ektenias (litanies) together with the ambo from which the priest delivers the sermon and distributes Holy Communion. It may be approached by one or several steps. The bema is composed of the altar (the area behind the iconostasion), the soleas (the pathway in front of the iconostasion), and the ambo (the area in front of the Holy Doors which projects westward into the nave). Orthodox laity do not normally step up onto the bema except to receive Holy Communion.


AKKADIAN (a lot of reading)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bennu8.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muB2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muB3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bama.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bi1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bi2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bi3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bamtuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bamtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ubu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abunnatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abnu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 18:09 ----------

Wikipedia


The Pnyx (Ancient Greek: Πνύξ, pronounced [pnyks]; Modern Greek: Πνύκα, pronounced [pnika]) is a hill in central Athens, the capital of Greece. Beginning as early as 507 BC, the ancient Athenians gathered on the Pnyx to host their popular assemblies, thus making the hill one of the earliest and most important sites in the creation of democracy.

The Pnyx is located less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) west of the Acropolis and 1.6 km south-west of the centre of modern Athens, Syntagma Square.

The Pnyx is a small, rocky hill surrounded by parkland, with a large flat platform of eroded stone set into its side, and by steps carved on its slope. It was the meeting place of one of the world's earliest known democratic legislatures, the Athenian ekklesia (assembly), and the flat stone platform was the bema, the "stepping stone" or speakers' platform. As such, the Pnyx is the material embodiment of the principle of isēgoría (Greek: ἰσηγορία), "equal speech", i.e. the equal right of every citizen to debate matters of policy. The other two principles of democracy were isonomía (Greek: ἰσονομία), equality under the law, and isopoliteía (Greek: ἰσοπολιτεία), equality of vote and equal opportunity to assume political office. The right of isēgoría was expressed by the presiding officer of the Pnyx assembly, who formally opened each debate with the open invitation "Tís agoreúein boúletai?" (Greek: "Τίς ἀγορεύειν βούλεται;", "Who wishes to speak?").

The Pnyx was used for popular assemblies in Athens as early as 507 BC, when the reforms of Cleisthenes transferred political power to the citizenry. It was then outside the city proper, but close enough to be convenient. It looks down on the ancient Agora, which was the commercial and social centre of the city.

At this site all the great political struggles of Athens of the "Golden Age" were fought out. Pericles, Aristides and Alcibiades spoke here, within sight of the Parthenon, temple of Athena. Here Demosthenes delivered his vilifications of Philip of Macedon, the famous Philippics.

Humanist
2012-11-19, 01:16
Most people who have read my posts, I hope, realize that I am not making these comparisons between Akkadian and other languages out of some desire to hurt the feelings of certain groups and/or individuals.

This sentiment is not unique, of course, but I would like to repeat something I have said before:


I think there stands a good chance we are reaching faulty conclusions as a result of a fundamental misunderstanding of history, and its players.

The above quote can certainly be extended to linguistics. Whether it can be extended to the instant case, to some degree, I am obviously not qualified to answer.



Wikipedia

Adonis, in Greek mythology, is the god of beauty and desire, and is a central figure in various mystery religions. His religion belonged to women: the dying of Adonis was fully developed in the circle of young girls around the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, about 600 BCE, as revealed in a fragment of Sappho's surviving poetry.[1]

Adonis is one of the most complex figures in classical times. He has had multiple roles, and there has been much scholarship over the centuries concerning his meaning and purpose in Greek religious beliefs. He is an annually-renewed, ever-youthful vegetation god, a life-death-rebirth deity whose nature is tied to the calendar. His name is often applied in modern times to handsome youths, of whom he is the archetype. Adonis is often referred to as the mortal god of Beauty.

The Greek Ἄδωνις (Greek pronunciation: [ˈadɔːnis]), Adōnis was a borrowing from the Semitic word adon, "lord",[2] which is related to Adonai, one of the names used to refer to the God (אֲדֹנָי) in the Hebrew Bible and still used in Judaism to the present day. Syrian Adonis is Gauas[3] or Aos, to Egyptian Osiris, to the Semitic Tammuz and Baal Hadad, to the Etruscan Atunis and the Phrygian Attis, all of whom are deities of rebirth and vegetation.[4]


AKKADIAN (in Sureth, "danna" means "time", "point in time.")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu4.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu5.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannu7.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adannis5.jpg


A bit from the Exploring Our Matrix blog:


The Sun of God? (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2012/10/the-sun-of-god.html)

The Mandaeans identify Adunai, the God of the Jews, as Shemesh, the sun. It is an identification that is simply assumed rather than one that seems to be attempting to introduce a controversial polemical suggestion.

Humanist
2012-11-19, 03:20
Another Sureth saying I have been wondering about.

I may be getting the transliteration wrong.

SURETH
ili bili, ili buli, uli buli, uli bili ??? : incessant (?), insistent (?)

AKKADIAN

[DEAD LINKS]


These Akkadian words appear to capture the meaning of the Sureth saying, in my opinion.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/belu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/beluB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu11.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu12.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu13.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu14_.png

Humanist
2012-11-19, 04:48
SURETH
'bina
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) a polite answer when a person is called : Here I am ! ; 2) a polite question when a person does not hear : What ? , Will you repeat please ?
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]SUMERIAN
ba-an-gi4 response, answer
giš pan (rarely giš ba-na) bow (reading ban is obsolete, see Civil, JCS 55, 50f.)
nun noble, prince; princess (cf. Temple Hymns line 82)
nun(-na) princely, noble, preeminent, grand; loud


AKKADIAN
[DEAD LINK]


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bi1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bi2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bi3.jpg

Also, refer to the complete "bima" post, above (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1032540&viewfull=1#post1032540).

---------- Post Merged at 23:48 ----------

Wikipedia

Cultural memory



Historiographical approach

Time
Crucial in understanding cultural memory as a phenomenon is the distinction between memory and history. This distinction was put forward by Pierre Nora, who pinpointed a niche in-between history and memory. Simply put, memories are the events that actually happened, while histories are subjective representations of what historians believe is crucial to remember. This dichotomy, it should be noted, emerged at a particular moment in history: it implies that there used to be a time when memories could exist as such — without being representational.

Scholars disagree as to when to locate the moment representation 'took over'. Nora points to the formation of European nation states. For Richard Terdiman, the French revolution is the breaking point: the change of a political system, together with the emergence of industrialization and urbanization, made life more complex than ever before. This not only resulted in an increasing difficulty for people to understand the new society in which they were living, but also, as this break was so radical, people had trouble relating to the past before the revolution. In this situation, people no longer had an implicit understanding of their past. In order to understand the past, it had to be represented through history. As people realized that history was only one version of the past, they became more and more concerned with their own cultural heritage (in French called patrimoine) which helped them shape a collective and national identity. In search for an identity to bind a country or people together, governments have constructed collective memories in the form of commemorations which should bring and keep together minority groups and individuals with conflicting agendas. What becomes clear is that the obsession with memory coincides with the fear of forgetting and the aim for authenticity.

However, more recently questions have arisen whether there ever was a time in which 'pure', non-representational memory existed – as Nora in particular put forward. Scholars like Tony Bennett rightly point out that representation is a crucial precondition for human perception in general: pure, organic and objective memories can never be witnessed as such.


This is applicable to all groups, to some extent, of course. However, it does not apply equally to all. There are some groups with ties to the past. To the deep past. What we need is an unbiased examination of the complete record, time, and an open-minded audience. Unfortunately, at the present moment, the aforementioned conditions do not exist.

Humanist
2012-11-19, 07:38
From the Assyrian Y-DNA thread. This particular Assyrian is from the Syriac Orthodox Church (location is roughly consistent with Palisto's Syriac Orthodox position (~ Khabur)):


Searching YHRD for 9 out of 12 markers (not necessarily J1-P58)

DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385a/b:

10 of 238 Tripoli, Libya [Libyan] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Africa
5 of 82 Tripoli, Libya [Arab] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Africa
2 of 54 Tunis, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Africa
1 of 218 Sousse, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Africa
1 of 47 Tripoli, Libya [Berber] Afro-Asiatic - Berber Africa
1 of 125 Brussels, Belgium [Belgian] Eurasian - European - Western European Europe
1 of 155 Sfax, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Africa
1 of 52 Qena, Egypt [Egyptian] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Africa
1 of 285 Kuweit City, Kuweit [Arab] Afro-Asiatic - Semitic Asia

According to Vadim Urasin's predictor, the probability that the 9 out of 12 markers used are J1-P58 is 56%. However, extending the available markers to 16, based on the most frequently reported haplotypes for the Libyan sample at top, using the Athey predictor, gives a probability of 99.9% / fitness score of 55 for J1.

Note that this is only a YHRD map containing the North African and ME "matches." There was also a Belgian hit. Assyrian sample noted, and relevant spots outlined in purple.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/orthodox_j1p58.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 16:00 ----------


This is neat. May not be of any particular significance, though.

A: "Valley of the Kings" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valley_of_the_Kings)
B: Assiut
C: Sohag
D: Amarna (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amarna#The_city_of_Akhetaten) ("The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti," and the "Amarna letters (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amarna_Letters)")

Updating the map to include "Qena." The Egyptian sample, above, was from Qena. Adding to Assyrian-Egyptian R1b and T matches on YHRD (see points "B" and "C," Assiut and Sohag respectively):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eg_valley_kings_amarna_.png

Humanist
2012-11-19, 19:57
SURETH
'qiṭma
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : the ashes / ash , cinders / cinder
Dialect : Urmiah


We have a saying that goes something like, "qiṭma b'rishi." I suppose it translates to "oh, my," or "oh my god." Although, apparently, the literal translation would be something along the lines of "ashes/cinders on my head."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qitmu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadmu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuttumu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kutimmuB_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kutmu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuttimmu_.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 04:10 ----------

Wikipedia


Ash Wednesday, in the calendar of Western Christianity, is the first day of Lent and occurs 46 days before Easter. It is a moveable fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the date of Easter. It can occur as early as February 4 or as late as March 10.

According to the canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke; Jesus spent 40 days fasting in the desert before the beginning of his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan.[2][3] Ash Wednesday marks the beginning of this 40-day liturgical period of prayer and fasting.

Ash Wednesday derives its name from the practice of placing ashes on the foreheads of adherents as a sign of mourning and repentance to God. The ashes used are typically gathered after the palms from the previous year's Palm Sunday are burned.[4]

This practice is common in much of Christendom, being celebrated by Catholics, Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, and some Baptist denominations.[5][6]

As far as I know, we do not have this practice in our church. But, I may be wrong.

Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Crossofashes.jpg/225px-Crossofashes.jpg

The interpretation of this star, by Assyriologists, does not appear to have any relation to what is posted above. Nonetheless, I did find the position of "qudmu" interesting.


An Alternative Interpretation of the Seven-Pointed Star on CBS 1766, NABU 2007/40
C. Waerzeggers and R. Siebes

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/star_1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/star_1b.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-19, 20:58
Following up on the post above.

Refer to the Sureth saying, "qiṭma b'rishi."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/resu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-19, 22:42
The Carians of Borsippa, Iraq 68 (2006), 1-22.

Caroline Waerzeggers

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian4.jpg



SURETH
'karsa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the stomach , the abdomen ; 2) Maclean : the womb ; 3) the crop of a bird
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Also, the Akkadian word for Egyptian "Misiraja," sounds similar to the word "Mizrahim."

---------- Post Merged at 17:42 ----------

Wikipedia


Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahim (Hebrew: מזרחים‎), also referred to as Adot HaMizrach (עֲדוֹת-הַמִּזְרָח) (Communities of the East; Mizrahi Hebrew: ʿAdot(h) Ha(m)Mizraḥ), are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Babylonian era in the Middle East and the Caucasus (the East as defined during the Middle Ages). The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from mostly Arab-ruled geographies and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries. This includes descendants of Babylonian Jews from modern Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Iran, India, Uzbekistan, Kurdish areas and Jews from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Yemenite and Georgian Jews are usually included within the Mizrahi Jews group. Today, some also expand the defition of Mizrahim to Maghrebi and Sephardic, though the latter have a different historical background. Hence, Sephardi and Maghrebi Jews with roots from Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Northern and Eastern Sudan, Tunisia, Libya or Turkey are erroneously grouped into the Mizrahi category for various reasons.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/misru.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-20, 02:51
The Carians of Borsippa, Iraq 68 (2006), 1-22.

Caroline Waerzeggers

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian4.jpg




SURETH
'karsa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the stomach , the abdomen ; 2) Maclean : the womb ; 3) the crop of a bird
Dialect : Classical Syriac


Soldiers of fortune??


More from Caroline Waerzeggers paper, referred to above:
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carians.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


From Karkisa to Caria: Ethnic Continuity, or Homeric Discontinuity?
by Jay McAnally

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karkisa.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------



SURETH
'kisa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the belly , the womb ; 2) the crop of a bird
French : 1) le ventre , l'utérus ; 2) le jabot d'un oiseau ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'kisa
[Transport]
English : 1) Maclean : a (large) purse as opposed to ܟܝܼܣܬܵܐ ; 2) Oraham : a pouch , a small bag , a small sack or receptacle for carrying small things (ammunition, tobacco ...)
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA


HITTITE (David Michael Weeks, UCLA)

SKIN; HIDE — The Hitt. word (KUŠ)kursa- ‘skin, hide; (esp.) fleece’ seems at first sight derived from kurs- ‘cut off’, like Gk. δέρμα : δέρω ‘cut’, OIr. seche : Lat. secāre, etc. (thus Sturtevant, Comp. Gr.1 119, Comp. Gr.2 56), but lack of derivational parallels casts doubt on this simple explanation (EHS 189, T 655). Some scholars (e.g. Pisani, Paideia 8 [1953]: 308), on similar semantic grounds, have compared Skt. cárman ‘hide’, Lat. corium ‘leather’, etc., positing IE root-connection in *(s)ker- ‘cut’, but these forms probably belong with H. kariya- ‘hide, cover up’ from a homophonous root (see 12.26).

Another approach to kursa- sensibly considers it a Cappadocian loanword, akin to Akk. gusānu(m) ‘leather bag’ and Gk. βύρσα ‘hide; leather’, whence MLat. bursa, MHG burse, NHG Börse, Bursch, Fr. bourse ‘purse’ (EHS 139; Gusmani, Lessico 32; T 655-56 with refs.). Skt. tvac-, Gk. σάκος match H. tuekka- ‘body’, 4.11.

12.26 — COVER (VB.) — A cogent etymology for kariya- ‘cover, hide’ (iter. kāriski-) compares Skt. cárman- ‘skin, hide’, Lat. cortex ‘bark, rind’, corium ‘leather’, scorium ‘hide’, OHG skirm ‘cover(ing), shelter’, from IE *(s)ker- ‘cover, hide’, homonymous with *(s)ker- ‘cut’ (Puhvel, Bi. Or. 38 [1981]: 353). Earlier attempts in T 504-5. istap(p)-, see 12.25.


MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN (Etymonline)

carcass (n.)
late 13c., from Anglo-Norman carcois, perhaps influenced by O.Fr. charcois (Mod.Fr. carcasse) "trunk of a body, chest, carcass," and Anglo-L. carcosium "dead body," all of uncertain origin. Not used of humans after c.1750, except contemptuously. Italian carcassa probably is a French loan word.

Humanist
2012-11-20, 04:19
Continuing, from above.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karsu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karsanu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:19 ----------


http://www.mirbahmanyar.com/images/soldiers-of-fortune-cover-website.jpg


???

Humanist
2012-11-20, 06:35
SURETH
'šqaṭa
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : stupor , a great diminution / suspension of sensibility , stupefaction , daze , numbness (?) , torpor / torpidity , grogginess (?) , amazement , astonishment , wonderment , wonder , surprise
Dialect : Urmiah

(Humanist)
saqit! : die! ?? (For instance, if one says, "ḥuš saqit!," I would understand it to mean, "go die!")


AKKADIAN (There may be a previous comparison.)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqatuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqatuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqatu.jpg


PERSIAN
بی سخن bī-suḵẖun, Dumb, silent; doubt-less.

Humanist
2012-11-20, 07:58
A new beginning? I think it is a possibility. I think this would go toward explaining the Assyrian and Babylonian strata in our vernacular. Not to mention, the same for the genetics.


As cultural capital of the ancient Near East, even a politically powerless Babylon was an important city, which created a problem to the Assyrian kings, who conquered Babylonia in the eighth century. From Tiglath-pileser III (744-727) on, they had themselves enthroned as kings of both Assyria and Babylon: by uniting the city in a personal union with their empire, they wanted to express their respect for the Babylonian civilization, institutions, and science. However, the Babylonians revolted under Marduk-apla-iddin (703; the Biblical Merodach Baladan), and king Sennacherib sacked the city in 689 - an act of terrible impiety, because he broke the "axis" between heaven and earth. Babylon's population was deported to Nineveh and the site was left alone for some time.

Finally, king Esarhaddon (680-669) allowed the people to return. A text says that the gods had decreed the Babylon was to be in ruins for seventy years, but that they regretted their harshness, turned the tablet of destiny upside down, and allowed the people to return after eleven year (in cuneiform, the numbers 70 and 11 relate to each other as our 6 and 9).

Livius.org

A poll, from several months back, in a thread (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/33907-Which-historical-era-was-your-ethnic-group-formed-in?highlight=) created by another forum member. As can be seen in the image below, for my group, I chose "Archaic." I would have preferred a category beginning ~600 BCE and ending ~200 CE. Based on everything I have seen, if I had to choose a geographic area where our ethnogenesis took hold, I would have to say in or around Babylon. The area around Arbil would also be a possibility, I think. At least for those of us in the east.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/evon_poll.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-20, 08:59
A possibility, I think.

SURETH
šaša
[Transport → Sea]
English : 1) a raft , a float , a collection of timber (or other material) fastened together for support or for their conveyance ; 2) a cotton jacket ; 3) a wood-worm , a wood-boring beetle , a maggot
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassugu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassugu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassugu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassugu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sasu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-20, 21:26
There was one Assyrian M1 haplogroup result in the recent Al-Zahery et al. Iraqi mtDNA paper ("Characterization of mitochondrial DNA control region lineages in Iraq"). A search of the mitosearch (PUBLIC) database returned the matches below. Matches with Europeans, in particular, northern and western Europeans is nothing new. However, without coding region mutations, the "matches" may be extremely distant.

HVR1 only (excluding 16182C)

1.
Last Name: Morell de la Durantaye
Born: About 1880
Died: About 1956
Origin: Quebec, Canada

(source:Wikipedia):


Oliver Morel de La Durantaye (17 February 1640 – 28 September 1716[1]) was an Officer of New France. Born in Notre Dame Gu Gaure Nantes, France, he served as commandant of Fort Michilimackinac, in what is now Michigan, from 1683 to 1690.[1] In 1684 he traveled to Fort St. Louis to assist Henri de Tonty against the Iroquois, and it is thought that during this journey he constructed a temporary fort that Tonty visited in the winter of 1685/1686, and later referred to as the Fort of Chicagou.[2]


2.
Last Name: Hayes
Year Born: 1760
Year Died: About 1850
Origin: Virginia, USA


3.
Last Name: Brandon
Year Born: About 1755
Year Died: About 1810
Origin: Charleston South Carolina, USA


4.
Last Name: [contact name may be of Irish origin]
Year Born: About 1718
Origin: Rowan County, North Carolina, USA


5.
Last Name: Johnston
Born: About 1730
Died: 1795
Origin: United Kingdom


6.
Last Name: [contact name may be of Italian origin]
Origin: Unknown

Humanist
2012-11-21, 00:09
The Sureth word may be a loan from Indo-European. The Indo-European word, in turn, I believe, may be a loan from Akkadian.


annuity (n.)
early 15c., "a yearly allowance, grant payable in annual installments," from Anglo-Fr., O.Fr. annuité (14c.) or directly from M.L. annuitatem (nom. annuitas), from L. annus "year" (see annual (adj.)). Meaning "an investment that entitles one to equal annual payments" is from 1690s.


SURETH
annuna
[Government]
English : a pension , an allowance to a person in consideration of past services
Dialect : Classical Syriac

(Humanist)
nuna
fish


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enuB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enuB1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ennu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ennanatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enna.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eninnu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/innanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/inuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/inu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/enenu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nunu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anunu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihittu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihittu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihittu2.jpg


Wikipedia


Pisces (♓) is the twelfth astrological sign in the Zodiac, which started from the Pisces constellation. It spans the 330-360th degree of the zodiac, between 332.75 and 360 degree of celestial longitude, which in the Tropical zodiac the Sun transits this area on average between February 19 to March 20 each year.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Pisces2.jpg/240px-Pisces2.jpg


Source: http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/pisces.htm


The mythological events concerning this constellation are said to have taken place around the Euphrates river, a strong indication that the Greeks inherited this constellation from the Babylonians. The story follows an early episode in Greek mythology, in which the gods of Olympus had defeated the Titans and the Giants in a power struggle. Mother Earth, also known as Gaia, had another nasty surprise in store for the gods. She coupled with Tartarus, the lowest region of the Underworld where Zeus had imprisoned the Titans, and from this unlikely union came Typhon, the most awful monster the world had ever seen.

According to Hesiod, Typhon had a hundred dragon’s heads from which black tongues flicked out. Fire blazed from the eyes in each of these heads, and from them came a cacophony of sound: sometimes ethereal voices which gods could understand, while at other times Typhon bellowed like a bull, roared like a lion, yelped like puppies or hissed like a nest of snakes.

Gaia sent this fearsome monster to attack the gods. Pan saw him coming and alerted the others with a shout. Pan himself jumped into the river and changed his form into a goat-fish, represented by the constellation Capricornus, also inherited from the Babylonians.

Aphrodite and her son Eros took cover among the reeds on the banks of the Euphrates, but when the wind rustled the undergrowth Aphrodite became fearful. Holding Eros in her lap she called for help to the water nymphs and leapt into the river. In one version of the story, two fishes swam up and carried Aphrodite and Eros to safety on their backs, although in another version the two refugees were themselves changed into fish. The mythologists said that because of this story the Syrians would not eat fish. An alternative story, given by Hyginus in the Fabulae, is that an egg fell into the Euphrates and was rolled to the shore by some fish. Doves sat on the egg and from it hatched Aphrodite who, in gratitude, put the fish in the sky. Eratosthenes wrote that the two fishes represented by Pisces were offspring of the fish that is represented by the constellation Piscis Austrinus.

In the sky, the two fish of Pisces are represented swimming in opposite directions, their tails joined by a cord. The Greeks offered no good explanation for this cord, but according to the historian Paul Kunitzsch the Babylonians visualized a pair of fish joined by a cord in this area, so evidently the Greeks borrowed this idea although the significance of the cord was lost.

Pisces is a disappointingly faint constellation, its brightest stars being of only fourth magnitude. Alpha Piscium is called Alrescha, from the Arabic name meaning ‘the cord’. Ptolemy described this star as lying where the cords joining the two fish are knotted together. Pisces is notable because it contains the point at which the Sun crosses the celestial equator into the northern hemisphere each year. This point, called the vernal equinox, originally lay in Aries but it has now moved into Pisces because of a slow wobble of the Earth on its axis called precession.

Humanist
2012-11-21, 03:08
I am not sure if the Sureth word has any connection, but the Sumerian-Akkadian-Greek possibility is interesting.

Wikipedia

The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps 20 ft (6 m) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic. The toga was made of wool,[1] and the tunic under it often was made of linen. After the 2nd century BC, the toga was a garment worn exclusively by men, and only Roman citizens were allowed to wear the toga. After this time, women were expected to wear the stola.

Marcus Aurelius wearing a toga

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Marcus_Aurelius_at_the_British_Museum.jpg/200px-Marcus_Aurelius_at_the_British_Museum.jpg

History

The toga was based on a dress robe used by native people, the Etruscans. The toga was the dress clothing of the Romans, a thick woolen cloak worn over a loincloth or apron. It is believed to have been established around the time of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome. It was taken off indoors, or when hard at work in the fields, but it was considered the only decent attire out-of-doors. This is evident from the story of Cincinnatus: he was ploughing in his field when the messengers of the Senate came to tell him that he had been made dictator, and on seeing them he sent his wife to fetch his toga from the house so that they could be received appropriately.[2] While the truth of the story may be doubtful, it nevertheless expresses the Roman sentiment on the subject. Free citizens were required to wear togas because slaves would wear tunics. They wore them because the tunic was a sign of poverty and would let them work with ease.

As time went on, dress styles changed. Romans adopted the shirt (tunica, or in Greek chiton) which the Greeks and Etruscans wore, made the toga more bulky, and wore it in a looser manner. The result was that it became useless for active pursuits, such as those of war. Thus, its place was taken by the handier sagum (woollen cloak) on all military occasions. In times of peace, too, the toga eventually was superseded by the laena but did remain the court dress of the Empire which began c. 31 BC.[3]

Significance

The same process that removed the toga from everyday life gave it an increased importance as a ceremonial garment, as is often the case with clothing. The toga also came to be used to signify different types of power. As early as the 2nd century BC, and probably even before, the toga (along with the calceus) was looked upon as the characteristic badge of Roman citizenship. It was denied to foreigners,[4] and even to banished Romans,[5] and it was worn by magistrates on all occasions as a badge of office. In fact, for a magistrate to appear in a Greek cloak (pallium) and sandals was considered by all as highly improper, if not criminal.[6] Augustus, for instance, was so much incensed at seeing a meeting of citizens without the toga, that, quoting Virgil's lines, "Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam" ("Romans, lords of the world, the toga-wearing race"), he gave orders to the aediles that in the future no one was to appear in the Forum or Circus without it.[7]

Because the toga was not worn by soldiers, it was regarded as a sign of peace. A civilian was sometimes called togatus, "toga-wearer", in contrast to sagum-wearing soldiers. Cicero's De Officiis contains the phrase cedant arma togae: literally, "let arms yield to the toga", meaning "may peace replace war", or "may military power yield to civilian power".


SUMERIAN
túg, tu9(g/b) (woolen) garment
túg-ba clothing ration
(lú)túg-du8 felt maker, fuller (a craftsman making a special type of woven cloth, Sjöberg, AV Limet 128)
túg-du8-a felt (Steinkeller, OrAnt 19, 85-93)
túg-mu-dur7(BU)-ra dirty clothing, rags, mourning garments
túg-níĝ-bàra blanket
túg-šu-gur turban
tag to touch, prod; to touch wrongly, profane, spoil; to weave; to overlay, face, embellish; to apply, treat with; to broadcast (seed-grain, see Maekawa, ASJ 15, 112)
tag4, tak4, taka4 (reduplicated da13-da13) to leave, leave over, leave for the benefit or use of; to abandon, divorce; to remove (see Civil, AuOr 8, 111 in disc. of šu - tak4)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gadalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gadalu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tugiru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gadu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tikku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tikku2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tikatu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tikatu2.jpg


Ancient Egyptian, Assyrian, and Persian costumes and decorations (1920)
Author: Houston, Mary G. (Mary Galway); Hornblower, Florence S

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_costume.jpg



SURETH
'qdala
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the neck (human or animal) ; 2) Urmiah : clothing : a collar , neckcloth , see ܒܲܪ / ܒܲܪ ܩܕܵܠܵܐ ; ܠܩܕܵܠܵܐ ܕ : to entrust something to the charge of (somebody) ; ܛܵܥܸܢ ܥܲܠ ܩܕܵܠܘܼܗܝ / ܫܵܩܸܠ ܥܲܠ ܩܕܵܠܘܼܗܝ : to avow , to admit , to take the responsibility of ; ܡܲܬܸܒ݂ ܥܲܠ ܩܕܵܠܘܼܗܝ : to make responsible for ; ܥܲܠ ܩܕܵܠܘܼܗܝ ܝܼܠܹܗ : 1) he is responsible for it ; 2) personal subject : he is dependent on him , he is supported by him ; ܕܵܒܸܩ ܩܕܵܠܵܐ ܕ : to restrain , to hold back / to check ; ܡܲܙܝܸܕ ܒܩܕܵܠܵܐ ܕ : to outbid ; ܥܵܒ݂ܸܕ ܡܸܢ ܩܕܵܠܘܼܗܝ : a work : to scamp , to botch , to skimp on , to dash off , to do slovenly , to slapdash / to cobble together

(Source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
2 fig. . --(a) bank (river) Syr. --(b) reins or bridle Syr. --(c) the bend at the top of a letter JBA.


'taka
[Moral life → Fault]
English : verbe transitif : 1) to harm , to injure , to hurt , to damage , to impair , to prejudice (?) ; 2) to soil , to make dirty , to defile , to foul / to befoul , to sully , to smirch , to smear
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-21, 05:02
I compared the Sureth word below to Akkadian previously. The links are dead. Adding the video.

SURETH
qadiša
[Religion]
English : 1) holy , set apart for divine service , sacred , hallowed , sanctified , consecrated , blessed (?) ; 2) -noun- : a saint , a sanctified person , a holy / godly / god-fearing man
Dialect : Urmiah

'qaša
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a Christian priest
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Around the 12 second mark: "qadiš, qadiš, qadiša."


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRUOyAZVA3U


[U]AKKADIAN (these are not all of the previously posted words)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaddis.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qasdu_.jpg


SUMERIAN (there are additional relevant Sumerian terms)
ka-aš(-bar) (divine) decision
ka-aš(-bar) - bar, ga-eš8 - bar, giš - bar to decide, render a (divine) verdict

Humanist
2012-11-21, 07:08
Add to the comparisons above.

SUMERIAN
gú neck, shoulder(s); edge, bank, shore (of a canal, river, sea); totality; cf. gú-gú region (Pre-Sarg.)

---------- Post Merged at 02:08 ----------

Another possible etymology (below the Wikipedia introduction):


Zerubbabel was a governor of the Persian Province of Judah (Haggai 1:1) and the grandson of Jehoiachin, penultimate king of Judah. Zerubbabel led the first group of Jews, numbering 42,360, who returned from the Babylonian Captivity in the first year of Cyrus, King of Persia (Ezra). The date is generally thought to have been between 538 and 520 BC.[1] Zerubbabel also laid the foundation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem soon after.

In all of the accounts in the Hebrew Bible that mention Zerubbabel, he is always associated with the high priest who returned with him, Joshua (Jeshua) son of Jozadak (Jehozadak). Together, these two men led the first wave of Jewish returnees from exile and began to rebuild the Temple (Ezra). Kessler describes the region of Judah as a small province that contained land moving 25 km from Jerusalem and was independently ruled prior to the Persian rule. Zerubbabel was the governor of this province.[2] King Darius I of Persia appointed Zerubbabel governor of the Province.[3] It was after this appointment that Zerubbabel began to rebuild the Temple. Elias Bickerman speculates that one of the reasons that Zerubbabel was able to rebuild the Temple was because of “the widespread revolts at the beginning of the reign of Darius I in 522 BC, which preoccupied him to such a degree that Zerubbabel felt he could initiate the rebuilding of the temple without repercussions”.[4]

Zerubbabel and the Davidic Line

The Davidic line from Jeconiah had been cursed by Jeremiah saying that no descendant of "Coniah" would ever sit on the throne again (Jer.22:30). Zerubbabel was of the main Davidic line through Solomon and Jeconiah.

The prophets Zechariah and Haggai both give unclear statements regarding Zerubbabel’s authority in their oracles, in which Zerubbabel was either the subject of a false prophecy or the receiver of a divine promotion to kingship. Either way, he was given the task of rebuilding the Temple in the second year of the reign of Darius I (520 BC), along with the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak.

Muslim historian Ya'qubi attributed the recovery of the Torah and the Books of the Prophets to him instead of Ezra.[5] The Seder Olam Zutta lists him as the Exilarch in Babylon to succeed Shealtiel. The texts are conflicting as to whether Zerubbabel was the son of Shealtiel or his nephew. His son Meshullam succeeded him as Exilarch, and was followed by another son Hananiah. His other sons were Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah and Jushab-hesed (1 Chronicles 3:20). He also had a daughter called Shelomith (1 Chronicles 3:19).

The name

If the name Zerubbabel is Hebrew, it may be a contraction of Zərua‘ Bāvel (Hebrew: זְרוּעַ בָּבֶל‎), meaning "the one sown of Babylon", and referring to a child conceived and born in Babylon; or perhaps even, Zərûy Bāvel (Hebrew: זְרוּי בָּבֶל‎), meaning, "the winnowed of Babylon", in the sense of being exiled in Babylon. If the name is not Hebrew but Assyrian-Babylonian, it may contract, Zəru Bābel, meaning, "Seed of Babylon", the one conceived in Babylon. (Contrast the related Hebrew form for "Seed": Hebrew: זֶרַע‎, Zera‘.)

Zerubbabel may have had a Babylonian style name because of his interaction with the Babylonian court.[6]


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zeru9.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-21, 15:37
SURETH
'šqaṭa
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : stupor , a great diminution / suspension of sensibility , stupefaction , daze , numbness (?) , torpor / torpidity , grogginess (?) , amazement , astonishment , wonderment , wonder , surprise
Dialect : Urmiah

(Humanist)
saqit! : die! ?? (For instance, if one says, "ḥuš saqit!," I would understand it to mean, "go die!")


AKKADIAN (There may be a previous comparison.)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqatuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqatuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saqatu.jpg


PERSIAN
بی سخن bī-suḵẖun, Dumb, silent; doubt-less.


The Sureth word in red, above, was previously compared to an Akkadian word (or two?). The Akkadian and Sureth terms appeared to be very similar.


SUMERIAN (haš, haša, and huš share a greater similarity with other Sureth and Akkadian words (e.g. Sureth hassa: back, loin...))
kaš4/kas4 - du11 to run; to hasten (Attinger, Eléments 578-586)
kuš7(SAHAR) (newest reading is šùš, possibly to be distinguished from a different occupational term sahar) equerry, groom, page, personal attendant (Beal, NABU 1992/2; Steinkeller, Sale Documents 180)
kúš to be(come) tired, weary, exhausted; to be troubled; to sigh; to ponder, deliberate; to rest, relax, be calm, calmed, soothed
haš4, háš thigh
haš(-a) (OS haš-ša4) broken, crippled (limb)
huš fierce, furious, terrifying, terrible; fiery, red-yellow

---------- Post Merged at 10:37 ----------


DIFFERENT SUBJECT


Continuing, from above.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karsu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karsanu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:19 ----------


http://www.mirbahmanyar.com/images/soldiers-of-fortune-cover-website.jpg


???

Refer as well to the other posts on the topic (including the Sureth and Hittite terms).

SUMERIAN
kuš skin, hide; leather

Alaron
2012-11-21, 15:59
So, do you think R1b-L23 played an important role in the make up of Ancient Assyrians?

Humanist
2012-11-21, 17:04
So, do you think R1b-L23 played an important role in the make up of Ancient Assyrians?

I honestly cannot say. Sorry if I provide a bit of a long-winded reply. Were forms of R-L23 present in some of the myriad of groups deported to Assyria and Babylonia during the 1st millennium? Yeah, that I would bet on. How "indigenous" it is to Mesopotamia is a different question. A question, I am afraid, that only aDNA (and a lot of it) can resolve. Also, "Assyrians," just like "Germans," "Egyptians," and others are an evolving amalgam of peoples (both ancient and modern). The Akkadians were not necessarily the same mix as the "Old" Assyrians. The "Old" Assyrians were not necessarily the same mix as the "Middle" Assyrians. The "Middle" Assyrians were not necessarily the same mix as the "Neo" Assyrians. And, the "Neo" Assyrians were not necessarily the same mix as modern Assyrians ("Suraye"). Circumstances, for example, isolation (both natural and man-made), have preserved ancient genetic links in some populations more than others. I believe today's "Suraye" may be (principally) a genetic mix of peoples from the ~ second half of the 1st millennium BCE. So, for at least ~2500-2000 years, R-L23 has had a decent presence in Mesopotamia, I believe.

Humanist
2012-11-21, 19:18
SURETH
tantusi
[Sky → Climate]
English : (intransitive verb) : to drizzle , to mizzle , to rain slightly in very small drops
Dialect : Urmiah

tantasta
[Sky → Climate]
English : drizzling , raining gently in fine drops , drizzle , fine rain
Dialect : Urmiah

'ṭina
[Country]
English : 1) mud , mire , wet and soft earth , a pasty mixture of earth and water , clay ; 2) mortar without lime

'tantiš / kankiš
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) sea fishing : a trawl ; 2) verbe : to trawl
Dialect : Urmiah

'iamma / 'iama / 'iamtha
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) the sea , archaic : the main ; 2) a lake ; ܝܲܡܵܐ ܕܣܘܿܦ : the Sea of Reeds, the Red Sea ; ܓܸܠܵܐ ܕܝܲܡܵܐ : a seaweed / sea-weed

(Humanist)
gami : boat


SUMERIAN (All, of course, may not be relevant.)
te(n), te-en (redupl. te-en-te) to cool; to soothe, assuage; to extinguish (a fire); to annihilate
te-en cool, cold; te-te-en very cool (Sjöberg, AV Jacobsen (2002) 232; root was originally te-me-en like sun/sumun)
tin wine (Badler, BaM 27 (1996) 42, identified a residue in an excavated pot as that of a "grape liquid, most probably wine," suggesting that wine was known in Mesopotamia as early as the late Uruk period.)
igi-te-en meshes of a net
tuš to sit, take a seat; to settle, establish residence; to dwell, reside, stay, abide The standard grammars state that forms include: tuš perf. sg.; dúr-ru-u(n) perf. pl., imperf. sg. and pl. or durunx(DÚR.DÚR) in Presargonic Lagash texts (Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 135; Edzard, Sumerian Grammar p. 78; Steinkeller, Or 48 [1979] 55f. n. 6). But it seems more likely that the distinction is actually tuš sg. vs. dúr(un) pl. irregardless of aspect. The infinitive, for example, is (tuš-)tuš-ù-dè.
ki-tuš seat, residence, dwelling place, habitation
kíĝ (kin) to seek, search out
kun tail; outlet, end of a river, canal
kùš cubit (a length measure = 1/6 gi = ca. 0.5 meter)
kúšu ku6 shark (PSD B); turtle, tortise (Cohen, JCS 25, 203-210); crab or snapping turtle (ePSD)
(giš)má boat
gu4 ku6 marsh-carp (arsuppu) (better eštubku6?)


AKKADIAN (Searched briefly. Need to continue.)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tamtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu1_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu2_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu3_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/agammu4_.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 14:18 ----------

DIFFERENT TOPIC

Refer to the "Sun of God" post, above.

Please note. When the author refers to "Syrian," he is referring to us. Not the country Syria or the people of the Syrian state. Yeah, I know. The constant "notes" are annoying. But, imagine how irritating it is for us.


The comparison of Christ with the Sun in Ephrem is as common as in the Mesopotamian sources, where kings are compared to the sun. Ephrem was well aware that the most ancient sun-worship was at home in Babylonia, as he says of the emperor in Hymns against Julian 4.11: “If, then, while honoring the sun, he determined to march (to Persia), it escaped his notice that it was worshipped especially there. If, moreover, the Chaldeans’ home is in Babylon, should he, a stranger, be exalted?” (McVey 1989, 253) In another place, Hymns on Nativity 27, Ephrem himself was capable of combining Christian belief with the imagery of Sol Invictus. The epithets of Christ as the Sun in Ephrem correspond in all aspects with those of Šamaš in Mesopotamian religion, especially that of “the Sun of justice” (šemš° ¦zadd÷q$©°, Tubach 1986, 92–93). The sun imagery that Ephrem used was of necessity from syncretic origins (see Tubach 1986, 83–107).

The common imagery of rulers as “shepherds” was shared by Mesopotamian writers and the Syrian Church fathers. The pastoral symbolism in Mesopotamia, which described both the deities and heroes as “shepherds” and the cities like Ur or Uruk as “sheepfolds”, were also used in Syrian Christian literature in regard to Christ, his apostles and their people (see Murray 2006, 187–88).

Annus, Amar. “The Survivals of the Ancient Syrian and Mesopotamian Intellectual Traditions in the Writings of Ephrem Syrus.” Ugarit-Forschungen 38 (2006) 1-25.

Humanist
2012-11-21, 21:47
Another Sureth saying I have been wondering about.

I may be getting the transliteration wrong.

SURETH
ili bili, ili buli, uli buli, uli bili ??? : incessant (?), insistent (?)

AKKADIAN
[DEAD LINKS]

These Akkadian words appear to capture the meaning of the Sureth saying, in my opinion.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/belu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/beluB.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu9.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu10.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu11.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu12.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balu13.jpg


SURETH
'bali [bli!]
[Feeding]
English : to swallow , to gulp , to ingest
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA


SUMERIAN
bala (rotating) term of office or service, turn of duty; reign; prebend cf. bala-gub-ba term of duty
bala, bal to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)
bu-lu-úh/buluh - si-il to belch, burp
bul (bu5), to blow, blow up, fill with air

Humanist
2012-11-21, 23:01
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/2017_1377819.jpg

The Herring Net, 1885
Winslow Homer :)


SURETH (also A. Annus, 2006)
mallaḥa
[Transport → Sea]
English : 1) a (ship) pilot , one employed to steer a vessel ; 2) a mariner , a sailor
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

maluḥa [milḥa]
[Feeding → Food]
English : 1) masculine : salt ; 2) adjective : salt , made of salt ; feminine : ܡܲܠܘܼܚܬܵܐ : 1) : salt ; 2) adjective : salt , made of salt
Dialect : NENA


SUMERIAN
má-lah4 boat owner, skipper, boatman
luh to be clean; to clean, wash; to purify, refine
luh-ha cleaned, refined



About Sea Salt Cleanse Formula
By Shelley Moore

A sea salt cleanse is basically a laxative, and a very easy and inexpensive one. All you need to do is drink a mixture of 2 tsp. of sea salt dissolved in 1 qt. of warm water, and you should begin seeing results within 30 minutes to 2 hours. Lemon can be added if the salt water is just too difficult to swallow. Naturopaths say that this cleanse removes toxins. If nothing else, it will definitely relieve constipation.

Wikipedia


Salt-cured meat or salted meat, for example bacon and kippered herring, is meat or fish preserved or cured with salt. Salting, either with dry salt or brine, was the only widely available method of preserving meat until the 19th century. It was frequently called 'junk'[1] or 'salt horse'.[2]

Salt inhibits the growth of microorganisms by drawing water out of microbial cells through osmosis. Concentrations of salt up to 20% are required to kill most species of unwanted bacteria. Smoking, often used in the process of curing meat, adds chemicals to the surface of meat that reduce the concentration of salt required.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malahu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-22, 00:40
Continuing the comparison from the post immediately above between Sureth, Sumerian, and Akkadian. Specifically, here, between Sumerian (i.e. "luh"/"luh-ha") and Sureth. Need to search Akkadian.


SURETH
'lḥa
[Humanities → Language]
English : to erase , to rub , to scrape out , to obliterate , to rub off , to wipe away
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 19:40 ----------

So far, I have come across this Akkadian word. But, it appears to have the opposite meaning to the Sumerian and Sureth terms. Will search more later.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-22, 02:18
SURETH
'tulla
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a pup , a puppy , a young dog , the young of canine family , a cub , a whelp
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


SUMERIAN
túl (public) fountain, well
ti-la alive, living, while alive
di4-di4(-lá) little ones, youngsters, children (reduplicated form of tur) W. Farber, Mesopotamian Civilizations 2 (1989) 9 reads du13-du13-lá.
ti(l), ti-il v. to live, be alive; to dwell


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tulu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tulu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-22, 07:29
SURETH
šakkuki
English : 1) to loosen , to free from the attachment , to free / loosen up , to slacken (?) / make less tight (?) , to untie , to unbind , to unfasten , belt, clothing ... ; to unclasp (?) , to unbuckle (?) ; 2) to quake , to move ; 3) to offend , to hurt , to insult , to outrage ; 4) to distrust , to mistrust , to doubt (?) / suspect (?) / misdoubt (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'kaka / 'kika
[Human → Body]
English : 1) a tooth : a fang (?)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakaku.jpg



harrow
noun
1.an agricultural implement with spikelike teeth or upright disks, drawn chiefly over plowed land to level it, break up clods, root up weeds, etc.

verb (used with object)
2.to draw a harrow over (land).
3.to disturb keenly or painfully; distress the mind, feelings, etc., of.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/harrow



Harrow: It has a wooden plank to which wood/iron pegs, handle and bamboo shaft are fitted. It is used for breaking soil crust after rain and also for uprooting weeds

http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5672E/x5672e3m.gif

http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5672E/x5672e0a.htm


SUMERIAN
šuku(dr) subsistance allotment/plot (šuku is the conventional reading, ePSD reads šúkur, and some now read pad(r). The value kur6 does not exist; see Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Legal Texts 69, also Civil, AV Biggs 29 s.v. kurum.) (kurummatu)
šà-gu4 plowman's assistant
(giš)gag (or kak) peg, nail, cone, plug (For description of the inscribed pierced cones which recorded property sales see Steinkeller, Sales Documents 238-241.)

---------- Post Merged at 02:29 ----------


Continuing the comparison from the post immediately above between Sureth, Sumerian, and Akkadian. Specifically, here, between Sumerian (i.e. "luh"/"luh-ha") and Sureth. Need to search Akkadian.


SURETH
'lḥa
[Humanities → Language]
English : to erase , to rub , to scrape out , to obliterate , to rub off , to wipe away
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 19:40 ----------

So far, I have come across this Akkadian word. But, it appears to have the opposite meaning to the Sumerian and Sureth terms. Will search more later.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luuB.jpg

Adding to Akkadian.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malahuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-22, 08:52
SURETH
'ganna
[Country → Agriculture]
English : masculine : a garden
Dialect : Urmiah

'gantha ['gintha]
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a garden , a piece of ground appropriated for the cultivation of fruits , herbs , flowers and vegetables ; plural : ܓܲܢܢܹ̈ܐ : gardens
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other

'ganni
[Country → Agriculture]
English : plural of ܓܲܢܬܵܐ : gardens
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other

'gana
[Religion]
English : 1) self ; ܓܵܢܝܼ : myself ; masculine : ܓܵܢܲܢ / feminine : ܓܵܢ̈ܵܬܲܢ : ourselves ; ܓܵܢ ܓܵܢܝܼ : my very self ; ܕܓܵܢܝܼ : my own ; ܒܓܵܢܝܼ / Tiari : ܒܓ̰ܵܢܝܼ / ܒܓ̰ܵܢ ܕܝܼܕܝܼ : I myself ; Ashita : ܪ݇ܚܝܼܫ ܠܠܹܗ ܛܠܵܐ ܓ̰ܵܢܹܗ : he wandered at random ; 2) the soul / breath of life , the spirit ; ܩܵܕ݇ܡ ܓܵܢܵܐ : at the point of death ; ܫܵܩܸܠ ܓܵܢܵܐ ܕ : to annoy greatly , to rile , to rankle ; Tiari, Ashita : adjuration / begging : ܒܗܿܝ ܓ̰ܵܢܘܼܟ݂ : in the name of God , "by the soul" ; adjective : ܒܚܕܵܐ ܓܵܵܢܵܐ : unanimous ; 3) a person ; 4) life ; 5) Psalm : 35, 25 : desire , aspiration / ambition (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac
This word is of Persian / Kurdish / Turkish origin [<-- ???]


[U]SUMERIAN
gána field area, agricultural tract, (cultivated) ground or land (Powell, JCS 25, 178-184)
géme (OS var. gan) (dependent) woman; female serf (Maiocchi, CUSAS 13, 36); female slave, servant, worker (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 91-93)
kinda, kindagal, (kínda in OS) barber; slave marker (gallābu)
kíĝ (kin) to seek, search out
kíĝ (kin) work, job; duties (Civil, AV Hallo 76) (kíĝ is now the preferred writing, but the word is still seen written with a final /n/ like hun)
kíĝ-a5 to perform work, labor


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gannatu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginnatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gananu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 03:52 ----------

Adding to Sureth.

SURETH
egana
[Human → Body]
English : to prostrate , to lie prostrated / with the body stretched out , to lower / abase self
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-22, 12:36
Continuing from above. Adding to Akkadian.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gana.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ingana.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------------------------


DIFFERENT SUBJECT

AKKADIAN ("gardu") and ELAMITE ("kurtas")

From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire
Pierre Briant

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gardu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gardu1.jpg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ardu_.jpg



SURETH
'karda
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a plot , a small area of ground , a vegetable bed , a garden-bed , a garden-plot
Dialect : Urmiah


'škarta
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a plot of land , an allotment of land ready for sowing , a garden plot
Dialect : Urmiah


'urdu
[Army]
English : a horde , a host , a wandering troop , a number of men embodied for war
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
ìr, ir11, arad(2), urdu(2) male slave, servant. (a) Pre-Sarg. èr/ìr(NÍTA) or ir11(NÍTAxKUR) and àr-dú. (b) Sarg. àr-dú abandoned in favor of arad(NÍTA) or árad(NÍTAxKUR). (c) Sarg. and Ur III arad/árad and ìr/ir11 are all possible (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 82ff.) CDLI now prefers just ARAD or ÁRAD everywhere. See most recently Michalowski, Correspondence 227f. for forms and discussion. (ardu)


2
SURETH
'amta
[Professions]
English : a handmaid , a female servant or attendant , a maid that waits at hand
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
ama-tu(d), ama-a-tu house-born slave (cf. ama5)
ama5, (ama) private quarters of women and young children (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 76-78) (cf. é-mí)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/amtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-22, 22:11
SURETH
šakkuki
English : 1) to loosen , to free from the attachment , to free / loosen up , to slacken (?) / make less tight (?) , to untie , to unbind , to unfasten , belt, clothing ... ; to unclasp (?) , to unbuckle (?) ; 2) to quake , to move ; 3) to offend , to hurt , to insult , to outrage ; 4) to distrust , to mistrust , to doubt (?) / suspect (?) / misdoubt (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'kaka / 'kika
[Human → Body]
English : 1) a tooth : a fang (?)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakaku.jpg


harrow
noun
1.an agricultural implement with spikelike teeth or upright disks, drawn chiefly over plowed land to level it, break up clods, root up weeds, etc.

verb (used with object)
2.to draw a harrow over (land).
3.to disturb keenly or painfully; distress the mind, feelings, etc., of.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/harrow


Harrow: It has a wooden plank to which wood/iron pegs, handle and bamboo shaft are fitted. It is used for breaking soil crust after rain and also for uprooting weeds

http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5672E/x5672e3m.gif

http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5672E/x5672e0a.htm



SUMERIAN
šuku(dr) subsistance allotment/plot (šuku is the conventional reading, ePSD reads šúkur, and some now read pad(r). The value kur6 does not exist; see Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Legal Texts 69, also Civil, AV Biggs 29 s.v. kurum.) (kurummatu)
šà-gu4 plowman's assistant
(giš)gag (or kak) peg, nail, cone, plug (For description of the inscribed pierced cones which recorded property sales see Steinkeller, Sales Documents 238-241.)


Did not mean to leave this Akkadian word out.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakku_.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 17:11 ----------

SURETH
bit 'tšaki --> (bit kaki??)
[Army → Weapons]
English : an arsenal , a place for the storage of arms and military stores , a place for the manufacture of weapons
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-23, 01:41
Wikipedia

Cultural memory

Historiographical approach


Time

Crucial in understanding cultural memory as a phenomenon is the distinction between memory and history. This distinction was put forward by Pierre Nora, who pinpointed a niche in-between history and memory. Simply put, memories are the events that actually happened, while histories are subjective representations of what historians believe is crucial to remember. This dichotomy, it should be noted, emerged at a particular moment in history: it implies that there used to be a time when memories could exist as such — without being representational.

Scholars disagree as to when to locate the moment representation 'took over'. Nora points to the formation of European nation states. For Richard Terdiman, the French revolution is the breaking point: the change of a political system, together with the emergence of industrialization and urbanization, made life more complex than ever before. This not only resulted in an increasing difficulty for people to understand the new society in which they were living, but also, as this break was so radical, people had trouble relating to the past before the revolution. In this situation, people no longer had an implicit understanding of their past. In order to understand the past, it had to be represented through history. As people realized that history was only one version of the past, they became more and more concerned with their own cultural heritage (in French called patrimoine) which helped them shape a collective and national identity. In search for an identity to bind a country or people together, governments have constructed collective memories in the form of commemorations which should bring and keep together minority groups and individuals with conflicting agendas. What becomes clear is that the obsession with memory coincides with the fear of forgetting and the aim for authenticity.

However, more recently questions have arisen whether there ever was a time in which 'pure', non-representational memory existed – as Nora in particular put forward. Scholars like Tony Bennett rightly point out that representation is a crucial precondition for human perception in general: pure, organic and objective memories can never be witnessed as such.


This is applicable to all groups, to some extent, of course. However, it does not apply equally to all. There are some groups with ties to the past. To the deep past. What we need is an unbiased examination of the complete record, time, and an open-minded audience. Unfortunately, at the present moment, the aforementioned conditions do not exist.

And time periods.

As with my note regarding Jesus, the same applies here. I do not mean to suggest that Abraham did not exist. However, I believe the timeline (if he actually existed) may be inconsistent with the reality. I may not know a great deal about the Bible, but I do have "history," genetics of contemporary populations, and perhaps linguistics in my corner. The archaeological record is incomplete. At least, in my opinion.

Thus, "Ur of the Chaldees" may not be anachronistic (i.e. The "Chaldeans" were not attested in the written records before 878 BCE. See Fales 2011).


Genesis 17:5
New International Version (NIV)

5 No longer will you be called Abram[a]; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations.

Footnotes:
Genesis 17:5 Abram means exalted father.
Genesis 17:5 Abraham probably means father of many.

http://www.abrahams-legacy.org/_domain/abrahams-legacy.org/images/abrahams-journey-map.gif


Adding a few terms from Sumerian. Quickly searched the CAD. [B]Need to search both Akkadian and Sumerian further. The relevant Sureth terms were posted a few months back.

SUMERIAN
a, `à water, fluid; semen, seed; offspring, child; father; watercourse (cf. e)
a-a-ugu(4) father who has begotten, one's own true father, progenitor
a-ab-ba, a-aba (water of the) sea (cf. ab)
a-ab-ba sig Lower Sea, the Persian Gulf
ab, ab-ba, a-ab-ba, a-aba sea
ab-ba, ábba(ABxÁŠ) old man, elder, wise man; father; witness
ab-ba-ab-ba grandfather


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abratu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ramuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ramuA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ramuC.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ramuD.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ramuE.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ramuF.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rahu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rahuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rahuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rehu.jpg


Wikipedia


Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם (help·info), Modern: Avraham, Greek: Αβραάμ (Avraam), Tiberian: ʼAḇrāhām, Ashkenazi: Avrohom or Avruhom, Arabic: إبراهيم‎ Ibrāhīm) is one of the biblical patriarchs and a major character in the epic of the Israelites.[1] His story is told in chapters 11-25 of the Book of Genesis, and he plays a prominent role in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.[2]

According to the account in Genesis, at the age of 75, Abram, following what he took to be God's command, took his wife Sarai, and his household and traveled from Haran to Shechem in Canaan. Abram enters into a covenant with God, signified by the rite of circumcision. Abram is now known as Abraham (“father of many nations”), and Sarai becomes Sarah. As Abraham and Sarah are childless, Sarah suggests Abraham have a child by her handmaid, Hagar. Hagar bears Abraham his firstborn, Ishmael. Abraham and Sarah later become the parents of Isaac.

In Jewish and Christian tradition, Abraham is the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac. In Islamic tradition, Abraham is considered a prophet of Islam, an ancestor of Muhammad, through Ishmael. Muslims regard him as an example of the perfect Muslim, and the revered reformer of the Kaaba in Mecca. Bahá'u'lláh, the prophet of the Baha'i Faith, affirms the highest religious station for Abraham. In the New Testament Abraham is described as a man of faith. He is regarded as the patron saint of those in the hospitality industry.

The life of Abraham is related in Genesis 11:26–25:10 of the Hebrew Bible.

Abram's origins and calling

Terah, the tenth in descent from Noah, fathered Abram, Nahor and Haran, and Haran fathered Lot. Haran died in his native Ur of the Chaldees, and Abram married Sarai, who was barren. Terah, with Abram, Sarai and Lot, then departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205. (Genesis 11:27–11:32)

God appeared to Abram and told him to depart. After settling in Haran, where his father Terah died, God then told Abram to leave his country and his father's house for a land that He would show him, promising to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless those who blessed him, and curse those who cursed him. (Genesis 12:1–3) Following God's command, at age 75, Abram took his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and the wealth and persons that they had acquired, and traveled to Shechem in Canaan.

A painting of Abraham's departure by József Molnár

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Moln%C3%A1r_%C3%81brah%C3%A1m_kik%C3%B6lt%C3%B6z%C 3%A9se_1850.jpg/659px-Moln%C3%A1r_%C3%81brah%C3%A1m_kik%C3%B6lt%C3%B6z%C 3%A9se_1850.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-23, 04:18
Thus, "Ur of the Chaldees" may not be anachronistic (i.e. The "Chaldeans" were not attested in the written records before 878 BCE. See Fales 2011).


Genesis 17:5
New International Version (NIV)

5 No longer will you be called Abram[a]; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations.

Footnotes:
Genesis 17:5 Abram means exalted father.
Genesis 17:5 Abraham probably means father of many.

http://www.abrahams-legacy.org/_domain/abrahams-legacy.org/images/abrahams-journey-map.gif


Adding a few terms from Sumerian. Quickly searched the CAD. [B]Need to search both Akkadian and Sumerian further. The relevant Sureth terms were posted a few months back.

SUMERIAN
a, `à water, fluid; semen, seed; offspring, child; father; watercourse (cf. e)
a-a-ugu(4) father who has begotten, one's own true father, progenitor
a-ab-ba, a-aba (water of the) sea (cf. ab)
a-ab-ba sig Lower Sea, the Persian Gulf
ab, ab-ba, a-ab-ba, a-aba sea
ab-ba, ábba(ABxÁŠ) old man, elder, wise man; father; witness
ab-ba-ab-ba grandfather


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abu_.jpg

[See the post above for all of the Akkadian terms.]


Wikipedia


Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם (help·info), Modern: Avraham, Greek: Αβραάμ (Avraam), Tiberian: ʼAḇrāhām, Ashkenazi: Avrohom or Avruhom, Arabic: إبراهيم‎ Ibrāhīm) is one of the biblical patriarchs and a major character in the epic of the Israelites.[1] His story is told in chapters 11-25 of the Book of Genesis, and he plays a prominent role in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.[2]

According to the account in Genesis, at the age of 75, Abram, following what he took to be God's command, took his wife Sarai, and his household and traveled from Haran to Shechem in Canaan. Abram enters into a covenant with God, signified by the rite of circumcision. Abram is now known as Abraham (“father of many nations”), and Sarai becomes Sarah. As Abraham and Sarah are childless, Sarah suggests Abraham have a child by her handmaid, Hagar. Hagar bears Abraham his firstborn, Ishmael. Abraham and Sarah later become the parents of Isaac.

A painting of Abraham's departure by József Molnár

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Moln%C3%A1r_%C3%81brah%C3%A1m_kik%C3%B6lt%C3%B6z%C 3%A9se_1850.jpg/659px-Moln%C3%A1r_%C3%81brah%C3%A1m_kik%C3%B6lt%C3%B6z%C 3%A9se_1850.jpg


From the above post, please refer in particular to the Sumerian terms (in red). This post is in regard to the terms for "beard," and the Tigris river in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Sureth.


SUMERIAN
i7 idigna the Tigris
di-ku5 judge; judging (cf. ki di-ku5)
sù(g) to be full, filled with (-a) (var. of si(g)); to be (richly) equipped or embellished/decorated with; to wear (a beard); to be served food (see ú - sù(g))
su - zi(g) to have gooseflesh, become frightened (G. Cunningham, Analysing Lit. Sum. 89)
sù, su to sink (as of boats) (Civil, AV Wilcke 80)
su6 (sum4) beard
zi(g) to rise, raise; to get excited; to muster, levy (workers or troops); to remove, expend; to be excepted, left out (NABU 1994/ 82)
zi-ga mobilization, levy; (something) raised
sa6(g), ša6(g) to slaughter (sheep, goats) (reading uncertain, cf. perhaps sìg/sàg to strike, also šár to slaughter sheep)
sa6(g), ša6(g) to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa6 to be a favorite of (sa6 is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)
sa6(-ga), ša6(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing
sa7(g) to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa6)


SURETH
'diqna
[Human → Body]
English : a beard
Dialect :

diqnana
[Human → Body]
English : bearded
Dialect : Urmiah

'daqna
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the chin ; 2) Classical Syriac : a beard
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

ḥwar 'diqna
[Government]
English : 1) literally : white-bearded ; 2) a respectable old man , a respected elderly man , an elder , a man whose age entitles to occupy the office of a judge , any person occupying an office requiring experience along with dignity and number of years , an alderman
Dialect : Eastern Syriac [Urmia]

'diqlat
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : Genesis : 2, 14 : the Tigris river , Hiddekel , a major river in Mesopotamia
Dialect : Classical Syriac

šaa
[Human → Body]
English : beardless , without a beard , with no hair on the face , smooth-faced , glabrous (?)
Dialect : Urmiah



[U]AKKADIAN (sources are CAD and the Akkadian Online Dictionary)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tigris.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziqnu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ziqnanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zaqnu.jpg


Wikipedia


Tigris

The Tigris appears twice in the Bible. In the Book of Genesis, the Tigris is the third of the four rivers branching off the river issuing out of the Garden of Eden.[7] Daniel received one of his visions "when I was by that great river the Tigris".[8]

In Sumerian mythology, the Tigris was created by the god Enki, who filled the river with flowing water.[9]


Enki

The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is "Lord of the Earth": the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to "lord"; it was originally a title given to the High Priest....

....

Considered the master shaper of the world, god of wisdom and of all magic, Enki was characterized as the lord of the Abzu (Apsu in Akkadian), the freshwater sea or groundwater located within the earth. In the later Babylonian epic Enûma Eliš, Abzu, the "begetter of the gods", is inert and sleepy but finds his peace disturbed by the younger gods, so sets out to destroy them. His grandson Enki, chosen to represent the younger gods, puts a spell on Abzu "casting him into a deep sleep", thereby confining him deep underground. Enki subsequently sets up his home "in the depths of the Abzu." Enki thus takes on all of the functions of the Abzu, including his fertilising powers as lord of the waters and lord of semen.[7]

Early royal inscriptions from the third millennium BCE mention "the reeds of Enki". Reeds were an important local building material, used for baskets and containers, and collected outside the city walls, where the dead or sick were often carried. This links Enki to the Kur or underworld of Sumerian mythology. In another even older tradition, Nammu, the goddess of the primeval creative matter and the mother-goddess portrayed as having "given birth to the great gods," was the mother of Enki, and as the watery creative force, was said to preexist Ea-Enki.[8] Benito states "With Enki it is an interesting change of gender symbolism, the fertilising agent is also water, Sumerian "a" or "Ab" which also means "semen". In one evocative passage in a Sumerian hymn, Enki stands at the empty riverbeds and fills them with his 'water'".[9] This may be a reference to Enki's hieros gamos or sacred marriage with Ki/Ninhursag (the Earth) (see below).

....

Enki was considered a god of life and replenishment, and was often depicted with two streams of water emanating from his shoulders, one the Tigris, the other the Euphrates. Alongside him were trees symbolising the female and male aspects of nature, each holding the female and male aspects of the 'Life Essence', which he, as apparent alchemist of the gods, would masterfully mix to create several beings that would live upon the face of the earth.

....

Enki and later Ea were apparently depicted, sometimes, like Adapa, as a man covered with the skin of a fish, and this representation, as likewise the name of his temple E-apsu, "house of the watery deep", points decidedly to his original character as a god of the waters (see Oannes).


Enki

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Copia_de_Enki.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-23, 07:39
A few thoughts. Just thoughts.


From the Mario Fales paper referred to above.


And finally, from the cultural point of view, the Chaldeans embraced Babylonian ways quite soon after their arrival. Both leaders and commoners of the Chaldeans mentioned in the texts bore fully Babylonian personal names, with devotional reference to the traditional Sumero-Akkadian pantheon of the region. This aspect – so obvious in the written record as to be a given – does not seem to have been investigated in depth as regards its possible causes. Much clearer, on the other hand, are the political implications of this clear cultural stance, viz. the capacity of the Chaldeans to enter the arena of military appropriation and territorial supremacy in the Southern Mesopotamian region boasting exactly the same rights as the local population of ancient stock. And the consequences of this capacity would not be long in bearing fruit, under the specific stimulus provided by continuous Assyrian interference in Babylonian affairs.

Wikipedia

Chaldea as the name of a country is used in two different senses. In the early period it was the name of a small territory in southern Babylonia extending along the northern and probably also the western shores of the Persian Gulf.[1] It is called in Assyrian mat Kaldi "land of Chaldea". The expression mat Bit Yakin is also used, apparently synchronously. It would appear that Bit Yakin was the chief or capital city of the land; and the king of Chaldea is also called the king of Bit Yakin, just as the kings of Babylonia are regularly styled simply king of Babylon, the capital city. In the same way, the Persian Gulf was sometimes called "the Sea of Bit Yakin, instead of "the Sea of the Land of Chaldea."

....

When the Babylonian Empire empire was absorbed into the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name "Chaldean" lost its meaning as the name of a race of men, and came to be applied only to a social class. The Persians found the Chaldeans masters of reading and writing, and especially versed in all forms of incantation, in sorcery, witchcraft, and the magical arts. They quite naturally spoke of astrologists and astronomers as Chaldeans. It therefore resulted that Chaldean came to mean astrologist. In this sense it is used in the Book of Daniel (Dan. i. 4, ii. 2 et seq.), and with the same meaning it is used by the classical writers (for example, by Strabo).


http://www.robotwisdom.com/science/chaldea.gif


Perhaps the Chaldeans (Assyrian Akkadian: "Kaldu"; Babylonian Akkadian: "Kasdu") were a sort of "Old Guard." I am not saying that they did not have recent immigrants among them, but perhaps they were, by and large, Babylonians. Babylonians who placed an importance on the traditions of old (Sumero-Akkadian and Kassite??*). So, perhaps "Chaldean" was more of a socio-cultural class identifier, than anything else. That is why they are not attested in the written record before 878 BCE. That is why they appeared to "adopt" the Sumero-Akkadian traditions en masse. Just a thought.


SUMERIAN
gal-di (ppl. of gal - du11) greatly accomplished, pre-eminent, excellent, excelling (ra'bu, tizqāru); cf. gal-gal-di boaster, boasting(?) (mukabbiru) (Attinger, Eléments 510ff.)
gal, gu-ul v. and adj. (to be) big, large, great; older, elder, eldest
kal to be precious, dear, valuable
ĝiš - dù to bring an offering (Sjöberg, AV Limet 139)
ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)
ĝeštu(g)1-3 ear; intelligence, mind, understanding, reason


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasdu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasittu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassu.jpg


** (EA = El-Amarna)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaldu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuldu.jpg



* Wikipedia

The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC (short chronology).

The Kassite language is thought to have been related to Hurrian,[1] and not Indo-European or Semitic although the evidence for its genetic affiliation is meager due to the scarcity of extant texts. However, several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they might have had an Indo-European elite similliar to the Mitanni.[2]



Ḫaldi (dḪaldi, also anglicized as Khaldi) was one of the three chief deities of Ararat (Urartu). His shrine was at Ardini. The other two chief deities were Theispas of Kumenu, and Shivini of Tushpa.[1]

Of all the gods of Ararat (Urartu) panthenon, the most inscriptions are dedicated to him.[citation needed] His wife was the goddess Arubani. He is portrayed as a man with or without a beard, standing on a lion.[citation needed]

Khaldi was a warrior god whom the kings of Urartu would pray to for victories in battle. The temples dedicated to Khaldi were adorned with weapons, such as swords, spears, bow and arrows, and shields hung off the walls and were sometimes known as 'the house of weapons'.

Depiction of the Araratian god Khaldi. Erebouni Fortress Museum: Yerevan, Armenia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/Khaldi.JPG/450px-Khaldi.JPG


**

What are the Amarna Tablets?
The clay tablets are mainly diplomatic letters (with a few myths and epics) written in cuneiform script (wedge prints made in wet clay then baked), often covering both sides of a tablet for efficiency.

When were the tablets written?
A very brief period historically: the second half of the fourteenth century BCE (1400-1300 BCE), the “New Kingdom” period in Ancient Egypt and late Bronze Age in Palestine. The actual duration of the correspondence is likely not much more than 25 years total. The tablets take us intimately into one of the most popularly recognized periods in ancient Egypt with connections to Nefertiti and her husband Akhenaten, sometimes credited with being one of the first monotheists.

The tablets found in El-Amarna are mostly “letters received” from abroad, not letters written in Egypt.

Letters from abroad came from other kings of Babylonia, Assyria, Hatti (Hittites in Eastern Asia Minor), Mittani (Hurrian, north of Assyria), and Cyprus (Alashiya), but the majority come from vassal rulers in Syria-Palestine (Canaan, Lebanon, Ugarit, and the eastern Mediterranean coastal lands).

Letters from Egypt were written by scribes of the pharaohs and were sent out of Egypt and presumably lie in the ruins of the cities where they were received. Some draft letters by the pharaohs, however, stayed in Akhetaten. We can also assume that most copies of vital correspondence were archived locally in the Egyptian language, rather than in their Akkadian translations.

What topics do they deal with?
Exchanges of gifts between rulers (e.g., fancy furniture, gold, linen, etc.)
Diplomatic marriages (one letter from a Babylonian king asked for proof that his sister, one of Pharaoh’s earlier wives, is still alive before sending the Pharaoh his daughter as a new wife!)
News about events in distant cities: Byblos, Tyre, etc.
Requests for grain and other foodstuffs, lumber, ships, military aid, etc.
Vassals’ concerns about the rising military threat of the Hittites on the northern borders of Egyptian influence and concern from Jerusalem and Gezer, too, about the military threat from the ‘Apiru.
A few contain myths and legends.


http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/ancient_texts/elamarna.shtml

Humanist
2012-11-23, 08:48
More from Fales.


The territories of the three main Chaldean groupings (Bit-Dakkuri, Bit-Amukkani, Bit-Yakin) extended in a sort of arc along the “living” Euphrates branches from the Borsippa region to the Uruk countryside to the southernmost reaches of the Euphrates around Ur and into the marshlands to the east. Specifically, Bit-Dakkuri probably occupied the cultivated areas along the river from the area of Borsippa (present Birs Nimrud) to that of Marad (present Diwaniyah), and thus definitely to the northwest of Bit-Amukkani19, which controlled a territory in the central sector of southern Mesopotamia, more or less between Nippur and Uruk. Bit-Yakin occupied the more southern sector of the alluvial plane, including ample marshy areas – hence the definition of Merodach-baladan as “king of the Sealand” by Sennacherib.


Wikipedia

"Cities of Sumer" [I have added what I believe are roughly accurate locations for the three Chaldean groups as described by Fales above]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chaldea_sumer.jpg


When I read the name "Bit-Yakin," I was reminded of an Akkadian word I had come across a while back. Not necessarily related in any way.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku4_.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-23, 09:50
SURETH
pardaisa
[Country]
English : 1) Paradise , the garden of Eden , the dwelling place of resurrected souls (saints) ; 2) a garden , a park
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pardesu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-23, 11:03
SURETH
'prat
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : the Euphrates river

prt
English : to burst , to split

'praṭa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : 1) to rend , to tear off , to separate with force or sudden violence , to rip , to split , to lacerate , to rive ; 2) to burst , to make an opening into

'prata
English : transitive verb : to rip , to divide / separate the parts of by tearing , to tear off / out by violence , to make a rent / rents in , to rend , to unpick / unstitch / undo -a seam, a hem- (?)


AKKADIAN
Purattu : Euphrates River

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biritu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birit_birit.jpg


Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Tigr-euph.png/300px-Tigr-euph.png

Humanist
2012-11-23, 12:14
Wikipedia

A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural tool used to move small amounts of soil. Common goals include weed control by agitating the surface of the soil around plants, piling soil around the base of plants (hilling), creating narrow furrows (drills) and shallow trenches for planting seeds and bulbs, to chop weeds, roots and crop residues, and even to dig or move soil, such as when harvesting root crops like potatoes.

Types

There are many types of blade of quite different appearance and purpose. Some can perform multiple functions. Others are intended for a specific use (e.g. the collinear hoe has a narrow, razor-sharp blade which is used to slice weeds by skimming it just above the surface of the soil with a sweeping motion; it is unsuitable for tasks like soil moving and chopping). The typical farming and gardening hoe with a heavy, broad delta-shaped blade and a flat edge is the Dego hoe.

The Dutch hoe (scuffle, action, oscillating, swivel, or Hula-Ho) is a design that is pushed or pulled through the soil to cut weeds just under the surface. Its tool-head is a loop of flat, sharpened strap metal. It is not as efficient as a chopping hoe for pulling or pushing soil.

Stirrup hoes are designed with a double edge blade that bends around to form a stirrup like rectangle attached to the handle. Weeds are cut just below the soil surface as the blade is pushed & pulled through the area. The back and forth motion is highly effective with cutting weeds in loose or breakable soil. Widths of the stirrup blade typically range between three to seven inches.

Pacul and cangkul are Malay or Indonesian words for a hoe used by the farmers to dig soil before they plant rice and corn. It is also very popular among farmers in India. In Tamil Nadu it is called manvetty or mammoty. In Swahili and East African English it is known as a jembe.[1]
[edit]History

History

Hoes are an ancient technology, predating the plough, and perhaps second only to the digging stick. The mr hoe or hand-plough was depicted in art as early as predynastic Egypt, and hoes are also mentioned in ancient documents like the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 18th century BCE) and the Book of Isaiah (ca. 8th century BCE).

The human damage caused by long-term use of short-handled hoes, which required the user to bend over from the waist to reach the ground, and caused permanent, crippling lower back pain to farm workers, resulted in the California Supreme Court declaring the short-handled hoe to be an unsafe hand tool that was banned under California law.[citation needed] The short-handled hoe that Governor Jerry Brown gave to César Chávez in 1975 was displayed in the California Hall of Fame in 2006.[citation needed]

A person uses a hoe to cultivate vegetables.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Peasant_in_the_vegetable_garden.JPG/800px-Peasant_in_the_vegetable_garden.JPG


SURETH
amita
[Country → Agriculture]
English : a hoe , a tool chiefly used for digging up weeds and arranging earth
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/imittu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/imittuC.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/imittuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-23, 22:53
On possible etymologies for Beth Arbaye....

I am sure the "Arbaye" bits have been mentioned.


Wikipedia


Main localities in Syriac Christianity in Northern Mesopotamia and Syria showing historical borders between the Persian and Roman empires.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/800px-N-Mesopotamia_and_Syriasvg.png



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erebu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbuB.jpg


1
Hatran, Syriac, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
nrg, nrgʾ (nārgā) n.m. axe

1 axe Hatran, Syr, JBA.
2 mattock Syr.

Locations of Hatran ("A"), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic ("D"), below. Points "B" and "C" represent the Assyrian cities of Assur and Nineveh respectively.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/axe_locations_.jpg


Another, of what are several shared lexical items between Hatran and Syriac. This is an Akkadian/Sumerian word.

(Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)

mr, mrʾ (mar, marrā) n.m. kind of hoe

1 kind of hoe Hatran, Syr, JBA.

Humanist
2012-11-24, 00:22
Comparing Druze and Assyrian mtDNA frequencies.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/jsmap.jpg


The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East
PLoS ONE 3(5): e2105. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002105

For Assyrian frequencies, see here (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/4528-Assyrian-mtDNA-Haplogroup-Distribution?p=1029051&viewfull=1#post1029051).

Sorted in descending order by Druze mtDNA frequencies.


N=311 N=75 mtDNA
31.8% 28.0% H
13.2% 1.3% X
12.5% 2.7% K
10.3% 21.3% U
7.4% 8.0% T
4.8% 16.0% HV
4.8% 18.7% J
3.5% 1.3% I
3.2% 0.0% preHV
2.6% 1.3% N1/b
2.3% 0.0% L2a3
1.6% 0.0% M1
1.3% 1.3% W
0.6% 0.0% preV


mtDNA Δ Greater
J 13.9 Assyrian
X 11.9 Druze
HV 11.2 Assyrian
U 11.0 Assyrian
K 9.8 Druze


In addition to the differences, it is interesting to note the similar frequencies for "H" and "T."

Humanist
2012-11-24, 02:21
SUMERIAN
ù and, also, furthermore, moreover; (as correlative ù ... ù either...or, neither...nor) (< Akk. u )


SURETH (and MANDAIC?)
u : and

---------- Post Merged at 21:21 ----------

SUMERIAN
du6(l) hill, hillock, mound, 'tell' (often confused with habrud, see Yuhong, AV Klein 374-381, who states that the Auslaut is /l/; cf. OS Fara name A-du6-la WF 42 iv 5) ePSD assumes a /d/ Auslaut; Steinkeller, AV Biggs 219 n. 2 provides references for /dr/) (tillu)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tillu.jpg


SURETH
tilla
[Humanities → History]
English : a man-made hill , a mound , an artificial elevation of earth (rubbles of ancient cities) , a raised bank , a pile of earth
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Humanist
2012-11-24, 04:19
I would not go to the extreme as to say "forgetting, almost entirely...of the Sumero-Akkadian culture of Babylonia and Assyria" as Jerrold Cooper does below, in his article, “I have forgotten my burden of former days!” Forgetting the Sumerians in Ancient Iraq (http://neareast.jhu.edu/pdf/Forgetting%20Sumerians.pdf), but it is a good read.


Cultures forget for many reasons. The examples of Mesopotamian forgetting that I have discussed here included the Sumerian King List’s deletion of a number of early regional states and creation of the myth of a single dynasty in control of Babylonia at any one time—all to create a history of kingship conforming to the ideology propagated by the ruling house; a forgetting of Sumerian alterity, an alterity which may actually be a figment of Assyriological imagining; and a forgetting of cuneiform itself, when, more than three millennia after its birth, it had finally outlived its usefulness. Ultimately, this last was not just a culture’s forgetting, but entailed the forgetting, almost entirely (except for the fragments preserved by biblical and classical texts), of the Sumero-Akkadian culture of Babylonia and Assyria, a culture that would only be recovered in the wake of the heroic decipherments of the nineteenth century a.d., a recovery that was followed with great interest at the early meetings of the American Oriental Society.



Paul-Alain Beaulieu
University of Toronto

[T]he vast majority of the names appearing in the tablets from Babylon are purely Babylonian, and this appears to dispel the notion that Babylon was a cosmopolitan center. But the matter is not so simple. The majority of these texts come from the archives of elite families that ruled Babylonian cities and their temples. They traced back their ancestry centuries earlier and took great pride in their pedigree and the purity of their origins. The people who appear in their documentation often belonged to the same class of old stock Babylonian families, or, if they did not, they eventually adopted their culture, and in the end often traded their foreign names for Babylonian ones. In short, a Babylonian name is no sure indication of a Babylonian origin. A well-known case is that of Zerubabel, leader of the Jews during the return from the exile. Zerubabel is a slightly Hebraized form of ZËr-Bbili, a Babylonian name which means “offspring of Babylon.” The most extensive example of such acculturation were the Chaldeans, a people of West Semitic origin that had settled in western Babylonia along the Euphrates. Almost every individual that can be identified as Chaldean has a Babylonian name. And acculturation in their case was not limited to personal names. The Chaldeans adopted Babylonian civilization as their own, and they so completely identified with it that the word ‘Chaldean’ eventually became synonymous with ‘Babylonian’ (Frame 1997 and Beaulieu 2006, 194–197). This phenomenon of acculturation may have been more widespread than we commonly assume. More importantly, it tells us something about the nature of Babylon’s cosmopolitanism. Babylonia may have been home to various ethnic groups, and Aramaic may have become its main spoken language, yet Babylonian civilization in its traditional form still represented the norm, the ideal and common denominator of society, and above all the only culture that enjoyed official support from the monarchy and the civic institutions that regulated the life of Babylonian cities. In short, surveying personal names as a barometer of Babylon’s cosmopolitanism might be misleading, if not altogether futile.

....


The Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar truly attempted to merge the religious traditions of the old Sumerian city-states with the political inheritance of imperial Assyria, the former centered on the gods, the latter on the king and his achievements. Yet, this did not lead to the emergence of a particularly coherent imperialist discourse. On the contrary, the inscriptions of Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, hark back to the traditions of the First Dynasty of Babylon and present an astonishing moral condemnation of Assyrian imperialism and brutality, no doubt a reaction to Sennacherib’s desecration of Babylon. At the same time, they present the king of Babylon as a model of the contemplative life, who shuns from feats of glory and relies on his blind faith in the gods (Beaulieu 2003). With Nebuchadnezzar we see a greater insistence on the hegemonic reach of Babylon, yet this is still embedded within the ideology of the city-state and the kingship of Sumer and Akkad. The reality of imperial rule is largely passed over in silence. Only with the last king Nabonidus do we find a limited revival of Assyrian titles, but this can be explained by the personal interest of that king in Assyrian tradition and particularly in the city of Harran, Assyria’s ephemeral last capital after the fall of Nineveh.

....

Less than twenty-five years after the death of Nebuchadnezzar the city fell easily in the hands of Cyrus the Great. This caused no traumatic disruption. The collapse of Assyria had meant the abandonment of its cities and the end of cuneiform documentation. Assyrian capitals existed only because of the monarchy and the empire. But there was no collapse of Babylon, or for that matter of any of the old Sumerian city states. The monarchy disappeared but the gods went on Cuneiform documentation continued without interruption. There was no more empire, but the core of the former empire continued to thrive. Babylon could not collapse and be abandoned like Kalhu, Dur-Åarrukin, and especially Nineveh. In fact, the city was still so important in the 3rd century that Alexander contemplated making it the center of his empire, possibly under the influence of the Chaldeans, the clerics of the god Marduk. Only with the onset of Seleucid rule did the city finally began to shrink, largely because of the creation of a rival capital at Seleucia-on-the-Tigris.


For the record, I enjoy reading Dr. Beaulieu's work, and believe he has contributed a great deal to the field. And, his paper is used more out of convenience than anything else, since many in Assyriological circles appear to be of the same opinion. But, I cannot help but think something touched on by Jerrold Cooper (above, in red) may apply just the same to the ethnic/linguistic identities applied by scholars to other Mesopotamian peoples and civilizations. Also, now the "Kaldu" of Babylon are "West Semitic?" Where did we come from then? Because our "West Semitic" signal is rather weak, all things considered.

Humanist
2012-11-24, 06:13
SURETH
era
[Human → Body]
English : vulgar : the penis, the male organ of generation
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruC.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-24, 08:19
SUMERIAN
gi(n), ge(n), gi-in to be firm, stable, secure, true; to make firm, confirm, prove, verify, certify, guarantee; to standardize (weights or measures)
gi(n), gi-na right, true, truthful; firm, secure; n. gi-na regular dues (Sjöberg, AV Limet 127)
ki-en-gi(r), ki-in-gi(r) Sumer (Steinkeller, AV Klein 308-309, analyzes as ki-engi(r) with pronunciation [ki-ngir] (cf. gi7(r)) Perhaps better ki-en-ge(r).
ki-en-gi ki-uri Sumer and Akkad
ki-gal the netherworld; (a term for foundation)
ki - ĝar to (firmly) found (buildings), to settle (people)
ki-ĝar grounds, settled place


SURETH
kina
[Moral life → Quality]
English : upright , (morally) right , just , morally erect , righteous , having rectitude / integrity , virtuous , honest , unbiased (?) , unprejudiced (?) , not slanted (?) , incorruptible
Dialect : Classical Syriac

kinta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : feminine of ܟܹܐܢܵܐ : just , upright , honest , righteous
Dialect : Classical Syriac

kin
[Moral life → Duty]
English : loyal
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

kinuta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : justice , the quality of being just (in any sense) , rectitude in dealing with others , righteousness , uprightness
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinutu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu3.jpg



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IVp3uqYZZQ

Humanist
2012-11-24, 09:59
SURETH
era
[Human → Body]
English : vulgar : the penis, the male organ of generation
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruC.jpg


Adding to Sureth.


SURETH
'šura / 'šurta
[Human → Body]
English : the navel
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-24, 22:20
SUMERIAN
gi(n), ge(n), gi-in to be firm, stable, secure, true; to make firm, confirm, prove, verify, certify, guarantee; to standardize (weights or measures)
gi(n), gi-na right, true, truthful; firm, secure; n. gi-na regular dues (Sjöberg, AV Limet 127)
ki-en-gi(r), ki-in-gi(r) Sumer (Steinkeller, AV Klein 308-309, analyzes as ki-engi(r) with pronunciation [ki-ngir] (cf. gi7(r)) Perhaps better ki-en-ge(r).
ki-en-gi ki-uri Sumer and Akkad
ki-gal the netherworld; (a term for foundation)
ki - ĝar to (firmly) found (buildings), to settle (people)
ki-ĝar grounds, settled place


SURETH
kina
[Moral life → Quality]
English : upright , (morally) right , just , morally erect , righteous , having rectitude / integrity , virtuous , honest , unbiased (?) , unprejudiced (?) , not slanted (?) , incorruptible
Dialect : Classical Syriac

kinta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : feminine of ܟܹܐܢܵܐ : just , upright , honest , righteous
Dialect : Classical Syriac

kin
[Moral life → Duty]
English : loyal
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

kinuta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : justice , the quality of being just (in any sense) , rectitude in dealing with others , righteousness , uprightness
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinutu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu3.jpg


Compared many months ago. But, did not include Sumerian, and additional terms from Akkadian added.

SUMERIAN
ki-nú sleeping quarters, resting place, camp; bed
ki place; ground, earth; (a term for the netherworld); place where (as relative pronoun); used before a GN to designate a state, e.g. ki Lagaški "the state of Lagaš"; used to express spatial ideas with PN's or pronouns, e.g. ki PN-ak-šè "to PN's location > to PN," ki-bi-ta "from there," ki-ba "here"
ĝi6-ù-na, ĝi6-un-na midnight, night
ĝi6 night (see also gíg and ku10)
ĝá shed, barn, enclosure (or the like)
ùn(BAD3)(-na) high (cf. ĝi6-ù/un-na midnight, si-ùn-na high point, zenith) (see also an(-na))
unu(g)ki the city Uruk
únu, unu6, únu-gal deity's private chamber, cella, sanctuary; divine dining room, banquet hall


SURETH
ginna
[Army → War]
English : a refuge , a shelter , an asylum , a protection , figurative sense : a shield , a bulwark , a sanctuary
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ghina
[Army → War]
English : protection , preservation from loss or injury or annoyance , defense , shelter , refuge , shield , figurative sense : a bulwark , a sanctuary
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ginu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gigunu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganungurru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gangannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gangannu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ganuna.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kannuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kannu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kankuB.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 17:20 ----------


Also, this post is again relevant.



SURETH
dikkana
[Trade]
English : a shop , a store , a building in which goods or wares are sold , a stall in a bazaar
Dialect : NENA

dukana
[Trade]
English : a shop , a stall , a store (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

diqnana [<-- The words above, reminded me of this word]
[Human → Body]
English : bearded
Dialect : Urmiah

'duka / 'dukta [<-- The words above, reminded me of this word]
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a place , a position , a spot , an area ; 2) room , space ; ܕܘܼܟܵܐ ܕܫܪܵܝܬܵܐ : an abode , a lodging , a home , a place of residence , Matthew : 8, 20 : birds : a nest ; ܕܘܼܟܵܐ ܥܝܼܩܬܵܐ ܝܠܵܗܿ : there is no room , ['du: ka: ' iq té la:] ; ܕܘܼܟܬܘܼܗܝ ܝܼܠܵܗܿ : serves him right , ['duk tu: ' i: la:] ; ܕܘܼܟܬܘܼܗܝ ܡܘܼܫ̃ܟ̰ܸܚܬܘܼܗܝ ܝܼܠܵܗܿ : serves him right , [' duk tu: mu: ' tšiḥtu: ' i: la:] ; ܕܘܼܟܬܘܼܗܝ ܡܲܒܝܘܼܢܹܐ ܝܠܵܗܿ : he is missed , [' duk tu: ma ' biu: ni:] ; ܝܵܗܒܸܠ ܕܘܼܟܵܐ ܩܵܐ : to make way for
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN

New Light on Secret Knowledge in Late Babylonian Culture
Paul-Alain Beaulieu
Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archaeologie 82 (1992) 98-111


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dakkannu4.jpg


This word is mentioned in the bits from the paper, above.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sukku4.jpg


SUMERIAN

The word, "KI.GIŠGAL" is mentioned in the bits from the paper, above.

ki place; ground, earth; (a term for the netherworld); place where (as relative pronoun); used before a GN to designate a state, e.g. ki Lagaški "the state of Lagaš"; used to express spatial ideas with PN's or pronouns, e.g. ki PN-ak-šè "to PN's location > to PN," ki-bi-ta "from there," ki-ba "here"
da, da(g) side; near (cf. Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39); cf. da-gu10 at my side (Or ns 54, 57:18)
DA → á
da-ga-an, da-ga-na, daggan(KI.GIŠGAL) bedroom, private room (Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39; Civil, AV Biggs 18) (dakkannu)
da-gi4-a, dag-gi4-a district, ward, city quarter (bābtu); cf. ùsar da-gi4-a neighbor (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 242f.)

Humanist
2012-11-25, 02:36
Yes, certainly a mess of a presentation. But that does not mean...



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mglIAIdU3ik


Wikipedia

The name John derives via Latin Iōhannēs and Greek Ἰωάννης from the Hebrew name יוחנן (Yôḥanan, also transliterated Yochanan), a short form of the long name יְהוֹחָנָן Yehochanan, meaning "Yahweh is generous". Yochanan was the name of several important rabbis in the Second Temple Period in Israel, such as Yochanan ben Zakai and Yochanan ben Nuri.

The name had gained popularity among Jews in Judea and Galilee by the time the area became a province of the Roman Empire in 6 A.D. and before. John Hyrcanus (יוחנן הורקנוס), was the first king of the Hasmonean Dynasty, and was the nephew of Judas Maccabeus. It was the given name of Yochanan ben Zechariah, a Jewish prophet known in English as John the Baptist.

The name remained in use among Jews, up to and including the contemporary Hebrew-speaking Israel. It is, however, less frequent than its derivatives in societies practicing or influenced by Christianity, as Jewish practice tended to give preference to the names of major figures in the Hebrew Bible (e.g. Patriarchs, Kings and Prophets).

The New Testament was written in Greek, and the Hebrew name was adapted in Greek as Ἰωάννης, Iōannēs. The name Ioannes became extremely popular among the early Christians, and bearers include such noted members of the early church as Ioannes Chrysostomos.


SURETH
iuḥanan [iuḥana]
[Human being]
English : John , Johanan ; Urmiah : ܝܘܿܚܲܢܵܢ ܡܲܥܡܸܕܵܢܵܐ / ܝܘܿܚܲܢܵܢ ܡܲܥ݇ܡܕܵܢܵܐ : John the Baptist
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunnuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kunnu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinattu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinattutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kinunuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuninnu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuninnu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanutu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kanutu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanuB1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanuB2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanuB3-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hanu4.jpg



Wikipedia

"Cities of Sumer" [I have added what I believe are roughly accurate locations for the three Chaldean groups as described by Fales above]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chaldea_sumer.jpg


When I read the name "Bit-Yakin," I was reminded of an Akkadian word I had come across a while back. Not necessarily related in any way.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku4_.jpg



Some more on the Assyro-Babylonian (Sumero-Akkadian) god Oannes/Dagon/Ea/Enki, referred to in the above post.


At first they led a somewhat wretched existence and lived without rule after the manner of beasts. But, in the first year appeared an animal endowed with human reason, named Oannes, who rose from out of the Erythian Sea, at the point where it borders Babylonia. He had the whole body of a fish, but above his fish’s head he had another head which was that of a man, and human feet emerged from beneath his fish’s tail. He had a human voice, and an image of him is preserved unto this day. He passed the day in the midst of men without taking food; he taught them the use of letters, sciences and arts of all kinds. He taught them to construct cities, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and showed them how to collect the fruits; in short he instructed them in everything which could tend to soften human manners and humanize their laws. From that time nothing material has been added by way of improvement to his instructions. And when the sun set, this being Oannes, retired again into the sea, for he was amphibious. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes.

Berossus

Wikipedia


Berossus (also Berossos or Berosus; Akkadian: Bēl-rē'ušu, "Bel is his shepherd" Greek: Βήρωσσος[1]) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk[2] and astronomer writing in Greek, who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Versions of two excerpts of his writings survive, at several removes.

http://www.finaltrump.com/wp-content/uploads/Dagon.jpg


Wikipedia


As Oannes

Oannes (Ὡάννης, Hovhannes [Հովհաննես] in Armenian) was the name given by the Babylonian writer Berossus in the 3rd century BCE to a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom. Berossus describes Oannes as having the body of a fish but underneath the figure of a man. He is described as dwelling in the Persian Gulf, and rising out of the waters in the daytime and furnishing mankind instruction in writing, the arts and the various sciences.

The name "Oannes" was once conjectured to be derived from that of the ancient Babylonian god Ea,[2] but it is now known that the name is the Greek form of the Babylonian Uanna (or Uan) a name used for Adapa in texts from the Library of Ashurbanipal.[3][4] The Assyrian texts attempt to connect the word to the Akkadian for a craftsman ummanu but this is merely a pun.[3]



Inheritance, Condolence and Funeral Procession in Nestorian Society in the 19th Century

At the home of the owner of funeral, after the dead’s face was turned east, they incensed in an open clay pot right by the tiptoe of the dead person. A priest and next of kin of the late person were called on to visit home. After praying at home, the priest put a wooden cross into a bucket filled with water and assigned someone the duty of heating the water into which he put the cross. When a man died, his dead body was washed by old people or by those who were held responsible for ringing the bell of church. When a woman died, her dead body was washed by an old woman.xxviii The person held responsible for washing the corpse started washing on the right side of the body by dipping his/her forefinger into the water blessed with the cross. During this process, the one who was washing the corpse also fulfilled the responsibility of taking the cross out of the water. After taking the cross out of the water, first the right side of the body then the left side of the body was washed with soapy water. Then, an amount of water was left in the tub, the rest was poured out. After that the blessed cross was put into the tub, a candle was placed near the tub and it was covered with a lid. It was necessary for the candle to burn for three days. After the process of washing the dead body was complete, a pair of underpants and a shirt was sewed from tent canvas. They were used as a shroud to cover the dead body. His/her arms, legs and back were covered with the same piece of cloth. While covering the body with the shroud, the dead person’s face was left open temporarily. The dead person was put into a coffin if the owners of the funeral were rich. If poor, the dead body was prepared for burial by placing it on a kind of stretcher made from two sticks strained by a piece of fabric.xxix All this process underwent according to the instructions in religious texts called ‘Kahneita’ and ‘Anneedha.’ Kahneita included practices about how a religious official should act during funeral procession. xxx Anneedha included lots of hymns and poems, depending on the gender of the dead person and his/her social class. In this sense, it is stated by English Missionaries that separate poems and practices were available for each of f the patricians, metropolitan bishops, monks, priests, men, virgins, women, engaged people and children. xxxi

Murat Gökhan Dalyan

Adding to Akkadian

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/unninu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/unnutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anutuB.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:36 ----------

Adding to Sureth

SURETH
kahna
[Religion]
English : masculine : a priest , one who officiates rites (ceremonies and teaching) on an altar , a sacrificing priest ; ܓܘܼܪܵܐ ܕܟܵܗܢܹ̈ܐ / ܟܵܗܢܵܐ ܓܘܼܪܵܐ : a high priest ; ܓܘܼܪܵܢܹ̈ܐ ܕܟܵܗܢܹ̈ܐ : the chief priests ; feminine : ܟܲܗܢܬܵܐ : a priestess ; 2) plural : ܟܵܗܢܹ̈ܐ : the Book of Leviticus
Dialect : Classical Syriac
Hebrew : kohen «priest»

rab 'kahni
[Religion → Divination]
English : the Chief Priest / High Priest
Dialect : Urmiah

'riš 'kahni
[Religion]
English : the High-Priest , the Chief-Priest
Dialect : Urmiah

kahnuta
[Religion]
English : priesthood , priests taken collectively (priests) , priestly functions
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist
2012-11-25, 05:33
Even though Aramaic documentation is notoriously scarce in the first millennium BC (especially as far as Mesopotamia proper is concerned), Aramaic was arguably the dominant vernacular of Babylonia by the time the Late Babylonian texts under consideration were drafted. This is bolstered by a variety of evidence, especially by the onomastic record, epigraphic sources and cuneiform texts which give a large number of direct and indirect references to the use of Aramaic in both the official and private spheres.

Language Death and Dying Reconsidered: the Role of Late Babylonian as a Vernacular Language
Version 01
Juli 2011
Johannes Hackl (University of Vienna, Department of Oriental Studies)

Same theme as in my post from yesterday (refer to "Jerrold Cooper").

And, sure, the onomastic record can be useful in certain instances. But, not always. Take my name. Paulus.

Wikipedia

Paul (English pronunciation: /ˈpɔːl/) is a common masculine name in countries and ethnicities with a Christian heritage (Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism) and, beyond Europe, in Christian religious communities throughout the world. The name exists since the Roman times and derives from the Roman family name Paulus or Paullus - in particular in the Roman patrician family of the Gens Aemilia - including prominent persons such as Lucius Aemilius Paullus, Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, Tertia Aemilia Paulla (the wife of Scipio Africanus), as well as Sergius Paulus.

Or, the names of many of my family members. They are all what we today would refer to as "Hebrew," or "Judeo-Christian" names. And yet, our DNA tells a different tale (i.e. we are principally from the East).

Also, I would like to understand what exactly "Aramaic" is. When I created the "Aramaic DNA Project," at least as far as laymen are concerned, I thought I had a decent grasp of what the language was (is). Today, I do not know what to think. And, if anyone believes that I am significantly biased, take the time to read through this thread. I identify as Assyrian ("Suraya"), but have come to realize, over these last many months, that I likely possess a great deal of Babylonian (southern Mesopotamian) ancestry. Perhaps it is greater than any of my other ancestral sources. And, this makes sense, based on the totality of the data, at this point in time.

Humanist
2012-11-25, 06:53
Wikipedia

"Cities of Sumer" [I have added what I believe are roughly accurate locations for the three Chaldean groups as described by Fales above]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chaldea_sumer.jpg


When I read the name "Bit-Yakin," I was reminded of an Akkadian word I had come across a while back. Not necessarily related in any way.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku4_.jpg


There may be nothing of significance here, but the Arabic name for John the Baptist is interesting.


SUMERIAN
é house, household, estate; temple (Read now `à or à`, pronounced [ah] or [hah]; Jagersma, Grammar §3.4.4 proposes [hay]. Some Auslaut must be posited to account for the common writing é-a-ni.)
É (read `à or à` as an older variant of a "water")


ARABIC (Wikipedia)
Yahya (Arabic: يحيى‎, Yaḥyā) is a common Arabic male given name, Yahya (John the Baptist) being a prophet of Islam, it is a common name in the Muslim world.


SURETH
'ḥair
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) with ܒ, ܥܲܠ, ܠ, Al Qosh : ܒܓܵܘ / ܓܵܘ : to look at , to gaze at ; 2) to look , to take heed ; ܚܵܐܸܪ ܦܟ̰ܝܼܠܵܐ : to look askance
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ḥai : to live

yala : boy

yalta : girl


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hairu-1.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-25, 08:49
SURETH
era
[Human → Body]
English : vulgar : the penis, the male organ of generation
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruC.jpg


Adding to Sureth.


SURETH
'šura / 'šurta
[Human → Body]
English : the navel
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
a - ri, a - ru to inseminate, engender, beget
a, `à water, fluid; semen, seed; offspring, child; father; watercourse (cf. e)

---------- Post Merged at 03:49 ----------



Inheritance, Condolence and Funeral Procession in Nestorian Society in the 19th Century

At the home of the owner of funeral, after the dead’s face was turned east, they incensed in an open clay pot right by the tiptoe of the dead person. A priest and next of kin of the late person were called on to visit home. After praying at home, the priest put a wooden cross into a bucket filled with water and assigned someone the duty of heating the water into which he put the cross. When a man died, his dead body was washed by old people or by those who were held responsible for ringing the bell of church. When a woman died, her dead body was washed by an old woman.xxviii The person held responsible for washing the corpse started washing on the right side of the body by dipping his/her forefinger into the water blessed with the cross. During this process, the one who was washing the corpse also fulfilled the responsibility of taking the cross out of the water. After taking the cross out of the water, first the right side of the body then the left side of the body was washed with soapy water. Then, an amount of water was left in the tub, the rest was poured out. After that the blessed cross was put into the tub, a candle was placed near the tub and it was covered with a lid. It was necessary for the candle to burn for three days. After the process of washing the dead body was complete, a pair of underpants and a shirt was sewed from tent canvas. They were used as a shroud to cover the dead body. His/her arms, legs and back were covered with the same piece of cloth. While covering the body with the shroud, the dead person’s face was left open temporarily. The dead person was put into a coffin if the owners of the funeral were rich. If poor, the dead body was prepared for burial by placing it on a kind of stretcher made from two sticks strained by a piece of fabric.xxix All this process underwent according to the instructions in religious texts called ‘Kahneita’ and ‘Anneedha.’ Kahneita included practices about how a religious official should act during funeral procession. xxx Anneedha included lots of hymns and poems, depending on the gender of the dead person and his/her social class. In this sense, it is stated by English Missionaries that separate poems and practices were available for each of f the patricians, metropolitan bishops, monks, priests, men, virgins, women, engaged people and children. xxxi

Murat Gökhan Dalyan



Adding to Akkadian

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/taknitu5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/unninu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/unnutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anutuB.jpg


Also, refer to the original post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1037750&viewfull=1#post1037750).


SUMERIAN
ní - te(n), te-en to refresh oneself, cool oneself under -ši-) something; to calm down, relax
ní-te self; cf. ní-te-né by himself, herself (for var. me-te, see G. Cunningham, Analysing Lit. Sum. 76f.)
ní-te-na(-k), me-te-na, mete(TE.ME)-na his or her own
ní - tuku to revere, respect, have fear of
ní-tuku reverent, respectful
an sky, heaven; the sky god An

Humanist
2012-11-25, 11:06
SURETH
'kulva [kulwa --> kulma?]
[Country]
English : 1) a pickax, a pickaxe, a mattock ; 2) an axe, a hatchet
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qulmu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kullu.jpg


SUMERIAN
giš al mattock, hoe, "pickaxe"
al - a5 to hoe, work with the hoe
gul, gu-ul to destroy
kul handle (of a tool)

Humanist
2012-11-26, 00:28
SURETH
'prat
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : the Euphrates river

prt
English : to burst , to split

'praṭa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : 1) to rend , to tear off , to separate with force or sudden violence , to rip , to split , to lacerate , to rive ; 2) to burst , to make an opening into

'prata
English : transitive verb : to rip , to divide / separate the parts of by tearing , to tear off / out by violence , to make a rent / rents in , to rend , to unpick / unstitch / undo -a seam, a hem- (?)


AKKADIAN
Purattu : Euphrates River

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/biritu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birit_birit.jpg


Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Tigr-euph.png/300px-Tigr-euph.png


SUMERIAN
bir6, bir7, bir to rip/break to pieces, shred, tear
i7buranun(-na) Euphrates

Humanist
2012-11-26, 03:36
SURETH
numiqa
[Professions]
English : a lawyer , one versed in laws , a practitioner of law
Dialect : Urmiah

numiquta
[Professions]
English : the legal profession , the profession of a lawyer , the Bar (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

In addition, the following from the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon.
nōmīqā
1 official Syr.
2 pettifogging lawyer Syr.

namusa
[Legal]
English : a law (especially the Law of Moses)
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'riš namusa (?)
[Legal]
English : the Chief lawyer , the Head of the Law , the Attorney General
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
nam-, nám- (abstract/collective noun formative); 'office of' See extended discussion of B. Tanos, Analyzing Sum. Lit. 250ff., with a list of all known examples of abstract nouns formed with nam-.
nam-tag, nam-dag evil deed, sin, guilt
nam - tar to decide fate, determine destiny Cf. older syntax nam-šè - tar to decide ... as a fate
nam-tar fate, destiny
nam-ti(l), nam-ti-il life
nam-úš death
nam-zu knowledge, wisdom
mùš, múš countenance, appearance, aspect; halo, aura; (a kind of crown); temple base or emplacement (George, AV Black 113)
muš snake, serpent


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ5.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ6.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ7.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nepequ8.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nemequ9.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mussu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mussu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mussu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mussu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/namasu_.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-26, 04:56
Wikipedia

Sumerian religion

The majority of Sumerian deities belonged to a classification called the Anunna (“[offspring] of An”), whereas seven deities, including Enlil and Inanna, belonged to a group of “underworld judges" known as the Anunnaki (“[offspring] of An” + Ki).[citation needed] During the Third Dynasty of Ur, the Sumerian pantheon was said to include sixty times sixty (3600) deities.[8]


2009 “Judicial and Legal Systems I. Achaemenid Period,” in Encyclopedia Iranica
by F Rachel Magdalene

ed. E. Yarshater; 45 vols.; New York: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University, 1985-2009), 16: __-__


Legal and judicial structures. All legal authority ultimately derived from the gods, who entrusted it to the king. The king, therefore, established, maintained, and defended justice (Otto, p. 268). He was not above the law but was, rather, an integral part of it. No evidence for a legislative body exists. Judicial administration was ultimately under the authority of the king, and texts document his supervisory role (see, e.g., CT 22, p. 231), although the Achaemenid kings rarely adjudicated individual cases. The courts were sometimes headed by officials, entitled sartennu or sukkallu. A number of texts testify to the existence of a system of court management, all of which contain the phrase ḫīṭu ša X šadādu (zabālulu), where X is the king or other significant royal official (e.g.,AnOr 8, no. 45; YOS 6, no. 108; and Magdalene, forthcoming). Violation of orders related to court management would bring upon the offender judicial sanctions.


SUMERIAN (There are additional relevant terms. Some more relevant than those below.)
šer7(NIR)-da capital crime/offense, serious "felony"; a corresponding punishment. Civil, AV Hallo 75ff. reads NIR-da, Emesal šèr-da, še-er-da (the šer7-da read by some cannot be proved directly; perhaps Akk. nērtu "murder" was the original source for a word *ner-da?)
šìr - ra to strike up a song, sing
šìr(-re-eš) - du11 to say (as/in) a song, sing (Attinger, Eléments 690-695)
šu - ri to lay the hand upon; to wring the hands
šu-ri-a, (OS šu-ru-a, šu-rí) one-half (Civil, Or 56, 234; Steinkeller, JESHO 24, 142)
šúr to be furious, enraged
šúr, súr adj. & adv. furious, angry, haughty; angrily (Civil, AV Biggs 31 s.v. /sumur/) (An older syllabic reading šu-ur6(-rá) in two Presargonic royal inscriptions (Ean 1) cannot be defended.)
šu - ùr to smoothe, flatten, level off; to erase, rub out, annihilate (imperf. often written uru12(ÙR) as well as ùr-ru/re)
sur to press out (liquids), squeeze, extract; to strain (beer) (Damerow, CDLJ 2012:2 § 4.1); to plait, twist together (rope); to wipe away; to oppress, suppress; to draw a boundary, mark off, demarcate, delimit, divide; cf. a - sur to pass urine (George, AV Black 114)
súr, šúr, sumur furious, fear-inspiring
šár the numeral 3600; adj. numerous, many, innumerable, manifold, myriad, all; n. multitude


SURETH
'šar
[Legal]
English : jurisprudence , knowledge / skill in the law , the science of law
Dialect : Urmiah

'šarat
[Legal]
English : law / the law
Dialect : Urmiah

'tad ḥita
[Legal]
English : 1) expiation , the act of making atonement / compensation / amends for a fault or a crime ; 2) purification , cleansing , oil industry : refining (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šṭa
[Moral life → Fault]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to do wrong , to misbehave / behave badly , to misconduct , to have a bad behaviour / behavior ; 2) to collapse , to fall together , to cave in , to fall down into a wrecked / flattened / disorganized state , to founder
Dialect : Urmiah


ARABIC (Wikipedia)

Sharia (Arabic: شريعة‎ šarīʿah, IPA: [ʃaˈriːʕa], "legislation"; sp. shariah, sharīʿah;[1] also قانون إسلامي qānūn ʾIslāmī) is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting. Though interpretations of sharia vary between cultures, in its strictest definition it is considered the infallible law of God—as opposed to the human interpretation of the laws (fiqh).


AKKADIAN

See Akkadian terms in blue bold, above, in Magdalene.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sar.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarrutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarru-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarratu.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-26, 07:12
SURETH
'saka
[Humanities → Geography]
English : the limit , what terminates / confines , the bound / the bounds , the end , the extreme / the greatest degree / the pinnacle / the height / the top
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
sa-ga → sa6-ga, sig5-ga
sig5(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig15(KAL) good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag10, sag8(KAL) (cf. sa6-ga, sa-ga)
sa6(g), ša6(g) to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa6 to be a favorite of (sa6 is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)
sa6(-ga), ša6(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing
sa7(g) to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa6)
sa7-ga well-formed
saĝ n. head; front, fore, beginning; surface, top; man, person, human being; slave, servant (G. Farber, AV Klein 108-115)
saĝ adj. first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born

Humanist
2012-11-26, 09:42
From Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes.

SURETH
A story called "The Sisisambər Plant."
Featuring an evil female character by the name of Lelitha.
Lelitha is guarding the "Sisisambər" plant.
The plant has supernatural healing properties (i.e. restores vision in the blind, brings the dead back to life).
Lelitha must only be struck once. If she is struck twice, she will heal and kill/eat her attacker.
An orchard and cave are mentioned when speaking of Lelitha's dwelling/habitat.
Lelitha likes to dance.
The vegetation has been prematurely harvested.


SUMERIAN
sis(ŠEŠ) (ses) v. and adj. (to be) bitter, brackish, saline For a reading zahx see Steinkeller, NABU 2007 p. 18; see also → mun4(ŠEŠ) 'salt, brackish'.
sisi(ANŠE.KUR.RA), anšesí-sí (Ur III) horse
si - sá to do, perform, or direct in a regular, right, correct, proper fashion; to maintain properly; to supply, provide regularly; to make regular, regulate; to prepare, ready in a correct way, put in order; to be straight, go straightway or directly, guide straight; to straighten
si4, su4, sa5 red, reddish, brown (the sign is REC 48, i.e. SI-gunû)
ambar marsh, swamp
an-bar, an, KÙ.AN iron (Reiter, AOAT 249, 244ff.)
an-bar7 noon, noontime heat


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sissinnu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lillidu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lilu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lilu2.jpg



AKKADIAN HEALING THERAPIES IN THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD
M. J. Geller
2004


One clear distinction between Palestine and Babylonia in this regard was noted bythe Rabbis themselves. One aspect of divination known from the Babylonian Talmud was the fear of even numbers or 'pairs', which was considered to be ominous, so that a person should always drink odd rather than even glasses of wine, and so forth. The reason for this fear of 'pairs' comes directly from Babylonian extispicy...

Humanist
2012-11-26, 21:45
From Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes.

SURETH
A story called "The Sisisambər Plant."

Also, please refer to the entire post, immediately above.

Wikipedia can be a terrific resource, but I would not trust Wikipedia's suggested etymologies. They appear to be familiar with two languages from the Middle East. Arabic, and Hebrew. That said, the English word may in fact be from Arabic, considering the latter's dominance for the better part of the last 2000 years. But, for many other words, they appear to have no idea of the Akkadian/Sumerian terms.

Wikipedia


Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.[2] Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. [3] Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry. There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.[4

The English word amber derives from the Arabic anbar, via Medieval Latin ambar and Old French ambre. The word originally referred to a solid waxy substance derived from the sperm whale (now called ambergris). The sense was extended to fossil resin circa 1400, and this became the main sense, as the use of ambergris waned.[5] The two substances were confused, because they both were found washed up on beaches. Ambergris is less dense than water and floats, whereas amber is less dense than stone, but too dense to float.[6] The word ambar was brought to Europe by the Crusaders. In French ambre gris (lit. gray amber), became used for ambergris, while ambre jaune (yellow amber), denoted the fossil resin we now call amber.

Amber is discussed by Theophrastus, possibly the first historical mention of the material, in the 4th century BC. The Greek name for amber was ἤλεκτρον (elektron), "formed by the sun", and it was connected to the sun god (Helios), one of whose titles was Elector or the Awakener.[7] According to the myth, when Helios' son Phaëton was killed, his mourning sisters became poplars, and their tears became the origin of elektron, amber.[8]

Another early reference to Amber was Pytheas (330 BC) whose work "On the Ocean" is lost, but was referenced by Pliny. According to The Natural History" by Pliny the Elder:[9]
Pytheas says that the Gutones, a people of Germany, inhabit the shores of an estuary of the Ocean called Mentonomon, their territory extending a distance of six thousand stadia; that, at one day's sail from this territory, is the Isle of Abalus, upon the shores of which, amber is thrown up by the waves in spring, it being an excretion of the sea in a concrete form; as, also, that the inhabitants use this amber by way of fuel, and sell it to their neighbors, the Teutones.

While amber is not actually named, it is called the concreti maris purgamentum, "the leavings of the frozen sea" after the spring melt. Diodorus uses ēlektron, the Greek word for amber, the object that gave its name to electricity through its ability to acquire a charge. Pliny is presenting an archaic view, as in his time amber was a precious stone brought from the Baltic at great expense, but the Germans, he says, use it for firewood, according to Pytheas.

Earlier[10] Pliny says that a large island of three days' sail from the Scythian coast called Balcia by Xenophon of Lampsacus is called Basilia by Pytheas. It is generally understood to be the same as Abalus. Based on the amber, the island could have been Heligoland, Zealand, the shores of Bay of Gdansk, the Sambia Peninsula or the Curonian Lagoon, which were historically the richest sources of amber in northern Europe. This is the earliest use of Germania.

The modern terms "electricity" and "electron" derive from the Greek word for amber, and come from William Gilbert's research showing that amber could attract other substances.[11] The word "electron" was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney whilst analyzing elementary charges for the first time.[12][13]
The presence of insects in amber was noticed by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia, and led him to theorize correctly that, at some point, amber had to be in a liquid state to cover the bodies of insects. Hence he gave it the expressive name of succinum or gum-stone, a name that is still in use today to describe succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana (see below under Baltic Amber).

Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in some Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-stone (nl. barnsteen, de. Bernstein, the latter of which the Polish word bursztyn or the Hungarian borostyán derives from). Heated above 200 °C, amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber", and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac".[citation needed]

A spider trapped in amber

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Spider_in_amber_%281%29.jpg/740px-Spider_in_amber_%281%29.jpg



Wikipedia


The Tigris–Euphrates river system is part of the palearctic Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh ecoregion, in the flooded grasslands and savannas biome, located in Western Asia.

....

The general climate of the Salt Marsh is subtropical, hot and arid. At the northern end of the Persian Gulf is the vast floodplain of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Karun Rivers, featuring huge permanent lakes, marshes, and forest. The aquatic vegetation includes reeds, rushes, and papyrus, which support numerous species. Areas around the Tigris and the Euphrates are very fertile. Marshy land is home to water birds, some stopping here while migrating, and some spending the winter in these marshes living off the lizards, snakes, frogs, and fish. Other animals found in these marshes are water buffalo, two endemic rodent species, antelopes and gazelles and small animals such as the jerboa and several other mammals.


"The Marsh Arabs of Iraq"
http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/news-mourning-marsh-arab-way-life

http://static.environmentalgraffiti.com/sites/default/files/images/MARSH-ARAB-MAP.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-26, 22:56
I am obviously unqualified to do justice to any of the linguistic comparisons made in the hundreds of posts above. Which, in part, is why I am posting in this thread. To spark the interest of scholars who happen upon this thread. Although some of the material has been compared before, I believe it is by and large fertile territory (i.e. CAD v. Sumerian v. Sureth). This post reminded me of a paper I referred to a while back.

Is this a coincidence, or is there more (substrate influence?) here? Is substrate influence even a possibility? I have no idea.

Emphasis added.

The Origin of Ergativity in Sumerian, and the Inversion in Pronominal Agreement: A Historical Explanation Based on Neo-Aramaic parallels

by Eleanor Coghill and Guy Deutscher.
Orientalia, p.267-290, Vol. 71 (2002).


The pattern of subject and object agreement on the verb is one of the thornier issues in Sumerian grammar. The 'inversion' in the role of the suffixes and prefixes between the ljamtu and Marn constructions is particularly surprising. It seems remarkable that the same prefixes should denote the agent in one tense/aspect, but the object in the other, and that the suffixes display a mirror image of the same inversion. In this article, we offer a simple diachronic explanation not only for this inversion, but also for the identity in form between the ergative case-marker and the 'directive' ('locative-terminative'), and thus for the origin of ergativity in Sumerian. We suggest that ergativity arose in Sumerian, as it did in many other languages, when a passive structure was reanalysed as active-transitive, and when this structure became what we know in attested Sumerian as the ljamtu construction.

The inspiration for the diachronic path that we propose here comes from a striking parallel in Neo-Aramaic.


The same for this:

“Zakho Neo-Aramaic and Old Babylonian Akkadian: The (Concessive-)Conditional Pattern”, in: Studies in Semitic and General Linguistics in Honor of Gideon Goldenberg (Alter Orient und Altes Testament vol. 334), Eds. T. Bar and E. Cohen, Münster 2007, 159–177.


This paper describes a rather special phenomenon shared by two basically different Semitic languages: Old Babylonian Akkadian (henceforth OB) and the Jewish dialect of Zakho [Iraq] Neo-Aramaic (henceforth Z).

Humanist
2012-11-26, 23:58
SURETH
'iugan
[Country]
English : 1) jugum , one of the ridges found on a maricarp ; 2) an acre of land
Dialect : Urmiah

iškarta [Also, see this post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1035424&viewfull=1#post1035424), and this post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1020204&viewfull=1#post1020204)]
[Measures → Area]
English : measure of area : an acre
Dialect : Classical Syriac

paddana
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) Classical Syriac : a plow / a plough ; 2) a yoke , see ܢܝܼܪܵܐ ; 3) [Yoab Benjamin] : an acre
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


SUMERIAN (Need to search Sumerian further. And Akkadian.)
giš šudul(4) yoke (some read šudun)

šuku(dr) subsistance allotment/plot (šuku is the conventional reading, ePSD reads šúkur, and some now read pad(r). The value kur6 does not exist; see Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Legal Texts 69, also Civil, AV Biggs 29 s.v. kurum.) (kurummatu)

gú ĝiš - ĝar/ĝál to put a neckstock on, make wear a yoke, subjugate (cf. ĝiš-gú)

gùn, gùnu to be dappled, spotted, mottled, (multi)colored, colorful, decorated with colorful materials (cf. še-gu-nu) Sign is REC 34. See Steinkeller, BSA 8, 68 n. 103 for the gùn/dar vs. si4 sign contrast.)

gùn, gùn-na, gùn-a, gùn-gùn (multi)colored, dappled variegated, speckled


HITTITE
YOKE — iuga- (ŠUDUN), nom.-acc. sg. iugan, faithfully reflects IE *yugóm and matches Skt. yugám, Lat. iugum, Goth. juk, Gk. ζυγόν; OCS igo ‘gate’, etc.; cf. also Toch. A yokäm ‘gate, door’ (P 495-96, T 448-49). An etymologically identical homonym is iuga- ‘yearling’, tāiuga- ‘two-year-old’, also adj. iugassa-; see P 496-99 and T 449-52.

Humanist
2012-11-27, 18:59
SURETH (source: G. Khan)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qama.jpg

And I would like to add this:

qami : to defeat, or prevailing against an opponent, or opponents in a contest. For example, if you are asking who is winning the baseball game, or who is in first place in the standings.



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kawatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimitu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamuB.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamituBC.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamitu4.jpg



The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran consider the “Haran Gawaita” to be a reliable account of their origins. It begins, “... and Haran Gawaita receiveth him and that city in which there were Nasoraeans, because there was no road for the Jewish rulers.” The word Haran, it is thought by many, refers to a geographical location (i.e. the city in SE Turkey and the Wadi Hawran). The word gawaita has been translated as “inner.” From that, we get the “Inner Harran.” The earliest attestation of the Mandaeans under that name, by the Church of the East clergyman Theodore bar Koni, may help bring clarity to questions regarding the meaning of the word “gawaita,” or at least Theodore bar Koni's (mis)interpretation of the word.

The Mandaean scholar Lady Drower stated the following, when discussing Theodore bar Koni's statements regarding the Mandaeans:


As for Arab observers, from the earliest time they were dependent upon hearsay, and their reports can only be accepted as such. The same may be said about the earliest account we have about the Mandaeans, that of the Syriac writer Bar Konai (in the Scholion, A.D. 792), who writes as a controversialist, ready to belittle a heretic sect. This writer does, however, give us clues which go far to disprove his own account of the Mandaeans.

To quote Theodore bar Koni, from the Scholion, his view on the Mandaeans begins: “Adu, as they say, was from Adiabene and came as a beggar with his family to the district of Mesene.” The word for “to beg” / “beggar” in Syriac and Sureth is very similar to the word for “inner,” or “gawaita.”

ܓܵܒ݂ܹܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' ga: wi:
English : 1) to beg , to be a beggar ; 2) NENA : to collect subscriptions ; 3) Al Qosh, Classical Syriac : to collect , signatures, rain-water ? ... : to collect ; 4) to choose ; 5) to foam up , to boil over

Compare to the Sureth and Syriac word for “inner,” below:

ܓܵܘܵܐ
Eastern phonetic : ' ga: va: / ' ga: wa:
English : inside , inner , the inner part , inward , the interior , the internal portion ; 2) congregation : a whole , world : the whole ; ܒܗܿܘ ܓܵܘܵܐ : adverb : Al Qosh : a) thereupon ; b) thereabouts , in the vicinity , roughly ; c) during that time , in the meantime , meanwhile


Always looking for possible clues to what is contained in the Mandaean texts. Particularly, the Haran Gawaita. Came across this phrase, in a paper I recently read:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Harran_sarri.jpg

Late Babylonian Field Plans
Karen Nemet-Nejat (Yale University)


The relevant bit from the Haran Gawaita:


... and Haran Gawaita receiveth him and that city in which there were Nasoraeans, because there was no road for the Jewish rulers. Over them was King Ardban . And sixty thousand Nasoraeans abandoned the Sign of the Seven and entered the Median hills , a place where we were free from domination by all other races. And they built cult-huts (bimandia) and abode in the Call of the Life and in the strength of the high King of Light until they came to their end . And they loved the Lord, that is, Adonai , until in the House of Israel there was created something which was not placed in the womb of Mary , a daughter of Moses. It was hidden in her womb for nine months and bewitched her until the nine months were fulfilled and she was in labour and brought forth a messiah.

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-27, 19:05
You've probably seen this before, but if not here is an online repository of Sumerian tablets, along with their translation and transliteration.
Edit: Sorry lol I forgot to post the link :lol:
http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/

Humanist
2012-11-27, 19:16
Images of Assyrian soldiers and deportees. One may be Babylonian? Or, perhaps not.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/alammu2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Assyrian_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/israelite-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elam.png

Humanist
2012-11-27, 20:50
SURETH
ḥakima
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : 1) masculine : wise , prudent , intelligent , guided by wisdom , shrewd , astute ; 2) Oraham : a doctor
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Al Qosh, Other

(Source: Geoffrey Khan)
ḥkm : to judge, arbitrate [Loan from Arabic, according to Khan]


ARABIC (Wikipedia)

Ḥakīm and Ḥākim are two Arabic titles derived from the same triliteral root Ḥ-K-M "appoint, choose, judge". Compare the Hebrew title hakham.

Hakīm indicates a "wise man" or "physician", or in general, a practitioner of herbal medicine especially of unani medicine...


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hakamu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hakamu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hakamu3.jpg


SUMERIAN
hé-àm, hé-a Let it be (so)! (interjection, verbal form, and substantive; cf. hé-àm - du11 to accede to, approve)
ad - gi4 to advise, take counsel with (-da-), consult; to discuss; to echo, respond
ad-gi4(-gi4) advice, counsel; advisor, counselor


^^ The Sumerian terms may be unrelated to the Semitic terms.

Humanist
2012-11-27, 22:10
The Sureth word below, "rutad 'mariam," made me wonder about the origin of the name, "Mary." I am not saying it is from Sureth, but as usual, there is absolutely no mention of Sureth, Akkadian, or Sumerian in the list of possible etymologies.

Wikipedia


Mary is a feminine given name, the English form of the name Maria, which was in turn a Latin form of the Greek names Μαριαμ, or Mariam, and Μαρια, or Maria, found in the New Testament. Both New Testament names were forms of the Hebrew name מִרְיָם or Miryam.[1]

The usual meaning given by various sources for the name is the Hebrew מרר m-r-r meaning "bitterness". Other meanings suggested include "rebelliousness" (מרי m-r-y), or "wished for child" or "Our Lady" (ש"ע מריה Sha Mrih) or "beloved lady", referring to the Christian reverence for the Virgin Mary. The Web site Behind the Name notes that the name could also be a name of Egyptian origin, perhaps from the word elements mry, meaning "beloved" or mr, meaning "love".[1]

The name was also considered in the Middle Ages to be connected to the sea and the word mare, as in the term Stella Maris, or "star of the sea," an epithet for the Virgin Mary.[2]

The name has been widely used due to its associations with the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus Christ, and with Saint Mary Magdalene, who was called an apostle to the Apostles.

Origin : Hebrew via Latin and Greek
Meaning : "bitter", "beloved," "rebelliousness," "wished for child", "marine"


Mary (Hebrew: מִרְיָם, Miriam; Aramaic: Maryām; Arabic: مريم, Maryam), variously called Saint Mary, Mother Mary, the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mary, Mother of God, and, in Islam, as Maryam, mother of Isa', was an Israelite Jewish[1] woman of Nazareth in Galilee who lived in the late 1st century BC and early 1st century AD, and is considered by Christians to be the first proselyte to Christianity. She is identified in the New Testament[Mt 1:16,18-25][Lk 1:26-56][2:1-7] and in the Qur'an as the mother of Jesus through divine intervention. Christians hold her son Jesus to be "Christ" (i.e. the messiah) and God the Son Incarnate (see Trinitarian monotheism), whereas Muslims regard Jesus as the messiah and the most important prophet of God sent to the people of Israel (and the second-most-important prophet of all, after Muhammad).


SURETH
'rutad 'mariam
[Religion]
English : Mary's Friday
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

imma
[Human → Family]
English : a mother
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other

'yimma
[Human → Family]
English : 1) a mother , a mummy ; 2) Tergawar : the first milk given after bearing , colostrum ; 3) = ܝܵܘܡܵܐ : a day
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

mar
[Religion]
English : Lord , one who has power and authority especially in the Church (as a bishop) , my lord , my master, [Saint]
Dialect : Urmiah


Mary in the modern form "Marya" (Sung in Sureth)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=os4KtPX17NI

Humanist
2012-11-27, 23:47
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LZpYMr-Ed0Q

Wikipedia

The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus[3:1–22] as being located on Mount Horeb; according to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name.[1] In the narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan.

....

In the narrative, an angel of Yahweh is described as appearing in the bush,[6] and God is subsequently described as calling out from it to Moses, who had been grazing Jethro's flocks there.[1] When Moses starts to approach, God tells Moses to first take off his sandals, due to the place being holy ground,[7] and Moses hides his face.[8] Textual scholars regard the account of the burning bush as being spliced together from the Jahwist and Elohist texts, with the Angel of Yahweh and the removal of sandals being part of the Elohist version, and the Yahwist's parallels to these being God and the turning away of Moses' face, respectively[9][10]

God Appears to Moses in Burning Bush. Painting from Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Saint Petersburg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/Moses_Pluchart.jpg


SURETH (need to search further)
'haṭṭa
[Country → Plants]
English : 1) Classical Syriac : a thistle ; 2) a bramble ; 3) the Burning bush ; 4) provender
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac


SUMERIAN
hé-du7 distinguished (in appearance), ornament
HE2-du7 (read perhaps gan-du7) architrave
hád (cultically) pure (Foxvog, JCS 46, 12-14)
HÁD dry, dried (reading probably àh) (see Foxvog, JCS 46, 13 n. 7)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatti1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattiB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu_rei.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatuC.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-28, 02:55
SURETH
'saka
[Humanities → Geography]
English : the limit , what terminates / confines , the bound / the bounds , the end , the extreme / the greatest degree / the pinnacle / the height / the top
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
sa-ga → sa6-ga, sig5-ga
sig5(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig15(KAL) good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag10, sag8(KAL) (cf. sa6-ga, sa-ga)
sa6(g), ša6(g) to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa6 to be a favorite of (sa6 is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)
sa6(-ga), ša6(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing
sa7(g) to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa6)
sa7-ga well-formed
saĝ n. head; front, fore, beginning; surface, top; man, person, human being; slave, servant (G. Farber, AV Klein 108-115)
saĝ adj. first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first-born


AKKADIAN (need to search further)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sikkatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagu3.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:33 ----------

Wikipedia


According to Herodotus, at the top of each ziggurat was a shrine, although none of these shrines has survived.[1] One practical function of the ziggurats was a high place on which the priests could escape rising water that annually inundated lowlands and occasionally flooded for hundreds of miles, as for example the 1967 flood.[5] Another practical function of the ziggurat was for security. Since the shrine was accessible only by way of three stairways,[6] a small number of guards could prevent non-priests from spying on the rituals at the shrine on top of the ziggurat, such as cooking of sacrificial food and burning of carcasses of sacrificial animals. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included a courtyard, storage rooms, bathrooms, and living quarters, around which a city was built.[7]


http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/fpuk/zig.jpg

http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/fpuk/zig.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 21:55 ----------

Herodotus: From The History of the Persian Wars, c. 430 BCE


I.181: The outer wall is the main defense of the city. There is, however, a second inner wall, of less thickness than the first, but very little inferior to it in strength. The center of each division of the town was occupied by a fortress. In the one stood the palace of the kings, surrounded by a wall of great strength and size: in the other was the sacred precinct of Jupiter Belus , a square enclosure two furlongs each way, with gates of solid brass; which was also remaining in my time. In the middle of the precinct there was a tower of solid masonry, a furlong in length and breadth, upon which was raised a second tower, and on that a third, and so on up to eight. The ascent to the top is on the outside, by a path which winds round all the towers. When one is about half-way up, one finds a resting-place and seats, where persons are wont to sit some time on their way to the summit. [B]On the topmost tower there is a spacious temple, and inside the temple stands a couch of unusual size, richly adorned, with a golden table by its side. There is no statue of any kind set up in the place, nor is the chamber occupied of nights by any one but a single native woman, who, as the Chaldaeans, the priests of this god, affirm, is chosen for himself by the deity out of all the women of the land.

I.182: They also declare---but I for my part do not credit it---that the god comes down in person into this chamber, and sleeps upon the couch. This is like the story told by the Egyptians of what takes place in their city of Thebes, where a woman always passes the night in the temple of the Theban Jupiter [Amon-Ra]. In each case the woman is said to be debarred all intercourse with men. It is also like the custom of Patara, in Lycia, where the priestess who delivers the oracles, during the time that she is so employed---for at Patara there is not always an oracle---is shut up in the temple every night.

Another image of a ziggurat:

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Sumer/ziggurat/ziggurat2.jpg

Source (http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Sumer/ziggurat/ziggurat2.jpg) for image.

Humanist
2012-11-28, 04:37
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LZpYMr-Ed0Q

Wikipedia


The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus[3:1–22] as being located on Mount Horeb; according to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name.[1] In the narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan.

....

In the narrative, an angel of Yahweh is described as appearing in the bush,[6] and God is subsequently described as calling out from it to Moses, who had been grazing Jethro's flocks there.[1] When Moses starts to approach, God tells Moses to first take off his sandals, due to the place being holy ground,[7] and Moses hides his face.[8] Textual scholars regard the account of the burning bush as being spliced together from the Jahwist and Elohist texts, with the Angel of Yahweh and the removal of sandals being part of the Elohist version, and the Yahwist's parallels to these being God and the turning away of Moses' face, respectively[9][10]

God Appears to Moses in Burning Bush. Painting from Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Saint Petersburg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/Moses_Pluchart.jpg


SURETH (need to search further)
'haṭṭa
[Country → Plants]
English : 1) Classical Syriac : a thistle ; 2) a bramble ; 3) the Burning bush ; 4) provender
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac


SUMERIAN
hé-du7 distinguished (in appearance), ornament
HE2-du7 (read perhaps gan-du7) architrave
hád (cultically) pure (Foxvog, JCS 46, 12-14)
HÁD dry, dried (reading probably àh) (see Foxvog, JCS 46, 13 n. 7)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatti1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattiB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu_rei.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hattu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatuC.jpg


Wikipedia


The Burning Bush
The Hebrew word used in the narrative, that is translated into English as bush, is seneh (סנה), which refers in particular to brambles;[2][3][4] seneh is a biblical dis legomenon, only appearing in two places, both of which describe the burning bush.[3] It is possible that the reference to a burning bush is based on a mistaken interpretation of Sinai (סיני), a mountain described by the Bible as being on fire, and some scholars think that the reference to the burning bush in Deuteronomy, in particular, might be a copyist's error, and may perhaps originally have been a reference to Sinai.[3][5]



The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical laws relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, theft, and adultery. Different groups follow slightly different traditions for interpreting and numbering them.

The Ten Commandments appear twice in the Hebrew Bible, in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. According to the story in Exodus, God inscribed them on two stone tablets, which he gave to Moses on Mount Sinai. Modern scholarship has found likely influences in Hittite and Mesopotamian laws and treaties, but is divided over exactly when the Ten Commandments were written and who wrote them.

....

According to Jewish tradition, Exodus 20:1–17 constitutes God's first recitation and inscription of the ten commandments on the two tables,[12] which were broken in pieces by Moses, and later rewritten on replacement stones and placed in the ark of the covenant;[13] and Deuteronomy 5:4–20 consists of God's re-telling of the ten commandments to the younger generation who were to enter the promised land. The passages in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5 contain more than ten imperative statements, totaling 14 or 15 in all.

Two texts with numbering schemes

The two texts commonly known as the Ten Commandments are given in two books of the Bible: Exodus 20:1–17andDeuteronomy 5:4–21.

Religious groups use one of three historical divisions of Exodus 20:1–17 into ten parts[14] tabulated below:

Phi. The Philonic division is the oldest, from the writings of Philo and Josephus (first century), which labels verse 3 as number 1, verses 4–6 as number 2, and so on. Groups that generally follow this scheme include Hellenistic Jews, Greek Orthodox and Protestants except Lutherans. Most representations of the commandments include the prologue of verse 2 as either part of the first commandment or as a preface.[15][16][17]

Tal. The Talmudic division, from the third-century Jewish Talmud, makes verses 1–2 as the first "saying" or "declaration" (rather than "commandment"), and combines verses 3–6 as number 2.[18]

Aug. The Augustinian division (fifth century) starts with number 2 of the Talmudic division, and makes an extra commandment by dividing the prohibition on coveting into two. Both Roman Catholics and Martin Luther adopted the Augustinian method. Roman Catholics use Deuteronomy by default when quoting the Ten Commandments whereas Luther used the Exodus version.

....

Religious Interpretations

Judaism
The Two Tablets

The arrangement of the commandments on the two tablets is interpreted in different ways in the classical Jewish tradition. Rabbi Hanina ben Gamaliel says that each tablet contained five commandments, "but the Sages say ten on one tablet and ten on the other".[29] Because the commandments establish a covenant, it is likely that they were duplicated on both tablets. This can be compared to diplomatic treaties of Ancient Egypt, in which a copy was made for each party.[30]

According to the Talmud, the compendium of traditional Rabbinic Jewish law, tradition, and interpretation, the biblical verse "the tablets were written on both their sides",[31] implies that the carving went through the full thickness of the tablets. The stones in the center part of some letters were not connected to the rest of the tablet, but they did not fall out. Moreover, the writing was also legible from both sides; it was not a mirror image of the text on the other side. The Talmud regards both phenomena as miraculous.[32] According to the Medieval Sefer ha-Chinuch, the first four statements concern the relationship between God and humans, while the next six statements concern the relationships between people.


SURETH
'sania
[Country → Plants]
English : a bush , a thick densely branched shrub or cluster of shrubs , a shrub , brambles
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanuC1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanuC2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanuD.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanuC3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sana_u.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanuA.jpg



Need to search Sumerian.

Humanist
2012-11-28, 07:41
Please first refer to this post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1029351&viewfull=1#post1029351). Specifically, the Sureth word for ear, "nata," and the Akkadian and Sumerian bits regarding the senses, including, but not limited to the Akkadian word, "natalu.".

Another Sureth word for "bramble."

SURETH (need to search further)
oznaia
[Country → Plants]
English : a bramble
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

ṣada
[Human → Senses]
English : (transitive verb) : to gaze , to fix the eyes upon , to gaze / look intently , to stare , to watch (?) , to contemplate / look at , to look with an evil eye
Dialect : Urmiah

'ḥza
[Human → Senses]
English : to see , to perceive with the eyes , to examine with the eyes , to behold (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


HEBREW (referred to in the Sureth term above, and Wiktionary.com)
ózen : ear


AKKADIAN (need to search further)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ihzu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adnatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adnatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adnatu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uznu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uzzunu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uznanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uznanu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uznanatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadu.jpg


SUMERIAN (need to search further)
zu (OS also su) to know; to know how, be able; to acknowledge, make known, proclaim; to learn, discover; to inform, teach
ha(z), ha-za, ha-ha(-za) to hold fast to, retain; to grasp, understand

Humanist
2012-11-28, 09:09
SURETH
'ṭura
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a mountain ; 2) a hill , a hill country ; especially in Urmiah : ܒܢܲܝ ܛܘܼܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ : mountaineers of Hakkari ; ܒܲܪ ܛܘܼܪܵܐ : a mountaineer
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

d 'ṭura
[Nature]
English : plants, animals : wild
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

ṭuraia
[Army → War]
English : 1) driving , rushing or pressing with violence , compelling -need- (?) ; 2) (noun) : an attack , an assault , an onslaught , an offensive operation , a rape (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

taruḥa [Also, see corresponding CAL entry, immediately below]
[Animals → Wild]
English : a chamois , a mountain-goat , a goat-antelope (Rupicapra rupicapra)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

(Source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
trḥ, trḥʾ n.m. capra caucasica
1 capra caucasica (i.e. mountain antelope: the West Caucasian Tur) SYRIAC


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turahu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turahu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/durgu.jpg


Wikipedia

Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon"), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria.

....

Dur-Sharrukin is roughly a square with a border marked by a city wall 24 meters thick with a stone foundation pierced by seven massive gates.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Dur_Sharrukin.jpg




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9foU6EyQVkQ



SUMERIAN
du7(d?) to batter, gore, attack

ùr roof, ceiling (cf. ĝiš-ùr) For roof construction methods see Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 173f..

kur mountain; foreign land; netherworld [<-- There are Akkadian and Sureth terms that may be related to Sumerian "netherworld."]

du6-úr, du6-ùr (the name of the ziggurrat in Ur) (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 334-338)

Wikipedia

(The Ziggurat of Ur (sometimes called the "Great Ziggurat of Ur"; Sumerian E-temen-nigur(u) É.TEMEN.NÍ.GÙR(U).(RU) meaning "house whose foundation creates terror")[2] is a Neo-Sumerian ziggurat in what was the city of Ur near Nasiriyah, in present-day Dhi Qar Province, Iraq. The structure was built during the Early Bronze Age (21st century BC), but had crumbled to ruins by the 6th century BC of the Neo-Babylonian period when it was restored by King Nabonidus.

Humanist
2012-11-28, 10:30
Previously posted. Possibly relevant to the above post.

SURETH
'turtana
[Army]
English : a commander-in-chief
Dialect : Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtanu-1.jpg



Ṭurušpa (place)
Royal city of Urarṭu; modern Van Kelesi.

Source: Assyrian empire builders: People, gods & places (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/peoplegodsplaces/)


Wikipedia:


Tushpa (Classical Armenian: Տոսպ Tosp, Assyrian: Turuspa) was the 9th century BC capital of Urartu, later becoming known as Van which is derived from Biaina the native name of Urartu. The ancient ruins are located just west of Van and east of Lake Van in the Van Province of Turkey.[1]

The citadel of Van and the ruins of Tushpa below.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Van_castle%2C_Turkey.jpg/800px-Van_castle%2C_Turkey.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-28, 14:19
SURETH
'kion
[Sky → Astronomy]
English : Saturn , the planet Saturn
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajamanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajan.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajamanuB.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-30, 02:00
Stargazing in Ancient Babylonia
by Jack Green
with Vélez, M.G, The Oriental Institute News & Notes 215: 28-29 (Fall, 2012).


Modern astronomers observe stars, planets, galaxies, and other celestial bodies, often using high-powered telescopes and transmitters, attempting to unravel secrets surrounding the creation and development of the universe. Although high-tech pieces of equipment such as the Hubble space telescope are modern inventions, the science of astronomy really has its beginnings in the ancient Near East. Astronomical observations were inscribed on cuneiform tablets from Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from as early as the old Babylonian period, nearly four thousand years ago, and continued toward the end of the first millennium BC. The astronomical traditions of Babylonia, in Central and Southern Mesopotamia, were passed on to the ancient Greeks, in turn leading to innovations in Islamic astronomy, knowledge later to be inherited by scholars in medieval Europe.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t31lVCPMEZc

WIKIPEDIA

Pleiades (Greek mythology)


The Pleiades ( /ˈplaɪ.ədiːz/ or /ˈpliːədiːz/; Greek: Πλειάδες [pleːádes], Modern [pliˈaðes]), companions of Artemis, were the seven daughters of the titan Atlas and the sea-nymph Pleione born on Mount Cyllene. They are the sisters of Calypso, Hyas, the Hyades, and the Hesperides. The Pleiades were nymphs in the train of Artemis, and together with the seven Hyades were called the Atlantides, Dodonides, or Nysiades, nursemaids and teachers to the infant Bacchus.

The Pleiades (1885) by the Symbolist painter Elihu Vedder

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Pleiades_Elihu_Vedder.jpg

Several of the most prominent male Olympian gods (including Zeus, Poseidon, and Ares) engaged in affairs with the seven heavenly sisters. These relationships resulted in the birth of their children.

Maia, eldest of the seven Pleiades, was mother of Hermes by Zeus.
Electra was mother of Dardanus and Iasion, by Zeus.
Taygete was mother of Lacedaemon, also by Zeus.
Alcyone was mother of Hyrieus, Hyperenor and Aethusa by Poseidon.
Celaeno was mother of Lycus and Eurypylus by Poseidon.
Sterope (also Asterope) was mother of Oenomaus by Ares.
Merope, youngest of the seven Pleiades, was wooed by Orion. In other mythic contexts she married Sisyphus and, becoming mortal, faded away. She bore to Sisyphus several sons.

One of the most memorable myths involving the Pleiades is the story of how these sisters literally became stars, their catasterism. According to some versions of the tale, all seven sisters committed suicide because they were so saddened by either the fate of their father, Atlas, or the loss of their siblings, the Hyades. In turn Zeus, the ruler of the Greek gods, immortalized the sisters by placing them in the sky. There these seven stars formed the constellation known thereafter as the Pleiades.

....

The loss of one of the sisters, Merope, in some myths may reflect an astronomical event wherein one of the stars disappeared from view by the naked eye.[1][2]

Lost Pleiad (1884) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/William-Adolphe_Bouguereau_%281825-1905%29_-_Lost_Pleiad_%281884%29.jpg


Pleiades


In astronomy, the Pleiades ( /ˈplaɪ.ədiːz/ or /ˈpliːədiːz/), or Seven Sisters (Messier object 45 or M45), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. The name Pleiades comes from Greek mythology; it has several meanings in different cultures and traditions.

The cluster is dominated by hot blue and extremely luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Dust that forms a faint reflection nebulosity around the brightest stars was thought at first to be left over from the formation of the cluster (hence the alternate name Maia Nebula after the star Maia), but is now known to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium that the stars are currently passing through. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades was probably formed from a compact configuration that resembled the Orion Nebula.[7] Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.

A color-composite image of the Pleiades from the Digitized Sky Survey
Credit: NASA/ESA/AURA/Caltech

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Pleiades_large.jpg


SURETH
zappi
[Human → Body]
English : feminine : chubby , short and thick , plump , well rounded , well filled out , fleshy , voluptuous / sensuous , pulpy
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

A mark of beauty in the East

'kima
[Sky → Astronomy → Constellations]
English : 1) Job : 9, 9 : the Seven Stars , the Pleiades constellation ; 2) Al Qosh : a lamp
Dialect : Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zappu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zappu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zappu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suppu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimuD.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimuB2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kimua_.png



----------------------------------------------------------------------


Merope


MEROPE was one of the seven Pleiades, star-nymph daughters of the Titan Atlas. She married the impious king Sisyphos (Sisyphus) and was ancestress of the Korinthian (Corinthian) and Lykian (Lycian) royal families. Merope was said to have been so ashamed of her husband's crimes that she hid her face amongst the stars of heaven, and so the seventh star of the Pleiades faded away from human sight.

Her name is variously interpreted to mean "with face turned" from meros + ops, "with sparkling face" (mar)mairô + ops, and "bee-eater bird" merops. The first etymology was derived from the fading of the star, the second is a typically starry name--cf. Maira, the dog-star--, while the third reflects the connection of the Pleiades--who were also known as Peleiades or "doves"--with birds.

Source:http://www.theoi.com/Nymphe/NympheMerope.html


SURETH
maryip
[Animals → Birds]
English : causatifve of ܪܵܐܸܦ : to cause to roost , to cause to be sleepy , to send to sleep , to be soporific , to lull (?) / to dull (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'rapa
[Animals → Birds]
English : a flock , a company or collection of birds to roost or rest together
Dialect : Urmiah

rapa
[Animals → Birds]
English : 1) to roost , to sit / rest / perch / sleep on a pole or branch ; 2) to flutter , to flap wings (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

rappa
[Animals → Birds]
English : 1) a shelf , a board / ledge set or attached horizontally into a wall to hold things ; 2) a nest , a brood , see ܩܸܢܵܐ ; 3) a flight of birds ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


SUMERIAN (Posted previously, for comparison to Sureth "rappa," and Akkadian "rappu")
giš rab clamp, stock (cf. gušurx)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rappu1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rappu2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rappu3-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erepu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uruppu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/erpu.jpg


A "neck stock"
http://www.sykesregulars.org/equipment/images/Clothing/dress_uniform/neck_stock/UDB_Neck_Stock_03.jpg

Source: http://www.sykesregulars.org/equipment/neck_stock_pics.php

Sanjub_Saraswati
2012-11-30, 02:25
Damn Humanist, you're truly on a great mission aren't you?
I've never met someone as persistent as you are.
Extremely impressive, you've got my blessing all through, great work bro!:)

Humanist
2012-11-30, 04:01
There may not be anything here, but I would not be surprised if there was a link or two.

1993 - Occidental and Oriental elements in the religions of Babylonia and Iran during the third and second centuries BC
by D.T. Potts

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mithra__.jpg



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/midru_.jpg


SURETH
'midri
[Numbers]
English : again , another time , once more , anew , in return , back again
Dialect : Urmiah

'miṭra
[Sky → Climate]
English : rain
Dialect : Urmiah



Wikipedia ("Mitra (Vedic)")

Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the oath and tribal contracts, often twinned as Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). In the Vedic hymns, Mitra is often invoked together with Varuna, as Mitra-Varuna. In some of their aspects, Varuna is lord of the cosmic rhythm of the celestial spheres, while Mitra brings forth the light at dawn, which was covered by Varuna. Mitra together with Varuna is the most prominent deity and the chief of the Adityas in the Rigveda. Though being Asuras, Mitra and Varuna are also addressed as devas in Rigveda (e.g., RV 7.60.12), and in the only hymn dedicated to Mitra, he is referred to as a deva (mitrasya...devasya) in RV 3.59.6.


Wikipedia ("Varuna")

In Vedic religion, Varuna (Sanskrit Varuṇa वरुण, Malay: Baruna) or Waruna is a god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth.

In Hindu mythology, Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element, particularly the oceans.

....

As a sky god, Varuna may either correspond to, or rule over, the dark half of the sky—or celestial ocean (Rasā)[2]...

....

^ According to Dumezil, Varuna is the god of "masses of water", while falling rain is rather related to Mitra.




Wikipedia:
Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.

Originally, Nabu was a West Semitic deity introduced by the Amorites into Mesopotamia, probably at the same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[1] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.


SURETH
'mizta
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : a hair (a slender threadlike outgrowth of an animal) , bristle (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'ḥura
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) the aspect , the sight , the look , the appearance ; 2) gazing , looking at , steady look , looking intently , contemplation , looking steadily
Dialect : Urmiah

ḥwara (source: Humanist)
English: white

Wikipedia


Ahura Mazda, (also known as Athura Mazda, Athuramazda, Aramazd, Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Hurmuz, and Azzandara) is the Avestan name for a divinity of the Old Iranian religion who was proclaimed the uncreated God by Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is described as the highest deity of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked deity in the Yasna. The word Ahura means light and Mazda means wisdom. Thus Ahura Mazda is the lord of light and wisdom. Ahura Mazda is the creator and upholder of Arta (truth). Ahura Mazda is an omniscient (though not omnipotent) god, who created a being called Angra Mainyu, the "evil spirit" who as the creator of evil will be destroyed according to the frashokereti (the destruction of evil).Ahura

Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550–330 BCE) under Darius I's Behistun Inscription. Until Artaxerxes II (405-04 to 359-58 BCE), Ahura Mazda was worshiped and invoked alone. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda was invoked in a triad, with Mithra and Apam Napat. In the Achaemenid period, there are no representations of Ahura Mazda other than the custom for every emperor to have an empty chariot drawn by white horses, to invite Ahura Mazda to accompany the Persian army on battles. Images of Ahura Mazda began in the Parthian period, but were stopped and replaced with stone carved figures in the Sassanid period.

"Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh (female). It is generally taken to be the proper name of the God, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European *mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning "placing (*dʰeh1) one's mind (*mn̩-s)", hence "wise".[1]

"Ahura" was originally an adjective meaning ahuric, characterizing a specific Indo-Iranian entity named *asura.[2][3][4] Although traces of this figure are still evident in the oldest texts of both India and Iran,[5] in both cultures the word eventually appears as the epithet of other divinities.

Previously, the transliteration Ahuramazda (Old Persian) was used during the Achaemenid era, Hormazd/Aramazd (Middle Persian) during the Parthian era and Ohrmazd (New Persian Hormoz) was used during the Sassanian era.[6]

Humanist
2012-11-30, 06:01
SURETH
'šḥala
[Feeding → Drink]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to drip , to trickle , to seep , to let fall in drops of liquid / moisture , to exude , to ooze , to sweat (?) ; 2) tiredness ... : to be running down , to be run-down (?) / exhausted (?) / pooped (?) / worn-out (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šiḥla
[Feeding → Drink]
English : 1) dripping , trickling , falling in drops , oozing (?) , seeping (?) ; 2) rain ... : falling down
Dialect : Urmiah

'šaḥla
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : a strainer , a filter , a colander / cullender , a percolator , anything that strains / filters , a sieve (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahalu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahlu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahilu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihiltu.jpg





-------------------------------------------

CHANGING THE SUBJECT

The farther we venture from the region, I reckon, the less likely the links become. But, to "throw this out there," here is a possibility that came to mind, when I thought about the recent FTDNA U7 HVR1/HVR2 match between an Assyrian and an Italian (or Sicilian?) (please see this post (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/4528-Assyrian-mtDNA-Haplogroup-Distribution?p=1039944&viewfull=1#post1039944)).

A few bits from the Haplogroup G Newsletter for 9 June 2011 (Ray Banks)


More on Raetians. In recent newsletters some space was devoted to the Raetians of eastern Switzerland as candidates for the origin of much of the G2a3b1a2 (L497, DYS388=13) men of northern Europe. It should be mentioned that various persons have proposed this group to me earlier as responsible for L497 migrations. However, no substantial evidence was then offered, and these constitute one of about 50 groups various persons have proposed as to the origins of the L497 men. Thanks to Randall Ladnier for providing a booklet which perhaps makes the strongest case for Raetians being Etruscans. This thesis is not unanimously accepted, however, in the scholarly community. This booklet by Alfred Toth and Linus Brunner is titled Raetic: An Extinct Semitic Language in Central Europe, published by Mikes International, The Hague, 2007, 163 pages.

This publication in English is obviously a translation, and the translation is not in perfect English at times. It is not possible to reproduce all their arguments and summaries. But in brief, they argue the following:

Runic inscriptions point to an Etruscan presence in central Europe abt 7000 years ago, but they argue that this connection only paved the way for the large group that arrived in that same area 3200 to 3100 years ago at the onset of a drier period in the Near East. The large number of available Raetic inscriptions are compatible with a late Middle Babylonian language or dialect, a Semtic language. The most specific reasons for the migration were (a) the conquering of Babylonia by the Assyrian King Tukulti-Ninurta I who instigated one of the first big deportation waves in history and (b) intrusion of the Amorites and especially the Aramaeans who caused major problems for the existing residents. Raetic was spoken in eastern Switzerland until the 800s C.E. The authors also argue that the goddess Ritu, the aspects of the St. Margarete of Aniochia story and the magic numbers in the "Canzun de la Sontga Margriata" point additionally to a Babylonian-Assyrian origin.

The migration was at the time of the Sea People. "Since the Raeti must have used Greek ships to cross the Mediterranean, they may have gone through the Syrian desert to the Mediterranean." An initial occupation of the Trieste area between today's Italy and Croatia is posited as wells as the Venetians forcingthem to head for more northerly locations.

[The authors also point to a Sumerian origin of the Hungarian language. Hungary would have been contiguous with Raetian territory. [However the consensus of scholars seems to attribute Hungarian to an origin in central Russia.] ]

It is not known if these listed scenarios are correct. Earlier discussions in this newsletter have not commented on what may have happened to those Raetians who lived in more easterly locations than the eastern Swiss men we have talked about. This raises the possibility that the L13 persons (G2a3b1a1a) who have a more easterly bias in their geographic coverage than L497 persons, may represent that type of European L13 which might have arisen out of eastern Raeti.

In the crude calculations I made, the L13 group is approximately 3500 years old, thus prior to the supposed emigration from Babylonia according to these authors, but the European form of L13 seems to date from about 2800 years ago, after the supposed migration.


Babylonia, during the "Middle Babylonian" period, was the period of Kassite dominance.

Wikipedia


The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC (short chronology).

The Kassite language is thought to have been related to Hurrian,[1] and not Indo-European or Semitic although the evidence for its genetic affiliation is meager due to the scarcity of extant texts. However, several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they might have had an Indo-European elite similliar to the Mitanni.[2]


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassites.jpg


The original homeland of the Kassites is not well known, but appears to have been located in the Zagros Mountains in Lorestan in what is now modern Iran, although, like the Elamites, Gutians and Manneans, they were unrelated to the later Indo-European/Iranic Medes and Persians who came to dominate the region a thousand years later.[3][4] They first appeared in the annals of history in the 18th century BC when they attacked Babylonia in the 9th year of the reign of Samsu-iluna (reigned ca. 1749–1712 BC), the son of Hammurabi. Samsu-iluna repelled them, as did Abi-Eshuh, but they subsequently gained control of Babylonia circa 1570 BC some 25 years after the fall of Babylon to the Hittites in ca. 1595 BC, and went on to conquer the southern part of Mesopotamia, roughly corresponding to ancient Sumer and known as the Dynasty of the Sealand by ca. 1460 BC. The Hittites had carried off the idol of the god Marduk, but the Kassite rulers regained possession, returned Marduk to Babylon, and made him the equal of the Kassite Shuqamuna. The circumstances of their rise to power are unknown, due to a lack of documentation from this so-called "Dark Age" period of widespread dislocation. No inscription or document in the Kassite language has been preserved, an absence that cannot be purely accidental, suggesting a severe regression of literacy in official circles. Babylon under Kassite rulers, who renamed the city Karanduniash, re-emerged as a political and military power in Mesopotamia. A newly built capital city Dur-Kurigalzu was named in honour of Kurigalzu I (ca. early 14th century BC).


U7 Frequencies From Some Sources (U7 ≥ .5%)

10.5% Brahui Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
9.8% IraniJw Behar et al. 2008
8.7% Sindhi Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
8.2% Iran Quintana-Murci et al. 2004, Metspalu et al. 2004
8.0% Assyr Public and Private Data
6.9% Kurds Comas et al. 2000
6.8% Burusho Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
5.2% AzeriJw Behar et al. 2008
4.8% MrshAB Al-Zahery et al. 2011 (Iraqi Marsh Arab)
4.3% Hazara Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
3.4% Bedouin Behar et al. 2008
3.0% Jordan Behar et al. 2010
3.0% Makrani Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
3.0% Uzbek Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
2.8% Iraqi Al-Zahery et al. 2011
2.6% Balochi Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
2.5% Tuscan Pala et al. 2009 <---------------
2.2% IraqiJw Behar et al. 2008
2.1% Uygur Yao et al. 2004
2.1% Bulgaria Richards et al. 2000
1.6% Egypt Behar et al. 2010
1.6% Turkey Tambets et al. 2000
1.4% AshkJw Behar et al. 2006
1.2% LibyaJw Behar et al. 2008
1.2% UAE Alshamali et al. 2008
1.1% S.India Behar et al. 2010
1.1% Cyprus Behar et al. 2010
1.0% Georgia Quintana-Murci et al. 2004, Comas et al. 2000
0.9% Saudi Abu-Amero et al. 2007
0.9% Syria Behar et al. 2010
0.8% Yemen Kivisild et al. 2004
0.7% Armeni Richards et al. 2000
0.6% Romania Behar et al. 2010
0.5% Russia Malyarchuk et al. 2002
0.5% Adyghe Richards et al. 2000

Humanist
2012-11-30, 07:30
A few additional bits added to a post from a few hours ago.

Wikipedia ("Varuna")

In Vedic religion, Varuna (Sanskrit Varuṇa वरुण, Malay: Baruna) or Waruna is a god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth.

In Hindu mythology, Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element, particularly the oceans.

....

As a sky god, Varuna may either correspond to, or rule over, the dark half of the sky—or celestial ocean (Rasā)[2]...

....

^ According to Dumezil, Varuna is the god of "masses of water", while falling rain is rather related to Mitra.

SURETH
'miṭra
[Sky → Climate]
English : rain
Dialect : Urmiah

'dra
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : to pour , to emit , to let escape freely , to cast , to send or drive by force
Dialect : Urmiah

(Humanist)
miya
English: water


HURRIAN (Arnaud Fournet)
tarmani (< *dor-m-) ‘(water) spring’


PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN (Arnaud Fournet)
*der-/*dor-/*d3- ‘to run, to flow’; extended forms:*dr-eHø- (> *drā-); *dr-ew-;*dr-em- (Pokorny 1959:204—206; Walde 1927—1932.I:


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitirtu.jpg


KING SENNACHERIB ONLY
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ur_sennacherib.jpg

Humanist
2012-11-30, 09:27
I wonder what sort of language (possibilities) one would get if he or she took as a substratum the language of this fella:

"An engraving on an eye stone of onyx with an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II" (May not be the actual man.)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Nebukadnessar_II.jpg/230px-Nebukadnessar_II.jpg

and added, as the dominant superstrata, in some combination, the languages of these fellas:

Cyrus the Great. "King of Persia, King of Āryāvarta, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cyrus.jpg


Philip II of Macedon. "Victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BCE (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris)" (Father of Alexander)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Philip_II_of_Macedon_CdM.jpg/250px-Philip_II_of_Macedon_CdM.jpg


(Source: Wikipedia)


----------------------------------------------------



DIFFERENT SUBJECT

Wikipedia

Lucifer ( /ˈluːsɪfər/ or /ˈljuːsɪfər/) is the King James Version rendering of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל in Isaiah 14:12[1]. This word, transliterated hêlēl or heylel, occurs only once in the Hebrew Bible and according to the KJV-influenced Strong's Concordance means "shining one, morning star, Lucifer". [2] The word Lucifer is taken from the Latin Vulgate,[3] which translates הֵילֵל as lucifer,[4][5] meaning "the morning star, the planet Venus" (or, as an adjective, "light-bringing").[6] The Septuagint renders הֵילֵל in Greek as ἑωσφόρος[7][8] (heōsphoros),[9][10][11] a name, literally "bringer of dawn", for the morning star.[12] Kaufmann Kohler says that the Greek Septuagint translation is "Phosphoros".[3]

Gustave Doré's illustration for Milton's Paradise Lost, Lucifer yielding before Gabriel

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Paradise_Lost_19.jpg


Sureth
wal wil [mal mil?] or [bal bil?]
[Religion]
English : Isaiah : 14, 12 : Lucifer
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

SUMERIAN
mul star, constellation
mul to shine, sparkle, glitter; to be radiant, radiate; to spread (branches, Urnamma EF 34), flower(?)
bíl to heat, burn, scorch

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mulmul.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkabu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkabanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/belu-1.jpg




Isaiah 14 (http://www.biblegateway.com/audio/mclean/kjv/Isa.14) [<-- AUDIO]

14 For the Lord will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.

2 And the people shall take them, and bring them to their place: and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the Lord for servants and handmaids: and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors.

3 And it shall come to pass in the day that the Lord shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve,

4 That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!

5 The Lord hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers.

6 He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth.

7 The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing.

8 Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.

9 Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.

10 All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?

11 Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.

12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:

14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.

15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.

16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;

17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?

18 All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.

19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.

20 Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.

21 Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities.

22 For I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the Lord.

23 I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the Lord of hosts.

24 The Lord of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand:

25 That I will break the Assyrian in my land, and upon my mountains tread him under foot: then shall his yoke depart from off them, and his burden depart from off their shoulders.

26 This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations.

27 For the Lord of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it? and his hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?

28 In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden.

29 Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.

30 And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant.

31 Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times.

32 What shall one then answer the messengers of the nation? That the Lord hath founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it.




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZJEt40-pVc

Humanist
2012-11-30, 10:31
SURETH
'kion
[Sky → Astronomy]
English : Saturn , the planet Saturn
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajamanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajan.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kajamanuB.jpg


Wikipedia

Cronus

In the most classic and well known version of Greek mythology, Cronus or Kronos[1] (Ancient Greek: Κρόνος Krónos) was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son, Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus.

Cronus was usually depicted with a sickle or scythe, which was also the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.

....

During antiquity, Cronus was occasionally interpreted as Chronos, the personification of time,[9] and the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe.


Father Time is the anthropomorphized depiction of time. He is usually depicted as an elderly bearded man, dressed in a robe and carrying a scythe and an hourglass or other timekeeping device (which represents time's constant one-way movement, and more generally and abstractly, entropy). This image derives from several sources, including the Grim Reaper and Chronos: Greek God of Time.

Humanist
2012-11-30, 22:22
2009 “Judicial and Legal Systems I. Achaemenid Period,” in Encyclopedia Iranica
by F Rachel Magdalene
ed. E. Yarshater; 45 vols.; New York: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University, 1985-2009), 16


Legal and judicial structures. All legal authority ultimately derived from the gods, who entrusted it to the king. The king, therefore, established, maintained, and defended justice (Otto, p. 268). He was not above the law but was, rather, an integral part of it. No evidence for a legislative body exists. Judicial administration was ultimately under the authority of the king, and texts document his supervisory role (see, e.g., CT 22, p. 231), although the Achaemenid kings rarely adjudicated individual cases. The courts were sometimes headed by officials, entitled sartennu or sukkallu. A number of texts testify to the existence of a system of court management, all of which contain the phrase ḫīṭu ša X šadādu (zabālulu), where X is the king or other significant royal official (e.g.,AnOr 8, no. 45; YOS 6, no. 108; and Magdalene, forthcoming). Violation of orders related to court management would bring upon the offender judicial sanctions.


SURETH
'tad ḥita
[Legal]
English : 1) expiation , the act of making atonement / compensation / amends for a fault or a crime ; 2) purification , cleansing , oil industry : refining (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šṭa
[Moral life → Fault]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to do wrong , to misbehave / behave badly , to misconduct , to have a bad behaviour / behavior ; 2) to collapse , to fall together , to cave in , to fall down into a wrecked / flattened / disorganized state , to founder
Dialect : Urmiah


A relevant bit from: The Grammar of the Neo-Babylonian Assertory Oath
Bruce Wells (Saint Joseph’s University), Cornelia Wunsch (University of London), and F. Rachel Magdalene (Universität Leipzig)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hitu_text.jpg

- - - Updated - - -


SURETH
šoṭuyi
[Measures]
English : (transitive verb) : to extend , to stretch / draw out , to lay out at full length , fabric ... : increase the size (?) , budget , resources , patience, person ... : push to the limit (?) , get the most of (?) , to exploit (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadadu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadadu2.jpg


Adding to Akkadian "sadadu," from above, and adding "hitu."

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sadadu_hitu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hitu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

SURETH
'ḥṭitha
[Religion]
English : a sin , the transgression of the Divine Laws , iniquity , wickedness , immorality, fault , wrong
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'ḥṭo
[Religion]
English : to sin , to transgress God's law , to disobey the Divine Will , to do wrong
Dialect : Urmiah

'ḥaṭi
[Religion]
English : with ܒ / ܥܲܠ / ܠ : against, for both trivial or serious errors : to sin , to do wrong / to wrong , to commit a fault , to err , to make a mistake , to stray
Dialect : Classical Syriac

ḥaṭaiuta
[Religion]
English : sinfulness , the state of being a sinner , transgressing God's laws , disobedience of the Divine Will , any violation of God's Law
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hititu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hatu_.jpg


SUMERIAN (posted recently)
hád (cultically) pure (Foxvog, JCS 46, 12-14)

Humanist
2012-12-01, 00:35
A few additional bits added to a post from a few hours ago.

Wikipedia ("Varuna")

In Vedic religion, Varuna (Sanskrit Varuṇa वरुण, Malay: Baruna) or Waruna is a god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth.

In Hindu mythology, Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element, particularly the oceans.

....

As a sky god, Varuna may either correspond to, or rule over, the dark half of the sky—or celestial ocean (Rasā)[2]...

....

^ According to Dumezil, Varuna is the god of "masses of water", while falling rain is rather related to Mitra.

SURETH
'miṭra
[Sky → Climate]
English : rain
Dialect : Urmiah

'dra
[Feeding → Cooking]
English : to pour , to emit , to let escape freely , to cast , to send or drive by force
Dialect : Urmiah

(Humanist)
miya
English: water


HURRIAN (Arnaud Fournet)
tarmani (< *dor-m-) ‘(water) spring’


PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN (Arnaud Fournet)
*der-/*dor-/*d3- ‘to run, to flow’; extended forms:*dr-eHø- (> *drā-); *dr-ew-;*dr-em- (Pokorny 1959:204—206; Walde 1927—1932.I:


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitirtu.jpg


KING SENNACHERIB ONLY
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mitru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ur_sennacherib.jpg


SUMERIAN
duru5, dur5(-ru) wet, moist, damp; irrigated; fresh (i.e. not dried or as opposed to dry)

- - - Updated - - -


SURETH
'ṭura
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a mountain ; 2) a hill , a hill country ; especially in Urmiah : ܒܢܲܝ ܛܘܼܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ : mountaineers of Hakkari ; ܒܲܪ ܛܘܼܪܵܐ : a mountaineer
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

d 'ṭura
[Nature]
English : plants, animals : wild
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac

ṭuraia
[Army → War]
English : 1) driving , rushing or pressing with violence , compelling -need- (?) ; 2) (noun) : an attack , an assault , an onslaught , an offensive operation , a rape (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

taruḥa [Also, see corresponding CAL entry, immediately below]
[Animals → Wild]
English : a chamois , a mountain-goat , a goat-antelope (Rupicapra rupicapra)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

(Source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
trḥ, trḥʾ n.m. capra caucasica
1 capra caucasica (i.e. mountain antelope: the West Caucasian Tur) SYRIAC


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turahu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turahu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turahu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/duru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/durgu.jpg


Wikipedia





http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9foU6EyQVkQ



SUMERIAN
du7(d?) to batter, gore, attack

ùr roof, ceiling (cf. ĝiš-ùr) For roof construction methods see Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 173f..

kur mountain; foreign land; netherworld [<-- There are Akkadian and Sureth terms that may be related to Sumerian "netherworld."]

du6-úr, du6-ùr (the name of the ziggurrat in Ur) (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 334-338)

Wikipedia


SUMERIAN
dùr, dur9, du24-ùr (or dur9ùr) donkey stallion
dàra, darah, dara4 Persian wild goat, bezoar (Steinkeller, SEL 6, 3-7; BSA 8, 50) (PSD A/2 109 reads tarah, ePSD reads durah.)

Humanist
2012-12-01, 03:26
I am not sure if everything here is related, but the Mesopotamian terms, I believe, may in some way be related.

From the blog of Dr. James McGrath: The Mandaean Calendar and the Egyptian Calendar (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2008/07/the-mandaean-calendar-and-the-egyptian-calendar.html)


Does this evidence show a connection between the Mandaeans and Egypt which goes back earlier than the first century B.C.E.?


------------------------------------------------------


The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore (1937)
Lady Drower

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/drower_kukh.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukh_hut.jpg



------------------------------------------------------


Robert DeKelaita


One of the best available source of information on the state and perspective of the Assyrians - particularly the well educated - prior to and during the First World War in the area of Urmia is the periodical Kukhwa (the Star), a biweekly newspaper which ran from June 1906 to the Autumn of 1914, and then on and off again from 1917-1918. Although other periodicals existed in Urmia, Kukhwa was the only independent - not published through or sponsored by a Western mission. Kukhwa was the first periodical to carry overt nationalistic messages; news from Assyrians in the diaspora, lessons on history, essays on the importance of national identity and the detriment caused by the existence of a variety of Churches, to which the majority of the previously Nestorian Assyrians had converted.



------------------------------------------------------


SURETH
'koḥwa ['koḥma?] or ['koḥba?]
[Sky → Astronomy → Stars]
English : 1) a star , a heavenly body (other than the sun , the moon , comets, meteors and the nebulae) ; ܟܵܘܟ݂ܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܒܲܗܪܵܐ : Lucifer , see ܘܲܠܘܸܠ ; ܟܵܘܟ݂ܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܓܲܪܒܝܵܐ : the pole star , Polaris ; 2) an asterisk ; 3) punctuation : a full stop
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patira.jpg



AKKADIAN (note "patiru" at bottom of "guhsu")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guhsu_patira_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukku-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkabu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuihku.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patiru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patiru2.jpg


------------------------------------------------------


The origin of Babylonian Christianity

Compiled by: George V. Yana (Bebla)


South of Ctesiphon and east of Seleucia there was a village called Kokhe (the name derives from the Syriac for Kukhyata, meaning huts), where the first great Babylonian Christian Church of Kokhe was built. Fiey bases his decision, regarding the founding of the first church of the Syriac speaking people in Kokhe, to a change of course, between 79 AD and 116 AD, by the river Tigris.

Before Tigris changed its course, Kokhe was known as part of the city of Ctesiphon, because both were on the east side of the river, but, when the river changed its course, Kokhe was cutoff from Ctesiphon, and later documents referred to it as being part of Seleucia, because, now, both were on the west side of the river.

The Chronicle of Seert (ninth or tenth century, S. H. Moffett, p.183), attributes the foundation of the first Christian Church in Kokhe of Ctesiphon to Mar Mari, a disciple of the Apostle Mar Adai. Presenting Kokhe as part of Ctesiphon means that the Great Church of Kokhe was founded by Mar Mari before the River Tigris changed its bed, that is before 79 and 116 AD. Later documents make Kokhe part of Seleucia, which makes them recent documents, that is, documents that were written after the river changed its course.

Jean-Maurice Fiey writes that because the geography explained in the Chronicle of Seert, which corresponds with the geography before the river changed its course, could not be invented at later dates (that is could not be written after 79/116 AD, because the old geography would have been forgotten), therefore, Fiey says, I am persuaded that in this source we have a text of the greatest antiquity. Fiey continues by saying that “I am ready to accept it as a historic proof of the coming of Mar Mari to Kokhe- of- Ctesiphon, between the years 79 and 116 of our era.” Thus, we can consider the foundation of the Babylonian Christianity in Kokhe of Ctesiphon, to have taken place before or within the years 79-116 AD.


------------------------------------------------------

The Festivals of Khoiak

The festivals of Khoiak are among the best attested from ancient Egypt. They revolve around the myth of the god Osiris, murdered by his brother Seth, and revived by his sister-wife Isis to the point where she could conceive their son Horus. Osiris withdrew to rule the underworld, while Isis protected Horus until he was old enough to avenge his father in battle with Seth, and win the throne. The death and revival of Osiris provide the mythic echo of the annual rebirth of crops. In the ceremony, seeds were sown in earth, which was from the New Kingdom shaped in moulds to the form of Osiris; the sown earth was watered until the seeds germinated, and then this guarantor of a successful crop was buried. The timing of the festival in the official year placed it in the fourth month of flood, just as the waters receded to expose silt-covered fields fresh for sowing. The name of the festival was ka-her-ka 'ka upon ka' (or 'sustenance upon sustenance'); it survived into Christian times as the name of the fourth month of the season of flood, rendered in Coptic as Khoiak.

Source: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/ideology/khoiak.html


------------------------------------------------------

Wikipedia

Osiris ( /oʊˈsaɪərɨs/; Ancient Greek: Ὄσιρις, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Asari, Aser, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, Usir, Usire or Ausare) was an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned man with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side, and holding a symbolic crook and flail.

The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, from a tomb painting

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/La_Tombe_de_Horemheb_cropped.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-01, 05:45
The Persian term may not be related, but perhaps the Sureth and Mandaic terms are. And the Akkadian word has a chance as well, I think.


The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore (1937)
Lady Drower

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ratna_drower-1.jpg


SURETH
'riṭna
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) gainsay , a subject of dispute / controversy , the act of gainsaying / speaking against / refuting / rejecting / denying / impugning / negativing / challenging / taking exception / questioning , contradiction ; 2) a scruple , a qualm , a doubt / hesitation (before acting)
Dialect : Urmiah

raṭona
[Human → Speech]
English : a gainsayer , an opponent (in words) , one who contradicts / opposes / denies / belies / rebuts / refutes / confutes / disproves / negatives / questions / impugns , a denier / belier / rebutter / refuter / disprover , a Devil's advocate (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ridu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ridu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ridu3.jpg


SUMERIAN
bànda, bàn-da (or bàndada) small(er), young(er), minor, junior; short (time); impetuous, wild (note that Labat and Borger AbZ, read banda3 rather than Deimel's banda1, a practice now universal)
bànda young one, child, infant; offspring, progeny; attendant


PERSIAN

The word "band" in old and modern Persian means rope and string as noun, and wrapping up, stopping or fastening as verb.

(Source: Iranian.com)

^^ When my mother (an Assyrian from Tehran) uses the word "band" in a sentence, the word ordinarily takes the place of "to pester."

Humanist
2012-12-01, 07:24
SURETH
'birta
[City → Buildings]
English : 1) a palace, the residence of a bishop, a magnificent building ; Yoab Bejamin : a fortress
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/birtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rab_birti.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

SURETH
maq qupi
[Human → Speech]
English : (intransitive verb) : to debate , to discuss / deliberate (?) , to talk over (?) , to dispute , to contend / quarrel in words , to contest , to argue , to object / question , to challenge things / to oppugn / to impugn
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qabu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qipu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-01, 10:40
Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
'urza
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursunu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursi_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursanu_.jpg


Wikipedia [Note the name of the "BIG DIPPER," or the "GREAT BEAR" (at top)]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Ursa_Major.jpg/1280px-Ursa_Major.jpg


Source: http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellations/Ursa_Major.html

http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/gif/UMA.jpg


LATIN (Wiktionary.com)

ursus (a bear)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/G%C3%BCstrow%2C_Natur%26Umwelt_Park28-30.06.08_254.jpg/220px-G%C3%BCstrow%2C_Natur%26Umwelt_Park28-30.06.08_254.jpg

From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (“bear”). Cognates include Ancient Greek ἄρκτος (arktos) and Sanskrit ऋक्ष (ṛ́kṣa).

Humanist
2012-12-01, 11:47
Came across this. It may have a chance, I suppose.


SURETH
naqpa
[Humanities → Geography]
English : proximate , close , next to , immediate , adjacent
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

naqopa
[Humanities → Geography]
English : Same meaning as above.
Dialect : Urmiah

nqapa
[Industry]
English : intransitive verb : to cleave / to adhere closely , to stick , to hold fast , to be joined / to stay in contact
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nakapu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-01, 21:29
Unlikely connection, but interesting nonetheless.


AMERICAN LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS
NINTH SERIES, 1910

Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria

By Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Pennsylvania.


Both voluntary and involuntary divination have a large share in the practical religion of Babylonia and Assyria. As examples of the former class we find the pouring of drops of oil in a bowl or goblet of water, and according to the number of bubbles, the side on which the bubbles were formed, the behaviour of the bubbles, as they first sank and then rose to the surface, and their line of formation, etc.,—from all these, conclusions were drawn as to their portents. In involuntary divination we find dreams, behaviour of animals, peculiar signs in or on new-born infants, or on the young of animals, strange phenomena in daily life, all carefully noted by the priests. These were interpreted according to a system, based in part upon [Page 147] observation of what in the past had actually followed any striking occurrence, with the assumption, resting on the illogical principle of post hoc , propter hoc, that the same circumstances would bring about a like result.

....

In addition to divination through the liver there were various other methods of divination practised by Babylonians and Assyrians. Prominent among them is the pouring of oil into a basin of water, or of pouring water on oil, and then observing the bubbles and rings formed by the oil. References to this method are frequently found in ritualist texts, with allusions that point to its great antiquity.96 Besides an interesting allusion to the use of this method by a ruler of the Cassite period (c. 1700 B.C.), before undertaking an expedition to a distant land to bring back the statues of Marduk and his consort, which had been carried off by an enemy,97 we have two elaborate [Page 202] texts, dating from the Hammurapi period,98 forming a handbook for the guidance of the bârû priests, which expound a large number of signs to be observed in the mingling of oil and water, together with the interpretations thereof. From these examples we can reconstruct the system devised by the priests, which, as in the case of hepatoscopy, rested largely upon an association of ideas, but in part also upon the record of subsequent events. Divination by oil is, however, entirely overshadowed by the pre-eminence obtained by hepatoscopy, and does not appear to have formed, at least in the later periods, an integral part of the cult.



ADAD

Source: http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/ikur/


Iškur/Adad (god)

Mesopotamian storm god, associated with both life-giving and destructive properties of rain and flood.

....


Adad was also associated with divination and justice. Paired with Šamaš, he is addressed as 'lord of prayers and divination', and invoked to preside over extispicies or as a witness in legal contexts (Schwemer 2001: 221-6; 323-7; 683-7; Foster 2005: 754-6 with Starr 1983: 30ff.).

....


The important temple of Adad at Aššur, the 'House which Hears Prayers', was converted into a double temple of Adad and Anu by king Šamši-Adad I (ca. 1808-1776 BCE). Adad's main cult centre during the Neo-Assyrian period was at Kurba'il, but temples for him existed in Kalhu, Nineveh and many other cities (Schwemer 2001: 237ff; 577-581; 595-611) for additional temple names see George 1993, index s.v. 'Adad' and 'Iškur').

....


In Babylonia he was no longer one of the highest-ranking deities, although he received cult at most major centres, continuing into the Hellenistic period in Uruk and Babylon (Schwemer 2001: 637-649; Beaulieu 2003: 325-6; Linssen 2004, esp. 64-9). At Uruk, he and Šala are invoked in curses designed to protect what were to be some of the last surviving texts of cuneiform culture: 'Whoever takes it (the tablet) away, may Adad and Šala take him away!' (e.g. AfO 14, Taf. VI, TCL 6, 10).


SURETH (a similar word is labeled as a loan from Arabic)
idara
[Government]
English : administration , government , any body of men or women entrusted with executive powers , an executive committee
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adaru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adaru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dannuA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dannuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/adaru3.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

DIFFERENT SUBJECT


Add to the "URSA MAJOR" post, above.

SUMERIAN
az bear
sisi(ANŠE.KUR.RA), anšesí-sí (Ur III) horse

Humanist
2012-12-01, 22:57
SUMERIAN
ù and, also, furthermore, moreover; (as correlative ù ... ù either...or, neither...nor) (< Akk. u )


SURETH (and MANDAIC?)
u : and

---------- Post Merged at 21:21 ----------

SUMERIAN
du6(l) hill, hillock, mound, 'tell' (often confused with habrud, see Yuhong, AV Klein 374-381, who states that the Auslaut is /l/; cf. OS Fara name A-du6-la WF 42 iv 5) ePSD assumes a /d/ Auslaut; Steinkeller, AV Biggs 219 n. 2 provides references for /dr/) (tillu)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tillu.jpg


SURETH
tilla
[Humanities → History]
English : a man-made hill , a mound , an artificial elevation of earth (rubbles of ancient cities) , a raised bank , a pile of earth
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

SURETH
'ṭala
[Sky → Climate]
English : dew
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'ṭal
[Humanities → Geography → Countries]
English : one of the smaller Assyrian tribal districts in Northern Iraq
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

(Source: Geoffrey Khan)
dll : to plant crops with spaces in between; to spoil, pamper

ṭilla
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) shade , a shadow ; 2) Oraham : protection ; 3) Qochanis : = ܛܠܵܬܵܐ : three , 3
Dialect : NENA, Al Qosh

(Humanist)
talila / talilta
English : wet

'dila
[Industry]
English : 1) a woof , a weft , the thread / a hank ; 2) -?- metaphor : life, story ... : reference points (?) , markers (?) , benchmarks (?) , landmarks (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu1_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu2_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu2b_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu3_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu4_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalu5_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dallu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daltuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daltu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tallu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/talu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/teliltu_.jpg



SUMERIAN
giš dal, dalx(HU) crosspiece, traverse beam (tallu)

dal to fly

dal, dal-a, dal-dal flying, in flight

dal-ba-an(-na) in between (area)

dalla - è to be visible, apparent, manifest; (to shine forth in radiance, be/make resplendent, splendid, i.e. near synonym of pa - è ?) (šupû)

di4(l) smaller (Civil, OrAnt 21 (1982) 12)

túl (public) fountain, well

tílla crossroads, town square, marketplace

tál(PI) to be broad, wide; to widen, expand; to spread out, lay out (cf. sal)

tál(-la) wide

- - - Updated - - -

This is also a relevant post to include to the comparisons above.



SURETH
'tulla
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a pup , a puppy , a young dog , the young of canine family , a cub , a whelp
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


SUMERIAN
túl (public) fountain, well
ti-la alive, living, while alive
di4-di4(-lá) little ones, youngsters, children (reduplicated form of tur) W. Farber, Mesopotamian Civilizations 2 (1989) 9 reads du13-du13-lá.
ti(l), ti-il v. to live, be alive; to dwell


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tulu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tulu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-02, 00:23
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/2017_1377819.jpg

The Herring Net, 1885
Winslow Homer :)


SURETH (also A. Annus, 2006)
mallaḥa
[Transport → Sea]
English : 1) a (ship) pilot , one employed to steer a vessel ; 2) a mariner , a sailor
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

maluḥa [milḥa]
[Feeding → Food]
English : 1) masculine : salt ; 2) adjective : salt , made of salt ; feminine : ܡܲܠܘܼܚܬܵܐ : 1) : salt ; 2) adjective : salt , made of salt
Dialect : NENA


SUMERIAN
má-lah4 boat owner, skipper, boatman
luh to be clean; to clean, wash; to purify, refine
luh-ha cleaned, refined


About Sea Salt Cleanse Formula
By Shelley Moore


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Wikipedia


Salt-cured meat or salted meat, for example bacon and kippered herring, is meat or fish preserved or cured with salt. Salting, either with dry salt or brine, was the only widely available method of preserving meat until the 19th century. It was frequently called 'junk'[1] or 'salt horse'.[2]

Salt inhibits the growth of microorganisms by drawing water out of microbial cells through osmosis. Concentrations of salt up to 20% are required to kill most species of unwanted bacteria. Smoking, often used in the process of curing meat, adds chemicals to the surface of meat that reduce the concentration of salt required.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malahu.jpg


Continuing the comparison from the post immediately above between Sureth, Sumerian, and Akkadian. Specifically, here, between Sumerian (i.e. "luh"/"luh-ha") and Sureth. Need to search Akkadian.


SURETH
'lḥa
[Humanities → Language]
English : to erase , to rub , to scrape out , to obliterate , to rub off , to wipe away
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 19:40 ----------

So far, I have come across this Akkadian word. But, it appears to have the opposite meaning to the Sumerian and Sureth terms. Will search more later.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luuB.jpg


SURETH
'šlaga
[Country]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to pluck , to pull off / out , to pick off / out , to pick / to gather (fruit, mushrooms ...) / to collect (?) , to pluck (hairs) , to pluck petals of / strip the leaves of , to cull , to extract / draw (water ...) , to select (?) / to screen for (?) ; 2) -?- musical instrument string : to pluck (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šlaḥa
[Country → Trees]
English : (intransitive verb) : fruits, trees ... : to peel , to lose the skin / bark / rind / outer covering , snakes : to slough its skin , skin, paint ... : to come off , to come to be detached , to flake off (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/salahu-1.jpg


SUMERIAN
sal v. & adj. (to be) fine, thin, delicate; to be frivolous (cf. eme-sal)

sal-la fine

šu - lá to defile, desecrate

šu - luh to wash the hands; to wash, cleanse; periphrastic: šu-luh - a5 to clean (a canal) (Civil, AV Biggs 32 + n. 30)

zalag (reduplicated zazalag) (to be) pure, shining, bright; to be clean (cf. kuš zalag-ga cleaned hides, CUSAS 13, 286)

zà-hi-li nisi conventionally "cress," but Civil, AuOr 5, 30f. translates "(a prickly plant)" and Ferwada, Isin 43 translates "(seed of) Vicia ervilia," i.e. bitter vetch

Humanist
2012-12-02, 01:42
A few bits from: The Unspeakable in Biblical Scholarship (http://www.sbl-site.org/publications/article.aspx?articleId=503)


....

The unspeakable that I allude to in my title concerns what we might label the demographic peculiarities of the academic discipline of biblical scholarship. Addressing this very issue thirty years ago, M.H. Goshen-Gottstein observed: "However we try to ignore it—practically all of us are in it because we are either Christians or Jews." [1] In the intervening decades, very little has changed. Biblicists continue to be professing (or once-professing) Christians and Jews. They continue to ignore the fact that the relation between their own religious commitments and their scholarly subject matter is wont to generate every imaginable conflict of intellectual interest. Too, they still seem oblivious to how strange this state of affairs strikes their colleagues in the humanities and social sciences.

....

But I am digressing. When Fox speaks of a "secular academic, religiously-neutral hermeneutic," I can only wonder from where this hermeneutic is supposed to emerge. In this discipline, there is no organic sociological base from which such an approach can develop. And this is because nearly every single one of my colleagues has entered this discipline qua Christian or Jew. (True, they sometimes exit as something else, but that's another story altogether.) What results is a situation in which biblical scholarship's "secular" wing is more like a reform religious or liberal religious wing. If one of the classic definitions of secularism centers on the holding of agnostic or atheistic beliefs, then biblical scholarship (and religious studies in general) is "secular" in a way that no other discipline in the Academy is secular. Does this invalidate the findings of biblical scholarship? Absolutely not. It does, however, point to a collective ideational drift in the field, one that makes it difficult to think or speak about Scripture in certain ways.

....

Assume for a moment that you are an atheist exegete. Now please follow my instructions. Peruse the listings in Openings. Understand that your unique skills and talents are of no interest to those institutions listed there with the words "Saint" and "Holy" and "Theological" and "Seminary" in their names. This leaves, per year, about two or three advertised posts in biblical studies at religiously un-chartered institutions of higher learning. Apply for those jobs. Get rejected. A few months later learn—preferably while consuming donuts with a colleague—that the position was filled by a graduate of a theological seminary. Realize that those on the search committee who made this choice all graduated from seminaries themselves. Curse the gods.

Before this response begins to sound like the prelude to a class-action suit, permit me to observe that the type of discrimination encountered by secularists in biblical studies is precisely what believers working in the humanities and social sciences have endured for decades. The secular bent and bias of the American research university is well known. It is undeniable that many of its workers are prejudiced against sociologists, English professors, and art historians who are "too" religious. I do not know what the solution is, but I do know that two major neglected questions in our profession concern how religious belief interacts with scholarly research and how secular universities manage the study of religion.

In closing, let me mention that in recent years I have increasingly noted the presence in both societies of a small, but growing cadre of non-believers, heretics, and malcontents. Whether we have anything of substance to offer our disciplines remains to be seen. Of course, this begs the question of whether our colleagues will ever consent to listen to us.

Jacques Berlinerblau, Georgetown University/Hofstra University

Humanist
2012-12-02, 02:55
The Persian term may not be related, but perhaps the Sureth and Mandaic terms are. And the Akkadian word has a chance as well, I think.


The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore (1937)
Lady Drower

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ratna_drower-1.jpg


SURETH
'riṭna
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) gainsay , a subject of dispute / controversy , the act of gainsaying / speaking against / refuting / rejecting / denying / impugning / negativing / challenging / taking exception / questioning , contradiction ; 2) a scruple , a qualm , a doubt / hesitation (before acting)
Dialect : Urmiah

raṭona
[Human → Speech]
English : a gainsayer , an opponent (in words) , one who contradicts / opposes / denies / belies / rebuts / refutes / confutes / disproves / negatives / questions / impugns , a denier / belier / rebutter / refuter / disprover , a Devil's advocate (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ridu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ridu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ridu3.jpg


SUMERIAN
bànda, bàn-da (or bàndada) small(er), young(er), minor, junior; short (time); impetuous, wild (note that Labat and Borger AbZ, read banda3 rather than Deimel's banda1, a practice now universal)
bànda young one, child, infant; offspring, progeny; attendant


PERSIAN

The word "band" in old and modern Persian means rope and string as noun, and wrapping up, stopping or fastening as verb.

(Source: Iranian.com)

^^ When my mother (an Assyrian from Tehran) uses the word "band" in a sentence, the word ordinarily takes the place of "to pester."

Wikipedia


Ratha ( Sanskrit rátha, Avestan raθa) is the Indo-Iranian term for the spoked-wheel chariot of Antiquity.

It derives from a collective *ret-h- to a Proto-Indo-European word *rot-o- for "wheel" that also resulted in Latin rota and is also known from Germanic, Celtic and Baltic. The Sanskrit terms for the wagon pole, harness, yoke and wheel have cognates in other branches of Indo-European.[citation needed]

Chariots are also an important part of Hindu, with most of the gods in their pantheon portrayed as riding them.

Chariots figure prominently in the Rigveda, evidencing their presence in India in the 2nd millennium BC. Among Rigvedic deities, notably Ushas (the dawn) rides in a chariot, as well as Agni in his function as a messenger between gods and men.

Krishna, Arjuna at Kurukshetra, 18-19 th century painting

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Krishna_and_Arjun_on_the_chariot%2C_Mahabharata%2C _18th-19th_century%2C_India.jpg

Proto-Indo-Iranians

Development of the spoke-wheeled chariot is associated with the Proto-Indo-Iranians. The earliest fully developed war chariots known are from the chariot burials of the Andronovo (Timber-Grave) sites of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in modern Russia and Kazakhstan dating from around 2000 BCE. This culture is at least partially derived from the earlier Yamna culture. The Andronovo Culture built heavily fortified industrial settlements where they engaged in bronze metallurgy on a scale hitherto unprecedented. They practiced complex burial rituals reminiscent of Aryan rituals known from the Rigveda.[2] The Sintashta-Petrovka chariot burials yield spoke-wheeled chariots. The Andronovo culture over the next few centuries spreads across the steppes from the Urals to the Tien Shan, likely corresponding to early Indo-Iranian cultures which eventually spread to Iran and India in the course of the 2nd millennium BCE.

The chariot must not necessarily be regarded as a marker for Indo-European or Indo-Iranian presence.[3] According to Raulwing, it is an undeniable fact that only comparative Indo-European linguistics is able to furnish the methodological basics of the hypothesis of a "PIE chariot", in other words: "Ausserhalb der Sprachwissenschaft winkt keine Rettung![4]"[5][6]

The earliest evidence for chariots in southern Central Asia (on the Oxus) dates to the Achaemenid period (apart from chariots harnessed by oxen, as seen on petroglyphs).[7] No Andronovian chariot burial has been found south of the Oxus.[8]


I reckon this has been covered by scholars a thousand times over, but I still found the similarities interesting.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raddu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/redu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reduA.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/reduB.jpg