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Humanist
2012-12-02, 04:04
I have spoken many times about the great contributions Geoffrey Khan has made to this field of study. There are two other linguists who, from what I have read of their work, and to the extent my ignorant mind can make sense of their work, are worthy of recognition. Of course, this means nothing, given my lack of training in the area, but I do like to give credit where I believe credit is due. I still have an issue regarding what exactly "Aramaic" is (certainly in part a function of my ignorance), but that does not mean that the points below do not have merit. Based on what I know of the combined record to date, including the genetic, "historical," archaeological, and (from my layman's opinion) linguistic record, these two points have resonated with me the most:

John Huehnergard : "Official [Achaemenid] Aramaic essentially wipes the preceding Aramaic slate clean.”

What is Aramaic? (Huehnergard)

Sergei Loesov : "There could have occurred a mass extermination of Akkadophones (around the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, 614-609 BC), one could also imagine Akkadophones being confined to isolated language pockets and gradually dying out (Hackl forthcoming), yet all this does not square well with our historical data..."

A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic Part II (Loesov)

The Loesov bit is more history than linguistics, but that is indeed why I appreciate the point. Loesov is one of the very few who appears willing (from what I have read) to extend some recognition in his linguistic analyses to what I believe was the reality.

Humanist
2012-12-02, 05:17
Probably nothing.

SURETH
badla
[Army]
English : 1) a watch , the period in which a person stands as a sentinel / is on sentry duty
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/baddu1.jpg
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/baddu2.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/badu.jpg


SUMERIAN
lú person, man; someone; person in charge (Jacobsen, AV Kutscher 69ff. "boss"); the one who (relative pronoun) (Emesal mu-lu) Cf. lú-ùlu
bàd (city) wall, fortification
bàd(-da) high (cf. ùn)

Humanist
2012-12-02, 06:20
SURETH
'šaṭir
[City → Administration]
English : to record
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sataru1_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sataru2.jpg


SUMERIAN
šu-tur inscription

šid to count; to recount, recite, read; to count, number among, reckon as; to do an accounting

šid counting; line count (at the end of tablets)

šu - du8 to hold (in the hand); to guarantee, provide surety for

šu - dù to slander, denounce

šu - du7 to do, set, perform, prepare, correctly or perfectly; to complete, perfect; to embellish, adorn

šu - du11 to use the hand; to do, effect; to exert oneself; to accomplish (Attinger, Eléments 696-703)

Humanist
2012-12-02, 08:08
SURETH
aruna
[Religion]
English : 1) a trunk , a chest , a large box to hold personal belongings ; 2) the Ark of the Covenant
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aranu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aranu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aranu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arunu.jpg


SUMERIAN
ár, ar, a-a-ar praise

an sky, heaven; the sky god An

an, an-na high, tall (cf. ùn and ĝi6-ù/un-na)

ùn(BAD3)(-na) high (cf. ĝi6-ù/un-na midnight, si-ùn-na high point, zenith) (see also an(-na))

unu(g)ki the city Uruk

únu, unu6, únu-gal deity's private chamber, cella, sanctuary; divine dining room, banquet hall



The Ark of the Covenant was a kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height. Made of setim wood (an incorruptible acacia), it was overlaid within and without with the purest gold, and a golden crown or rim ran around it. At the four corners, very likely towards the upper part, four golden rings had been cast; through them passed two bars of setim wood overlaid with gold, to carry the Ark. These two bars were to remain always in the rings, even when the Ark had been placed in the temple of Solomon. The cover of the Ark, termed the "propitiatory" (the corresponding Hebrew means both "cover" and "that which makes propitious"), was likewise of the purest gold.

Source: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01721a.htm

Humanist
2012-12-02, 11:32
Not sure about this one, since the meaning of the Akkadian term is unknown.

SURETH
'šiqqa
[Human → Death]
English : 1) a sarcophagus , a chest-shaped tomb , a stone coffin ; 2) a mound of earth , a tumulus , a barrow , a kurgan - a burial mound - (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/siggu.jpg


SUMERIAN
si(g) to be(come) silent
si(-ga) silent, silently; adv. si-ga-bé quietly
sig, si-ig to be(come) weak, thin, flat, low, level; to bring down, tear down, rip apart, demolish, level, remove
sig(-ga), si-ga weak; thin, narrow; low, lower, lower land; south, southern
sig4 (šeg12) brick; brickwork, brick walls (sig4 is conventional; the newest reading is šeg12) (ES še-eb)
sìg (sàg) to strike, beat upon, beat down, fell; to make tremble, quake. Some now read sàg with Proto Ea 490.

Humanist
2012-12-02, 22:35
SURETH
aruna
[Religion]
English : 1) a trunk , a chest , a large box to hold personal belongings ; 2) the Ark of the Covenant
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aranu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aranu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aranu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arunu.jpg


SUMERIAN
ár, ar, a-a-ar praise

an sky, heaven; the sky god An

an, an-na high, tall (cf. ùn and ĝi6-ù/un-na)

ùn(BAD3)(-na) high (cf. ĝi6-ù/un-na midnight, si-ùn-na high point, zenith) (see also an(-na))

unu(g)ki the city Uruk

únu, unu6, únu-gal deity's private chamber, cella, sanctuary; divine dining room, banquet hall




Source: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01721a.htm


The Akkadian word appears to be "a-ra-nu." So, perhaps these Sumerian terms, if at all informative, are more appropriate (mind you, I am definitely "out of my element" here):

SUMERIAN
a - ru to dedicate, donate to a deity

a-ru-a temple donation, votive gift

a-rá way, path, course; state, condition; multiplied by, "times" (math.) ; a-rá N-kam for the nth time

a, `à water, fluid; semen, seed; offspring, child; father; watercourse (cf. e)

a Ah! (an interjection) (Attinger, Eléments p. 414)

a-ra-li (poetic term for the netherworld; the desert between Bad-Tibira and Uruk where Dumuzi pastured his flocks and was killed, see Jacobsen, JAOS 103, 194)

a-ra-zu, a-rá-zu, rá-zu prayer, supplication (for writings see Bauer, AV Klein 24-25)

na stone, boulder (cf. na4)

na4 precious stone (cf. na) (cf. Ross, AV Kilmer 232f.)

nè, ne, nì strength, might, (military) force(s)

ne, ne-en, ne-e this (one) (cf. ne-e = níĝ-e = an-[nu-ú] Emesal Vocabulary III 157)

ĝá shed, barn, enclosure (or the like)

ra(h), ra-ah to hit, beat upon; to strike down; to drive (animals); to impress (a seal). Verb has dual syntax: to make something beat upon (-a/e) (older), to beat with something (-e) (newer)

rú(DU3) to erect, in na-rú-a (read drù ?)

Humanist
2012-12-02, 23:41
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Fn7GGi4eWM


SURETH
raḥia
[Industry]
English : a mill (to grind grain into flour)
Dialect : Urmiah

raḥaia
[Professions]
English : a miller , one who operates a flour-mill
Dialect : Urmiah

'arḥil (?) / arḥal (?)
[Industry]
English : a mill
Dialect : Other
Al Qosh, vowel unclear

'irḥi
[Industry]
English : 1) a mill , a mill-stone , an oil-press (?) ; Matthew : 18, 6 : ܐܸܪܚܹܐ ܕܚܡܵܪܵܐ : a millstone turned by an ass ; 2) a game : "sacks on the mill" ; NENA, Classical Syriaque : ܐܲܪܚܹܐ
Dialect : Urmiah

'erḥi
[Professions]
English : 1) a mill , a mill-stone , an oil-press (?) ; Matthew : 18, 6 : ܐܸܪܚܹܐ ܕܚܡܵܪܵܐ : a millstone turned by an ass ; 2) a game : "sacks on the mill" ; Urmiah : ܐܸܪܚܹܐ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA

'ḥru riyé
[Country → Plants]
English : millet
Dialect : Ashita

kaka/kika (pl. kike) (Compared to Akkadian and Sumerian several times)
English : tooth


SUMERIAN
HUR → àr, har, kikken, mur, ur5
har, har-har ring, bracelet; coil, spiral
ra(h), ra-ah to hit, beat upon; to strike down; to drive (animals); to impress (a seal). Verb has dual syntax: to make something beat upon (-a/e) (older), to beat with something (-e) (newer)
àr to mill, grind flour
na4 àra mill, millstone
géme (OS var. gan) (dependent) woman; female serf (Maiocchi, CUSAS 13, 36); female slave, servant, worker (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 91-93)
géme-àr-àr female miller (some read géme-kíkken)
kikkin(HAR), kíkkin(HAR.HAR) millstone, grinding slab Cf. géme-kikkin grinder, miller (some read kín-kín or kinkinx, others read àr-àr (OB); vars. kikken, na4kikkin-na (see Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, p. 131f.)
nàĝa, naĝa4 to grind, mill (cf. gaz, gum)
giš nàĝa mortar, hand-mill (OS, see Selz, FAOS 15/2 557; cf. ĝiš-gaz pestle)
hal, ha(l), hal-ha, ha-la to divide, apportion, allot
hal-hal fast-flowing


Wikipedia


Neolithic and Upper Paleolithic people used millstone to grind grains, nuts, rhizomes and other vegetable food products for consumption.[1] These implements are often called grinding stones. They used either saddlestones or rotary querns turned by hand. Such devices were also used to grind pigments and metal ores prior to smelting.

In India, grinding stones (Chakki) were used to grind grains and spices. These consist of a stationary stone cylinder upon which a smaller stone cylinder rotates. Smaller ones, for household use, were operated by two people. Larger ones, for community or commercial use, used livestock to rotate the upper cylinder.

Humanist
2012-12-03, 01:16
continuing the comparison from the post immediately above between sureth, sumerian, and akkadian. Specifically, here, between sumerian (i.e. "luh"/"luh-ha") and sureth. Need to search akkadian.


Sureth
'lḥa
[humanities → language]
english : To erase , to rub , to scrape out , to obliterate , to rub off , to wipe away
dialect : Urmiah

---------- post merged at 19:40 ----------

so far, i have come across this akkadian word. But, it appears to have the opposite meaning to the sumerian and sureth terms. Will search more later.

Akkadian
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luu.jpg



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/2017_1377819.jpg

the herring net, 1885
winslow homer :)


Sureth (also a. Annus, 2006)
mallaḥa
[transport → sea]
english : 1) a (ship) pilot , one employed to steer a vessel ; 2) a mariner , a sailor
dialect : Eastern syriac

maluḥa [milḥa]
[feeding → food]
english : 1) masculine : Salt ; 2) adjective : Salt , made of salt ; feminine : ܡܲܠܘܼܚܬܵܐ : 1) : Salt ; 2) adjective : Salt , made of salt
dialect : Nena


Sumerian
má-lah4 boat owner, skipper, boatman
luh to be clean; to clean, wash; to purify, refine
luh-ha cleaned, refined

About sea salt cleanse formula
by Shelley Moore


a sea salt cleanse is basically a laxative, and a very easy and inexpensive one. All you need to do is drink a mixture of 2 tsp. Of sea salt dissolved in 1 qt. Of warm water, and you should begin seeing results within 30 minutes to 2 hours. Lemon can be added if the salt water is just too difficult to swallow. Naturopaths say that this cleanse removes toxins. If nothing else, it will definitely relieve constipation.

Wikipedia

salt-cured meat or salted meat, for example bacon and kippered herring, is meat or fish preserved or cured with salt. Salting, either with dry salt or brine, was the only widely available method of preserving meat until the 19th century. It was frequently called 'junk'[1] or 'salt horse'.[2]

salt inhibits the growth of microorganisms by drawing water out of microbial cells through osmosis. Concentrations of salt up to 20% are required to kill most species of unwanted bacteria. Smoking, often used in the process of curing meat, adds chemicals to the surface of meat that reduce the concentration of salt required.


Akkadian
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malahu.jpg


Hebrew

melacha (http://www.headcoverings-by-devorah.com/Melacha.html)

The torah tells us not to do "melacha" on Shabbat. Melacha is sometimes defined as "work," but that's not a good definition. What is melacha?

Melacha means "creative act." by refraining from creative acts, we recognize g-d as the ultimate creator.

Melacha is any act which represents the uniquely human ability to put our intellect to work and shape the environment. Thus, switching on a light is a melacha. Among other things, it can be considered "building" a circuit.

Specifically, a melacha is anything that fits into one of 39 categories of activities listed in tractate shabbat page 73a. This list includes activities such as seeding, uprooting, building, writing and burning.

- - - Updated - - -

Please see: Why is the Challah dipped in salt before it is eaten? (http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/484194/jewish/Why-dip-in-salt.htm)

Humanist
2012-12-03, 02:49
SURETH
šghiruta
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) ardour / ardor , burning heat , glow , flame ; 2) warmth / heat of passion or affection / fire , zeal , passionate enthusiasm , fervour / fervor / fervency , enthusiasm / eagerness , fanaticism (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šgharta
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : kindling , the act of causing to burn , igniting / ignition , causing to ignite , setting on fire , setting fire to , lighting a fire
Dialect : Urmiah

šaghgharuta
[Army → War]
English : 1) kindling , the act of causing to burn , setting on fire , to inflame , to light up , figurative sense (love, passion ....) : to arouse (?) / excite (?) / stir (?) / call forth (?) / wake up (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'šghara
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : (intransitive verb) : to kindle / catch fire , to be burning / glowing / hot / heated , incense : to burn
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
šà-ge - du11 to say to oneself, say inwardly
šà-ge-guru6-7 one's heart's desire
šà-ge - pà to envision inwardly (conventionally "choose in/by the heart")
šeĝ6 to boil, cook, heat, bake (bašālu) (Steinkeller, AV Sigrist 186)
šu-ĝar - gi4 (also šu - gi4) to avenge, take vengeance on, repay (lit. "to return, send back what was done")


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagiguru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagiguru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagiguru3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagiguru4.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-03, 04:12
Note the Behar et al. Iraqi Jews in the TreeMix run below. Those are the Behar et al. Syrians. Assyrians were not sampled for Behar et al.

Gene Expression: TreeMix: Who were the West Eurasian ancestors of Ethiopians? (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2012/12/who-were-the-west-eurasian-ancestors-of-ethiopians/#.ULwmFIPAfgc)

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/files/2012/12/Screenshot-from-2012-12-02-153432.png

Humanist
2012-12-03, 05:13
I have mentioned several times about our mtDNA affinities, including an Eastern signal.


Several paternal lines, including my own G1*, appear to have links to the south (Persian Gulf and Arabia). A recent post, from the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


Roads and Mass Deportations in the Neo-Assyrian Empire
David Danzig

Red and blue bold by Humanist

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/from_to_assyrian_heartland.jpg


Deportations from the SE (defined as "Southern Zagros/ Elam & Babylonia") accounted for 53.6% (67/125) of all deportations to the Assyrian heartland. By far, the "SE" was the source for the greatest number of deportations to the Assyrian heartland.


Following up on the previous post.


# % Origin Points for Deportations TO Assyrian Heartland
67 53.6% Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia
18 14.4% Middle and South Levant
13 10.4% Anatolia
9 7.2% Northern Zagros and Foothills
7 5.6% North Levant / Upper Euphrates Elbow
4 3.2% Euphrates and Tigris Sources
4 3.2% Lakes Van and Urmia
3 2.4% Habur Area / Jazira

So, ~61% for Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia and Northern Zagros and Foothills.

---------- Post Merged at 10:40 ----------

Posted a while back.


Sources:

Assyrian Identity In Ancient Times And Today - Simo Parpola, Helsinki

Assyrian empire builders - People, gods & places - http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/peoplegodsplaces/

Radner, K., 'Provinz: Assyrien', in M. P. Streck et al. (eds.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie 11/1-2, Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006, 42-68.

Assur
Aššur Assyria (Location in conventional terms) c. 2300 (Province since at least) 1500 year Assyrian rule 50 generation Assyrian rule

Nineveh
Nīnuwa (Nineveh) Assyria c. 1360 750 25

Kilis (Qasr Shamamok)
Kilīzi Assyria c.1330 720 24

Kalhu (Nimrud)
Kalhu (Nimrud) Assyria c.1310 700 23

Arbail (Arbil)
Arbail (Arbela) Assyria c. 1310 700 23

Halahhu
Halahhu An Assyrian district northwest of Nineveh. (Speculative Location) c. 1310 700 23

Apku (Tell Abu Marya)
c.1310 700 23

Šibanība (Tell Billa)
c. 1310 700 23

Talmusa (Gir-e Pan)
c. 1310 700 23

Šīmu
c.1310 700 23

Habrūri
c. 930 (already MA) 315 10.5

Arrapha (Kerkuk)
c. 900 (already MA) 285 9.5

Lahiru (Eski Kifri)
c. 900 (already MA) 285 9.5

Lubda (Tawuq?)
c. 900 (already MA) 285 9.5

Katmuhi/Šahuppa
c.900 290 9.5

Raqmatu
899 290 9.5

Naşībina (Nisibin)
896 285 9.5

Gūzāna / Hanigalbat
894 285 9.5


Origin points for ~90% of deportations to the Assyrian Heartland.

Font size = % reported in Danzig et al.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_deported_heartland_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-03, 09:35
Wikipedia

A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings. Modern cisterns range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic metres, effectively forming covered reservoirs.

Portuguese cistern El Jadida in Morocco
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/El_Jadida_cistern.jpg/230px-El_Jadida_cistern.jpg

SURETH
'gubba
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) a cistern, a reservoir for holding liquids; 2) a pit , a large hole or cavity in the ground either natural or artificial , a den, a hole in a rock


SUMERIAN
a-gúb-ba lustration water, holy water
pú well, well-pit (see also túl)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuppu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuppu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-03, 11:45
From Danzig.

Origin points for Assyrian deportations destined for the SW (Middle and South Levant)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_deported_MiddleandSouthLevant.jpg



I would like to do the same for Babylonian deportations. As well as Persian, and Greco-Macedonian. If sufficient data is out there.

Humanist
2012-12-03, 20:45
Again, from the Danzig paper, including some possible ideas regarding languages spoken in the regions added by me (see bold). I am simply an amateur with an interest. So, please keep that in mind.

Sources for all deportations, to all destinations, in descending order of frequency:

56.7% Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia (Elamite, Akkadian, Iranian*, Indo-Iranian??)
18.4% Middle and South Levant (Canaanite related languages (i.e. ancient Hebrew), NW Semitic (i.e. Old Aramaic))
8.0% Anatolia (W/C Anatolian Indo-European (e.g. Luwian, Hittite), Hurrian?**)
5.0% Northern Zagros and Foothills (Hurro-Urartian?, Akkadian, Iranian*, Indo-Iranian (e.g. Median?))
4.5% North Levant / Upper Euphrates Elbow (NW Semitic (i.e. Old Aramaic), W/C Anatolian Indo-European (e.g. Luwian, Hittite), Hurrian?)
3.5% Lakes Van and Urmia (Hurro-Urartian related languages, E Anatolian IE (proto-Armenian or Armenian?))
2.0% Euphrates and Tigris Sources (Hurro-Urartian related languages?, E Anatolian IE (proto-Armenian or Armenian?), W/C Anatolian Indo-European?? (e.g. Luwian, Hittite))
2.0% Habur Area / Jazira (NW Semitic (i.e. Old Aramaic), Akkadian, Hurrian?)


* Not Indo-Iranian. Or, at least not from what I have been able to understand from the record.
** This may be a bit late for an actual "Hurrian." Not late for a "Hurro-Urartian" related language, of course (i.e. Urartian).

Wikipedia

Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in Syria. It is generally believed that the speakers of this language originally came from the Armenian mountains and spread over southeast Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.[1]

Zakar-Baal
2012-12-03, 21:12
From Danzig.

Origin points for Assyrian deportations destined for the SW (Middle and South Levant)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_deported_MiddleandSouthLevant.jpg



I would like to do the same for Babylonian deportations. As well as Persian, and Greco-Macedonian. If sufficient data is out there.
What does this map indicate?

Humanist
2012-12-03, 21:33
What does this map indicate?

Source points for Assyrian deportations to the "Middle and South Levant." Hopefully, I can do the same for subsequent "empires."

Humanist
2012-12-03, 23:03
SURETH
'šatha / išatha
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) NENA : fever , heat / temperature , malaria ; Classical Syriac : ܐܸܫܵܬ݂ܵܐ ; 2) Mar Bishu : adjective : lazy
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Other

'niḥa
[Transport]
English : slow , not swift
Dialect : Urmiah

išta
English : the bottom , the deepest or lowest part : the sole of the foot : buttocks[/U])
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other


[U]AKKADIAN

[I]Lingering invisibly in the sky: on the meaning of uštānih
Mathieu Ossendrijver
NABU, nr. 39, p 49-52 (2008)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ustanih.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-04, 06:05
SURETH
qlala
[Measures → Weight]
English : 1) to lighten , to maker lighter / less heavy / reduce the weight , to ease (?) / to relieve -of a burden- (?) / to alleviate (?) / mitigate (?) / allay (?) , to exempt (?) , atmoshere : to lighten / calm / make more relaxed (?) ; 2) to belittle , to speak of in a contemptuous way , to slight , to depreciate , to disparage , to decry , to minimize , to underestimate (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qalalu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

2
SURETH
'qlapa
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to peel , fruit, animal : to lose / shed the skin or rind , tree : to lose the bark , vegetables, nuts, grains, shellfish ... : to lose the pod / husk / shell , skin, rind, bark ... to come off ; 2) religion, opinion ... : to become a convert / to convert , to change sides (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qalapu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qalapu2.jpg


3
SURETH
'mla [mli]
[Measures → Capacity]
English : transitive verb : 1) to fill , to make full , to supply with as much as can be held or contained , to cram , to shove ; 2) to suffice , to be sufficient , to satisfy , to be enough
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-04, 07:48
I wonder if there is any connection between the Sureth/Mandaic word, and the Akkadian/Sumerian words.

SURETH
qušta
[Moral life → Quality]
English : rectitude , uprightness , righteousness , straightness / straightforwardness , honesty , integrity , probity , exact conformity to truth , right , justice
Dialect : Urmiah

MANDAIC (Online Mandaic Lexicon)

kušṭa nm. truth. ašlẖ ašlia ḏziua usukana ḏkušṭa etbẖ Its cables are cables of radiance, and its rudder is one in which there is truth. ana urahmai ḏkušṭa baškinta ḏhiia ništkin I and my true friends shall be ensconced in the abode of life. abdia hauinin ḏtarmidak ḏašumak bkušṭa dakria We will be the servants of your disciples, who mention your name in truth.

Haran Gawaita

... of the Life, and to propagate a race in the House which Ruha and her seven sons built, so that she should not have dominion... in the midst of the worlds, and he shall be called Yahia-Yuhana, the prophet of Kusta , the apostle... who dwelt at the city of Jerusalem; a healer whose medicine was Water of Life, a healer that healeth... (evil spirits?) which go forth from Ruha and Adonai to destroy the physical body.

... Then... when the boy was born Anus'-'Uthra came by com- mand of the great Father of Glory and they came before Hibil-Ziwa by command of the great Father of Glory and travelled over deserts towards Mount Sinai and proceeded ... towards a community called Ruha's that is situated near the place where the Ark was built (...?) and she will be a deliverer (midwifef) to the child ... into Parwan, the white mountain, an earthly place. And (in?) that place the fruit and sky are large. There ... (groweth?) the Tree which nourisheth infants . And they took back Sufnai the lilith to a (?) place so that when they should perform a living baptism to purify the child, the apostle of Kusta, Yahia-Yuhana...


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kustu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gestu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/igistu.jpg



SUMERIAN
ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)
ĝeštu(g)1-3 ear; intelligence, mind, understanding, reason
ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da officer (in charge) of sixty (men) (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187)

Humanist
2012-12-04, 17:15
A favourable view of Alexander fits in with the cuneiform evidence concerning him. The four cuneiform records concerning Alexander discussed above do not fall into the category of royal inscriptions, which could be dismissed as propaganda. There is no hint of a negative view of Alexander. He is the foreign conqueror, but he respects the Babylonian rights and cults, as is especially clear from the astronomical diary (Text 1); he restores the temple of Anunitum and returns possessions to Esagila (Text 2); money is given by the palace for the rituals of Esagila (Text 3); people of the land give presents (Text 4).

Darius III, Alexander the Great and Babylonian scholarship

Robartus J. van der Spek

W. Henkelman, A. Kuhrt eds., A Persian Perspective. Essays in Memory of Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg. Achaemenid History XIII. (Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten) 289-346.

Humanist
2012-12-05, 00:08
SURETH
'baṭil
English : 1) to be idle ; 2) to come to an end, to cease , to come to nothing ; 3) NENA : to destroy
Dialect : Classical Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batalu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/batalu_2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-05, 11:06
Was unaware of this bit regarding the Babylonian day:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_day_sunset.jpg

The Astronomical Diaries as a source for Achaemenid and Seleucid History
R.J. (Bert) van der Spek
"Review of: A.J. Sachs, H. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia. Volume I. Diaries from 652 B.C. to 262 B.C.
Bibliotheca Orientalis 50 (1993) 91-101

Humanist
2012-12-05, 12:08
The Carians of Borsippa, Iraq 68 (2006), 1-22.

Caroline Waerzeggers

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian4.jpg



SURETH
'karsa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the stomach , the abdomen ; 2) Maclean : the womb ; 3) the crop of a bird
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Also, the Akkadian word for Egyptian "Misiraja," sounds similar to the word "Mizrahim."

---------- Post Merged at 17:42 ----------

Wikipedia

Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahim (Hebrew: מזרחים‎), also referred to as Adot HaMizrach (עֲדוֹת-הַמִּזְרָח) (Communities of the East; Mizrahi Hebrew: ʿAdot(h) Ha(m)Mizraḥ), are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Babylonian era in the Middle East and the Caucasus (the East as defined during the Middle Ages). The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from mostly Arab-ruled geographies and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries. This includes descendants of Babylonian Jews from modern Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Iran, India, Uzbekistan, Kurdish areas and Jews from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Yemenite and Georgian Jews are usually included within the Mizrahi Jews group. Today, some also expand the defition of Mizrahim to Maghrebi and Sephardic, though the latter have a different historical background. Hence, Sephardi and Maghrebi Jews with roots from Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Northern and Eastern Sudan, Tunisia, Libya or Turkey are erroneously grouped into the Mizrahi category for various reasons.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/misru.jpg


Soldiers of fortune??


More from Caroline Waerzeggers paper, referred to above:
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carians.jpg



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


From Karkisa to Caria: Ethnic Continuity, or Homeric Discontinuity?
by Jay McAnally

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karkisa.jpg


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------



SURETH
'kisa
[Human → Body]
English : 1) the belly , the womb ; 2) the crop of a bird
French : 1) le ventre , l'utérus ; 2) le jabot d'un oiseau ;
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'kisa
[Transport]
English : 1) Maclean : a (large) purse as opposed to ܟܝܼܣܬܵܐ ; 2) Oraham : a pouch , a small bag , a small sack or receptacle for carrying small things (ammunition, tobacco ...)
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA


HITTITE (David Michael Weeks, UCLA)

SKIN; HIDE — The Hitt. word (KUŠ)kursa- ‘skin, hide; (esp.) fleece’ seems at first sight derived from kurs- ‘cut off’, like Gk. δέρμα : δέρω ‘cut’, OIr. seche : Lat. secāre, etc. (thus Sturtevant, Comp. Gr.1 119, Comp. Gr.2 56), but lack of derivational parallels casts doubt on this simple explanation (EHS 189, T 655). Some scholars (e.g. Pisani, Paideia 8 [1953]: 308), on similar semantic grounds, have compared Skt. cárman ‘hide’, Lat. corium ‘leather’, etc., positing IE root-connection in *(s)ker- ‘cut’, but these forms probably belong with H. kariya- ‘hide, cover up’ from a homophonous root (see 12.26).

Another approach to kursa- sensibly considers it a Cappadocian loanword, akin to Akk. gusānu(m) ‘leather bag’ and Gk. βύρσα ‘hide; leather’, whence MLat. bursa, MHG burse, NHG Börse, Bursch, Fr. bourse ‘purse’ (EHS 139; Gusmani, Lessico 32; T 655-56 with refs.). Skt. tvac-, Gk. σάκος match H. tuekka- ‘body’, 4.11.


12.26 — COVER (VB.) — A cogent etymology for kariya- ‘cover, hide’ (iter. kāriski-) compares Skt. cárman- ‘skin, hide’, Lat. cortex ‘bark, rind’, corium ‘leather’, scorium ‘hide’, OHG skirm ‘cover(ing), shelter’, from IE *(s)ker- ‘cover, hide’, homonymous with *(s)ker- ‘cut’ (Puhvel, Bi. Or. 38 [1981]: 353). Earlier attempts in T 504-5. istap(p)-, see 12.25.


MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN (Etymonline)

carcass (n.)
late 13c., from Anglo-Norman carcois, perhaps influenced by O.Fr. charcois (Mod.Fr. carcasse) "trunk of a body, chest, carcass," and Anglo-L. carcosium "dead body," all of uncertain origin. Not used of humans after c.1750, except contemptuously. Italian carcassa probably is a French loan word.


Continuing, from above.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karsu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karsanu.jpg

---------- Post Merged at 23:19 ----------


http://www.mirbahmanyar.com/images/soldiers-of-fortune-cover-website.jpg


???


From the post at top (Caroline Waerzeggers):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/carian4.jpg


Caria

http://www.shoretechnology.com/Ipek_files/Caria.jpg


Borsippa

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/borsippa.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-06, 05:43
I am putting together a list of all of my previous comparisons between Sureth and Akkadian that may help shed light on our religion before Christianity/Judaism. While I am working on that, here are two comparisons. For the one discussed previously (Šamaš), I am adding new information to the comparison.


SURETH
'qra [qri]
[Human → Speech]
English : transitive verb : to call , to hail , to summon with a call , to request to come / be present , to convoke , to cite / invite to come

'qraia
[Human → Speech]
English : (transitive verb) : to call , to give (someone) a holler , to summon / invite / convoke with a call

My cousin (bottom left), a few years back, during his ordination ceremony as a "Qaruya," or reader. He is now a "Šamaša," or deacon. As is Birko's father. Another cousin is also in the picture (standing to the other cousin's side).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaruya.jpg


šammašuta
[Religion]
English : deaconate, the office / service of a deacon in the liturgy

šamašuta
[Human → Senses]
English : a sun-ray (seen in a dark room passing through a crevice or a small window)

'šmaša
[Industry]
English : (transitive verb) : to serve , to work for , to labour in behalf of , to service for , to minister to , to wait upon , to attend to , to nurse -a sick person- (?)

šammaša
[Professions]
English : 1) a servant , an attendant , a footman , a valet , a manservant ; 2) a minister ; 3) religion, church : a deacon

šamuši
[Religion]
English : rites, sacraments, duty ... : to administer , to minister , to serve , to help , to attend , medication, medical care ... : to give / apply , to nurse , to take care of / to provide for the needs of others

bit šammaša
[Religion]
English : a baptistery


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qeru.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qeru2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qeru3.jpg



Šamaš the all-seeing
Šamaš (Sumerian Utu) is the god of the sun. He brings light and warmth to the land, allowing plants and crops to grow. At sunrise Šamaš was known to emerge from his underground sleeping chamber and take a daily path across the skies [Image 1]. As the sun fills the entire sky with light, Šamaš oversaw everything that occurred during the daytime. He thus became the god of truth, judgements and justice. Šamaš also played a role in treaties, oaths and business transactions, as he could see through deceit and duplicity. As a defender of justice, the sun god also had a warrior aspect (Black and Green 1998: 183-84).

Let there be truth!
Šamaš also played an essential role in sacrificial divination (extispicy) rituals (Robson 2010b). Extispicy was an important branch of royal court scholarship in existence for over a millennium, whereby the king could receive answers from the gods to specific questions regarding matters of state. The king's divination priests (bārû) asked the gods to write the answer in the liver of a sheep, which was then 'read' through examining the liver and counting up its ominous features. As god of truth and justice, Šamaš was implored to help provide a correct answer. A late second millennium prayer to Šamaš by a diviner asks him to guide the inquiry and to 'let there be truth' in their interpretations of the omens. (Foster 2005: 756).

Assisting humanity and the underworld
Šamaš also played a role in the affairs of humanity. Surviving second millennium texts indicate that his assistance was sought against evil and curses. Literary texts describe his protection of the heroic kings of the city of Uruk. In the Gilgamesh epic he assists the hero Gilgamesh in defeating the monstrous Humbaba, the guardian of the Cedar Forest. Šamaš was also specifically a protector of travellers and merchants (Foster 2005: 627, 630, 633).

Šamaš played a similarly important role in the realm of the dead as he did in the living world. The spirits of the dead were thought to enter the netherworld via a passage on the horizon in the extreme western part of the world. In some traditions, this passage was the same entrance that led to Šamaš's underground dwelling, and to which he returned at sunset each evening (Bottero 2002: 274). However, Tablet XI of Gilgamesh from Nineveh describes Šamaš's road underneath the earth as a separate path from that to the netherworld (Bottero 2002: 274-275).

Divine genealogy and syncretisms
In Sumerian tradition, Utu is the son of the moon god Nanna-Suen and the twin brother of Inana. Akkadian tradition sometimes made Šamaš the son of Anu or Enlil. The sun god's wife was Aya, goddess of the dawn (Black and Green 1998: 183-184).

Šamaš had a minister named Bunene who drove his fiery chariot and was known as Šamaš's son in some traditions. Bunene was worshipped in his own right in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian period (Black and Green 1998: 183-184).

Source: Ruth Horry, 'Utu/Šamaš (god)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/utu/]

Humanist
2012-12-06, 07:20
Wikipedia


Shamash

....

Both in early and in late inscriptions Shamash is designated as the "offspring of Nannar"; i.e. of the moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash, it is in relationship, presumably, to the moon-god that the sun-god appears as the dependent power. Such a supposition would accord with the prominence acquired by the moon in the calendar and in astrological calculations, as well as with the fact that the moon-cult belongs to the nomadic and therefore earlier stage of civilization, whereas the sun-god rises to full importance only after the agricultural stage has been reached.

....

Another reference to Shamash is the Babylonian epic Gilgamesh. When Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to slay Humbaba, each morning they pray and make libation to shamash in the direction of the rising sun for safe travels. Gilgamesh receives dreams from Shamash, which Enkidu then interprets, and at their battle with Humbaba, it is Shamash's favor for Gilgamesh that enables them to defeat the monster. Shamash gifted to the hero Gilgamesh three weapons (the axe of mighty heroes, a great sword with a blade that weighs six pounds and a hilt of thirty pounds and the bow of Anshan).

The attribute most commonly associated with Shamash is justice. Just as the sun disperses darkness, so Shamash brings wrong and injustice to light. Hammurabi attributes to Shamash the inspiration that led him to gather the existing laws and legal procedures into code, and in the design accompanying the code the king represents himself in an attitude of adoration before Shamash as the embodiment of the idea of justice. Several centuries before Hammurabi, Ur-Engur of the Ur dynasty (c. 2600 BCE) declared that he rendered decisions "according to the just laws of Shamash."

It was a logical consequence of this conception of the sun-god that he was regarded also as the one who released the sufferer from the grasp of the demons. The sick man, therefore, appeals to Shamash as the god who can be depended upon to help those who are suffering unjustly. This aspect of the sun-god is vividly brought out in the hymns addressed to him, which are, therefore, among the finest productions in the entire realm of Babylonian literature.



Baptistery

In Christian architecture the baptistry or baptistery (Latin baptisterium, from Greek βαπτίζειν) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. The baptistry may be incorporated within the body of a church or cathedral and be provided with an altar as a chapel. In the early Church, the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism was administered in the baptistery.



Baptism


To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to "be saved". To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever.

— Luther's Large Catechism, 1529

Humanist
2012-12-06, 11:01
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-5z1ysod9QLg/TaH4NRa5HsI/AAAAAAAAAHw/RTEiiFPWN6g/s320/drafsh+sun+disk.png


^^ I take it he may have meant Ashurnasirpal II?


SURETH
'riš mšamšani
[Religion]
English : an archdeacon

rab mšašani
[Religion]
English : an archdeacon


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samsu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sassanu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samsatu_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-06, 13:07
SURETH
rab mašrita
[Army → Military]
English : the quarter-master (the man in charge of supplies and provisions to troops)
Dialect : Urmiah

'kašṭa
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) a bow (weapon) ; 2) anything bent or in the form of a rainbow , an arch , an archivolt
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'qišta
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) a bow , anything in the form of a simple curve , a bend ; 2) a bow (a weapon to propel arrows)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'qasṭ ris
[Army → Military]
English : 1) a quartermaster , an officer whose duty is to assign lodgings / provide food and supplies to soldiers ; 2) a lord chamberlain
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masartu.jpg



The Role of Babylonian Temples in Contributing to the Army in the Early Achaemenid Empire
by John MacGinnis


Moving on to organization, the main body of temple archers was divided into eširtus—decuries—of shepherds, farmers and gardeners. Each decury was headed by a rab eširti ... The man in direct overall command of the temple archers was called the rab qašti.

Humanist
2012-12-07, 01:01
SURETH
'katim
[Human → Senses]
English : to hide oneself
Dialect : Urmiah

gidda
[Clothing]
English : a thread , a string , a cord , a rope
Dialect : Urmiah

'gdala
[Clothing]
English : 1) weaving , tying , braiding , wreathing , plaiting , to plait , to interweave the strands or locks (hair , rope ...) , to twine , to weave ; tresser , faire des nattes , entrelacer , faire des entrelacs , tisser ; 2) thread , string , cotton , cord (?) / rope (?) ; ܓܕܵܠܵܐ ܕܨܵܘ̈ܠܹܐ : a shoelace ; ܓܕܵܠܵܐ ܕܫܵܠ : yarn ; 3) the thread of a screw
Dialect : Classical Syriac

'gidla
[Industry]
English : 1) braid , braiding , weaving , intertwining ; 2) a wreath ; 3) a lath-and-plaster wall
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, Other


AKKADIAN (will try to update with additional terms)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/katamu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/katmu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gadalu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qadilu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gadalallu.jpg



SUMERIAN
gidim (i.e. g/kid/tim) ghost (Civil, AV Biggs 24) (eţemmu) (for sign form see Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 139)
ki-túm to bury
gada linen garment, cloth
gíd to be long, lengthen; to pull, draw, drag, tow (a boat); to lead (an animal, e.g. ducks in CDLI P250346); to stretch, tighten (strings); to measure, survey; to milk. For the first meaning compare sù(d).
gíd(-da) long

Humanist
2012-12-07, 02:22
SURETH
'kvaša ['kmaša or 'kbaša?]
[Industry]
English : 1) to shove, to drive along by direct and continuous application of strength, to push, to thrust; 2) to tread down, to trample, to subjugate, to impose a yoke upon, to make a slave of


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabasu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabasu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamasu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-07, 03:30
I am putting together a list of all of my previous comparisons between Sureth and Akkadian that may help shed light on our religion before Christianity/Judaism.

Here is another from the list.

SURETH
pšr
[Humanities → Language]
English : 1) to interpret , to explain ; 2) to melt , to dissolve

'pšara
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : intransitive verb : 1) to melt , (to be changed from solid to liquid state) , to dissolve , to thaw (?) , to liquefy , (hope, outline ... - ? - ) to dissolve (?) / become weaker (?) or blurred (?) , (debt - ? ) to be settled (?) / cleared (?) ; 2) riddle, dream ... : to be solved / settled / unraveled

pašuruta (?)
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : melting , dissolving , liquefaction , dilution (?) , thawing (?) , fusion (?)

pašpuši
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : (intransitive verb ?) : 1) to mollify , to become soft or tender , to soften , to reduce the hardness of , to dissolve / to melt (?) ; 2) to mortify , to hold within limits / subdue (appetites ...) , to humiliate (?) / to abase (?)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasaru_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasiru__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasu2_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pasu.jpg



SUMERIAN (need to search further)
peš5 to card wool

Wikipedia

Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibers to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing.[1] This is achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres to be parallel with each other.

Humanist
2012-12-07, 11:30
I am putting together a list of all of my previous comparisons between Sureth and Akkadian that may help shed light on our religion before Christianity/Judaism.

Again, from the list I am attempting to generate.

SURETH
ašuputa
[Religion]
English : snake charming , use of magic , enchantment

ašupa
[Professions]
English : a charmer , an enchanter , one who uses sorcery or witchcraft , a wizard , a snake-charmer

'špa
[Human → Hygiene]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to clear / become clear , to become clarified , to become free from foul matter , to become clean ; 2) to become simple / plain / more comprehensible / easier

išupiia
[Religion]
English : a charm , words spoken in the practice of magic , an enchantment


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asipu__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asiputu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isippu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isipputu_.jpg


SUMERIAN
šub to (let) fall, be felled, fell; to throw down, away; to forsake, abandon, dismiss; to give up, leave off; to remove from (-ta-)
šuba(ZA.MÚŠ), šúba(ZA.MÙŠ), šùba(MÙŠ.ZA or MÙŠxZA) bright, shining, pure; multicolored
su(b), su-ub, sub, sub6(TAG) to rub, wipe, scrub, polish; to reap; to smear on (ASJ 11, 213; 8, 12); to suck, suckle
išib incantation priest (< Akk. āšipu)

Humanist
2012-12-07, 14:14
Please refer to posts: #1273 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1047357&viewfull=1#post1047357), #1274 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1047413&viewfull=1#post1047413), and #1275 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1047474&viewfull=1#post1047474).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Samas_judge.jpg

Divination and Interpretation of Signs in the Ancient World
Amar Annus


This YouTube clip may have no connection to what is posted above (e.g. Bit Šammaša, or baptistery), but it is a beautifully shot scene. And, well, I like posting clips. :)



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_dr9njVzKM

Humanist
2012-12-07, 15:54
Here is another. One of my favorites.

SUMERIAN
pu-úh-ru-um assembly (< Akk. puhrum )
(im)mar-uru5/ru10(GUR8/TE) mighty storm, hurricane, tempest, west wind, storm wind (Eichler, AV Hallo 90-94). Attinger, ZA 88, 182: marmarux. Cf. a-ma-ru(-k)
é-mar-URU5, mar-URU/ru10 quiver (Eichler, AV Hallo 90-94; Civil, JCS 55, 52)
a-ma-ru(-k), a-má/mar-ru10/uru5(-k) devastating flood; the mythical Deluge (see mar-uru5)

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhru1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhru2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhru3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mar_mari__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/marmaru__.jpg


SYRIAC
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/puhra___.jpg

Source: The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle. Ed. by Amir Harrak (http://www.amazon.com/Acts-Apostle-Writings-Greco-Roman-World/dp/1589830938)

- - - Updated - - -

Refer to the bits regarding the establishment of Christianity in Mesopotamia (i.e. Mar Mari).


I am not sure if everything here is related, but the Mesopotamian terms, I believe, may in some way be related.

From the blog of Dr. James McGrath: The Mandaean Calendar and the Egyptian Calendar (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2008/07/the-mandaean-calendar-and-the-egyptian-calendar.html)




------------------------------------------------------


The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: their cults, customs, magic, legends, and folklore (1937)
Lady Drower

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/drower_kukh.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukh_hut.jpg



------------------------------------------------------

One of the best available source of information on the state and perspective of the Assyrians - particularly the well educated - prior to and during the First World War in the area of Urmia is the periodical Kukhwa (the Star), a biweekly newspaper which ran from June 1906 to the Autumn of 1914, and then on and off again from 1917-1918. Although other periodicals existed in Urmia, Kukhwa was the only independent - not published through or sponsored by a Western mission. Kukhwa was the first periodical to carry overt nationalistic messages; news from Assyrians in the diaspora, lessons on history, essays on the importance of national identity and the detriment caused by the existence of a variety of Churches, to which the majority of the previously Nestorian Assyrians had converted.

Robert DeKelaita





------------------------------------------------------


SURETH
'koḥwa ['koḥma?] or ['koḥba?]
[Sky → Astronomy → Stars]
English : 1) a star , a heavenly body (other than the sun , the moon , comets, meteors and the nebulae) ; ܟܵܘܟ݂ܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܒܲܗܪܵܐ : Lucifer , see ܘܲܠܘܸܠ ; ܟܵܘܟ݂ܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܓܲܪܒܝܵܐ : the pole star , Polaris ; 2) an asterisk ; 3) punctuation : a full stop
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

patora
[Feeding]
English : 1) a table , a flat surface / thin slab , a tray / salver , an altar ; 2) unleavened bread / cake ; 3) (adjective) : fresh , raw , crude (?)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patira.jpg



AKKADIAN (note "patiru" at bottom of "guhsu")
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/guhsu_patira_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kukku-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kakkabu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuihku.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patiru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/patiru2.jpg


------------------------------------------------------


The origin of Babylonian Christianity

Compiled by: George V. Yana (Bebla)


South of Ctesiphon and east of Seleucia there was a village called Kokhe (the name derives from the Syriac for Kukhyata, meaning huts), where the first great Babylonian Christian Church of Kokhe was built. Fiey bases his decision, regarding the founding of the first church of the Syriac speaking people in Kokhe, to a change of course, between 79 AD and 116 AD, by the river Tigris.

Before Tigris changed its course, Kokhe was known as part of the city of Ctesiphon, because both were on the east side of the river, but, when the river changed its course, Kokhe was cutoff from Ctesiphon, and later documents referred to it as being part of Seleucia, because, now, both were on the west side of the river.

The Chronicle of Seert (ninth or tenth century, S. H. Moffett, p.183), attributes the foundation of the first Christian Church in Kokhe of Ctesiphon to Mar Mari, a disciple of the Apostle Mar Adai. Presenting Kokhe as part of Ctesiphon means that the Great Church of Kokhe was founded by Mar Mari before the River Tigris changed its bed, that is before 79 and 116 AD. Later documents make Kokhe part of Seleucia, which makes them recent documents, that is, documents that were written after the river changed its course.

Jean-Maurice Fiey writes that because the geography explained in the Chronicle of Seert, which corresponds with the geography before the river changed its course, could not be invented at later dates (that is could not be written after 79/116 AD, because the old geography would have been forgotten), therefore, Fiey says, I am persuaded that in this source we have a text of the greatest antiquity. Fiey continues by saying that “I am ready to accept it as a historic proof of the coming of Mar Mari to Kokhe- of- Ctesiphon, between the years 79 and 116 of our era.” Thus, we can consider the foundation of the Babylonian Christianity in Kokhe of Ctesiphon, to have taken place before or within the years 79-116 AD.



------------------------------------------------------

The Festivals of Khoiak


Source: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/ideology/khoiak.html


------------------------------------------------------

Wikipedia

Humanist
2012-12-07, 17:50
I have not noted the sources for my Sumerian words in a while. Here they are, for those who do not wish to search through the many pages of this thread (they are links to the pdf files):

Elementary Sumerian Glossary (Daniel A Foxvog) (http://home.comcast.net/~foxvog/Glossary.pdf)

Sumerian Lexicon Version 3.0 (John A. Halloran) (http://www.sumerian.org/sumerian.pdf)

Many thanks to both men for sharing the fruits of their labor with the world.

On the subject of Sumerian, here is another source I referred to a few times in the past. With similar gratitude to the author for making it available to the masses.

Akkadian and Sumerian Language Contact (http://elte.academia.edu/G%C3%A1borZ%C3%B3lyomi/Papers/632011/Akkadian_and_Sumerian_Language_Contact) (Gábor Zólyomi)

forthcoming in Stefan Weninger, ed., Semitic Languages. An International Handbook (HSK 36). Berlin — New York, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 387–393


These developments started in about the 24th century B.C.E. and were completed by the first part of the 2nd millennium B.C.E. They therefore overlap in time with the period of assumed asymmetrical bilingualism. One is therefore tempted to assume that these phonological changes may in fact reflect the influence of a Sumerian speaking population gradually shifting to Akkadian. Hasselbach finds that contrary to expectations the orthography indicates the loss of gutturals and the phonemicization of /e/ in texts from the north first, but not from the south. She does, however, note the possibility that the Akkadian of the southern texts ‘might have been a learned literary language that was not native to this area’.

....

Sumerian loanwords in Akkadian are estimated to constitute approximately 7% of its vocabulary (Edzard 2003, 178). Lieberman 1977 catalogued 529 Sumerian loanwords in Akkadian before the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., but 102 of these loans are attested only in lexical texts. These loans are almost without exception nouns. A study on the semantic classes of these words is a desideratum. In addition to loanwords, there exist a number of Sumerian and Akkadian idioms which correspond to each other word for word, e.g. šag-še — gid = ana libbim šadadum ‘to consider earnestly’ (lit. ‘to draw to the heart’) (cf. Edzard 2003, 175!176).


^^ Did not notice, on previous occasions, the bit regarding the majority of Sumerian loans in Akkadian being nouns. I have stated before that a decent chunk of the Sumerian lexicon looked "familiar" to me. Although I am still of that opinion, there are a significant portion (perhaps majority) of words in Sumerian that appear foreign. This may be because I am somewhat familiar with the language, but to me, some words in Sumerian remind me of Persian.

The same (i.e. nouns) has been said regarding the supposedly very small number of Akkadian "loans" in what we today refer to as Neo-Aramaic. Although I certainly have respect for those in the field, and their accomplishments, I have many questions regarding this point. In my layman's opinion, when speaking strictly about the lexicon, a very significant portion of the "Neo-Aramaic" lexicon (including many dozens of verbs) may be Akkadian in origin. Including a good many from Standard Babylonian. But very few from Neo-Assyrian. If one looks back at the complete record, this is not as fantastical a position, when one considers the other possibilities.

Today's world, in my opinion, began with the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire. In Babylon, the Indo-European (Greco-Macedonian), Indo-Iranian IE (Persian), West Semitic (Canaanite), and Sumero-Akkadian (Mesopotamian) worlds came together, in one place, at the same time, perhaps for the first time. It was this fusion of peoples, and ideas, that gave birth to our world. A world dominated (at least in the "West"), for the better part of the last 2500 years, by the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/ReligionSymbolAbr.PNG/220px-ReligionSymbolAbr.PNG

Wikipedia


Symbols of the Abrahamic religions: Judaism represented by the Star of David (top), Christianity represented by the Cross (left), and Islam represented by the Arabic calligraphy of the word God (Allah) (right)

Humanist
2012-12-08, 00:42
Hebrew, as an example of how a liturgical language can become the vernacular of millions, in the span of a few decades. I could not help but think of the many occasions that I mentioned Standard Babylonian in this thread. If Hebrew, why not Akkadian? At least as far as lexicon is concerned.

Talia Lavin

Introduction: the birth of Modern Hebrew


The resurrection of Hebrew from a “dead,” [1] liturgical language into a living tongue remains dazzling, even a half-century after its initial establishment as an official state language. Once a purely literary language of Scripture and holy songs, Hebrew is now the native language of a populace of millions...

yahooland
2012-12-08, 00:46
men i don't want to be rude or anything but this thread is like a monologue from you. maybe you do that for yourself ?

Humanist
2012-12-08, 02:15
I should clarify. I do not mean that we should revive Akkadian today. I am referring to the past (~600 BCE - 100 CE).

Humanist
2012-12-08, 06:22
men i don't want to be rude or anything but this thread is like a monologue from you. maybe you do that for yourself ?

That is how it turned out, it appears. A few people chime in, here and there, but it is basically just as you said. :)

http://thumbnails.hulu.com/314/40037314/40037314_384x288_generated.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-08, 12:23
SURETH (there are other relevant Sureth words)
'gula
[Country → Fruits]
English : 1) a fruitstone , the hard seed of certain fruits , the stony endocarp of drupes (such as peach , plum , cherry , apricot) ; 2) nut, fruitstone : the kernel

'gula
[Country → Fruits]
English : 1) Lishani : a dress ; 2) = ܓܘܼܠܥܵܐ : a fruitstone

'gali
[Human → Senses]
English : 1) to reveal , to disclose , to tell , to let on , secret : to betray (?) / to divulge ; 2) to uncover , to strip , to exhibit , thief ... : to blow the cover (?) / to catch red-handed (?) ; ܪܹܫܘܼܗܝ ܓܸܠܝܵܐ : bare-headed

ghalguli
English : to unveil , to lay bare , to uncover , to strip off , to strip the covering off
Dialect : Urmiah


Wikipedia

In botany, a drupe [stone fruit] is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit, stone, or pyrene) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel,[citation needed] and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries. The definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, lignified stone (or pit) is derived from the ovary wall of the flower. In an aggregate fruit composed of small, individual drupes, each individual is termed a drupelet.

....

Drupes, with their sweet, fleshy outer layer, attract the attention of animals as a food, and the plant population benefits from the resulting dispersal of its seeds. The endocarp (pit or stone) is sometimes dropped after the fleshy part is eaten, but is often swallowed, passing through the digestive tract, and returned to the soil in feces with the seed inside unharmed. This passage through the digestive tract can reduce the thickness of the endocarp, and thus can aid in germination rates. The process is known as scarification.

The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (nectarine) type of peach (Prunus persica) over a 7 1⁄2 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Nectarine_Fruit_Development.jpg/300px-Nectarine_Fruit_Development.jpg


http://visual.merriam-webster.com/images/plants-gardening/plants/fruits/stone-fleshy-fruit.jpg

Source: http://visual.merriam-webster.com/plants-gardening/plants/fruits/stone-fleshy-fruit.php


AKKADIAN (there are other relevant Akkadian words)


Gula/Ninkarrak (goddess)

Functions
Typically encountered in medical incantations as bēlet balāti, "Lady of Health, Gula/Ninkarrak was also known as the azugallatu the "great healer", an epithet she shared with her son Damu. Other epithets such as the "great healer of the land"; and "great healer of the black-headed ones" point to her wide-reaching 'national' significance. Gula/Ninkarrak was also credited as an "herb grower"; "the lady who makes the broken up whole again" and "creates life in the land", indicative of an aspect as a vegetation/fertility goddess with regenerative powers. At least in the Neo-Babylonian period, she also seems to have had an oneiric quality, being sought in incubation dreams (Reiner 1960: 24) and appearing in nocturnal visions (Al-Rawi 1990). Gula/Ninkarrak also had a violent side as the "queen whose 'tempest', like a raging storm, makes heaven [tremble (?)], makes earth quake" (Avalos 1995: 106-7). The goddess and her dogs were frequently mentioned in curse formulae.

Neo-Assyrian stamp seal showing the goddess Gula sitting on a throne that rests on a dog (BM ME 130814).
The British Museum.

http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/images/deities/gulas-dog.jpg

Source: Yaǧmur Heffron, 'Gula/Ninkarrak (goddess)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/gulaninkarrak/]


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gullubu.jpg


SUMERIAN (need to search further)
gal4-la vulva
gul, gu-ul to destroy
gul, gu-ul to add, augment, make great(er) (verbal by-form of gal)
gal5-lá (or galla) constable (Ur III) (cf. Civil "prosecu-tor," AV Hallo 74, rare after Ur III); a demonic bailiff of the netherworld (post-Ur III)
gal5-lá-gal chief constable (Ur III)


Wikipedia

Vulva

.... As the outer portal of the human uterus or womb, it protects its opening by a "double door": the labia majora (large lips) and the labia minora (small lips). The vagina is a self-cleaning organ, sustaining healthy microbial flora that flow from the inside out; the vulva needs only simple washing to assure good vulvovaginal health, without recourse to any internal cleansing.

The vulva has a sexual function; these external organs are richly innervated and provide pleasure when properly stimulated. In various branches of art, the vulva has been depicted as the organ that has the power both to "give life" (often associated with the womb), and to give sexual pleasure to humankind.[2]

....

Stylised vulva stone, paleolithic

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Vulve_stylis%C3%A9e.JPG/95px-Vulve_stylis%C3%A9e.JPG

Humanist
2012-12-08, 18:59
Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : 'urza
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force


SURETH
era
[Human → Body]
English : vulgar : the penis, the male organ of generation
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruC.jpg


Adding to Sureth.


SURETH
'šura / 'šurta
[Human → Body]
English : the navel
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN

Erra (god)

God of war and plagues, who later became closely associated with the underworld god Nergal

Functions

Erra was an especially war-like and violent god [emphasis added], who is often understood to be a bringer of pestilence. There is some debate, however, regarding the exact nature of his destructive functions.

Source: Ruth Horry, 'Erra (god)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/erra/]

Humanist
2012-12-08, 21:02
SURETH
sunnattuta
[Religion]
English : circumcision (male or female) , the act of cutting off the foreskin of a male or the internal labia of a female , excision
Dialect : Urmiah


Assyrians do not ordinarily practice circumcision. However, in the "West," and in particular the United States, things may be different. My paternal grandfather, I am told, for whatever reason, was very much opposed to the practice of circumcision.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sunu.jpg



SUMERIAN
sun5, sun5-na humble (probably a by-form of du9(n))
du9(n), dun5, (sun5) to be humble; to be subordinate to, under the authority of (cf. the OS adj. dun-a subordinate to, in the charge of)
sún, ú-sún, súmun wild cow
sun7(KAL) to be harsh(?), vain(?)
tu(d), ù-tu(d) to be born, begotten; to give birth, engender, beget; to form, create (statues) (some now read (ù-)dú)
tu10(b), tu11(b) to smite, strike, defeat (this meaning has also been associated with the values hub, húb but PSD keeps them separate)

- - - Updated - - -

Adding to Akkadian, to try and make sense of the Sureth word.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu___.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu__1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu__2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu__3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu__4.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu_1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadu_2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-09, 00:48
Previously compared. Adding Jewish Babylonian Gaonic period along with Sureth for "šola."

SURETH / JEWISH BABYLONIAN GAONIC
šola
[Human → Disease]
English : cough
Dialect : Urmiah

šala
[Human → Disease]
English : (intransitive verb) : to cough , to expectorate
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (there were additional relevant terms posted when last compared)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sulu_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

-----------------------------------------------------------------


SURETH
aṣowa [aṣoma or aṣoba?]
[Professions]
English : a surgeon
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/azugallu.jpg


SUMERIAN
a-zu, a-su physician

- - - Updated - - -

Adding to Akkadian for "cough," at top.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sualu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saalu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-09, 03:34
Just throwing these out there. There may not be anything of significance here.


SURETH
'asi / 'asia (f. asitha)
[Human → Hygiene]
English : a healer , a physician , a doctor of medicine , one authorized to prescribe remedies to treat diseases 2) a nurse
Dialect : Urmiah

Eastern phonetic : ma is ' ia na
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) healing , therapeutic , possessing healing properties ; 2) a healer , a physician , a doctor of medicine
Dialect : Urmiah

šana
[Country → Agriculture]
English : 1) a spike , an ear of grain ; 2) a small kernel ; 3) a raceme in which pedicels are suppressed
Dialect : Urmiah

'šnina
[Army → Weapons]
English : sharp-pointed , having a sharp point , a pointed weapon -foil (?) , dagger (?) ... - , sharp , spiky (?) , pencil: sharpened
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'šina
[Human → Body]
English : a tooth ; animal : a fang (?)

asana /asoni
[Feeding → Food]
English : stores
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

isana
English : a) to (be) stand(ing) , to be at rest in an erect position , to stand up ; b) to pile up , to gather up , to store up
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sinnu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asnan_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asnu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asnu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sananu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sananu2.jpg



Ninisinna (goddess)

Patron goddess of the city of Isin, as indicated by her name, "Lady of Isin." Since divine names of the type "lord/lady of GN" are rare, there is some uncertainty as to whether "Ninisinna" represents a 'real' name or a title (Kraus 1951). The value of the sign IN in early writings of her name was subject to controversy, but Steinkeller has convincingly argued that it is always to be read isinx (Steinkeller 1978).

Functions

Ninisinna's primary role was as a healing goddess. She is called "great physician of the black-headed ones", and her medical activities include incantations and more invasive methods - in one hymn she is depicted sharpening her scalpel (ETCSL 4.22.1). During the Old Babylonian period she acquired some warlike functions, perhaps due to her association with Inanna. Here her scalpel becomes a weapon to tear flesh, and she is described as a storm "whose mouth drips blood...from whose mouth spittle spews constantly, pouring venom on the enemy" (ETCSL 2.5.3.4).
(bold by Humanist)

Kathryn Stevens, 'Ninisinna (goddess)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/ninisinna/]


SUMERIAN
d ašnan (a goddess figure personifying emmer wheat) (see also d ezinu)
d ézinu (grain goddess, divine personification of emmer wheat, grain) (also read d ašnan)
si (animal) horn; horn (the musical instrument); horn-shaped thing; tip, point
še barley, grain; (a weight measure = 1/180 gín = ca. 1/20 gram)
šen-šen battle (cf. the same sign read dur10)

Humanist
2012-12-09, 09:16
I just came across this interesting paper:

The Hunt is on again! Tiglath-pileser I’s and Aššur-bel-kala’s nāḫirū-Sculptures in Assur, in: H.D. Baker/K. Kaniuth/A. Otto (eds.), Stories of Long Ago. Festschrift für Michael Roaf. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 397, Münster 2012, 323-338

Steven Marcus Lundström

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahiru.jpg


In Sureth, the word nāḫira is the ordinary term for "nose." The word nāḫirū, in Sureth, means "big-nosed person."

Additional Sureth terms of possible relevance:

SURETH
'nḥaṭa
[Human → Sleep]
English : (intransitive verb) : to snore
Dialect : Urmiah

ḥarḥuri
[Human → Sleep]
English : to snore
Dialect : Urmiah

qarna'i nḥira [horn nose]
[Animals → Wild]
English : a rhinoceros
Dialect : Urmiah

'qarna / 'qana
[Animals]
English : 1) a horn , elephant, boar, walrus ... : a tusk (?) ; 2) a horn / trump / trumpet , a shofar , a wind instrument
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other

'qana
[Animals]
English : 1) animal and musical instrument : a horn , a shofar , a trump , une trumpet (?) ; ܩܲܪ݇ܢܘܼܗܝ ܕܥܝܼܨܵܐ ܠܹܗ : "his trump is pierced" , he is dead , he died , he has kicked the bucket , see ܕܵܥܸܨ ; 2) religion : North and South portions of the altar : a horn ; 3) a vessel containing the "holy oil" for baptism, see ܠܲܩܢܵܐ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'puza [<-- It is more of a "b," than a "p," in my dialect]
[Animals]
English : the snout , the long projecting nose of a beast , the anterior prolongation of the head of various animals , the proboscis
Dialect : Urmiah

puzana [<-- It is more of a "b," than a "p," in my dialect]
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : 1) snouty 2) ill-tempered , bad-tempered , sulky , grumpy , peevish , crabbed , petulant , pettish , testy , surly ; 3) sad-countenanced , gloomy , glum , doleful , mournful , long-faced
Dialect : Urmiah

apa
[Animals → Wild]
English : 1) a hyena ; 2) an adder
Dialect : Urmiah

appla
[Animals → Wild]
English : a hyena
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


For those unfamiliar with the "shofar." Including myself.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=inu9CIFy-GM


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahiru__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nahiru___B.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/naharu__C.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhutu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nuhhutu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qarnu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abbu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/appu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apilu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uppu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uppuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/busu_.jpg


SUMERIAN (need to search further)
kìri, kir4 nose, muzzle
kìri, kir4 hyena (būşu)
ub4 pit, hole (cf. ab)
ub, ib corner (angle); niche, recess; shrine; room
ab hole, opening, window, roof vent

Humanist
2012-12-09, 22:06
Here are some other Sumerian words I came across. Perhaps related to our word for "male."

SURETH (Sureth Online Dictionary)
Eastern phonetic : ' ur za
[Human → Body]
English : 1) human, animal : a male ; ܕܸܒܵܐ ܐܘܼܪܙܵܐ : a he-bear ; 2) male sex / genitals , penis
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (Daniel A Foxvog)
ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
sá to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance
ur-saĝ hero, warrior
ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand-to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.
ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow
usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force


SURETH
era
[Human → Body]
English : vulgar : the penis, the male organ of generation
Dialect : NENA


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eruC.jpg


Adding to Sureth.


SURETH
'šura / 'šurta
[Human → Body]
English : the navel
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN

Erra (god)

God of war and plagues, who later became closely associated with the underworld god Nergal

Functions

Erra was an especially war-like and violent god [emphasis added], who is often understood to be a bringer of pestilence. There is some debate, however, regarding the exact nature of his destructive functions.

Source: Ruth Horry, 'Erra (god)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/erra/]


SUMERIAN
az bear


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asu__.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suD.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/suB.jpg


SUMERIAN
su6 (sum4) beard
zú tooth, fang; point, tine (of a tool or weapon); ivory

- - - Updated - - -


Zababa (god)

Zababa is a warrior god, [B]patron deity of Kiš and consort of goddesses Baba and Ištar.

Functions

As a warrior god, Zababa was credited with strength and prowess in battle. The epithet "Crusher of stones" highlights his fearsome nature. In a similar vein, the Zababa Gate at Baylon was known as "It Hates Its Attacker" (Van de Mieroop 2003).

....

Iconography

In keeping with his warlike nature, Zababa is associated with the lion and/or the lion-headed mace, symbols also put in the service of other warrior deities such as Ninurta, Ningirsu and Ištar. Anthropomorphically, the male figure carrying a mace or shooting with a bow, depicted on model terracotta chariots is identified as Zababa (Moorey 1975: 82-3; see also Stone 1993). On kudurru reliefs, he is represented by an eagle-staff (Koch et al 1987).

Yağmur Heffron, 'Zababa (god)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/zababa/]


Also, I forgot to include these previously posted Akkadian and Sureth words:

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursanu_-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursi_-2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ursunu_-1.jpg


SURETH
'kiš
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a word used when driving away or off fowls (especially domestic) : Go away ! , move on!
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

Humanist
2012-12-10, 00:27
A continuation of the previous post.

I came across these two bits when searching for "eagle," and "Nestorian."

Bold by Humanist


In the various Eucharistic prayers of the different Eastern Christian traditions, at the Invocation of the Holy Spirit, the priest prays, not only that the Holy Spirit should come upon the Eucharistic Gifts, but also ‘upon us’. Whereas the effect of the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the Gifts is assured, making them the Body and Blood, the effect of the coming of the Holy Spirit ‘upon us’ will depend on whether or not the individual communicant accepts the Holy Spirit in the way that Mary did at the Annunciation: if they do, then the ensuing ‘birthgiving’ takes the form of a life whose sole aim is theimitation of Christ.

By way of conclusion I quote the words of Elizabeth to Mary, as expressed at the end of an anonymous verse homily of considerable beauty:8

‘Welcome, O Ship whose cargo is God,
Welcome, O Palace where the King has come down to reside,
Welcome, O Garden in which is the straight Staff,
Welcome, most honoured of all women on earth,
Welcome, lovely Rose, beauty of the earth,
Welcome, the one invited to give milk to her Lord,
Welcome, Wheat wherein is Life for the earth,
Welcome, young girl in whom is the ancient Babe,
Welcome, the Dove who bears Christ the Eagle,
Welcome, most chaste of women, who bears her Lord,
Welcome, Haven in which the world finds rest,
Welcome, Joseph’s betrothed, in whom the King resides,
Welcome, the Ewe which has given birth to the Lion’s Whelp, (Gen.49:9)
Welcome, the Vine on which is the Grape -cluster of fire, (Is. 65:8)
Welcome, the Vessel wherein is kneaded the Leaven of life,
Welcome, fair Lady who gave birth to the Fruit of the Father,
Welcome, the Embroidery on whom a novel Babe is portrayed,
Welcome, the Lock wherein is the Key of fire,
Welcome, High Hill, more exalted than all the heights,
Welcome, Second Heaven, who has appeared to us, (Is. 65:17)
Welcome, O Wondrous one who has given birth to Emmanuel’.

8 Translated in Bride of Light, pp.135-40

Mary in Syriac Tradition
Dr Sebastian Brock
2007



Many Assyrians still remember a poem by Fraydune Aturaya in 1917, sang in a song titled "Ya Nishra D' Tkhumi" where the poet wishes that the 'Eagle of Tkhumi', an Assyrian district in the mountains north of Mosul, would take him on its wings and fly him to Assyria so that he could pay homage to the martyrs of his nation. At the end he has a fatalistic wish:

"When we reach our final destination.
O' Eagle of Assyria and the greater Zab.
Drop me on the cliffs, merciless rocks.
To Atour (Assyria) my nation sacrifice my life.
On the shores of Zab as old as Ashur let me fall.
Bury me as one who sacrificed all."

William M. Warda
2005


Found this on an EBAY listing. Source unknown, but it is probably an image contained in the works of one of the 19th century Western missionaries.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tkhuma.jpg



SURETH
'nišra
[Animals → Birds]
English : an eagle

'ṭiḥim
[Army → Weapons]
English : 1) the trappings of a horse ; 2) arms / weapons , gear (?) / paraphernalia (?)
Dialect : NENA, Al Qosh

'tḥama
[Measures → Area]
English : (transitive verb) : to limit , to set a limit , to border , to keep within bounds , to confine , to restrict , to circumscribe , to delimit , to demarcate
Dialect : Urmiah

'tḥoma
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) a limit , a border / the borders , the edges , a boundary / the boundaries , the confines , a set time , a deadline ; 2) a precept , a regulation , a limitation , an extreme , a definition ; 3) a term , what limits the extent of anything ; 4) the name of a region or village in Hakkari in modern day Turkey , name of an Assyrian tribe
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'tḥuma
[Measures]
English : a boundary
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'sipa
[Humanities → Geography]
English : 1) the brim , the edge / margin , the brink , the border , the sea-shore ; 2) human body
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'zipa
[Legal]
English : fraud , deception , wile , trick , deceit , artifice , guile , cunning
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eru-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tuhumu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahumu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tahamu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/teussu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zibuB_.jpg



SUMERIAN (need to search further)
u11-ri(2)-in, ùri(n) eagle
anzu(d)mušen, ánzu(d)mušen (a mythological lion-headed eagle, symbol of Ninĝirsu & Ninurta) (also with phone-tic indicator ananzumušen, older reading danzumušen, see Borger, AOAT 305, p. 171). For derivation from /imdugud/ see Jacobsen, A Kantor 129 n.18.
da-gi4-a, dag-gi4-a district, ward, city quarter (bābtu); cf. ùsar da-gi4-a neighbor (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 242f.)
du6-kù The Holy Hill (a primeval residence of the great gods. See Hruška, WZKM 86, 161-175)

Humanist
2012-12-10, 03:23
Something I posted many months ago. It was after viewing Prof. Khan's lecture that I began comparing (in earnest) the words from our vernacular to the CAD.

THE LANGUAGE OF THE MODERN ASSYRIANS AND ITS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Prof. Geoffrey Khan Lecture
May 10, 2012




Such linguistic convergence must have arisen through bilingualism. Indicating that the speakers of the ancestors of the modern Assyrian dialects, in the ancient period, [B]must have spoken Akkadian...


To sum up, the spoken Assyrian dialects are a remarkable heritage, with considerable historical depth, having roots in the period of the ancient Assyrians, with a history that is independent of that of Syriac, and other literary forms of Aramaic...

The complete lecture is also available. Simply search for "Geoffrey Khan" on YouTube. The clip below contains a few bits from the lecture, including what is quoted above.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9kpOHmt4Pg

Humanist
2012-12-10, 13:54
I have found myself, on several occasions, feeling bad, after posting in this thread. I do not like the idea that my posts may upset people. I have no ill intent. But, one need not intent, for harm to come.

A Better Way to Talk About Faith
By DAVID BORNSTEIN

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/a-better-way-to-talk-about-faith/


....

But while there have been widespread efforts over the past generation to promote and celebrate ethnic and racial diversity — everything from “Sesame Street” to multicultural studies to work force sensitivity training — the one topic that has often been kept off the table is faith. Americans have grown more comfortable talking about race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation, but not faith. It’s too personal, too divisive, too explosive. How do you conduct a productive conversation among people whose cherished beliefs — exclusive God-given truths — cannot be reconciled?

....

It comes as no surprise that many Americans harbor unfavorable attitudes toward those who hold different beliefs, notably Muslims and Mormons, but also evangelical Christians, Catholics, Jews and, the most disdained group of all, atheists. Large majorities of Americans believe that Islam and Mormonism, for example, have little in common with their own faiths. However, most Americans say that they know little or nothing about Islam or Mormonism. Would their thinking change if they knew, for example, that the most important value in Islam is mercy and that Muslims hold a reverence for Jesus, or that, for Mormons, the most important value is “working to help the poor”?

....

Americans celebrate diversity. But one of the mistaken beliefs about diversity is that it leads to greater tolerance. Putnam’s research indicates that, unless people make a concerted effort to build bridges, diversity leads to greater social fragmentation — with lower rates of trust, altruism and cooperation. “What ethnic diversity does is cause everybody to hunker down and avoid connection,” he explained. “It’s not just the presence of diversity in your neighborhood. You’ve got to actually be doing things with other people in which you have a personal attachment. Diversity is hard, not easy.”



----------------------------------------------------------

SURETH
tanaḥta / tinaḥta
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : a sigh , the act of sighing


tiniḥa (f. tiniḥta)
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : masculine : heartbroken , brokenhearted , grieving



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanihtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanihtuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanihu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanihuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tanihuC.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-10, 16:26
One of the words for "breast" in Sureth. I am not familiar with it, and could not find a decent comparison from either Sumerian or Akkadian. However, I did find one in Hittite. So, perhaps it is West Semitic.


SURETH
riš 'tadda
[Human → Body]
English : a nipple , the projection of a mammary gland , a pap , a teat , animals, cow, ewe, goat ... : dug , projection of the udder
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'tda
[Human → Body]
English : a breast
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, Western Syriac


HITTITE (David Michael Weeks)
4.41 — BREAST — tita- seems to match Ital. tetta, OE titt, NHG zitze, etc., and forms denominative titiya-, titiski-, Luw. titai-
‘breast-feed’. Possibly an n-stem in Anatolian, if Luw. dat. sg. titani belongs here (EHS 196).


SUMERIAN
di4-di4(-lá) little ones, youngsters, children (reduplicated form of tur) W.Farber, Mesopotamian Civilizations 2 reads du13-du13-lá.
da, da(g) side; near (cf. Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39); cf. da-gu10 at my side (Or ns 54, 57:18)


And this was interesting. Perhaps unrelated.

Wikipedia


Tadukhipa, in the Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. 1382 BC–1342 BC) and his queen, Juni and niece of Artashumara. Tadukhipa's aunt Gilukhipa (sister of Tushratta) had married Pharaoh Amenhotep III in his 10th regnal year. Tadukhipa was to marry Amenhotep III more than two decades later.[1]

Marriage to Amenhotep III

Relatively little is known about this princess of Mitanni. She is believed to have been born around Year 21 of the reign of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III, (c. 1366 BC). Fifteen years later, Tushratta married his daughter to his ally Amenhotep III to cement their two states alliances in Year 36 of Amenhotep III's reign (1352 BC). Tadukhipa is referenced in seven of Tushratta's thirteen Amarna letters, of about 1350-1340 BC.[2] Tushratta requested that his daughter would become a queen consort, even though that position was held by Queen Tiye.[3] The gifts sent to Egypt by Tushratta include a pair of horses and a chariot, plated with gold and inlaid with precious stones, a litter for a camel adorned with gold and precious stones, cloth and garments, jewelry such as bracelets, armlets and other ornaments, a saddle for a horse adorned with gold eagles, more dresses colored purple, green and crimson and a large chest to hold the items.[4] In return Amenhotep III never sent the golden statues he offered and after his death Tushratta sent some missives complaining about the lack of reciprocity.[5]

Marriage to Akhenaten

Amenhotep III died shortly after Tadukhipa arrived in Egypt and she eventually married his son and heir Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten).


Identified with Kiya or Nefertiti

Some scholars tentatively identify Tadukhipa with Kiya, a queen of Akhenaten.[1] It has been suggested that the story of Kiya may be the source for the New Kingdom story called the Tale of Two Brothers. This fable tells the story of how the pharaoh fell in love with a beautiful foreign woman after smelling her hair. If Tadukhipa was later known as Kiya, then she would have lived at Amarna where she had her own sunshade and was depicted with the pharaoh and at least one daughter.[6]

Others such as Petrie, Drioton and Vandier have suggested that Tadukhipa was given a new name after becoming the consort of Akhenaten and is to be identified the famous queen Nefertiti.[6] This theory suggests that Nefertiti's name "the beautiful one has come" refers to Nefertiti's foreign origin as Tadukhipa. Seele, Meyer and others have pointed out that Tey, wife of Ay, held the title of nurse to Nefertiti, and that this argues against this identification. A mature princess arriving in Egypt would not need a nurse.[7]

Humanist
2012-12-11, 02:46
SURETH
qaṣoma
[Religion → Divination]
English : 1) a diviner , a soothsayer , one who foretells by divination / supernatural powers , a seer / clairvoyant (?) ; 2) music : a bard , a songster , a lyric poet , a minstrel / folk singer / troubadour
Dialect : Urmiah

qasṣomuta
[Religion → Divination]
English : divination , soothsaying , foreseeing / foretelling of future events , (supernatural) prognostication / prognosis / augury
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gassu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-11, 04:51
Many of the older links do not work. But, I think it is apparent what I mean when I say that Standard Babylonian is a recurring theme.

SURETH
'šnaza
[Moral life → Fault]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) transports : to swerve , to stray , to deflect , to turn aside , to go out of a straight course / line , to sidetrack , to digress ; 2) moral life : to depart / wander from what is established (by duty / custom / law ...) , to deviate
Dialect : Urmiah

'šinza
[Moral life → Fault]
English : a failure , an unsuccessful attempt / want of success , the state of having failed , a failing , a slight fault , a shortcoming , a demerit , a swerving / yawing , ship, vehicle ... : a lurch (?) , a yaw (?) a sheer (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sanasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sinsu.jpg



George , Andrew (2007) 'Babylonian and Assyrian: a history of Akkadian.' In: Postgate, J. N., (ed.), Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, pp. 36, 57-59.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/akkadian_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-11, 12:29
SURETH
qaṣoma
[Religion → Divination]
English : 1) a diviner , a soothsayer , one who foretells by divination / supernatural powers , a seer / clairvoyant (?) ; 2) music : a bard , a songster , a lyric poet , a minstrel / folk singer / troubadour
Dialect : Urmiah

qasṣomuta
[Religion → Divination]
English : divination , soothsaying , foreseeing / foretelling of future events , (supernatural) prognostication / prognosis / augury
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gassu.jpg


Inadvertently included the term "gasu," above. Will continue searching Akkadian for terms of possible relevance.

Humanist
2012-12-11, 18:41
Mary in Syriac Tradition
Dr Sebastian Brock

(blue font by Humanist)


With this by way of introduction, it is high time to turn to Mary in the Syriac tradition. Needless to say, Mary features recurrently in the liturgical tradition, but what is distinctive is the presence in the liturgical calendars of certain commemorations that are not, or only rarely, found in other traditions. Either on the 26th December, immediately after the Nativity, or on the first or second Friday after the Nativity, all the different Syriac Churches have a commemoration entitled ‘The Praises of Mary’. A second distinctive feature is connected with the agricultural cycle, and commemorations of Mary fall on the 15th of January (‘Mary of the Seeds’) and the 15th of May (‘Mary of the Wheat Blades’).


Not necessarily related, but interesting nonetheless. And yes, I know that barley ≠ wheat.


HARVEST DATES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA AS POSSIBLE INDICATORS OF CLIMATIC VARIATIONS
J. NEUMANN (Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem)
and
R.M. SIGRIST (Ecole Biblique, Jerusalem)


....

In order to check on these ideas on temperature conditions, a search was undertaken of references to barley harvest dates in the 'literature' (clay tablets) of ancient Babylonia comprising two periods: 1800-1650 B.C. (Late Old Babylonian Period = L.O.B.P.) and 600-400 B.C. (Neo-Babylonian Period = N.B.P.). It turns out that in the former, the harvest began late in March or early in April, while in the latter, it began late in April or in May, amounting to a difference of about a month or slightly more. In our own era, in what was once central and northern Babylonia, harvest begins in the second half of April or so. Thus in the L.O.B.P., harvest opened 10-20 days earlier and in the N.B.P. 10-20 days later than at present. The differences between the harvest dates of the two periods seem to be too large to be explained by changes in the barley varieties cultivated. On the other hand, the above mentioned inverse relationship between rainfall and winter temperatures supports the interpretation that the L.O.B.P. was warmer, and the N.B.P. cooler than the present era, and goes some way toward explaining the inferred differences in harvest dates.

....

It is seen that in the N.B.P. the date II.1 fell between April 4 and May 25, with most of the cases falling between April 22 and May 22; the date III.1 would of course occur 30 days later. In terms of the solar, Gregorian calendar, the dates would be 4-5 days earlier in the year. In any case, the inference is that during the N.B.P. the barley harvest must have taken placemainly in May, with late April the earliest date (where we disregard the small number of cases where month II began in the first three weeks of April 3) and, apparently, not infrequently the harvest opened late in May. In our era, in the general area of Baghdad, the barley harvest begins 10--15 April (J. Fi Webster, formerly of the Agricultura! Directorate in Baghdad, quoted by Fotheringham, 1928, p. 73) and, even, as late as April's end (Adams, 1965, p. 16: "Harvesting of an early ripened barley (begins) at the end of the month (April)").

Humanist
2012-12-12, 03:03
The Sumerian word has been posted previously. But it has never been compared to the Sureth word.

SURETH
du: ' di: ia:
[Human → Sleep]
English : a cradle , a birthplace (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


SUMERIAN
di4-di4(-lá) little ones, youngsters, children (reduplicated form of tur) W. Farber, Mesopotamian Civilizations 2 (1989) 9 reads du13-du13-lá.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/didu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/didu2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-12, 04:59
SURETH
'bandi
[Clothing]
English : swaddling cloth , diapers
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
bànda young one, child, infant; offspring, progeny; attendant


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bantu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bandillanu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-12, 06:05
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan for first word)
bəllorta : pipe; section of a reed | connected to the genitals of a baby in a cradle to carry away its urine

'bara
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) feminine : a ditch , a small channel , a runnel ; 2) Al Qosh, masculine : a side = ܒܵܪ ; ܡܚܲܕ݇ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the one hand ; ܡܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the other hand ; Al Qosh : ܠܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on that side of ; Al Qosh : ܠܐܵܕܝܼ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on this side of ; 3) Oraham : a dam , a barrier across a watercourse , any contrivance to stop flow of water , a weir
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
bal-a-ri opposite side, shore
bala, bal to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)
giš bala spindle; rod, pin (Attinger, NABU 1995/33, suggests Auslaut /ĝ/) (pilakk/qqu)
bùru(d) (bùr) n. hole, pit, depths; depth; v. to make a hole, pierce, break into, burgle; to be deep, deepen; to penetrate, understand; adj. deep
bar-lá (a canal basin?)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balar.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eberu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ebertu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-12, 07:07
:) + Ishtar ?

Wikipedia


The spindle is closely associated with many goddesses, including the Germanic Holda, Norse Frigg and Freya, Isis, Artemis and Athena. It is often connected with fate, as the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns work with yarns that represent lives. Because the spinning wheel was not in common use before the 16th century in Europe, the older stories are certainly referring to hand spinning done on a spindle. Chief among these is the french fairy tale The Sleeping Beauty, where the princess is erroneously shown to prick her hand on some part of a spinning wheel in modern illustrations, rather than a spindle.

SURETH
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kusa_.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gasuB1_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gustu1_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gustu2_.jpg



SURETH
'pilqa
[Industry]
English : the whorl / wharve / coils / spiral (?) of a spindle
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN (from the immediately preceding post)
bala, bal to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)
giš bala spindle; rod, pin (Attinger, NABU 1995/33, suggests Auslaut /ĝ/) (pilakk/qqu)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pilakku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pilakku2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pilakku3.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pilakku4.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pilakku5.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/pilakki_istar.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-12, 13:57
Also, please refer to the "era," "urza," etc. posts (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1050184&viewfull=1#post1050184), above.


SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan for first word)
bəllorta : pipe; section of a reed | connected to the genitals of a baby in a cradle to carry away its urine

'bara
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) feminine : a ditch , a small channel , a runnel ; 2) Al Qosh, masculine : a side = ܒܵܪ ; ܡܚܲܕ݇ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the one hand ; ܡܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the other hand ; Al Qosh : ܠܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on that side of ; Al Qosh : ܠܐܵܕܝܼ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on this side of ; 3) Oraham : a dam , a barrier across a watercourse , any contrivance to stop flow of water , a weir
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
bal-a-ri opposite side, shore
bala, bal to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)
giš bala spindle; rod, pin (Attinger, NABU 1995/33, suggests Auslaut /ĝ/) (pilakk/qqu)
bùru(d) (bùr) n. hole, pit, depths; depth; v. to make a hole, pierce, break into, burgle; to be deep, deepen; to penetrate, understand; adj. deep
bar-lá (a canal basin?)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balar.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eberu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ebertu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uru.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-12, 21:34
The user Td101 asked, in the thread, "Ancient Y-Dna and Genetic studies Wish List (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/38475-Ancient-Y-Dna-and-Genetic-studies-Wish-List/page3)" :


With the Holiday Season and New Year fast approaching what is everyone looking forward to on the genetics front?


I always wish for a comprehensive study on the genetics of Assyrian Christians ("Suraye"), including Syriac Orthodox, Chaldean Catholic, and "Nestorians." But, on the issue of aDNA, what I would love to see, in addition to the testing of Sumerian royal remains, are the testing of Assyrian and Babylonian kings. In particular, the Y chromosome.


Concerning the Dead – How to bury an Assyrian King? Possibilities and Limits of the Archaeological and Written Evidence in the 2nd and 1st Millennium BC

by Steven Marcus Lundström

in P. Pfälzner/H. Niehr/E. Pernicka/A. Wissing (eds.), (Re-)Constructing Funerary Rituals in the Ancient Near East. Proceedings of the First Int. Symposium of the Tübingen Post-Graduate School “Symbols of the Dead” in May 2009. QSS 1, Wiesbaden 2012, 281-290


And what about the usual case – a king who died in one of the Assyrian capitals and left a corpse ready for a proper funeral? Assyrian scholars have answered this as follows:

“[The father], my be[gett]er, I commanded to be laid down annointed with royal oil [in] this tomb, a secret place. The sarcophagus, his resting-place, its opening I sealed with durable copper and reinforced it (the seal) with a clay seal. Golden and silver items, everything belonging to a royal tomb’s inventory, suitable for his lordship, things he loved I displayed to Shamash and deposited them together with the father, my begetter, in the tomb. Gifts for the princly Annunaki and the gods dwelling in the underworld I presented.”3

This text found in Ashurbanipal’s library in the city of Niniveh is the most important source informing us about the burial of a Neo Assyrian king.

But, my wish may be a wish that can never be fulfilled, if the following is representative of what there is left to uncover:


From October to December 1913 Walter Andrae and his colleagues excavated the Royal Tombs situated beneath the southeastern part of the Old Palace in the city of Ashur (figure 1).4 On first sight the archaeological evidence seems to be disparate – the same is true if one takes a second look: Vaults torn down, almost all grave goods gone, virtually no mortal remains left and stone sarcophagi, doors and wall socles shattered into thousands of pieces.5

...

In tomb V – the resting place of Assurnasirpal II – these slabs showed funerary inscriptions which were also found on the chamber’s door and on the king’s sarcophagus (see below). Similiar inscriptions are known from tomb II and tomb III – the tombs of Shamshi-Adad V and Ashurbelkala.6

Humanist
2012-12-12, 22:42
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan)
sly III m-sly : to despise; to abuse

(source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)

sly vb. C to reject
D
1 to repudiate : see s.v. swly v.n. Syr.

C
1 to reject Syr. --(a) to excommunicate Syr.
2 to despise Syr. --(a) to have contempt for Syr, LJLA.

Gt
1 to be rejected Syr.
2 to be denied Syr.
3 to be removed Syr.
4 to be excommunicated Syr.

Ct
1 to be rejected Syr, Man.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msly1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/msly2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-13, 00:13
There are many words in the 21-volume CAD labelled as Aramaic loans in Akkadian. However, this is the most recent scholarship on the subject:

A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic (Part II)
Sergey Loesov


Hackl (forthcoming, n. 59) observes:

In von Soden 1977 a total of 282 Aramaic loanwords was proposed (collected from Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts). This number has now been reduced to 85 certain/possible loanwords by Abraham/Sokoloff 2011.


Language Death and Dying Reconsidered: The Role of Late Babylonian as a Vernacular Language
Version 01
Juli 2011
Johannes Hackl


In the present case, however, it has been suggested that the social prestige of Akkadian was much higher than that of Aramaic, and that the latter never attained such a prestigious status during the first millennium BC.60 Furthermore, according to our sources, Aramaic-speaking elements were in fact willing to integrate into Babylonian society (not only for economic reasons) and therefore adopted Babylonian civilization, culture and religion.61Since the use of a language is also an important means to lay claim to an identity, it must have been highly desirable for members of the Aramaic strata to master the more prestigious Babylonian language, especially at a higher social level. This recalls the model of a Sprache der Elite being spoken in the urban centres by the established Babylonian families and Aramaic newcomers alike, while Aramaic clearly dominated the rural areas.62 Of course, this model might be too idealized, but it gives at least a general outline of the underlying socio-linguistic situation. Second, one has to keep in mind that our written sources reflect only a tiny fraction of society, because the overwhelming majority of the population was illiterate. Hence, even if we assume that the language of the letters reflects many elements of the spoken language, much linguistic information concerning the interference between the two vernaculars remains concealed ‒ especially code-switching is likely to be excluded from written sources. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the scribes of these letters generally belong to the same cultural and social stratum (members of temple households or ‘patrician’ families).


As I have stated previously, a West Semite dominated Mesopotamia in the late 1st millennium BCE through to the advent of Islam in the 1st millennium CE does not reconcile with the genetics of Assyrians, Mandaeans, Iraqi Jews, Iranian Jews, Azeri Jews, Uzbekistan Jews, and Georgian Jews. If, however, there was a complete genocide/replacement of the Mesopotamian population in the last 1000-1500 years (making us, and our language, relative newcomers!), or if the Assyrians, Mandaeans, and Mizrahim Jews represent the Mesopotamian "elite" and are not representative of the general population, then perhaps the idea of a West Semite dominated Mesopotamia, both in language and presence can be saved.

Modern Mesopotamians, in my opinion, are most likely a mix, in descending order of significance, of the following people: Mesopotamian, Iranian, West Semitic/Greco-Macedonian/Anatolian.

If one wishes to find a genuinely West Semitic population from antiquity, I would refer them to the Samaritans. And also, but to a lesser extent, the Druze. The genetics of Maronites, Ma'loula Aramaeans, Alawites, and others, are still more or less unknown. At least as far as autosomal is concerned.

Ancient DNA will tell us much more. Until that time, what I have stated above makes the most sense to me, based on the record to date.

Humanist
2012-12-13, 02:02
This may have a chance, I think.

SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan)
ṣmr I : to inundate, to flood


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samaru_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-13, 05:46
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan)
xrm I : to be banned. III m-xrm : to ban, to forbid; to consider unclean


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haramu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/haramu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harmatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harimtu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-13, 14:58
The last one may not be of much significance, given that it is found in other Semitic languages.

Humanist
2012-12-13, 16:00
Based on Marko's 67 STR R tree.

Five of the Assyrian R-L584 men are tested through 67 markers. Two L277 men (one speculative), are also tested through 67 markers. A number of the Assyrian men are not tested through 67 markers.

The year estimates are not necessarily precise.

R1b1a2a1b (L584)

Assyrian #1, kit # 205749: TMRCA of 1848 years with Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men. L943+

Assyrian #2, kit # 213562: TMRCA of 2239 years with Assyrian #1 and Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men. Another 1011 years (3250 years), connects him to four men. One of the men lists France as an origin.



Here is an idea for a paper, National Geographic’s Genographic Project. Who was the patriarch of this R1b line? :)

The estimates may not be precise. But, from what I know about this line, they do probably provide a general idea.

From the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:

The first man, kit # 205749 has tested positive for L943 as well. Consistent with a Cohanim man. I have yet to test any other Assyrian for L943. Two Armenians tested for L943, but they were negative (i.e. ancestral).



Ordered L943 for the second Assyrian. Results in a few weeks, hopefully.


The results for Assyrian #2 are out. He is L943+. Connecting him with Assyrian #1, and the Jewish men.

Humanist
2012-12-13, 19:37
The results for Assyrian #2 are out. He is L943+. Connecting him with Assyrian #1, and the Jewish men.

We will want to test L943 further. If I receive their authorization to test, I have in mind Assyrian kits #90492 and #184027.

- - - Updated - - -

Tentative addition of L943 to the following tree (originally prepared by ht35 project admin, Vincent Vizachero):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-13, 23:53
Language Death and Dying Reconsidered: The Role of Late Babylonian as a Vernacular Language
Version 01
Juli 2011
Johannes Hackl

In the present case, however, it has been suggested that the social prestige of Akkadian was much higher than that of Aramaic, and that the latter never attained such a prestigious status during the first millennium BC.60 Furthermore, according to our sources, Aramaic-speaking elements were in fact willing to integrate into Babylonian society (not only for economic reasons) and therefore adopted Babylonian civilization, culture and religion.61Since the use of a language is also an important means to lay claim to an identity, it must have been highly desirable for members of the Aramaic strata to master the more prestigious Babylonian language, especially at a higher social level. This recalls the model of a Sprache der Elite being spoken in the urban centres by the established Babylonian families and Aramaic newcomers alike, while Aramaic clearly dominated the rural areas.62 Of course, this model might be too idealized, but it gives at least a general outline of the underlying socio-linguistic situation. Second, one has to keep in mind that our written sources reflect only a tiny fraction of society, because the overwhelming majority of the population was illiterate. Hence, even if we assume that the language of the letters reflects many elements of the spoken language, much linguistic information concerning the interference between the two vernaculars remains concealed ‒ especially code-switching is likely to be excluded from written sources. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the scribes of these letters generally belong to the same cultural and social stratum (members of temple households or ‘patrician’ families).

The bit that I have put in blue font, above, does not appear entirely consistent with what Mario Fales states, below. Fales holds that it was the "Chaldeans," not the "Arameans," who "embraced Babylonian ways" wholesale.

F. M. Fales, "Moving around Babylon: On the Aramean and Chaldean Presence in Southern Mesopotamia."

In: E. Cancik-Kirschbaum, M. van Ess, & J. Marzahn (eds.), Babylon: Wissenskultur in Orient und Okzident
(Berlin: de Gruyter, 2011), 91–112.


The Arameans, in the main, also seem to have resisted the power of attraction of indigenous Babylonian culture with its prestigious network of beliefs and lore, ennobled by a great antiquity. This social and cultural “separateness” is all the more noteworthy in that many of the Aramean tribes were in close contact with the Babylonian settlements for everyday matters...

....

And finally, from the cultural point of view, the Chaldeans embraced Babylonian ways quite soon after their arrival. Both leaders and commoners of the Chaldeans mentioned in the texts bore fully Babylonian personal names, with devotional reference to the traditional Sumero-Akkadian pantheon of the region. This aspect – so obvious in the written record as to be a given – does not seem to have been investigated in depth as regards its possible causes. Much clearer, on the other hand, are the political implications of this clear cultural stance, viz. the capacity of the Chaldeans to enter the arena of military appropriation and territorial supremacy in the Southern Mesopotamian region boasting exactly the same rights as the local population of ancient stock. And the consequences of this capacity would not be long in bearing fruit, under the specific stimulus provided by continuous Assyrian interference in Babylonian affairs.

Humanist
2012-12-14, 01:11
We will want to test L943 further. If I receive their authorization to test, I have in mind Assyrian kits #90492 and #184027.

- - - Updated - - -

Tentative addition of L943 to the following tree (originally prepared by ht35 project admin, Vincent Vizachero):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943.jpg

Received the OK from one of the men so far. Order placed for L943.

GD, using the "Hybrid mutation model," for the three men derived for L943:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943_gd.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-14, 03:25
1
SURETH
'niḥla
[Nature]
English : 1) a sifted particle, a minute particle that has passed through a sieve; 2) (adj.) : tiny, minute
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nihlu.jpg



2
SURETH
kavvara [kabbara or kammara?]
[Animals → Insects]
English : a beehive , something suggestive of a beehive
Dialect : Urmiah

'kwara ['kbara or 'kmara?]
[Feeding]
English : 1) a flour-bin , a meal-chest , an enclosed space used as a receptacle for any commodity (especially flour) , a container for keeping supplies
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac


AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabbaru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamaruA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamaruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamaruC.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-14, 19:11
Loan? West Semitic?


AUGURY

Originally, prophesying by the flight of birds; but later the term was applied to all forms of foretelling (augur = avi-gur, οἰωνὸς, οἰωνισταί, etc.).

Augury was first systematized by the Chaldeans. The Greeks were addicted to it; and among the Romans no important action of state was undertaken without the advice of the augurs. In fact, the belief in augury has existed at all times, among the uncivilized as well as the most civilized nations, to the present day, the wish to know the future continually giving rise to some art of peering into it.

Source: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2133-augury


SURETH
'pal
[Religion → Divination]
English : augury , the art / practice of foretelling events by auspices / omens / portents , divination , prognostication , presaging
Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu3.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-15, 15:10
Loan? West Semitic?

AUGURY

Originally, prophesying by the flight of birds; but later the term was applied to all forms of foretelling (augur = avi-gur, οἰωνὸς, οἰωνισταί, etc.).

Augury was first systematized by the Chaldeans. The Greeks were addicted to it; and among the Romans no important action of state was undertaken without the advice of the augurs. In fact, the belief in augury has existed at all times, among the uncivilized as well as the most civilized nations, to the present day, the wish to know the future continually giving rise to some art of peering into it.


Source: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2133-augury


SURETH
'pal
[Religion → Divination]
English : augury , the art / practice of foretelling events by auspices / omens / portents , divination , prognostication , presaging
Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu3.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apalu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apilu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aplu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

SUMERIAN
ba-al to dig up/out, excavate, mine, quarry (herû); to unload (a boat)
abul(la), a-bul5-la city gate, main gate/entrance [<-- Also in AKKADIAN and SURETH]
bala (rotating) term of office or service, turn of duty; reign; prebend cf. bala-gub-ba term of duty
abgal (apkal) (a high priestly official of the early Nanše cult); (mythical) sage

Humanist
2012-12-15, 18:08
On possible etymologies for Beth Arbaye.

I am sure the "Arbaye" bits have been mentioned.

Wikipedia [Additional points added by me, roughly consistent with the median spots for "East" and "West" Assyrians, and Mandaeans, originally calculated by Palisto.]


Main localities in Syriac Christianity in Northern Mesopotamia and Syria showing historical borders between the Persian and Roman empires.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/800px-N-Mesopotamia_and_Syria_east_west_assyrian_-2.png


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbuB_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arbuB2_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebu1_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebu2_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/errebtu_.jpg


PLEASE NOTE location of "ARBAYE," in the map above.


When Iraqi peacekeepers stood guard at Hadrian's Wall (http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jul/15/britishidentity.charlottehiggins) (<-- Link to source)

Charlotte Higgins, arts correspondent
The Guardian, Friday 14 July 2006


While British soldiers battle it out in Iraq, spare a thought for this: troops from Iraq once occupied Britain.
A unit of Iraqis, probably from the Basra region, formed part of the Roman troops defending the empire from incursions at its northernmost border, Hadrian's Wall.

A Roman document from about AD400 called the Notitia Dignitatum - a list of all the military and civil posts of the empire - refers to an irregular unit of "bargemen from the Tigris", based at Arbeia, the fort nearest modern South Shields.

Thorsten Opper, a curator in the Greek and Roman department at the British Museum, clearly relishes the piquancy of this example of history's circularity. "Call it an exchange of peacekeepers," he said.

The "bargemen from the Tigris" had probably been a marine force patrolling the mouth of the Tyne, Mr Opper said. Arbeia was a supply base for the 17 forts along Hadrian's Wall, with supplies transported to the fort by boat.

Mr Opper thinks it probable that the bargemen came from the southern portion of the Tigris towards the Gulf - perhaps from modern Basra.

"The Tigris delta is where the marshes were: that the bargemen came from there is the likelihood." The name Arbeia itself could be derived from the Latin for Arab, he added. "It is not certain, but it is considered a likelihood."

One of the most significant archeaological finds at Arbeia is a tombstone of a British woman married to one Barates - who came from Palmyra, in Syria. There were also Numidians (from modern Algeria) at Carlisle in the late second and early third centuries, and a crack team of Batavian (modern Dutch) horsemen at the frontier - all part of numerous auxiliaries of the Roman army posted far from home.

Though the Notitia Dignitatum dates from AD400, well after the building of Hadrian's Wall from AD122, it is possible Iraqis had been based at Arbeia earlier in the fort's history, according to Mr Opper. The empire under Hadrian and his predecessor, Trajan, stretched as far as the Gulf.

Mr Opper is to curate an exhibition about Hadrian for the British Museum in 2008. He believes that there are pungent historical resonances between then and now. Hadrian, for instance, inherited an empire that was overextended and plagued by incursions and guerrilla warfare on its fringes. His response? To withdraw troops from hotspots.

"It was a successful policy," Mr Opper said. "It is interesting we are experiencing a very similar situation now - and dealing with it in a very different way."

Humanist
2012-12-15, 20:08
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan for first word)
bəllorta : pipe; section of a reed | connected to the genitals of a baby in a cradle to carry away its urine

'bara
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) feminine : a ditch , a small channel , a runnel ; 2) Al Qosh, masculine : a side = ܒܵܪ ; ܡܚܲܕ݇ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the one hand ; ܡܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the other hand ; Al Qosh : ܠܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on that side of ; Al Qosh : ܠܐܵܕܝܼ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on this side of ; 3) Oraham : a dam , a barrier across a watercourse , any contrivance to stop flow of water , a weir
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
bal-a-ri opposite side, shore
bala, bal to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)
giš bala spindle; rod, pin (Attinger, NABU 1995/33, suggests Auslaut /ĝ/) (pilakk/qqu)
bùru(d) (bùr) n. hole, pit, depths; depth; v. to make a hole, pierce, break into, burgle; to be deep, deepen; to penetrate, understand; adj. deep
bar-lá (a canal basin?)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balar.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eberu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ebertu.jpg

Wikipedia


Hebrew

....

The modern word "Hebrew" is derived from the word "Ibri" (plural "Ibrim") one of several names for the Jewish people. It is traditionally understood to be an adjective based on the name of Abraham's supposed ancestor, Eber ("Ebr" עבר in Hebrew) mentioned in Genesis 10:21. This name is possibly based upon the root "ʕ-b-r" (עבר) meaning "to cross over". Interpretations of the term "ʕibrim" link it to this verb; cross over and homiletical or the people who crossed over the river Euphrates.[4]


SURETH
ivraia [iwraia --> ibraia or imraia?]
[Humanities → Geography → Countries]
English : a Hebrew
Dialect : Urmiah

avora [awora --> abora or amora?]
[Human being]
English : 1) Oraham : a passer , one who passes / enters / gets into , a passer-by ; 2) Yoab Benjamin : an agressor , a burglar (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

ebora
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : a ford
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ibru_.jpg


SUMERIAN
im-ri-a, im-ru-a clan, family, kin (Selz, AV Schretter 584, suggests reading ní-ri/ru-a)
íb waist, hips, loins
ibila, i-bí-la heir
rú(DU3) to erect, in na-rú-a (read drù ?)
ri to lie (heavily) upon, press upon, put (firmly) onto, into; to oppress; to affix, cover with; to found, erect; to equip with
ri to blow; to drift; to convey
ru-gú to face, stand opposite, counter, confront, oppose
kuš E.ÍB-ùr (siege-)shield (Attinger, ZA 88, 182 reads eegurxùr = /egbur/? < Civil, AuOr 5, 22 n. 12)


Note the location of the Ḥabur.

http://www.archatlas.org/Menze/SpottingTells_04.jpg

http://www.archatlas.org/Menze/MenzeTellspotting.php

- - - Updated - - -

Adding to Akkadian.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/imru_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

Adding to Sureth

SURETH
From Geoffrey Khan's Barwar volumes:


In the C. Barwar dialect word "umra denotes ‘a church’. This is the reflex of Syriac 'umrà, which included the semantic range ‘life, way of life, monastic life, monastery’.

Humanist
2012-12-15, 22:54
SURETH (source: Geoffrey Khan for first word)
bəllorta : pipe; section of a reed | connected to the genitals of a baby in a cradle to carry away its urine

'bara
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : 1) feminine : a ditch , a small channel , a runnel ; 2) Al Qosh, masculine : a side = ܒܵܪ ; ܡܚܲܕ݇ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the one hand ; ܡܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ : on the other hand ; Al Qosh : ܠܗܿܘ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on that side of ; Al Qosh : ܠܐܵܕܝܼ ܒܵܪܵܐ ܕ : on this side of ; 3) Oraham : a dam , a barrier across a watercourse , any contrivance to stop flow of water , a weir
Dialect : Urmiah


SUMERIAN
bal-a-ri opposite side, shore
bala, bal to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)
giš bala spindle; rod, pin (Attinger, NABU 1995/33, suggests Auslaut /ĝ/) (pilakk/qqu)
bùru(d) (bùr) n. hole, pit, depths; depth; v. to make a hole, pierce, break into, burgle; to be deep, deepen; to penetrate, understand; adj. deep
bar-lá (a canal basin?)

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/balar.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/eberu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ebertu.jpg


Also, please refer to the "era," "urza," etc. posts (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1050184&viewfull=1#post1050184), above.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uru.jpg

[Adding]
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/irtu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abalu__.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/abalu__1.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-17, 04:36
Please first refer to posts #1233 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1042091&viewfull=1#post1042091) and #1235 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1042200&viewfull=1#post1042200).


SYRIAC/SURETH (source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)

ṭyr, ṭyrʾ (ṭyār, ṭyārā) n.m. hurdle; sheepfold

1 hurdle Syr.
2 sheepfold Syr.
3 ܥܲܠ ܛ܊ : or ܥܲܠ ܓܸܢ̄ܒ ܛ܊ : with united voice Syr.
4 Iranian month name and epithet of the star Sirius Syr.

'tra [tri]
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to become wet / moistened / drenched / dampened with water or other liquid ; 2) to instruct , to guide , to show the way , to direct , to steer (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


Wikipedia



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahura_mazda.jpg

Tishtrya[pronunciation?] (Tištrya) is the Avestan language name of an Zoroastrian benevolent divinity associated with life-bringing rainfall and fertility. Tishtrya is Tir in Middle- and Modern Persian. As has been judged from the archaic context in which Tishtrya appears in the texts of the Avesta, the divinity/concept is almost certainly of Indo-Iranian origin.

In a hymn of the Avesta (incorporated by Ferdowsi, with due acknowledgement, in the Shahnameh), Tishtrya is involved in a cosmic struggle against the drought-bringing demon Apaosha. According to the myth, in the form of a pure white horse the god did battle with the demon who, in contrast, had assumed the form of a terrifying black horse. Apaosa soon gained the upper hand over Tishtrya, who was weakened from the lack of sufficient prayers and sacrifices from humankind. The yazata proceeded to call upon the Creator Ahura Mazda, who himself then intervened by offering a sacrifice to the overwhelmed god. Infused with the power brought by this sacrifice, Tishtrya was able to overcome Apaosa, and his rains were able to flow to the parched fields and pastures unabated by drought. This story serves to underscore the importance of votive offerings and sacrifice in religious tradition.

In the Zoroastrian religious calendar, the 13th day of the month and the 4th month of the year are dedicated to Tishtrya/Tir, and hence named after the entity. In the Iranian civil calendar, which inherits its month names from the Zoroastrian calendar, the 4th month is likewise named Tir.

During the Achaemenid period, Tishtrya was conflated with Semitic Nabu-*Tiri, and thus came to be associated with the Dog Star, Sirius. The Tiregan festival, previously associated with *Tiri (a reconstructed name), was likewise transferred to Tishtrya. During the Hellenic period, Tishtrya came to be associated with Pythian Apollo, patron of Delphi, and thus a divinity of oracles.

Humanist
2012-12-17, 07:02
Add to what was posted above.


Ephrem, on Nebo:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ephrem__.jpg

Cults and Beliefs at Edessa (1980)
H. J. W. Drijvers

The significance of Nebo, to the last great Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal, and Assyrians in general:


We have already set forth the reasons for the popularity of the Nabu cult in Assyria. Suffice it to recall that the peculiar character of the god as the patron of wisdom placed him beyond the reach of any jealousy on the part of the other members of the pantheon. So Ramman-nirari III. extols Nabu as the protector of the arts, the all-wise who guides the stylus of the scribe, and the possessor of wisdom in general. He is not merely the originator of writing, but the source of all wisdom, and for this reason he is spoken of as the son of Ea. Attributes of mere brutal force are rarely assigned to Nabu, but as befits a god of wisdom, mercy, nobility, and majesty constitute his chief attractions. By virtue of his wisdom, Sargon calls him 'the clear seer who guides all the gods,' and when the last king of Assyria—Saracus, as the Greek writers called him—invokes Nabu as the 'leader of forces,' he appears to have in mind the heavenly troops rather than earthly armies. Such patrons of learning as Sargon and Ashurbanabal were naturally fond of parading their devotion to Nabu. The former significantly calls him the 'writer of everything,' and as for Ashurbanabal, almost every tablet in the great literary collection that he made at Nineveh closes with a solemn invocation to Nabu and his consort Tashmitum, to whom he offers thanks for having opened his ears to receive wisdom, and who persuaded him to make the vast literary treasures of the past accessible to his subjects.

The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (1898)
Morris Jastrow, Jr.

- - - Updated - - -

Sirius is the brightest star in the sky.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nikkis-pic-sirius-the-dog-star.jpg

Source: http://uncommonfieldguide.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/nikkis-pic-sirius-the-dog-star.jpg?w=637


Wikipedia


Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.

Originally, Nabu was a West Semitic deity introduced by the Amorites into Mesopotamia, probably at the same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[1] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water.[1]

Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as Sirrush) that is initially Marduk's.

Wikipedia

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sirrush.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-19, 23:29
Prepared by Palisto, for his blog, Kurdish DNA blogspot: Haplogroup G STR111 tree (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2012/...r111-tree.html)

The origins to the right were added by me, and are based on the population codes used by Palisto. I am the Assyrian G1 sample.

As always, this may not be (and is likely not) representative. This only reflects those who have paid to have their Y chromosome STRs tested through 111 markers with FTDNA.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palisto_g_111_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-21, 20:18
FTDNA "matches" map, based on 12 STRs, for the Mandaean J2 (in white). The 12/12 match (in red) is with a man listing Massa Lubrense, Naples, Italy as place of paternal origin.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/J2_Mandaean.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-21, 23:43
This does not establish anything, of course, but it is data that one may add to the record.



As I have stated previously, a West Semite dominated Mesopotamia in the late 1st millennium BCE through to the advent of Islam in the 1st millennium CE does not reconcile with the genetics of Assyrians, Mandaeans, Iraqi Jews, Iranian Jews, Azeri Jews, Uzbekistan Jews, and Georgian Jews. If, however, there was a complete genocide/replacement of the Mesopotamian population in the last 1000-1500 years (making us, and our language, relative newcomers!), or if the Assyrians, Mandaeans, and Mizrahim Jews represent the Mesopotamian "elite" and are not representative of the general population, then perhaps the idea of a West Semite dominated Mesopotamia, both in language and presence can be saved.

Modern Mesopotamians, in my opinion, are most likely a mix, in descending order of significance, of the following people: Mesopotamian, Iranian, West Semitic/Greco-Macedonian/Anatolian.

If one wishes to find a genuinely West Semitic population from antiquity, I would refer them to the Samaritans. And also, but to a lesser extent, the Druze. The genetics of Maronites, Ma'loula Aramaeans, Alawites, and others, are still more or less unknown. At least as far as autosomal is concerned.

Ancient DNA will tell us much more. Until that time, what I have stated above makes the most sense to me, based on the record to date.

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and thiopurine dosing. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270794)

Relling et al.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Mar;89(3):387-91. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2010.320. Epub 2011 Jan 26.


For the complete list of populations, please refer to the study (link above).

Out of 15 Assyrians on 23andMe, there is one 3B mutation, and one 3C mutation. Allele frequency, based on the small Assyrian sample is 3.3% for 3B and 3C.

From the study:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tpmt.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

The Iranian data in Relling et al., was from this study: Frequency of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) alleles in southeast Iranian population (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20408054)

Bahari et al.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2010 Mar;29(3):237-44. doi: 10.1080/15257771003720418.


----------------------------------------------------

Image source: http://www.topnews.in/files/Iran_Map_01.jpg

http://www.topnews.in/files/Iran_Map_01.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-22, 00:06
Another relevant study.

The frequency and distribution of thiopurine S-methyltransferase alleles in south Iranian population (http://rd.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11033-011-1248-6)

Moini et al.

Mol Biol Rep (2012) 39:4581–4587 DOI 10.1007/s11033-011-1248-6


The TPMT*3B allele was only detected in east part of our country and the major ethnicity of this province was Baloch.

From the study:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/moini_et_al.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-23, 01:20
Have not looked at the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary in a while.

SURETH
'šmana
[Human → Body]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to grow fat / to fatten , to grow corpulent / fatty / weighty / portly / stout , to grow plump / to fill out / put on weight ; 2) to be fertile / fruitful , to become productive
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/summunu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-23, 04:36
Behind a paywall.

THE MAIKOP CRANIA REVISITED
A.A. Kazarnitsky

Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia
Volume 38, Issue 1, March 2010, Pages 148–155

Abstract

Measurements of crania of people associated with the Early Bronze Age Maikop culture of the Northern Caucasus are analyzed. Data on Maikop males, new and previously published, were compared with those concerning chronologically and geographically related people using the canonical variate analysis. The Maikop series turned out to be isolated and no close parallels to it were found among the Bronze Age groups, either from the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe or from the Caucasus and Southwestern Central Asia. While certain parallels seem to point to the Near East, they are too few to warrant definite conclusions.

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The chalcolithic of the Near East and south-eastern Europe: discoveries and new perspectives from the cave complex Areni-1, Armenia

Areshian et al.

ANTIQUITY. Volume: 86 Number: 331 Page: 115–130 (2012)



....

From an interregional perspective the discovery of pottery of group D is significant inthat it relates to the pre-Maikop and Early Maikop culture of the northern Caucasus.Traditional accounts of the Maikop chronology mostly place it within the third millennium BC synchronising it with the Early Dynastic period in Mesopotamia. At thesame time,R.M.Munchaev (1975: 328–9, 1994: 169–70, 214) and M.V. Andreeva (1977) have pointedto substantial similarities between Maikop pottery and that of northern Mesopotamia and Syria of the Late Uruk period. These comparisons convinced Andrew Sherratt that “the Caucasus was involved right from the beginning in the process of urban expansion in theUruk period and the social changes consequent upon it” (1997: 464).

The discovery of the pre-Maikop and Early Maikop component at Areni-1 supports a recent hypothesis that early Maikop assemblages, including the two famous burial mounds of Maikop and Staromyshastovskij,must be dated no later than the middle or the second half of the fourth millennium BC (Lyonnet 2000,2007; Ivanova 2007). Such a deepening of the Maikop chronology has groundbreaking implications for the archaeology of Mesopotamia.Since the first stage of the Early Bronze Age Maikop culture must be considered as a contemporary to the Late Chalcolithic Uruk, the artistic metalwork from Maikop may actually represent imports from Uruk or, at least, echoes its products. If confirmed, this would suggest that the Uruk trade networks extended far beyond the limits previously perceived, reaching such distant regions as south-eastern Europe.

Humanist
2012-12-23, 05:42
Have not looked at the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary in a while.

SURETH
'šmana
[Human → Body]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to grow fat / to fatten , to grow corpulent / fatty / weighty / portly / stout , to grow plump / to fill out / put on weight ; 2) to be fertile / fruitful , to become productive
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samnu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/summunu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/samnanu.jpg


SUMERIAN
šu - mú to make grow, emerge; to pray

Humanist
2012-12-23, 23:28
FTDNA "matches" map, based on 12 STRs, for the Mandaean J2 (in white). The 12/12 match (in red) is with a man listing Massa Lubrense, Naples, Italy as place of paternal origin.

Doing the same for the Assyrian L943. The one that is most similar to the Jewish Cohanim man. Based on 25 markers. The orange points represent haplotypes 1 step removed at 25 markers. The yellow points represent haplotypes 2 steps removed at 25 markers. Again, this may not be representative. For instance, Alawites are not represented on the map, and according to the data reported in Dönbak et al., some Alawites may carry R-L23 Y chromosomes "closely" related to Assyrian R-L23 Y chromosomes.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nj_25STR_L943.jpg



Although the above eastern "match" appears to be from Kyrgyzstan, I have mentioned Kazakh haplotypes before. See this past post, from the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


The Kazakhstan DNA project hits first hundred Y-profiles for ethnic Kazakhs (http://rjgg.org/index.php/RJGG/article/view/113/128)

The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 2, №1, 2011

Also see: http://anthrocivitas.net/forum/showthread.php?t=5221

I do not know if the Kazakh R1b lines are SNP confirmed.


Kazakh
13 19 14 11 13 13 12 12 14 14 13 30 : R1b1b1->kypshak-> karabalyk
13 19 14 11 13 13 12 12 13 14 13 30 : R1b1b1->kypshak-> kara-kypshak
13 19 14 11 13 13 12 12 14 14 13 30 : R1b1b1->unknown
13 19 14 11 13 13 12 12 14 14 13 31 : R1b1b1->argyn->kuandyk->altay
12 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 13 29 : R1b1b2->tore-> Tore-tolengut
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 13 12 14 13 30 : R1b1b2a1b->kypshak ->tory-kypshak

Assyrian R-M269 modal haplotype (FTDNA)
13-24-14-10-11-14-12-12-12-14-13-30

Alawite R-M269 modal and secondary haplotype (Dönbak et al.)
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-14-13-30
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-13-13-29

Druze R-M269 modal and secondary haplotype (Shlush et al.)
13-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29
12-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29

Humanist
2012-12-24, 01:55
What is the significance of the east in "Nestorian" Christianity? Jerusalem is ~550 miles (~900 km) to the west. The celestial bodies, however, "rise" in the east.


Interment of the dead (m-khametha-d mitha) is performed in accordance with a prescribed ritual. When the procession arrives at the graveyard, the coffin is placed by the side of the excavation, which has been dug east-west so the dead will face east. One of the deacons burns incense by the head of the deceased and solemn prayers and hymns are recited by the two formations of clergy. The coffin is then lifted and lowered into the grave.

Yoab Benjamin



They turn ceremoniously to the East, — Worshiping toward the East is the regular Nestorian custom.

P. Y. SAEKI


Our churches, if I am not mistaken, also face toward the east.



The Nina Simone version is great as well. :)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxzEeKfpyIg

Humanist
2012-12-24, 05:58
Please refer to posts: #1273 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1047357&viewfull=1#post1047357), #1274 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1047413&viewfull=1#post1047413), and #1275 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1047474&viewfull=1#post1047474).


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Samas_judge.jpg

Divination and Interpretation of Signs in the Ancient World
Amar Annus


This YouTube clip may have no connection to what is posted above (e.g. Bit Šammaša, or baptistery), but it is a beautifully shot scene. And, well, I like posting clips. :)



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_dr9njVzKM


Please note the bit at top, regarding referring to earlier posts.

A Syriac Orthodox Church in Mardin


Dayro d-Mor Hananyo

....

First stop is an underground vault, said to have been used as a temple by sun worshippers as long ago as 2000 BC. A now-blocked window at the eastern end enables them to watch the sunrise, while a niche on the southern wall served as an altar (possibly sacrificial)...

http://sor.cua.edu/ChMon/MardinDKurkmo/KurkmoExt1.jpg

http://sor.cua.edu/ChMon/MardinDKurkmo/index.html

Humanist
2012-12-25, 03:15
The "Rabi" (and "Rab") title, of course, is well-known to Assyrians, both ancient and modern. The word, "simmalta," in Sureth, means ladder.

The Rabi Simmiltim of the Kings of Kanesh and the Connection with the Old Kingdom of Hattusa

Joost Blasweiler
Leiden University 2012


The Hittite Kingdom had a historical and cultural relation with Kingdom of Kussara and the Kingdom of Kanesh. In Kanesh and several other Anatolian royal city-states had their rabi simmiltim. This title or function may mean chief or general of the citadel/fortress. Simmiltu can mean the stairway leading up a city wall or ladder,stair, siege ladder, rack. It can have a connection with the GIS.IG.É.KUN 4 one door of the staircase, beside a door of the roof of a house, in division of property. Simmiltu written in figurative use refers to a vista of receding ranges or mountains ledges, high mountains ranges, narrow (stepped)mountain ledges and to thestairs of the heaven 1. So perhaps the tile refers to the city gate and to the high position of this official of the Kingdom. The Chief of the Staircase was the second man of the kingdom, many contracts are both signed by the king and his second man. Sometimes a queen and the chief are both operating in financial matters, so that some merchants got more respect of the tax rules of a city. Particularly through the scholars Jan Gerrit Dercksen 2 and Klaas Veenhof much is known about the trade letters and financial contracts of the Karums of Kanesh and other city-states. These contracts showed the imprints of the seals of the rulers of city-state.

Humanist
2012-12-25, 05:30
SURETH
'šḥaṭa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : 1) to damage , to cause damage to , to harm , to impair , to mar , to prejudice (?) , to deteriorate , to spoil , to violate , chances, efficiency, safety, victory ... : to jeopardize (?) , to compromise (?) , to endanger (?) ; 2) -?- person : to violate (?) / rape (?) / to ravish (?) / to outrage (?) ; 3) -?- law, taboo, peace ... : to violate (?) / infringe (?) , to trespass (?) , to contravene (?) , to run afoul of (?) / to conflict (?) , to transgress
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahatuB_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sihtu_.jpg


Adding
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahhutitu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sehu.jpg



SURETH
'šaḥa
[Army → War]
English : 1) to assail , to leap upon , to assault , to attack , to molest , to commit aggravated assault (?) / assault and battery (?) , to assault indecently (?) / to abuse -sexually- (?) ; 2) to swarm around , to throng together round
Dialect : Urmiah

'šaḥa
[Army → War]
English : transitive verb : to sick / assault , to attack , to assail , to perform assault and battery (?) / aggravated assault (?) , to harass / bully (?) , to charge , to storm (?) , to rush against
Dialect : Urmiah

- - - Updated - - -

SURETH
It is said that "Nestorian" Assyrians would dance to "Šeḥani" music before going on a hunt, or departing for battle.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sehanu_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-25, 08:17
More from Anatolia.


SURETH
'turtana
[Army]
English : a commander-in-chief
Dialect : Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turtanu-1.jpg


The crown prince and the commander of the security in the New Hittite Kingdom

by Joost Blasweiler
2012


The word TARTĒNU in Hittite originated from an Akkadian language, perhaps by mediation of the Hurrian culture of Kizzuwadna. It is fascinating to read about “terdennu and turtānu“ in an article of the law-historian Paul Koschacker1 (1933- page 35). He analyzed a text found in the city Arrap of the land Nuzi, which sets out the rights of inheritance of the oldest and the other sons. First the inheritance was dividend in as much parts as the amount of sons plus one. The oldest son (the maru rabu) gets of these two parts and then the second son (who is the only one who is called the terdennu) gets a partand next the others another part. In time the difference fades away in texts of the city Arrap between the terms maru rabu and terdennu, both words mean the successor. Terdennu is derived from the verb to follow. Paul Koschacker stated that this further can be explained as:”the one, who follows the first, like the successor Assyrian title
Turatānu=‘Feldmarschall’, the one who follows the King...

- - - Updated - - -


FTDNA "matches" map, based on 12 STRs, for the Mandaean J2 (in white). The 12/12 match (in red) is with a man listing Massa Lubrense, Naples, Italy as place of paternal origin.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/J2_Mandaean.jpg


Doing the same for the Assyrian L943. The one that is most similar to the Jewish Cohanim man. Based on 25 markers. The orange points represent haplotypes 1 step removed at 25 markers. The yellow points represent haplotypes 2 steps removed at 25 markers. Again, this may not be representative. For instance, Alawites are not represented on the map, and according to the data reported in Dönbak et al., some Alawites may carry R-L23 Y chromosomes "closely" related to Assyrian R-L23 Y chromosomes.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nj_25STR_L943.jpg



Although the above eastern "match" appears to be from Kyrgyzstan, I have mentioned Kazakh haplotypes before. See this past post, from the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


The results for Assyrian #2 are out. He is L943+. Connecting him with Assyrian #1, and the Jewish men.

The second Assyrian L943 man's "matches" at 25 markers. The same caveats apply.

The orange (1-step) marker in the Atlantic should be in Portugal. The individual entered the incorrect coordinates in his profile.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/jd_25.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-25, 20:20
Some Assyrian genetic affinities appear to match the distribution of centum Indo-European languages, as compared to the distribution of satem Indo-European languages.

Wikipedia


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Centum_Satem_map.png

Very approximate diachronic map showing the centum (blue, except that Tocharian on the east is grey) and satem (red) areals. The hypothetical area of origin of satemization according to the inventor of the idea, von Bradke, is shown in darker red, which happens also to be the range of the Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna cultures. Whether the map is accurate in many of its other details depends on the time period considered.

Humanist
2012-12-26, 03:04
Actually, I believe it [Sureth being a creole language] is more than simply a chance (technical ignorance notwithstanding). Also, I am not sure if "creole" is a proper term for what I had in mind.

Sureth is a subject–verb–object (SVO) language. I found this bit from Wikipedia interesting:


It [SVO] is also the most common order developed in Creole languages, suggesting that it may be somehow more initially 'obvious' to human psychology.[4]

Also, from Wikipedia:


A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable natural language developed from the mixing of parent languages; creoles differ from pidgins (which are believed by scholars to be necessary precedents of creoles) in that they have been nativized by children as their primary language, with the result that they have features of natural languages that are normally missing from pidgins.

The vocabulary of a creole language is largely supplied by the parent languages, particularly that of the most dominant group in the social context of the creole's construction, though there are often clear phonetic and semantic shifts. On the other hand, the grammar often has original features that may differ substantially from those of the parent languages.


On the subject of Sumerian, here is another source I referred to a few times in the past. With similar gratitude to the author for making it available to the masses.


These developments started in about the 24th century B.C.E. and were completed by the first part of the 2nd millennium B.C.E. They therefore overlap in time with the period of assumed asymmetrical bilingualism. One is therefore tempted to assume that these phonological changes may in fact reflect the influence of a Sumerian speaking population gradually shifting to Akkadian. Hasselbach finds that contrary to expectations the orthography indicates the loss of gutturals and the phonemicization of /e/ in texts from the north first, but not from the south. She does, however, note the possibility that the Akkadian of the southern texts ‘might have been a learned literary language that was not native to this area’.

....

Sumerian loanwords in Akkadian are estimated to constitute approximately 7% of its vocabulary (Edzard 2003, 178). Lieberman 1977 catalogued 529 Sumerian loanwords in Akkadian before the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., but 102 of these loans are attested only in lexical texts. These loans are almost without exception nouns. A study on the semantic classes of these words is a desideratum. In addition to loanwords, there exist a number of Sumerian and Akkadian idioms which correspond to each other word for word, e.g. šag-še — gid = ana libbim šadadum ‘to consider earnestly’ (lit. ‘to draw to the heart’) (cf. Edzard 2003, 175!176).

Akkadian and Sumerian Language Contact (http://elte.academia.edu/G%C3%A1borZ%C3%B3lyomi/Papers/632011/Akkadian_and_Sumerian_Language_Contact) (Gábor Zólyomi)

forthcoming in Stefan Weninger, ed., Semitic Languages. An International Handbook (HSK 36). Berlin — New York, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 387–393



^^ Did not notice, on previous occasions, the bit regarding the majority of Sumerian loans in Akkadian being nouns. I have stated before that a decent chunk of the Sumerian lexicon looked "familiar" to me. Although I am still of that opinion, there are a significant portion (perhaps majority) of words in Sumerian that appear foreign. This may be because I am somewhat familiar with the language, but to me, some words in Sumerian remind me of Persian.

The same (i.e. nouns) has been said regarding the supposedly very small number of Akkadian "loans" in what we today refer to as Neo-Aramaic. Although I certainly have respect for those in the field, and their accomplishments, I have many questions regarding this point. In my layman's opinion, when speaking strictly about the lexicon, a very significant portion of the "Neo-Aramaic" lexicon (including many dozens of verbs) may be Akkadian in origin. Including a good many from Standard Babylonian. But very few from Neo-Assyrian. If one looks back at the complete record, this is not as fantastical a position, when one considers the other possibilities.

Today's world, in my opinion, began with the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire. In Babylon, the Indo-European (Greco-Macedonian), Indo-Iranian IE (Persian), West Semitic (Canaanite), and Sumero-Akkadian (Mesopotamian) worlds came together, in one place, at the same time, perhaps for the first time. It was this fusion of peoples, and ideas, that gave birth to our world. A world dominated (at least in the "West"), for the better part of the last 2500 years, by the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/ReligionSymbolAbr.PNG/220px-ReligionSymbolAbr.PNG

Humanist
2012-12-26, 04:50
May not be related.

SURETH
'šabaš
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) Bravo ; well done ; excellent , thumbs up ! ; 2) gifts in money given a musician or entertainer by those that are being entertained ; 3) -?- a gratuity (?), a perquisite (?), a fee (?), a tip (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabasu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sibsu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-26, 21:58
Wikipedia


Babylonian numerals

The Babylonians, who were famous for their astronomical observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus), used a sexagesimal (base-60) positional numeral system inherited from the Sumerian and also Akkadian civilizations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units).

This system first appeared around 3100 B.C. It is also credited as being the first known positional numeral system, in which the value of a particular digit depends both on the digit itself and its position within the number. This was an extremely important development, because non-place-value systems require unique symbols to represent each power of a base (ten, one hundred, one thousand, and so forth), making calculations difficult.

....

A common theory is that 60, a superior highly composite number (the previous and next in the series being 12 and 120), was chosen due to its prime factorization: 2×2×3×5, which makes it divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30. In fact, it is the smallest integer divisible by all integers from 1 to 6. Integers and fractions were represented identically — a radix point was not written but rather made clear by context.


SURETH
'šuš
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) rigid , stiff , unyielding , firm , inflexible , unbending ; 2) -?- : unyielding (?) , stubborn (?) , stiff-necked (?) , obdurate (?) , pertinacious (?) , unrelenting (?) ; 3) reality, facts ... : grim , depressing ; 4) inactive , inert ; 5) confused , in disorder

'išti
[Numbers]
English : sixty (60)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/susi.jpg


SUMERIAN
ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)

Humanist
2012-12-27, 03:25
Wikipedia


Babylonian numerals

The Babylonians, who were famous for their astronomical observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus), used a sexagesimal (base-60) positional numeral system inherited from the Sumerian and also Akkadian civilizations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units).

This system first appeared around 3100 B.C. It is also credited as being the first known positional numeral system, in which the value of a particular digit depends both on the digit itself and its position within the number. This was an extremely important development, because non-place-value systems require unique symbols to represent each power of a base (ten, one hundred, one thousand, and so forth), making calculations difficult.

....

A common theory is that 60, a superior highly composite number (the previous and next in the series being 12 and 120), was chosen due to its prime factorization: 2×2×3×5, which makes it divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30. In fact, it is the smallest integer divisible by all integers from 1 to 6. Integers and fractions were represented identically — a radix point was not written but rather made clear by context.


SURETH
'šuš
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) rigid , stiff , unyielding , firm , inflexible , unbending ; 2) -?- : unyielding (?) , stubborn (?) , stiff-necked (?) , obdurate (?) , pertinacious (?) , unrelenting (?) ; 3) reality, facts ... : grim , depressing ; 4) inactive , inert ; 5) confused , in disorder

'išti
[Numbers]
English : sixty (60)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/susi.jpg


SUMERIAN
ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)


A couple of relevant past posts. Refer to the Akkadian word, "išdu," and Sureth, "išta."



AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isdu_.jpg



SURETH
'šatha / išatha
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) NENA : fever , heat / temperature , malaria ; Classical Syriac : ܐܸܫܵܬ݂ܵܐ ; 2) Mar Bishu : adjective : lazy
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Other

'niḥa
[Transport]
English : slow , not swift
Dialect : Urmiah

išta
English : the bottom , the deepest or lowest part : the sole of the foot : bottom of a cup, kettle, pot[/U], etc., and as one term for buttocks)
Dialect : Classical Syriac, Other [Urmia]


AKKADIAN

[I]Lingering invisibly in the sky: on the meaning of uštānih
Mathieu Ossendrijver
NABU, nr. 39, p 49-52 (2008)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ustanih.jpg

- - - Updated - - -


Eleanor Robson of Cambridge


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbFJeYSKfoo

Humanist
2012-12-27, 04:46
Continuing from the previous post.

A screenshot from a YouTube video clip discussing Babylonian numbers (note the "one" and "sixty"):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_system.jpg

Source video: youtube.com/watch?v=g55sRrIy5pw

SURETH (posting 'išti again, along with how it is spelled, and another(?) Sureth word for sixty)
ܐܸܫܬܝܼܢ
'ištin
[Numbers]
English : [60??]

ܐܸܫܬܝܼ
'išti
[Numbers]
English : sixty (60)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/isten.jpg


SUMERIAN (John A. Halloran)
aš: one; unique; alone.
uš, ús: n., foundation (cf., ñíš) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16; concatenation of 2 sign variants; UŠ archaic frequency: 101; concatenates 2 sign variants] .v., to support, lift; to stand upon.
diš(2), deš: one (dili, 'single', + aš, 'one'; the form resembles that of the semantically appropriate male body part, ñiš2,3, ñeš2,3; cf., mina, min(5,6), 'two').

Humanist
2012-12-28, 00:35
I am not very familiar with Norse and ancient Anatolian mythology. I am curious whether there is any relationship between the Hittite/Hurrian deity Teshub/Tarhun/Taru and Thor?

Wikipedia:

Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. He was derived from the Hattian Taru. His Hittite and Luwian name was Tarhun (with variant stem forms Tarhunt, Tarhuwant, Tarhunta), although this name is from the Hittite root *tarh- to defeat, conquer.[1][2][3]

He is depicted holding a triple thunderbolt and a weapon, usually an axe (often double-headed) or mace.

Wikipedia:

In Norse mythology, Thor (from Old Norse Þórr) is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing, healing, and fertility.




Thor, pictured in an Icelandic manuscript (1760)

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-UrH7RFsB1aU/ToYJp4OYoMI/AAAAAAAAAd0/K-OedhpXM5A/s1600/Thor+NKS+1867+4to+Icelandic+manuscript+1760+%25C3% 2593lafur+Brynj%25C3%25BAlfsson.jpg



Thor's Battle Against the Jötnar (1872) by Mårten Eskil Winge

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Thor.jpg/405px-Thor.jpg


Some Assyrian genetic affinities appear to match the distribution of centum Indo-European languages, as compared to the distribution of satem Indo-European languages.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Centum_Satem_map.png

Wikipedia

Very approximate diachronic map showing the centum (blue, except that Tocharian on the east is grey) and satem (red) areals. The hypothetical area of origin of satemization according to the inventor of the idea, von Bradke, is shown in darker red, which happens also to be the range of the Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna cultures. Whether the map is accurate in many of its other details depends on the time period considered.

Any connection to the Indo-Europeanization of what are today the centum IE regions of Europe? This does not mean that there were no IE speakers inhabiting those areas before. But perhaps it was ~3300 years ago when the wave of migrants, conquerors, etc. responsible for today's centum group left their home (West Anatolia/Balkans ??). And yes, I realize that Anatolian IE is neither "centum" nor "satem," according to the experts in the field.

Not exactly a unique suggestion, but how about R1b as a candidate Y chromosome marker for the Indo-Europeanization of the centum IE speaking regions of Europe?


Based on Marko's 67 STR R tree.

Five of the Assyrian R-L584 men are tested through 67 markers. A number of the Assyrian men are not tested through 67 markers.

The year estimates are not necessarily precise.

R1b1a2a1b (L584)

Assyrian #1, kit # 205749: TMRCA of 1848 years with Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men.

Assyrian #2, kit # 213562: TMRCA of 2239 years with Assyrian #1 and Askhenazi Cohanim and Syrian Jewish men. Another 1011 years (3250 years), connects him to four men. One of the men lists France as an origin.

Assyrian #3, kit # 147979: TMRCA of 3293 years with two men of unknown origin. One of the two men lists "Strickland" as a surname.

Assyrian #4, kit # 184027: TMRCA of 1505 years with three men. At least two appear to be Armenian. Further removed from present, this branch appears dominated by Armenians.

Assyrian #5, kit # 90492: TMRCA of 1735 years with a man listing Ireland as an origin. Another 2025 years (3760 years), connects him with a number of what appear to be Armenian and European men.



Ashina. Apologies if I asked you this before. Are your Y-DNA lines from Adana, or around those parts? They are both R-M269, correct? If so, that would be interesting. Since that particular corner of the world may have played a significant part in the history of R-M269.

Map languages Anatolia,North Syria and Upper Mesopotamia 1700 BC.

by Joost Blasweiler

Very general spot (yellow), where I believe R-L23 may have been concentrated in the 2nd millennium BCE.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turkey_rm269.jpg

A recent comment by "Andrew" on the blog of Dienekes Pontikos (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/12/mismodelling-indo-european-origins-talk.html) (bold by me):


andrew (http://www.blogger.com/profile/08172964121659914379) said...
Indo-European expansion was surely a multi-stage process involving multiple waves in the same and sometimes overlapping directions.

For example, we know to a fair degree of confidence that speakers of the Indo-European Baltic languages were faced with a wave of Slavic speakers (from a related branch of the Indo-European language family) who brought about language shift for most of the Baltic linguistic region and also brought about partial demic replacement/dilution.

Similarly, we know that in Britain there were separate waves of Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Danish and Norman migrations, all Indo-European half from the Germanic branch of Indo-European languages, and half from Celto-Italic branches.

Similarly, we know that an important wave of Indo-European language expansion in Western and Northern Europe (whether or not it was the first such wave) happened fairly close in time to Bronze Age collapse (ca. 1200 BCE), while Indo-Iranian expansion had probably differentiated into early Rig Vedic Sanskrit, the root of the Indo-Aryan languages, by about 2000 BCE, eight centuries earlier.

It is entirely possible, and indeed likely, that Indo-European expansion was a serial founder effect event in which early waves caused language shift in substrate populations that were incorporated into later waves.

For example, Pontic populations could have conquered and incorporated Anatolian or Caucuasian or pre-Greek populations who came to speak an Indo-European language as a result of the conquest, before expanding further and diluting the original proto-Indo-European population genetic signature in later waves.

Statistical models, and in particular Baysean statistical linguistic models, need to incorporate the facts that are already established from other fields such as history and archaeology to the fullest extent possible, and also tend to overestimate the importance of random drift relative to punctuated language change upon language contact or the initial differentiation of a new language.

Wednesday, December 26, 2012 7:35:00 PM

Humanist
2012-12-28, 04:17
Wikipedia


Bronze Age collapse
....

Between 1206 and 1150 BCE, the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria,[1] and the New Kingdom of Egypt in Syria and Canaan[2] interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[3]
....

Prior to the Bronze Age collapse, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was dominated by a number of Indo-European peoples; Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni and Mycenaean Greeks, together with the Semitic Assyrians. From the 17th Century BCE the Mitanni formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a language isolate. Similarly, the Hittites absorbed the Hattians, a people speaking a language of the North Caucasian group. Every Anatolian site which was important during the preceding Late Bronze Age shows a destruction layer, and it appears that here civilization did not recover to the level of the Indo-European Hittites for another thousand years...

....

Conclusion

Robert Drews describes the collapse as "the worst disaster in ancient history, even more calamitous than the collapse of the Western Roman Empire".[7] A number of people have spoken of the cultural memories of the disaster as stories of a "lost golden age". Hesiod for example spoke of Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze, separated from the modern harsh cruel world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes.

- - - Updated - - -


I am not very familiar with Norse and ancient Anatolian mythology. I am curious whether there is any relationship between the Hittite/Hurrian deity Teshub/Tarhun/Taru and Thor?

Wikipedia:

Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. He was derived from the Hattian Taru. His Hittite and Luwian name was Tarhun (with variant stem forms Tarhunt, Tarhuwant, Tarhunta), although this name is from the Hittite root *tarh- to defeat, conquer.[1][2][3]

He is depicted holding a triple thunderbolt and a weapon, usually an axe (often double-headed) or mace.

Wikipedia:

In Norse mythology, Thor (from Old Norse Þórr) is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing, healing, and fertility.


Thor's Battle Against the Jötnar (1872) by Mårten Eskil Winge

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Thor.jpg/405px-Thor.jpg



SURETH
'ṭarqa
[Moral life → Quality]
English : 1) excellent , chief , preeminent , exceeding in kind or degree , surpassing others , superior , crack , elite ; 2) noun : a nobleman
Dialect : Urmiah

taruqta (?) <-- [That is how I pronounce it as well]
[Clothing]
English : a button (to secure parts on a garment)
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tariktu1_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tariqu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarikuB_.jpg


http://classic.net.bible.org/dictionary.php?word=TIRHAKAH


TIRHAKAH - ter-ha'-ka, tir-ha'-ka (tirhaqah; Codex Vaticanus in 2 Kings Thara; elsewhere and in Codex Alexandrinus Tharaka; Josephus Tharsikes):
1. Name and Prenomen:

The king of Cush or Ethiopia (basileus Aithiopon), who opposed Sennacherib in Palestine (2 Ki 19:9; Isa 37:9). The name of this ruler of Egypt and his native realm appears in hieroglyphics as Taharqa, his prenomen being Nefer-atmu-Ra-chu, "Nefer-atmu-Ra protects." The Assyrian form of Tirhakah is Tarqu or Tarqu'u (inscriptions of Assur-bani-pal).


Wikipedia


Tariq (also transliterated as Tarique, Taariq, Tarek, Tareq, Taric, Tarick, Tarik, or Tarık, Arabic: طارق‎, Ṭāriq) is an Arabic male given name, common in the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia and Southeast Europe.

The name is related to the Arabic verb (Arabic: طرق‎, ṭaraqa) meaning "Nocturnal visitor" or "Brightest Star." [1]

The meaning is the meaning from the Qur'an, where ṭāriq is the name of the morning star, which is described as the shining star which leads the way: Nightcomer or Star of piercing brightness (At-Tariq, verse 3). [2]

Humanist
2012-12-28, 12:21
Around the time of the Bronze Age collapse, the beginning of an enduring Assyrian dynasty, lion-skin cloaks, cremations, horses and foals, Ḫanigalbat/Mitanni...



A Sealed Double Cremation at Middle Assyrian Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

Peter Akkermans & E. Smits (2008)

In: D. Bonatz, R.M. Czichon & F.J. Kreppner (eds.) Fundstellen – Gesammelte Schriften zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altvorderasiens ad honorem Hartmut Kühne. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag (2008), pp. 251-261.


Recent excavation at Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria has exposed a very substantial part of a Middle Assyrian fortified farmstead or dunnu, dated ca. 1225-1120 BCE. From its foundation early in the reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, the dunnu was maintained by a number of high-ranking officials affiliated with the Assyrian royal house and each bearing the titles of “grand vizier” and “king of Ḫanigalbat”: successively, Aššur-iddin, Šulmānu-mušabši and Ilī-padâ.

An extraordinarily rich cremation which dates somewhere between 1180-1140 BCE (building level 4) and which must be associated with the local administration at the site. So far, 38 graves have been uncovered in the dunnu at Tell Sabi Abyad, of which 29 were inhumations and nine were cremations.

The cylinder-seal impression* on the obverse of the sealing shows a galloping, winged horse followed by a foal (fig. 1), produced in the typical Middle Assyrian iconographic style of the 12th century BCE (see e.g. Matthews 1990, 1992).

Special attention is drawn to the presence of the (burnt) third phalange of a lion, which points to the inclusion of a lion-skin cloak on the funeral pyre. The dead may either have rested upon the skin or it may have covered them as a shroud. This find recalls the occurrence of bear claws in Neolithic cremation graves in northwestern Europe (see e.g. Parker Pearson 1999: 7; Smits 2000).

The richness of finds in this grave is remarkable, when taking into account that almost all other cremations at Tell Sabi Abyad contained either simply a small number of beads or no goods at all (there is only one other cremation with a comparable inventory; cf. Akkermans/Wiggermann, in print). Before it was stated that this cremation contained the burnt remains of two young adults – a man and a woman. Both persons must have died at more or less the same time and both were subsequently cremated and buried together. In view of their sex and age, it is tempting to consider them as spouses, tied to each other both in the terrestrial world and in the hereafter. Although the dead remain unknown to us, they undeniably must have been people of status and wealth. Moreover, the clay sealing with its typical Middle Assyrian representation suggests that they (or their mourners who carried out the burial) were affiliated with the Assyrian administration at Tell Sabi Abyad. Further proof in this respect is provided by the location of the grave in the immediate vicinity of the buildings of the living – it is unlikely that any outsiders to the local community were allowed to bury their dead here. The burial vessel, too, is entirely of Middle Assyrian style and origin in terms of shape and finish, as is the jewellery found in it (see e.g. Ohuma/Numoto 2001). In short, there can be no doubt that both the dead and their mourners were part of the local community at Tell Sabi Abyad, the more so if we take into account the sheer magnitude and obvious visibility of the practice of cremation: The burning and burial were not individual acts but involved the entire community. Somewhere on the site there must have been a large funeral pyre, on which the deceased were placed together, fully dressed and equipped with adornments and covered by a lion-skin cloak. A ram was slaughtered for the occasion and its meat was consumed by the mourners either shortly before or during the fire; the remains were thrown into the flames. After the corpses had been burnt, the remains selected for burial from the surface of the extinguished pyre were stored in an urn which was subsequently covered and sealed and finally buried in a specific area very close to the houses of the living.

*
"Fig. 1...[R]econstruction of the seal impression."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/middle_assyrian_cremation_seal_reconstruction_.jpg

The location:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/figure1big_.jpg


2,900-Year-Old Gravestone Reveals Ancient Belief System


A 2,900-year-old gravestone from the ancient kingdom of Sam'al, located in what is today southeastern Turkey, has shed light on an ancient religious belief heretofore unknown.

Though the city of Sam'al was influenced by local Semitic cultures in many ways - including their language - Kuttamuwa and Panamuwa are names that show the Indo-European cultural influence. Also, Kuttamuwa was cremated, a practice shunned by Semitic tribes of that era. Apparently Kuttamuwa had his stele made while he was still alive, and last summer the archeological team found it, translating its inscription like this (there are question marks for translations they aren't sure of yet):

I, Kuttamuwa, servant of Panamuwa, am the one who oversaw the production of this stele for myself while still living. I placed it in an eternal chamber(?) and established a feast at this chamber(?): a bull for [the storm-god] Hadad, ... a ram for [the sun-god] Shamash, ... and a ram for my soul that is in this stele.

Written in an alphabet derived from Phoenician, the language is a West Semitic dialect similar to Aramaic and Hebrew.
According to archeologist Schloen: "Kuttumuwa's inscription shows a fascinating mixture of non-Semitic and Semitic cultural elements, including a belief in the enduring human soul-which did not inhabit the bones of the deceased, as in traditional Semitic thought, but inhabited his stone monument, possibly because the remains of the deceased were cremated. Cremation was considered to be abhorrent in the Old Testament and in traditional West Semitic culture, but there is archaeological evidence for Indo-European-style cremation in neighboring Iron Age sites."


The fortress of Ili-pada.
Middle Assyrian architecture at Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria
Peter M.M.G. Akkermans (2006)

In: P. Butterlin, M. Lebeau, J.-Y. Monchambert, J. Montero & B. Muller (eds.), Les espaces Syro-Mésopotamiens. Dimensions de l’expérience humaine au Proche-Orient ancien. Turnhout: Brepols (2006), pp. 201-211.


The fortress had many faces...: it was a military outpost on the western frontier of Assyria; it was an administrative center in control of the westernmost province of the kingdom; and it provided custom facilities on the route from Carchemish to the Assyrian capital of Assur.

However, it was not only the interests of the Assyrian state but also the private interests of the Assyrian officials themselves that were served at Sabi Abyad. For much of its lifetime, the fortress was in the hands of Ili-pada*, grand vizier of Assyria, viceroy of Hanigalbat, member of one of the most prominent lineages of Assyria, and related to the royal family. The stronghold was Ili-pada's rural estate, used by him for the agricultural exploitation of many dozens of square kilometres in the Balikh valley and elsewhere. The occurrence of texts belonging to Assur-iddin, Ili-pada's father and likewise grand vizier, suggests that the estate had been family property for a long time; it may have served as the family's power base in the province, which presented them with the revenues to finance their private court in the capital and to support their political ambitions.


* Wikipedia :

Two of his [Ili-pada] sons were to follow him in attaining high office. Mardukija became governor of Katmuḫi and served his term as limmu early, during the reign of Aššur-dan I, his nephew and Ilī-padâ’s grandson. Ninurta-apal-Ekur, after a period stationed in Babylonia, presumably on official business, was to triumph in his campaign to succeed Enlil-kudurri-usur as Assyrian King, thereby establishing a royal line that endured until at least the eighth century.


The Assyrian King's list, beginning with Ili-pada's son, mentioned above:

Ninurta-apal-Ekur (1182 BCE to 1180 BCE) --> Ashur-dan I --> Ninurta-tukultī-Aššur --> Mutakkil-Nusku --> Ashur-resh-ishi I --> Tiglath-Pileser I --> Asharid-apal-Ekur --> Assur-bel-kala --> Eriba-Adad II --> Shamshi-Adad IV --> Ashurnasirpal I --> Shalmaneser II --> Ashur-nirari IV --> Ashur-rabi II --> Ashur-resh-ishi II --> Tiglath-Pileser II --> Ashur-dan II --> Adad-nirari II --> Tukulti-Ninurta II --> Ashurnasirpal II --> Shalmaneser III --> Shamshi-Adad V --> Adad-nirari III --> Shalmaneser IV --> Ashur-dan III --> Ashur-nirari V (755 BCE to 745 BCE). The line is broken by Tiglath-Pileser III.

Humanist
2012-12-29, 01:14
Ezekiel 23:5

"Then Oholah lusted after other lovers instead of me, and she gave her love to the Assyrian officers.

Ezekiel 23:6

They were all attractive young men, captains and commanders dressed in handsome blue, charioteers driving their horses.

Ezekiel 23:12


She fawned over all the Assyrian officers--those captains and commanders in handsome uniforms, those charioteers driving their horses--all of them attractive young men.

Ezekiel 23:23


For the Babylonians will come with all the Chaldeans from Pekod and Shoa and Koa. And all the Assyrians will come with them--handsome young captains, commanders, chariot officers, and other high-ranking officers, all riding their horses.

New Living Translation


Mounted warriors. From Nimrud?

Wikipedia


Assyrian horsemen pursue defeated Arabs.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Assyrian_horsemen_arabs.png/800px-Assyrian_horsemen_arabs.png

Humanist
2012-12-29, 04:50
Again, this is why I mention Babylonian (frequently Standard Babylonian) often. The Neo-Assyrian variety of Akkadian does not appear very often.


SURETH
'šatha / išatha
[Human → Disease]
English : 1) NENA : fever , heat / temperature , malaria ; Classical Syriac : ܐܸܫܵܬ݂ܵܐ ; 2) Mar Bishu : adjective : lazy
Dialect : Classical Syriac, NENA, Other


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/esitu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/esatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asitu.jpg


2
SURETH

Humanist
ṭurru
English : a stubborn person (?)

G. Khan
to break wind noisily | only used in the imperative form ṭur in exclamations ("To hell with" (literally:"fart!"))


SUMERIAN
dúr base; bottom (the body part, cf. MSL 9, 65:92 Ugu-mu Susa); seat, residence (išdu, šaplu)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/turru2.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-29, 07:33
Wikipedia

Babylonian numerals

The Babylonians, who were famous for their astronomical observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus), used a sexagesimal (base-60) positional numeral system inherited from the Sumerian and also Akkadian civilizations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units).

This system first appeared around 3100 B.C. It is also credited as being the first known positional numeral system, in which the value of a particular digit depends both on the digit itself and its position within the number. This was an extremely important development, because non-place-value systems require unique symbols to represent each power of a base (ten, one hundred, one thousand, and so forth), making calculations difficult.

....

A common theory is that 60, a superior highly composite number (the previous and next in the series being 12 and 120), was chosen due to its prime factorization: 2×2×3×5, which makes it divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30. In fact, it is the smallest integer divisible by all integers from 1 to 6. Integers and fractions were represented identically — a radix point was not written but rather made clear by context.



SURETH
'šuš
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) rigid , stiff , unyielding , firm , inflexible , unbending ; 2) -?- : unyielding (?) , stubborn (?) , stiff-necked (?) , obdurate (?) , pertinacious (?) , unrelenting (?) ; 3) reality, facts ... : grim , depressing ; 4) inactive, inert ; 5) confused , in disorder

'išti
[Numbers]
English : sixty (60)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/susi.jpg


SUMERIAN
ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)


SURETH
šaša
[Human → Body]
English : (intransitive verb) : to shake , to tremble , to quake , to shiver , to shudder , to quiver (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

šghaša
[Moral life → Fault]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to disturb , to perturb , to throw into disorder/confusion , to upset, to annoy, to derange, to disarrange, to disorganize , to unsettle , to ruffle / vex / trouble , to discompose / faze ; 2) to shake , to move
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asasuB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asasuB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sagasu_.jpg


SUMERIAN
šu-sùh-a - du11 to produce confusion, disturbance (Attinger, Eléments 716-718)
šú (šúš), šu4 (šuš) to (let) fall upon, spread over, apply, cover (especially with nets); to overwhelm, cast down; to become obscure, dark
šu - ús to push (open); to drive (animals) (cf. UET 2, supp 47 i 5)
še - ša4 to moan, groan
še25 - gi4 to cry out, scream, screech. The old reading is šix(d). Read now še25/šeg10 for KAxŠID or še26/šeg11 for KAxDÚB. Gudea texts write šeg12(SIG4). See Zgoll, AOAT 246, 312f.
saĝ n. head; front, fore, beginning; surface, top; man, person, human being; slave, servant (G. Farber, AV Klein 108-115)
saĝ ĝiš - ra to commit murder, kill

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More on horses. And Shamash.


What is the significance of the east in "Nestorian" Christianity? Jerusalem is ~550 miles (~900 km) to the west. The celestial bodies, however, "rise" in the east.


Interment of the dead (m-khametha-d mitha) is performed in accordance with a prescribed ritual. When the procession arrives at the graveyard, the coffin is placed by the side of the excavation, which has been dug east-west so the dead will face east. One of the deacons burns incense by the head of the deceased and solemn prayers and hymns are recited by the two formations of clergy. The coffin is then lifted and lowered into the grave.

Yoab Benjamin



They turn ceremoniously to the East, — Worshiping toward the East is the regular Nestorian custom.

P. Y. SAEKI


Our churches, if I am not mistaken, also face toward the east.



The Nina Simone version is great as well. :)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxzEeKfpyIg



I am not suggesting that the two are necessarily connected. But, I did find it interesting.

Wikipedia:

Many Indo-European religious branches show evidence for horse sacrifice, and comparative mythology suggests that they derive from a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) ritual.

In most instances, the horses are sacrificed in a funerary context, and interred with the deceased. There is evidence but no explicit myths from the three branches of Indo-Europeans of a major horse sacrifice ritual based on a mythical union of Indo-European kingship and the horse. The Indian Aśvamedha is the clearest evidence preserved, but vestiges from Latin and Celtic traditions allow the reconstruction of a few common attributes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


A Neo-Assyrian Text Describing a Royal Funeral

Dr. John MacGinnis, Cambridge


[ ... ] The father my begetter in kingly oil I gently laid [in] that secret tomb. I sealed·the entrance to the sarcophagus, his resting-place with tough bronze and cast it for a potent spell. Objects of gold and silver, everything worthy of a tomb, the regalia that he used to love, I showed to Shamash [the sun god] and placed with my father in the tomb. I offered gifts to the princely Anunnaki and the spirits who dwell in the underworld.

[ ... ] 9 times (?) [ ... ] to Gilgamesh unridden horses I slaughtered and put them in the tomb...

....

Commentary

Furthermore, it seems that Ur-Nammu [Sumerian king, Ur III] arrived in the underworld by means of a chariot and this cannot but remind us of the ED [Early Dynastic] burials from Ur, Kish, Abu Salabikh and elsewhere where skeletons of equids/bovids and/or the remains of chariots have been excavated.

This discussion of the nature of the text naturally raises the question of its date. Even if some of the literary material is older, the lists of garments firmly date the text to the Neo-Assyrian period and the conclusion of von Soden that it was written in the reign of either Esarhaddon or Ashurbanipal [7th c. BCE] is still most likely.

Humanist
2012-12-29, 12:42
Perhaps this has a chance.

SYRIAC / JBA / JBAg (source: CAL)

ḥrq, ḥrqʾ (ḥreq, ḥerqā) n.m. line

1 line Syr.
2 ornamental design Syr.
3 edge or joint JBA, JBAg.
4 fig.: judgement, determination Syr.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/harraku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urraku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/urku.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/uraku.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-29, 15:26
Western Semite cultural/linguistic dominance of Mesopotamia in the 1st millennium BCE? Recall earlier posts on the same topic.

The Assyrian-Aramaean interaction in the Upper Khabur: the archaeological evidence from Tell Barri Iron Age layers

by Anacleto D'Agostino

published in: C. Kepinski and A. Tenu (eds.), Proceedings of the workshop ‘Assyrian-Aramaean interaction’, Rome 6th ICAANE, May 6th 2008, in Syria 86 (2009), 15-40.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aramaeans.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-29, 20:56
Perhaps of no particular significance.

SURETH
mulisa
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) a hermaphrodite 2) a pander , someone who arranges sexual partners for others , a pimp (?) , a ponce (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/melesu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mullusu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elesu.jpg

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Source: http://adam.about.net/encyclopedia/infectiousdiseases/Androgen-insensitivity-syndrome.htm


Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Definition

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is when a person who is genetically male (has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant to male hormones called androgens. As a result, the person has some or all of the physical characteristics of a woman, despite having the genetic makeup of a man.

Alternative Names

Testicular feminization

Causes

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by various genetic defects on the X chromosome that make the body unable to respond to the hormones responsible for the male appearance.

The syndrome is divided into two main categories:

Complete androgen insensitivity prevents the development of the penis and other male body parts. The child born appears to be a girl. The complete form of the syndrome occurs in as many as 1 in 20,000 live births.

The degree of sexual ambiguity varies widely in persons with incomplete AIS. Incomplete AIS can include other disorders such as Reifenstein syndrome (also known as Gilbert-Dreyfus syndrome or Lubs syndrome), which is associated with breast development in men, failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum after birth, and hypospadias, a condition where the opening of the urethra is on the underside, rather than at the tip, of the penis.

Also included in the broad category of incomplete AIS is infertile male syndrome, which is sometimes due to an androgen receptor disorder.

Symptoms

A person with complete AIS appears to be female but has no uterus, and has very little armpit and pubic hair. At puberty, female secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts) develop, but menstruation and fertility do not.

Persons with incomplete AIS may have both male and female physical characteristics. Many have partial closing of the outer vaginal lips, an enlarged clitoris, and a short vagina.

....

Humanist
2012-12-30, 02:05
This one calls for a "hey, you never know." It ("damdamu") is last attested in the Neo-Assyrian variety of Akkadian. Which, to me, makes it even more unlikely, given the paucity of Neo-Assyrian terms encountered thus far. Perhaps a recent loan?


SURETH
damdama
[Army → Weapons]
English : battery , artillery battery

kudna / kudhania / kodna
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a mule


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damdammu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/damdammu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kudanu.jpg


SUMERIAN
anše-kúnga (ANŠE.BARxAN) mule (offspring of a donkey and an onager) (Heimpel, BSA 8, 89-91; RlA Maultier)
dum-dam - za to complain (nazāmu); to howl, roar, cry out; to rejoice (Sjöberg, AV Limet 126f.)

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AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dandannu_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

SURETH (source: G. Khan)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dmdm_.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-30, 03:08
“Ḫanigalbat” in the Early Neo-Assyrian Royal Inscriptions: A Retrospective View

by Mario Fales

in G. Galil et al. (Eds.), The Ancient Near East in the 12th–10th Centuries BCE: Culture and History, Münster 2012 (=AOAT 392), 99-119

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/fales_preface.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-30, 06:05
SURETH
'qalta
[Measures → Capacity]
English : a (large) basket
Dialect : Urmiah

'qalta
[Measures → Capacity]
English : a (large) basket , a hamper carried by a beast of burden, person : a pannier (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qaltu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qastu.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-30, 07:08
Continuing the above post.

SUMERIAN
gu-la large; larger, greater (see Krecher, Or 47, 384 "groβ gegenüber einem anderen") (variant of gal-(l)a; both ma-sá-gal-gal and ma-sá-gu-la occur in DP 51 i 1, iv 5). Cf. lú-gu-la important person, aristocrat (Ukg 4 ix 32/35 OS)
gu-lá bunch, bundle (tied with string)
gal cup
gal, gu-ul v. and adj. (to be) big, large, great; older, elder, eldest
gal(-la) great, greater (see also gu-la); adv. well, greatly
ki-lá weight

Humanist
2012-12-30, 20:42
Came across this on Dienekes' (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/) site. It may be relevant to some of what I have posted recently, as well as some posts from several weeks back.

TROY POTTERY HOLDS A KEY TO THE GREAT BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE
Article created on Thursday, December 20, 2012


Cultural continuity
However, “there is substantial evidence for cultural continuity,” says Grave. So if the Trojans never left the city, why did the pottery style change?

Before the sack of Troy, the city looked east towards the powerful Hittite Empire. But this political powerhouse collapsed around the time that Troy was destroyed. Grave says the post-conflict pottery is Balkan in style because the Trojans were keen to align themselves with the people there, who had become the new political elite and powerbase in the region.

The collapse of the Late Bronze Age political and economic structures of the eastern Mediterranean undercut elite production spheres serving this network at Troy.

The people of Early Iron Age Troy shifted their focus to elaborating their own household ceramic traditions to re-establish their role in newly configured social and economic networks that now looked to the Balkans rather than the Hittite Anatolia.

This research is a component of the Anatolian Iron Age project (AIA) analyses of Iron Age (IA) and related ceramics

http://www.une.edu.au/a-ia/
Source: Journal of Archaeological Sciences


A bit of truth in the myths of old? *

Source: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu

Herodotus, The Histories
A. D. Godley, Ed.

1.7


Now the sovereign power that belonged to the descendants of Heracles fell to the family of Croesus, called the Mermnadae, in the following way. *Candaules, whom the Greeks call Myrsilus, was the ruler of Sardis; he was descended from Alcaeus, son of Heracles; Agron son of Ninus, son of Belus, son of Alcaeus, was the first Heraclid king of Sardis and Candaules son of Myrsus was the last. *The kings of this country before Agron were descendants of Lydus, son of Atys, from whom this whole Lydian district got its name; before that it was called the land of the Meii. *The Heraclidae, descendants of Heracles and a female slave of Iardanus, received the sovereignty from these and held it, because of an oracle; and they ruled for twenty-two generations, or five hundred and five years, son succeeding father, down to Candaules son of Myrsus.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: http://www.maicar.com/GML/HERACLIDES.html

Agron 2. Agron 2 is said to be the first of the HERACLIDES to become king of Sardes (Lydia) (see also Croesus). He is son of Ninus, the Assyrian who founded Nineveh. Ninus was son of Belus 3, son of Alcaeus 6, son of Heracles 1 and Omphale (Hdt.1.7).

Belus 3. Son of Alcaeus 6, son of Heracles 1 & Omphale. Belus 3, who is counted among the HERACLIDES, is also called father of Ninus, the founder of Nineveh and husband of Semiramis (see also Croesus) (Hdt.1.7).

Ninus. Son of Belus 3. Father of Agron 2. King of Assyria and founder of Nineveh. He was murdered by his wife Semiramis, founder and Queen of Babylonia (see also Croesus) (Dio.2.7.1; Hdt.1.7; Hyg.Fab.240; Ov.Met.4.88; Strab.2.1.31).



Clash of the Gods: Hercules
http://youtu.be/NiijdeuvJhE

meranaam
2012-12-30, 20:56
At the time of the Mongol invasions, between 1230 and 1400 A.D., their country was laid waste, and those who survived the calamity fled northward into Turkey, settling in the mountain district of Hakkiari, in Kurdish country, south of Lake Van and west of Lake Urmia.

These Mongol bastards are the most destructive people on the planet are they not? They are essentially the ruiners of civillization itself.


During the World War and in the two decades since, the Assyrians have suffered further political disasters which have left them homeless and have greatly reduced their numbers.


Its incredible how a once powerful people now are dwindling and endangered.

Humanist
2012-12-30, 22:36
Another past post.


Came across this paper, from a link posted on Dienekes' (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/07/population-dynamics-in-prehistory-and.html) page.

Using pigs as a proxy to reconstruct patterns of human migration
Larson, Greger


Even more intriguingly, domestic pigs in the Near East hung onto their Near Eastern ancestry until at least 700 BC, after which, they too were replaced by pigs derived from European wild boar.

If it is as far back as 700 BCE, this is what the Near East looked like. The Assyrian empire was followed by the Babylonian (~610 BCE) and Achaemenid empires (~540 BCE).


http://www.truthnet.org/Daniel/Introduction/Assyrian_Empire.gif

---------- Post added 2012-07-13 at 16:35 ----------

EDIT:

I need to add (despite my many prefaces) that I do not believe that a good deal of what I post has a high probability of being of any particular significance, as far as the question posed by the OP is concerned. The point of this non-academic attempt at understanding Assyrians, and in general, the peoples of ancient Mesopotamia, is to discuss, and to "throw" ideas out there. Some are very unlikely, and some, I believe, are not so outrageous. Anyway, please keep that in mind when reading this thread.

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Perhaps of no particular significance.

SURETH
mulisa
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) a hermaphrodite 2) a pander , someone who arranges sexual partners for others , a pimp (?) , a ponce (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/melesu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mullusu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malasu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/elesu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

Source: http://adam.about.net/encyclopedia/infectiousdiseases/Androgen-insensitivity-syndrome.htm

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Definition

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is when a person who is genetically male (has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant to male hormones called androgens. As a result, the person has some or all of the physical characteristics of a woman, despite having the genetic makeup of a man.

Alternative Names

Testicular feminization

Causes

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by various genetic defects on the X chromosome that make the body unable to respond to the hormones responsible for the male appearance.

The syndrome is divided into two main categories:

Complete androgen insensitivity prevents the development of the penis and other male body parts. The child born appears to be a girl. The complete form of the syndrome occurs in as many as 1 in 20,000 live births.

The degree of sexual ambiguity varies widely in persons with incomplete AIS. Incomplete AIS can include other disorders such as Reifenstein syndrome (also known as Gilbert-Dreyfus syndrome or Lubs syndrome), which is associated with breast development in men, failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum after birth, and hypospadias, a condition where the opening of the urethra is on the underside, rather than at the tip, of the penis.

Also included in the broad category of incomplete AIS is infertile male syndrome, which is sometimes due to an androgen receptor disorder.

Symptoms

A person with complete AIS appears to be female but has no uterus, and has very little armpit and pubic hair. At puberty, female secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts) develop, but menstruation and fertility do not.

Persons with incomplete AIS may have both male and female physical characteristics. Many have partial closing of the outer vaginal lips, an enlarged clitoris, and a short vagina.


I should not have assumed that everyone is familiar with Ishtar.

Wikipedia


Ishtar was the goddess of love and war, above all associated with sexuality: her cult involved sacred prostitution;[2][3] her holy city Uruk was called the "town of the sacred courtesans"; and she herself was the "courtesan of the gods".[4] Ishtar had many lovers; however, as Guirand notes,

"Woe to him whom Ishtar had honoured! The fickle goddess treated her passing lovers cruelly, and the unhappy wretches usually paid dearly for the favours heaped on them. Animals, enslaved by love, lost their native vigour: they fell into traps laid by men or were domesticated by them. 'Thou has loved the lion, mighty in strength', says the hero Gilgamesh to Ishtar, 'and thou hast dug for him seven and seven pits! Thou hast loved the steed, proud in battle, and destined him for the halter, the goad and the whip.' Even for the gods Ishtar's love was fatal. In her youth the goddess had loved Tammuz, god of the harvest, and—if one is to believe Gilgamesh—this love caused the death of Tammuz.[4]

Ishtar was the daughter of Ninurta.[4] She was particularly worshipped at the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Ashur and Arbela (Erbil).[4]
Besides the lions on her gate, her symbol is an eight-pointed star.[5]

In the Babylonian pantheon, she "was the divine personification of the planet Venus".[4]

Old Babylonian period Queen of Night relief, often considered to represent an aspect of Ishtar.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/British_Museum_Queen_of_the_Night.jpg/200px-British_Museum_Queen_of_the_Night.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-31, 03:38
A post of mine from the original Eurogenes (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/8020-Eurogenes-BGA?p=702077&viewfull=1#post702077) thread.



Originally Posted by Wojewoda
I think I have read somewhere suggestions that the Sea Peoples phenomenon was somehow related to this hypothetical R1b movement.


Humanist:

2011 paper on "The Sea Peoples." (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020232)

The Sea Peoples, from Cuneiform Tablets to Carbon Dating

David Kaniewski1,2,3*, Elise Van Campo1,2, Karel Van Lerberghe4, Tom Boiy4, Klaas Vansteenhuyse4, Greta Jans4, Karin Nys5, Harvey Weiss6, Christophe Morhange7, Thierry Otto1,2, Joachim Bretschneider4

Abstract (Open Access)


The 13th century BC witnessed the zenith of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean civilizations which declined at the end of the Bronze Age, ~3200 years ago. Weakening of this ancient flourishing Mediterranean world shifted the political and economic centres of gravity away from the Levant towards Classical Greece and Rome, and led, in the long term, to the emergence of the modern western civilizations. Textual evidence from cuneiform tablets and Egyptian reliefs from the New Kingdom relate that seafaring tribes, the Sea Peoples, were the final catalyst that put the fall of cities and states in motion. However, the lack of a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology for the Sea People event has led to a floating historical chronology derived from a variety of sources spanning dispersed areas. Here, we report a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations to precisely date the Sea People event. By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, we establish an absolute age range of 1192–1190 BC for terminal destructions and cultural collapse in the northern Levant. This radiocarbon-based archaeology has far-reaching implications for the wider Mediterranean, where an elaborate network of international relations and commercial activities are intertwined with the history of civilizations.

Figure 1:

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjour nal.pone.0020232.g001&representation=PNG_M

Humanist
2012-12-31, 04:40
On a related note.


After looking at this attempt (image below) at carving out the various linguistic regions of Anatolia and N Mesopotamia c. 1700 BCE, I wondered whether an unknown IE tongue (or one not well understood) from the region between Greek lands and the Armenian Highland, may have contributed to the similarities observed between Armenian and Greek. A migration from the west, if this were in fact the reality, would not be necessary.

Otherwise, we are left with an Armenian genome with several questions, such as a very low "North European" component, low frequencies of R1a1, and practically nonexistent frequencies of R-L51. Even the "North European" component that does exist in Armenians, it is possible, at least in part, may have been absorbed relatively recently (read: <2000 years), if one refers to Dienekes' fastIBD analysis of a few weeks back. Georgians ("North EU"=9%) and Abkhazians ("North EU" ~ 11%) appeared as the second and third populations respectively, when Armenian population IBD Z scores were sorted in descending order.

This topic also goes to a question I asked in another thread, regarding the "North European" component. Obviously, without aDNA, one cannot answer this with any sort of certainty at this point. But, who is to say that the "North European" component existed in, say, 500 BCE? We do not know when it came into being. Meaning, for instance, if we dug up ancient remains from Greece dating to 500 BCE, and the extraction process was a success, would any of the K12b "North European" appear?" We are wondering about the lack of "North European" in Armenians. But, if it did not exist at the time and place of most relevance to the question, it is quite a useless exercise. If it did not exist then, we need not ask why it does not exist in Armenians today. At least, that specific component, for the specific run in question. But, again, we are left with the lack of R1a1 and R-L51. Unless, those too did not exist (or were infrequent) among the peoples of ancient Greece and the immediate region, ~2500 years ago.

Yellow arrows and red "?" are my doing. I posted the source [Joost Blasweiler] in the Dodecad thread, a few weeks back.http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/BC1700c_.jpg


A Dienekes blog entry from September: ASHG 2012 abstracts are online! (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/09/ashg-2012-abstracts-are-online.html)


On the Sardinian ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman (http://www.ashg.org/2012meeting/abstracts/fulltext/f120123058.htm) confirms that modern Sardinians are most similar to both the Tyrolean Iceman and the Swedish Neolithic TRB individual (presumably Gok4). You can find my analysis of both in the archives of the blog. But, look here:


Strikingly, an analysis including novel ancient DNA data from an early Iron Age individual from Bulgaria also shows the strongest affinity of this individual with modern-day Sardinians. Our results show that the Tyrolean Iceman was not a recent migrant from Sardinia, but rather that among contemporary Europeans, Sardinians represent the population most closely related to populations present in the Southern Alpine region around 5000 years ago. The genetic affinity of ancient DNA samples from distant parts of Europe with Sardinians also suggests that this genetic signature was much more widespread across Europe during the Bronze Age.


For those unfamiliar with the Dodecad Project, the Sardinian reference population does not register any of the K12b "North European" component.

Humanist
2012-12-31, 05:42
Another example of a Middle Assyrian cylinder seal with a similar horse theme:


Cylinder seal and modern impression with winged horse with claws and horns, 13th century B.C.
Middle Assyrian style
Northern Mesopotamia
Chalcedony
H. 1 3/8 in. (3.6 cm)
Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999 (1999.325.89)

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_1999.325.89.jpg

Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Humanist
2012-12-31, 08:09
Carchemish (source (http://www.todayszaman.com/news-258491-excavation-of-historic-city-of-karkamis-slated-to-begin-as-mine-removal-ends.html))


The ancient city of Carchemish, located in southest Turkey near the border with Syria, will again be excavated after a hiatus of almost 100 years. It was a major city in the empires of Mitanni, the Hittites, and the Neo-Assyrians. Occupation at the site goes back to the Early Bronze Age, but its most famous periods were the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age, when it was the location of two major world events--the signing of the Treaty of Kadesh (between Egypt and the Neo-Hittite empire) and the battle of Carchemish (which signaled the collapse of the Neo-Assyrian empire). The city of Carchemish is mentioned 3 times in the Bible (2 Chronicles 35:20; Isaiah 10:9; Jeremiah 46:2), including mention of the famous battle of Carchemish between Necho II leading the Egyptians and Assyrians, and Nebuchadnezzar II leading the Babylonians. The Babylonians were victorious and became the undisputed dominant power within the ancient Near East after this battle. 2 Chronicles 35 relates that King Josiah of Judah participated in this battle on the side of the Babylonians, but was wounded by archers and died soon after. Following this, Babylon asserts its power over Judah, eventually making it a vassal state. This leads to rebellions in Judah, culminating in the ca. 587 BC destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians.


Hurriyet Daily News (http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/karkamis-city-cleared-of-mines.aspx?pageID=238&nID=6385&NewsCatID=340)

"Excavations did not start for a long time in the ancient city of Karkamış because of land mines in the area. The city has been cleared of explosives and will turn into a archaeology park with the work of a Turkish and Italian team over the next five years."

Photo from an earlier Hurriyet article:

http://medya.todayszaman.com/todayszaman/2010/12/05/clear.jpg

Photos from a "The Archaeology News Network (http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2011/10/karkams-dig-to-begin-after-landmines.html)" article:

"View of the Karkamış site [Credit: turizminsesi]"

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-rDRv_U6x238/TohrpbxN-JI/AAAAAAAAPY4/uArPCE5vKh4/s1600/Karkamis_01.jpg

"Mines removed from the ancient city of Karkamış [Credit: BigHaber]"

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4TRK-m_Pv-M/TohrvF8PlnI/AAAAAAAAPY8/eWOUzlsBYno/s1600/Karkamis_02.jpg

"View and reconstruction of ancient Karkamış [Credit: TurkiyeTurizm]"

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6ZHP827-jYo/Tohr-V4qzWI/AAAAAAAAPZA/Kw431E9-Whg/s1600/Karkamis_03.jpg


A Neo-Assyrian Cremation Burial in the Outer Town at Karkemish
by Federico Zaina
University of Bologna
2012


The first excavation campaign of the Turco-Italian joint expedition at Karkemish took place between October and November 2011. In the Outer Town, archaeological investigations focused on the identification of the Iron Age city walling (area E), while topographic work was carried out on visible remains of Woolley’s excavations (e.g. House A, on which cf. Woolley 1921: 118-119, fig. 36) or on other eroding features. Surface remains of a pithos, some glazed sherds and some stone “weights” were in fact noted to the west of House A and their brief archaeological investigation revealed two Neo-Assyrian cremation pot-burials (G.456A and B), containing remains of two individuals. These superimposed graves are likely to be part of a larger necropolis as suggested by another adjoining pot-burial (G.461).

Humanist
2012-12-31, 09:14
Archaeological finds can be fascinating. And to think, many of these finds appear to be from only the past few years.

The Neo-Assyrian Burials Recovered at Kavusan Höyük in the Upper Tigris Region

Licia Romano

Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: 5 May-10 May 2009, "Sapienza", Universita Di Roma


[Blue underlining by Humanist]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kavusan__zpsd54c2a72.jpg


From the urn with "the most remarkable artifacts"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kavusan2_zps1face5d4.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-31, 10:16
Among Assyrians, marriage is viewed very seriously. It is seen as a permanent union of both families and spouses. Until a few years ago, divorce was considered a disgrace, and its occurrence was rare. Although it is much more common today, divorce is still generally frowned upon. Ideally, only a religious divorce can terminate the agreement. In practice, it is granted by the church only as a last resort. Even then, the divorce ritual is extremely complicated.

By Yoab Benjamin

SURETH
dulala
[Human → Family]
English : a divorce , dissolution of the marriage contract
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dullulu_zpsbb3f579a.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulluluB_zps276920ff.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalalu_zpsdac20514.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dullu_zps8d9391c5.jpg

Humanist
2012-12-31, 21:33
So, do you think R1b-L23 played an important role in the make up of Ancient Assyrians?


I honestly cannot say. Sorry if I provide a bit of a long-winded reply. Were forms of R-L23 present in some of the myriad of groups deported to Assyria and Babylonia during the 1st millennium? Yeah, that I would bet on. How "indigenous" it is to Mesopotamia is a different question. A question, I am afraid, that only aDNA (and a lot of it) can resolve. Also, "Assyrians," just like "Germans," "Egyptians," and others are an evolving amalgam of peoples (both ancient and modern). The Akkadians were not necessarily the same mix as the "Old" Assyrians. The "Old" Assyrians were not necessarily the same mix as the "Middle" Assyrians. The "Middle" Assyrians were not necessarily the same mix as the "Neo" Assyrians. And, the "Neo" Assyrians were not necessarily the same mix as modern Assyrians ("Suraye"). Circumstances, for example, isolation (both natural and man-made), have preserved ancient genetic links in some populations more than others. I believe today's "Suraye" may be (principally) a genetic mix of peoples from the ~ second half of the 1st millennium BCE. So, for at least ~2500-2000 years, R-L23 has had a decent presence in Mesopotamia, I believe.

After the most recent posts, this reply to Alaron comes again to mind.

Humanist
2012-12-31, 22:48
From the site where the "unknown language" was identified, and where other significant finds have been made. It is a tragedy that Ziyaret Tepe and other sites will soon be lost forever. I do appreciate that the Turkish government has permitted digs at the sites before their eventual demise.

THE ASSYRIAN CITY OF TUSHHAN: A RACE AGAINST TIME
Article created on Saturday, October 13, 2012

David Connolly of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (PAST HORIZONS - Adventures in Archaeology)


The ancient mound at Ziyaret Tepe in Diyarbakir province of southeastern Turkey, comprises two distinct areas: a high citadel and an extensive lower town. Since 1997 an international team of archaeologists have been excavating a site that was occupied nearly continuously for 2400 years from the Early Bronze Age (c. 3000 BCE).

Over most of this time Ziyaret Tepe was a modest village situated on the fertile Tigris floodplain. However, Professor Timothy Matney of the University of Akron, (the project director) in collaboration with Professor McGinnis of the University of Cambridge discovered that during the Middle Iron Age (c. 882 – 610BCE) Ziyaret Tepe acted as an important urban centre situated on the northern periphery of the Assyrian Empire and was known as the city of Tushhan.

....

Excavation of an Assyrian palace
On the citadel mound, geophysical survey was unsuccessful and they relied upon two large areas of excavation. On the eastern edge of the high mound was situated a palace containing extensive material remains from the Assyrian period including five cremation burials in the courtyard. Elsewhere, a number of rooms of a large Assyrian building were investigated, however, they were poorly preserved and of uncertain function.

....

Out of the three Assyrian cities that are known only two have been investigated to date – Tushhan (Ziyaret Tepe) and Tidu (Uctepe). The third one, Sinabu (Pornak), still remains untouched and Uctepe although excavated by a Turkish team a few decades ago, produced no city plan as only the citadel was investigated.

....

Time running out
Now though for Ziyaret Tepe time is running out. 2013 will be the last season on- site and Professor Matney will need to decide what are the most important areas to survey and excavate.

These decisions will be critical if the team is to collect the maximum information possible before Ziyaret Tepe finally disappears under the flood waters of the dam.


And, just like linguists such as Dr. Geoffrey Khan of Cambridge, I count these men as heroes in my book.

Source: University of Akron

Dr. Timothy Matney


http://gozips.uakron.edu/~matney/Tim.jpg

Dr. Matney's primary theoretical interests are ancient urbanization and city planning. He has excavated extensively at two urban centers in southeastern Turkey: the Early Bronze Age city of Titriş Höyük on the Euphrates river (1994-1999) and the Iron Age city of Ziyaret Tepe on the Tigris river (1997-present). At these ancient sites, Dr. Matney is pursuing a comprehensive study of daily life, the processes involved in ancient city planning, and the impact of urbanization on social and physical environments. Dr. Matney has been conducting fieldwork since 1983 and has participated in excavations and surveys in Syria, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Azerbaijan, India, Britain, and the United States. His primary geographical focus is southwestern Asia, especially Mesopotamia and Anatolia.


Source: YouTube (Aljazeera English?)

Dr. John MacGinnis (University of Cambridge)

Interview exploring the evidence for a previously unknown language on a tablet excavated by Dr. Dirk Wicke of the University of Mainz in the expedition to the ancient Assyrian provincial capital of Ziyaret Tepe directed by Prof. Timothy Matney of the University of Akro (Ohio), and deciphered by Dr. John MacGinnis of the University of Cambridge McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gogL-Mffho

Humanist
2013-01-01, 00:23
I find comparing Indo-European titles associated with royalty to Akkadian words an interesting exercise.

I just read about this line on Dienekes' site. Please see: Y-chromosome and mtDNA of Henri IV (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/01/y-chromosome-and-mtdna-of-henri-iv.html)

Wikipedia


Capetian dynasty

The Capetian dynasty (pron.: /kəˈpiːʃⁱən/), also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. In contemporary times, both King Juan Carlos of Spain and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg are members of this family, both through the Bourbon branch of the dynasty.

The name of the dynasty derives from its founder, Hugh, who was known as "Hugh Capet". The meaning of "Capet" (a nickname rather than a surname of the modern sort) is unknown. While folk etymology identifies it with "cape", other suggestions suggest it to be connected to the Latin word caput ("head"), and thus explain it as meaning "chief" or "head".

Historians came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice. The name "Capet" has also been used as a surname for French royals, particularly but not exclusively those of the House of Capet. One notable use was during the French Revolution, when the dethroned King Louis XVI (a member of the House of Bourbon and a direct male-line descendant of Hugh Capet) and Queen Marie Antoinette (a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine) were referred to as "Louis and Antoinette Capet" (the queen being addressed as "the Widow Capet" after the execution of her husband).


Coat of Arms of the House of Capet – Azure, semé-de-lys Or, a blue field strewn with golden Lilies
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Arms_of_the_Kingdom_of_France_%28Ancien%29.svg/170px-Arms_of_the_Kingdom_of_France_%28Ancien%29.svg.png


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabatu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubbutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubtu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qipu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qipuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/qiptu.jpg

TheJourney
2013-01-01, 00:30
Probably mix of various proto Semitic and IE peoples, like most other ME nations.

Humanist
2013-01-01, 02:09
Once the parents have found a girl to their liking and have agreed to seek her betrothal (talubutha) the father, accompanied by a few elderly relatives, calls on the girl's family to express his interest in formally requesting the hand of their daughter. This traditional arrangement of marriage is called the mashemetha. The son never accompanies his father during this visit. As for the girl, who is always under the direct authority of her father, she remains secluded in a room of her parents' house, and she has no voice in choosing her mate (tliba). Indeed, if the boy (yala) and the girl (brata) are not from the same village, they often do not frequent one another until the marriage ceremony itself.

By Yoab Benjamin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulbatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulbatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulbatu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalapu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalpu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/labbatu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-01, 03:49
The most important matter now is the amount of the betrothal money (niqda - bride price), which the bridegroom's family will pay to the father of the bride. The subject is brought up openly and immediately; the consent of the parties is the first condition essential for the validity of the marriage (gewara). The sum of the niqda is arrived at by bargaining between a number of distinguished people from both families. Generally, the social status of the groom's family determines the amount of the niqda. When the matter is settled to the satisfaction of both households, the boy's father will rise and kiss the hand of the bride's father, to show his courteous regard and gratitude.

By Yoab Benjamin


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niktu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niqdu.jpg



Ninsi'anna (god/goddess)

Deity of the planet Venus; an aspect of Inana/Ištar as Venus.

Source: Kathryn Stevens, 'Ninsi'anna (god/goddess)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2013 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/ninsianna/]

- - - Updated - - -


By Yoab Benjamin

Once the parents have found a girl to their liking and have agreed to seek her betrothal (talubutha) the father, accompanied by a few elderly relatives, calls on the girl's family to express his interest in formally requesting the hand of their daughter. This traditional arrangement of marriage is called the mashemetha. The son never accompanies his father during this visit. As for the girl, who is always under the direct authority of her father, she remains secluded in a room of her parents' house, and she has no voice in choosing her mate (tliba). Indeed, if the boy (yala) and the girl (brata) are not from the same village, they often do not frequent one another until the marriage ceremony itself.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulbatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulbatu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dulbatu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalapu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalpu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/labbatu.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ishtar_dilibat_venus_.jpg


MELAMMU PROJECT (7th Century CE)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dilibat_.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-01, 04:28
Afterwards, the groom's party will offer elaborate gifts (pernitha) for the bride, to gratify the bride's family. Usually the pernitha includes a silver waist-belt (kamarra or hayyasa)...

By Yoab Benjamin

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamara.jpg

EA = El Amarna

Wikipedia


Tushratta was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten—approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II. His sister Gilukhipa and his daughter Tadukhipa were married to the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III; Tadukhipa later married Akhenaten who took over his father's royal harem.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamruB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames3.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames4.jpg


About 7:00 mark of the video. The silver jewelry.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I


---------------------------------------------------

My New Year's Resolution is to spend less time visiting this thread. And this forum in general. Hopefully, the many hundreds (if not more) of hours I have spent searching, reading, and posting in this thread has contributed something, however insignificant it may be, to our knowledge of Mesopotamian history.

And, how better to end 2012 than to post another Sureth word that may be related to a term in Standard Babylonian.

SURETH
'srapa
[Feeding → Drink]
English : (transitive verb) : 1) to sup , to sip , to drink by sips / little by little , to suck up , to swallow , to absorb , to blot (ink) / dry -with blotting paper- ? 2) -?- to blot out (?) / to delete (?) / to cross out (?) / to scratch out (?) / to strike out -on forms- (?) / to remove -something written- (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sarapu-1.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-01, 06:13
About 7:00 mark of the video. The silver jewelry.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I


The Sureth pronunciation appears to best match the form found in Assyrian and Babylonian Letter (ABL) 408. Refer to 3:10 and 7:10 of the video.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aheiasi.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-01, 08:50
The Sureth pronunciation appears to best match the form found in Assyrian and Babylonian Letter (ABL) 408. Refer to 3:10 and 7:10 of the video.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aheiasi.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu__.jpg

The above Akkadian word refers to this word:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasahusenni.jpg

moleson
2013-01-01, 10:41
By Yoab Benjamin

SURETH
dulala
[Human → Family]
English : a divorce , dissolution of the marriage contract
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dullulu_zpsbb3f579a.jpg


MSA Adullu :Humiliation
Maghrebi dialects Dull:humilation.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/niktu_.jpg]
I couldn't help but smile when I first read this on the Akkadian dictionary a few years ago. :p
This word is now part of the French language(slang).



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamruB2.jpg

The root QAMR in Arabic has different meaning but to my surprise most of them describe a color a light color(mostly white).
Gammra in Algerian vernacular dialect is the full moon.
Gmar:the moon.
Qamar in MSA.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/labbatu.jpg
MSA
Labbu'a: lioness .
Algerian
Labba: lioness

Humanist
2013-01-01, 19:10
MSA Adullu :Humiliation
Maghrebi dialects Dull:humilation.

I couldn't help but smile when I first read this on the Akkadian dictionary a few years ago. :p
This word is now part of the French language(slang).


The root QAMR in Arabic has different meaning but to my surprise most of them describe a color a light color(mostly white).
Gammra in Algerian vernacular dialect is the full moon.
Gmar:the moon.
Qamar in MSA.

MSA
Labbu'a: lioness .
Algerian
Labba: lioness

Thanks for the input. :)

- - - Updated - - -

More on the Ziyaret Tepe cremations:


But the most unusual discovery was the excavation of cremations in pits within the extensive courtyard area. Five installations have been found to date, two of which were undisturbed and contained opulent burial goods. In the rectangular graves of approximately 1.50 m x 2.00 m in size, for example, a considerable layer of ash and burned bones as well as numerous bronze vessels, sumptuous stone and ivory receptacles, carved ivory objects, seals, and beads were found. These items indicate the high status of the people buried here. They are believed to have been residents of the palace. These objects are very similar to those found in the Assyrian capitals of Assur and Kalhu/Nimrud in modern day Iraq.

Source: Science Daily

Humanist
2013-01-01, 20:28
I will update this map as I come across Assyrian sites with evidence of cremations.

Middle Assyrian
A. Tell Sabi Abyad (Middle Assyrian Administration?)

Neo-Assyrian
B. Ziyaret Tepe (Neo-Assyrian Administration?)
C. ~ Kavusan Höyük (?)
D. Carchemish (?)

Sites "B" and "C" are located close to each other.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremation_sites.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-02, 03:05
The Intramural Cremation Custom of Iron Age Tell Sheikh Hamad / Dur-Katlimmu (North-eastern Syria)
Dr Janoscha Kreppner (Berlin University, Germany)


In the middle of the Lower Town of Dur-Katlimmu four residences have been excavated. They were inhabited during the time of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and after its fall (ca. 9th -6th cent. BC). Besides the well known Neo-Assyrian types of graves, inside and next to the residences 15 cremation pits have been found. This paper will reconstruct the procedure of the intramural cremation custom in Dur-Katlimmu.


Adding Dur-Katlimmu. Will search for further details regarding the cremations.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremation_sites_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

Relevant past posts:


It is possible that those Northwest Aramaic-speaking groups assimilated by the Assyrians were an amalgam of Aramaeans, Hurrians, and Luwians/Hittites.



Atlantic Modal Haplotype
13-24-14-11-11-14-12-12-12-13-13-29

Druze R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Shlush et al.)
13-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29
12-24-14-11-xx-xx-12-12-xx-13-13-29

Alawite R1b modal and secondary haplotype (Dönbak et al.)
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-14-13-30
13-24-14-11-11-15-xx-xx-xx-13-13-29

Assyrian R1b modal haplotype (FTDNA)
13-24-14-10-11-14-12-12-12-14-13-30


What do Assyrians, Alawites, some Druze, and Indo-Europeans have in common, going back, say, 2500-3500 years? Perhaps NW Mesopotamia, and the Mediterranean coast of N Syria and S Turkey.

It is possible that the R1b modals observed in Assyrians, Druze, and Alawites, were at one time the paternal lines of Aramaic-speaking Luwians, Hittites, and/or other former IE-speaking peoples.

Humanist
2013-01-02, 04:09
Middle Assyrian
A. Tell Sabi Abyad (Middle Assyrian Administration?)

Neo-Assyrian
B. Ziyaret Tepe (Neo-Assyrian Administration?)
C. ~ Kavusan Höyük (?)
D. Carchemish (?)
E. Dur-Katlimmu (?)

Sites "B" and "C" are located close to each other.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Mitanni
F. Tell el Fakhariya (Washukanni?)

Wikipedia


Washukanni (or Waššukanni) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni, from c. 1500 BC to the 13th century BC. Its precise location is unknown, it may be however located under the so-far unexcavated mound of Tell el Fakhariya, near Tell Halaf in Syria, to the east of the Euphrates river.[citation needed]

The city is known to have been sacked by the Hittites under Suppiluliumas I (reigned c.1344–1322 BC) in the first years of his reign, whose treaty inscription[1] relates that he installed a Hurrian vassal king, Shattiwaza. The city was sacked again by the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I around 1290 BC, but very little else is known of its history.

The Assyrian cremation sites I have come across so far, "A" through "E," and the possible location of Washukanni (Tell el Fakhariya), "F."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Washukanni_.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-02, 07:54
Perhaps there is something here. Maybe not. If it is Akkadian, it may be foreign, as per the CAD note to the second Akkadian word posted below.

SURETH
qiluna (?)
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a stallion / stud , a male horse not castrated kept for breeding
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gullenu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sirrahu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-02, 21:26
Middle Assyrian
A. Tell Sabi Abyad (Middle Assyrian Administration?)
G. Nemrik

Neo-Assyrian
B. Ziyaret Tepe (Neo-Assyrian Administration?)
C. ~ Kavusan Höyük (?)
D. Carchemish (?)
E. Dur-Katlimmu (?)

Sites "B" and "C" are located close to each other.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Mitanni <-- NOT INTENDED TO INDICATE CREMATION
F. Tell el Fakhariya (Washukanni?)


Source for Nemrik: Andrzej Reiche, National Museum Warsaw <--Uncertain. Need to locate the relevant study.

Tell Shiukh Fawqani is another possibility. Need to read more about it.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremation_sites___.jpg

moleson
2013-01-02, 22:25
Perhaps there is something here. Maybe not. If it is Akkadian, it may be foreign, as per the CAD note to the second Akkadian word posted below.

SURETH
qiluna (?)
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a stallion / stud , a male horse not castrated kept for breeding
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gullenu.jpg
Proto Semitic :*sVwsVw
Akkadian : sīsû
Syriac : sūsǝyā ܣܘܼܣܝܵܐ
Hebrew :Sus
Ugaritic : ssw

Humanist
2013-01-02, 23:19
Proto Semitic :*sVwsVw
Akkadian : sīsû
Syriac : sūsǝyā ܣܘܼܣܝܵܐ
Hebrew :Sus
Ugaritic : ssw

In Sureth it is susa. The Semitic word is possibly from Sumerian: sisi(ANŠE.KUR.RA), anšesí-sí (Ur III) horse. Or, Indo-European.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Middle Assyrian
A. Tell Sabi Abyad (Middle Assyrian Administration?)
G. Nemrik
H. ~ Tell Shiukh Fawqani (also NA)

Neo-Assyrian
B. Ziyaret Tepe (Neo-Assyrian Administration?)
C. ~ Kavusan Höyük (?)
D. Carchemish (?)
E. Dur-Katlimmu (?)
H. ~ Tell Shiukh Fawqani (also MA)

Sites "B" and "C" are located close to each other.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Mitanni
F. Tell el Fakhariya (Washukanni?) <-- NOT INTENDED TO INDICATE CREMATION

Source: Assyrians and Arameans in the Upper Euphrates Valley
Aline Tenu
University of Cambridge

Covering "F" with Royal Seal of Shaushtatar of Mitanni.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremations_mit.jpg

moleson
2013-01-02, 23:19
Akkadian
urḫu : path,way,road...
ex: ālik urḫi :traveler
bēt urḫi : inn,hostel
Syriac
urḫa : road

Humanist
2013-01-03, 00:43
Archaeological finds can be fascinating. And to think, many of these finds appear to be from only the past few years.

The Neo-Assyrian Burials Recovered at Kavusan Höyük in the Upper Tigris Region

Licia Romano

Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: 5 May-10 May 2009, "Sapienza", Universita Di Roma




http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kavusan__zpsd54c2a72.jpg


From the urn with "the most remarkable artifacts"

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kavusan2_zps1face5d4.jpg


Sound familiar?


THE HITTITE PROBLEM

Carchemish

The largest and strongest of the Neo-Hittite states was Carchemish. It is situated on the big bend in the Euphrates River. South of Carchemish the Euphrates flows southeast to the Persian Gulf. North of Carchemish the Euphrates bends back toward Mount Ararat. Archaeologists anticipated that Carchemish would be continuously occupied. This meant that it would connect the Neo-Hittite states to the Hittite empire. They were disappointed.

Woolley excavated Carchemish. In the inner citadel he discovered a tomb containing artefacts reminiscent of the Hittite Empire. [B]The tomb was a cremation burial and it yielded many small but significant objects. These included gold beads, nails with golden heads, lapis lazuli, steatite and ivory. There were also 39 figurines made of gold. Woolley noted the similarity of these figurines to the rock carvings at Yazilikaya, just outside Hattusas. The images of the gods and nobility were almost identical in respect of both clothing and emblems. The chief god wore a long robe, carried a winged disk above its head, and wore a conical headdress, open kilt and a caduceus-like staff. A female figure wore a pleated skirt reaching to her feet. The soldiers wore short kilts, pointed helmets and boots with curled up toes. The close relationship to the Yazilikaya rock reliefs of the New Hittite Empire was unmistakable. This should have been a triumph for Woolley. It was not. Instead it was a great puzzle and produced a great debate.

The tomb that Woolley had opened was situated definitely in the stratum designated to the late Neo-Assyrian Empire – i.e. it was a seventh century grave. How was Woolley to explain the obvious 13th century look-alikes as artefacts of the seventh century? One could not rewrite centuries of Assyrian history. Could some family have held onto these treasured heirlooms for 600 years and then for some unknown reason buried them with a single relative? Or could there have been a sudden revival of art from the Hittite Empire after 600 long years? Both these ideas seemed strange. The other peculiarity is the that the imperial art appears to be closely related to the art of the Neo-Hittite seventh century rather than the earlier Hittite art, such as the Lion Gate at Malatya

Woolley decided that the items had to be imitations of imperial Hittite art. Gueterbock disagreed, Two possibilities offer themselves: either the figurines were made before 1200 and handed down as heirlooms until they were deposited in the tomb or they were made in the Late Hittite period but in a style that survived the empire. Sir Leonard (Woolley) seems inclined to favour the second. I would rather prefer the heirloom theory. But Gueterbock had absolutely no evidence connecting the royal family of the empire with that of seventh century Carchemish [Gueterbock, 1954].

By Alan Montgomery

Humanist
2013-01-03, 02:52
This point hints at the possibility that the Northwestern Mesopotamian form of OA [Old Aramaic] was one of the significant components of "Assyrian Aramaic" as used during the last century and a half of the Assyrian empire -- thus with a certain historical-linguistic continuity between OA and one of the varieties of IA [Imperial Aramaic], as maintained by Greenfield.
Fales, M.F., Old Aramaic, HSK 36 (2011), S. 555-573

FROM : S. Weninger et al. (Eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook (=Handbooks of Linguistics and communication Science, 36), Berlin 2011, 555-573

Although I believe that Assyrian-Aramaic and the modern vernacular Sureth may be two very distinct languages (see my "Babylonian creole" suggestion), the "hint" by Fales, I believe, would strengthen the possibility of a northwestern signal. The same signal that other facts, in my opinion, appear to support.

- - - Updated - - -

I should add that this "northwestern (genetic) signal" is limited, in great part, to the paternal side. For "Nestorians," reflected most significantly by the presence of R-L23 lines of significant Y-STR diversity. A Y chromosome haplogroup overwhelmingly (not absolutely) associated, in modern times, with Indo-European peoples.

Humanist
2013-01-03, 07:26
In a conference held on the future of Assyriology a few years ago in Germany, the Assyriologist Michael Streck estimated the number of words in all the known texts to be at least 13,000,000.This would make the cuneiform corpus slightly larger than the corpus of Latin texts,which has been estimated to contain approximately 10,000,000 words.

The Future of Assyriology
by Paul Delnero
The Johns Hopkins University
2011

Humanist
2013-01-03, 08:31
Middle Assyrian
A. Tell Sabi Abyad (Middle Assyrian Administration?)
G. Nemrik
H. ~ Tell Shiukh Fawqani (also NA)

Neo-Assyrian
B. Ziyaret Tepe (Neo-Assyrian Administration?)
C. ~ Kavusan Höyük (?)
D. Carchemish (?)
E. Dur-Katlimmu (?)
H. ~ Tell Shiukh Fawqani (also MA)

Sites "B" and "C" are located close to each other.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Mitanni
F. Tell el Fakhariya (Washukanni?) <-- NOT INTENDED TO INDICATE CREMATION

Source: Assyrians and Arameans in the Upper Euphrates Valley
Aline Tenu
University of Cambridge

Covering "F" with Royal Seal of Shaushtatar of Mitanni.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremations_mit.jpg

This may not hold, of course, but for the time being, the outline of the cremation points very roughly resembles the territory of Middle Assyrian Hanigalbat.

Revisiting Hanigalbat: Settlement in the Western Provinces of the Middle Assyrian Kingdom, Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians 18 (2009), 531-544

Jeffrey Szuchman
Zayed University

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/middle_assyrian_hanigalbat_zpsacde4ed8.jpg

moleson
2013-01-03, 11:08
Although I believe that Assyrian-Aramaic and the modern vernacular Sureth may be two very distinct languages (see my "Babylonian creole" suggestion), the "hint" by Fales, I believe, would strengthen the possibility of a northwestern signal. The same signal that other facts, in my opinion, appear to support.
I hate to jump to conclusions,but you might be right about the Western Semitic influence in Northern Mesopotamia.It would explain the guttural/Hebrew pronunciation of "R" in Mosuli and Tikriti Arabic.
Do you think the Mosuli Arabic was influence by Judeo-Iraqi Arabic pronunciation?

Humanist
2013-01-03, 12:27
I hate to jump to conclusions,but you might be right about the Western Semitic influence in Northern Mesopotamia.It would explain the guttural/Hebrew pronunciation of "R" in Mosuli and Tikriti Arabic.
Do you think the Mosuli Arabic was influence by Judeo-Iraqi Arabic pronunciation?

To be honest, Birko would probably be the best man to direct that question to, as he is fluent in Arabic, and was born in Iraq.

Humanist
2013-01-03, 13:29
BIT ZAMANI AND ASSYRIA

Jeffrey SZUCHMAN

2009


To date, excavations in the region have uncovered Middle and Late Assyrian occupations, with a clear interval between them, during which a markedly different culture occupied the region. However, it has been very difficult to equate that break with the archaeological reflection of Aramean presence, during the period between the Middle and the Late Assyrian occupations. The sites of Üçtepe, Ziyaret Tepe, and Giricano all offer challenges to understanding the complex changes that occurred during the transition from the LBA to the EIA.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamani_zpscd39134a.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-03, 22:21
Doing the same for the Assyrian L943. The one that is most similar to the Jewish Cohanim man. Based on 25 markers. The orange points represent haplotypes 1 step removed at 25 markers. The yellow points represent haplotypes 2 steps removed at 25 markers. Again, this may not be representative. For instance, Alawites are not represented on the map, and according to the data reported in Dönbak et al., some Alawites may carry R-L23 Y chromosomes "closely" related to Assyrian R-L23 Y chromosomes.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nj_25STR_L943.jpg

The markers for this particular Assyrian have been extended to 111. Results in a few weeks.

- - - Updated - - -


Received the OK from one of the men so far. Order placed for L943.

GD, using the "Hybrid mutation model," for the three men derived for L943:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943_gd.jpg

It is Assyrian kit #205749.

Humanist
2013-01-03, 23:11
Adding Assyrian ("As" N=63), and running some analyses on the data. It was necessary to combine some haplogroups, in order to include the Assyrian data.


ID A C D F1b G2a1 H HV I J K L M M/C M/G2a1 M1 M12 M4a N pre‐JT R R0 R2 T U V W X Y Z
Ab 0 0.022 0 0 0 0.156 0.044 0.044 0.089 0 0.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.089 0 0.044 0.156 0 0.089 0.088 0 0.022 0.044 0 0
Ar 0 0 0 0 0 0.231 0.096 0.019 0.134 0.076 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.115 0 0 0 0 0.095 0.21 0 0 0.019 0 0
As 0 0 0 0 0 0.2698 0.1587 0.0159 0.1429 0.0317 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0159 0 0 0 0 0.0794 0.254 0 0.0159 0.0159 0 0
Az 0 0 0 0 0.019 0.17 0.038 0 0.076 0.038 0 0.019 0 0.019 0 0 0 0.094 0 0.019 0 0.019 0.265 0.189 0.019 0.019 0 0 0
B 0 0 0 0 0 0.145 0.016 0.016 0.08 0.016 0.032 0.081 0 0 0 0 0.032 0.065 0 0.065 0.048 0.016 0.032 0.113 0 0.242 0 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 0 0.174 0.087 0.043 0.217 0.043 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.086 0 0 0.043 0 0.087 0.043 0 0.13 0.043 0 0
J 0 0 0 0 0 0.091 0.127 0 0.145 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.073 0 0 0.036 0 0.327 0.199 0 0 0 0 0
K 0 0.018 0.036 0 0 0.145 0.109 0.018 0.164 0.036 0 0 0.018 0 0 0 0 0.127 0 0.018 0.036 0 0.128 0.127 0 0.018 0 0 0
L1 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.133 0 0.199 0 0 0.033 0 0 0 0 0 0.199 0 0 0 0.033 0.033 0.133 0 0.033 0 0 0
L2 0 0 0.034 0 0 0.034 0.103 0 0.138 0.103 0 0 0 0 0.034 0 0 0.103 0 0.034 0.034 0 0.034 0.345 0 0 0 0 0
M 0 0 0 0 0 0.157 0.137 0 0.255 0.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0 0.098 0.138 0 0.078 0.02 0 0
P 0.017 0 0 0 0 0.172 0.034 0.017 0.051 0.034 0.017 0.017 0 0 0 0 0 0.051 0 0.052 0.069 0.017 0.155 0.205 0 0.034 0.034 0 0.017
Qa 0 0 0 0 0 0.304 0.109 0 0.173 0.022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.022 0.043 0 0.066 0.216 0 0.022 0.022 0 0
Qe 0.091 0.018 0 0 0 0.327 0.127 0.018 0.054 0.036 0.127 0.018 0 0 0 0.018 0 0.018 0 0.055 0.018 0 0.036 0.036 0 0 0 0 0
T 0.018 0.018 0.036 0.018 0.018 0.127 0.018 0 0.072 0.036 0.018 0.018 0 0 0 0 0.036 0.127 0 0 0 0.018 0.109 0.199 0 0.073 0 0.036 0
Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.225 0 0 0.184 0 0.367 0.183 0 0.02 0.02 0 0


So, who are these Qashqai (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qashqai_people) (ID=Qa)?

Photos of a few Qashqai:

http://i6.photobucket.com/albums/y237/aryamehr11/Iran%20-%20People/Pic91-Qashqai-Girl.jpg

http://altaic-wiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/800px-Qashqai_women_spinning.jpg/58110758/528x348/800px-Qashqai_women_spinning.jpg


Cluster, Neighbor Joining, and MDS analyses:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mtdna_cluster_iranian_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/neighbor_joining_Iranian_mtDNA_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/MDS_Iranian_mtDNA_.jpg

Edit: Will need to run the analyses again, noting Lur1 and Lur2.

Wikipedia


Qashqai (pronounced [qaʃqaːʔiː]; also spelled Ghashghai, Ghashghay, Gashgai, Gashgay, Kashkai , Qashqay, Qashqa'i and Qashqai: قشقایی) are a semi-nomadic Turkic people who mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan, especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars. They are bilingual and speak the Persian language and the Qashqai language which is a member of the Turkic family of languages. The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mi south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, have now become partially or wholly sedentary. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s.

....

We are of Turkish language and race; some say that we are descendants of the Turkish Oghuz Tribe, known for its cruelty and fierceness, and that our name is derived from the Turkish "Kashka" meaning "a horse with a white star on its forehead". Others think this name indicates that we came from Kashgar in the wake of Hulagu. Others still that it means "fugitive". Though these versions differ, we believe that the arrival of our Tribes in Iran coincided with the conquests of Jengis Khan, in the thirteenth century. Soon after, our ancestors established themselves on the slopes of the Caucasus. We are descendants of the "Tribe of the Ak Koyunlu" the "Tribe of the White Sheep" famed for being the only tribe in history capable of inflicting a defeat on Tamerlane. For centuries we dwelt on the lands surrounding Ardebil, but, in the first half of the sixteenth century we settled in southern Persia, Shah Ismail having asked our warriors to defend this part of the country against the intrusions of the Portuguese. Thus, our Tribes came to the Province of Fars, near the Persian Gulf, and are still only separated from it by a ridge of mountains, the Makran.

From Hurrian (via Nuzi Akkadian and then Persian?) perhaps?

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasku.jpg

Wikipedia


Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpetual, or non-free where the tenancy terminated on the tenant's death or at an earlier specified period. The main varieties are as follows:

Military tenure

(Generally freehold)
by barony (per baroniam). Such tenure constituted the holder a feudal baron, and was the highest degree of tenure. It imposed duties of military service and allowed the right of attendance at parliament. All such holders were necessarily tenants-in-chief.
by knight-service. This was a tenure ranking below barony, and was likewise for military service, of a lesser extent. It could be held in capite from the king or as a mesne tenancy from a tenant-in-chief.
by castle-guard. This was a form of military service which involved guarding a nearby castle for a specified number of days per year.
by scutage where the military service obligations had been commuted, or replaced, by money payments...

Humanist
2013-01-04, 00:16
Continuing from above.


SURETH
'kaška
English : a girth , a binding strap , a binding band , a girdle
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasku.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasku2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasku3.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-04, 04:05
[A]fter a period of three hundred years (between 1700–1400 b.c.e.) for which we have practically no information other than that offered by the Assyrian King List, Assur resurfaced apparently under Mittannian domination. 51 This hegemony can be postulated only on the basis of the information provided by the introduction of the treaty between Šuppiluliuma of Hatti and Šattiwaza, 52 the aspirant to the Mittannian throne and Hittite protégée, in which it is stated that Sauštatar had taken a golden gate from Assur. 53 The length and extent of this domination are unknown. 54 J. N. Postgate has recently proposed that the Middle Assyrian kings adopted administrative methods from the Mittannian rulers. 55

The Creation of the Middle Assyrian Provinces
Jaume Llop
Institut del Pròxim Orient Antic
Universitat de Barcelona
2011

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The Cemetery of Azor [near Tel Aviv] and Early Iron Age Burial Practices
David Ben-Shlomo
2008


Inside the jar (Fig. 18:5) a layer with burnt skeletal remains and dirt was found (Dothan 1989, 169, fig. 19); above this were placed a pottery flask, a bronze bowl and a golden ‘mouthpiece’ (Fig. 21:1, 4; Dothan 1989, 169, figs 15–16). Several sherds and shells were also found in the jar. According to the initial anthropological analysis (N. Haas) the remains were of an adult male aged 40–45 (‘brachicephalic’ skull), 172 cm high, and adolescent male aged 12–16 (also ‘brachicephalic’ skull) together with bones of birds and household animals as pig. Later, only a skull and a jaw were recovered (Dothan 1989, 69–170, figs 20–21), and according to P. Smith the skull was of an adolescent and the jaw of an adult. Deformations in the skull indicate heating of about 250uC and the jaw indicates uneven temperatures of heating. Generally, the remains indicate a relatively low temperature of cremation (Dothan 1989, 170). The finds from outside of the burial jar include four jugs (Fig. 18:6). Tomb D63 is unique at Azor from several aspects, such as the cremation, the stone structure, the shape of the jar and ‘exotic’ finds, such as the bronze bowl and golden mouthpiece. Cremation burials with such structures occur in Early Iron Age Torone in northern Greece (Papadopoulos 2005, e.g. Tomb 104, 181–82, pls 210–15), but are not known in the Levant. The jar used in burial D63 (Fig. 18:5) is also quite unique; it was rarely found outside Azor.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/d63.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-04, 08:18
Please refer to post #1347 ("A Sealed Double Cremation at Middle Assyrian Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria") (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1068262&viewfull=1#post1068262)


The Assyrian King's list, beginning with Ili-pada's son, mentioned above:

Ninurta-apal-Ekur (1182 BCE to 1180 BCE) --> Ashur-dan I --> Ninurta-tukultī-Aššur --> Mutakkil-Nusku --> Ashur-resh-ishi I --> Tiglath-Pileser I --> Asharid-apal-Ekur --> Assur-bel-kala --> Eriba-Adad II --> Shamshi-Adad IV --> Ashurnasirpal I --> Shalmaneser II --> Ashur-nirari IV --> Ashur-rabi II --> Ashur-resh-ishi II --> Tiglath-Pileser II --> Ashur-dan II --> Adad-nirari II --> Tukulti-Ninurta II --> Ashurnasirpal II --> Shalmaneser III --> Shamshi-Adad V --> Adad-nirari III --> Shalmaneser IV --> Ashur-dan III --> Ashur-nirari V (755 BCE to 745 BCE). The line is broken by Tiglath-Pileser III.

The Assyrian royal family, beginning with Tiglath-Pileser III

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/images/essentials/diplomats/marriage2-large.jpg


Source: Karen Radner, 'Royal marriage alliances and noble hostages', Assyrian empire builders, University College London, 2012 [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/essentials/diplomats/royalmarriage/]

Humanist
2013-01-04, 09:20
We will want to test L943 further. If I receive their authorization to test, I have in mind Assyrian kits #90492 and #184027.

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Tentative addition of L943 to the following tree (originally prepared by ht35 project admin, Vincent Vizachero):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943.jpg


Received the OK from one of the men so far. Order placed for L943.

GD, using the "Hybrid mutation model," for the three men derived for L943:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943_gd.jpg

The L943 results are out for the third Assyrian L584+ man. He is ancestral. Meaning that the two Assyrian L943+ men, on the Y-DNA line exclusively, are more closely related to the Jewish Cohanim man, than they are to the third Assyrian (autosomally, of course, the three Assyrians are very similar). When I learned of the connection between the Assyrian men and the Cohanim man my initial thought was to Babylon ~2000 years ago. I have seen nothing to change my mind so far. Although, an area such as Nisibis is also a good candidate. We will know more when the 111 marker results for the L943+ Assyrian man are reported.

Edit: And, how could I forget the possibility of Adiabene (i.e. the story of Queen Helena).

Humanist
2013-01-05, 00:25
Again, from the Danzig paper, including some possible ideas regarding languages spoken in the regions added by me (see bold). I am simply an amateur with an interest. So, please keep that in mind.

Sources for all deportations, to all destinations, in descending order of frequency:

56.7% Southern Zagros / Elam and Babylonia (Elamite, Akkadian, Iranian*, Indo-Iranian??)
18.4% Middle and South Levant (Canaanite related languages (i.e. ancient Hebrew), NW Semitic (i.e. Old Aramaic))
8.0% Anatolia (W/C Anatolian Indo-European (e.g. Luwian, Hittite), Hurrian?**)
5.0% Northern Zagros and Foothills (Hurro-Urartian?, Akkadian, Iranian*, Indo-Iranian (e.g. Median?))
4.5% North Levant / Upper Euphrates Elbow (NW Semitic (i.e. Old Aramaic), W/C Anatolian Indo-European (e.g. Luwian, Hittite), Hurrian?)
3.5% Lakes Van and Urmia (Hurro-Urartian related languages, E Anatolian IE (proto-Armenian or Armenian?))
2.0% Euphrates and Tigris Sources (Hurro-Urartian related languages?, E Anatolian IE (proto-Armenian or Armenian?), W/C Anatolian Indo-European?? (e.g. Luwian, Hittite))
2.0% Habur Area / Jazira (NW Semitic (i.e. Old Aramaic), Akkadian, Hurrian?)


* Not Indo-Iranian. Or, at least not from what I have been able to understand from the record.
** This may be a bit late for an actual "Hurrian." Not late for a "Hurro-Urartian" related language, of course (i.e. Urartian).

Wikipedia


Origin points for ~90% of deportations to the Assyrian Heartland.

Font size = % reported in Danzig et al.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_deported_heartland_.jpg

What would have been the impact, from the genetic perspective, on the Assyrian "Heartland," by these deportations? What would have been the impact, from the linguistic perspective, on the Assyrian "Heartland," by these deportations?

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The Tushan dig is in the news.


Researchers working at Ziyaret Tepe, the probable site of the ancient Assyrian city of Tušhan, believe that the language may have been spoken by deportees originally from the Zagros Mountains, on the border of modern-day Iran and Iraq.

In keeping with a policy widely practised across the Assyrian Empire, these people may have been forcibly moved from their homeland and resettled in what is now south-east Turkey, where they would have been set to work building the new frontier city and farming its hinterland.

Archaeologists discover lost language (http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/archaeologists-discover-lost-language/)

Emphasis mine.


Evidence for a Peripheral Language in a Neo-Assyrian Tablet from the Governor’s Palace in Tušhan

Possibilities
What then could the origins of these names be? Very likely we are dealing with a language isolate, and it may be that it is a language about which we have no other information or that may present traces in proper names that it has not yet been possible to reconstruct into a parent language. As regards the nature of such a proposed background language there are, in my appreciation, four possibilities:

(1) Shubrian
These names could be Shubrian, that is to say the indigenous language of the region prior to the arrival of the Assyrians (and Arameans). The existence of Shubria, and Shubrian, is well-established, but it is not known to what language group Shubrian belonged. On the basis of the names of some of the kings of Shubria, it has been suggested that the language was a relative of Hurrian, but, in reality, that dataset is too small to allow reliable conclusions...

(2) Pre-Hurrian substratum
An alternative could be that the region was host to some other pre-Hurrian language about which we have no other information.

(3) Iranian (non-Indo-European)
Another possibility is that the names belong to a population group originating in western Iran but speaking a tongue that did not belong to the Indo-Iranian language group. This strikes me as particularly plausible as it is certain that the Assyrians deported populations from Iran to other parts of the empire.

(4) Recent arrival
A final suggestion is that the language could belong to a new wave of population influx. One possibility would be the Mushki (Phrygians) who were moving into eastern Anatolia around this time. If this were the case, for the names to appear in an administrative list at Tušhan would mean that such people had either deliberately infiltrated the Assyrian empire (which might seem foolish) or that they had been captured on campaign. It may be that a mixture of the above sources is involved. The following general remarks may be made concerning features of these names:

(1) the overwhelming majority end in a vowel, -a, -a, -e, -e, -i, -i
(2) four begin in ši-
(3) five end in - ši/še
(4) all Akkadian phonemes are used in the representation of these names with the possible exception of /ṣ/ and (or) /z/.

The above will by now have amply emphasized the linguistic interest of this text. The names listed evidently come from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. The small number whose etymology can be identified include Assyrian, Hurrian, Luwian, and possibly Indo-Iranian, but in the case of the great majority the background cannot be identified. How did these people come to be under the palace administration of Tušhan? In principle there would seem to be three possibilities: descendants of the indigenous population, prisoners of war, and deportees. It may be pertinent to note that the phraseology ina pan PN occurring in our text is also characteristic of lists of deportees,17 but this is not the only use of the phrase, and it seems likely that it would equally have been used for prisoners of war and resident individuals under the palace authority. The group could in any case have comprised elements from all three sources. Until a convincing identification for the linguistic milieu is made, it is probably not possible to be more specific than this.18

John MacGinnis

Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Vol. 71, No. 1 (April 2012), pp. 13-20

Humanist
2013-01-05, 00:58
Ergativity

R.M.W. Dixon
Australian National University

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergative_zps9f11bc2f.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-05, 02:05
When people speak of Hebrew, I must confess to being a bit confused. If, on one hand, we are referring to pre-exilic Hebrew, it is one thing. However, if it is attested during the period following the first Assyrian conquest, it is a different question.

There were a good many Israelites and Judaeans in Mesopotamia, so, it is possible that our words are from Hebrew. However, from what I have seen, I am skeptical of western (Levantine) origins for a great many things these days. With at least one key exception. Christianity in Mesopotamia. I still believe that the most likely driving force of Christianity in Mesopotamia were the exiled and converted Jews. So, I do count Israelites, Judaeans, and Mesopotamian converts to Judaism among my ancestors. Thus, Hebrew influence is certainly possible. However, again, if you refer to the words above (and below), from Sumerian and Akkadian, the etymology of the Sureth words are not that difficult to reconstruct (I think).


I find comparing Indo-European titles associated with royalty to Akkadian words an interesting exercise.

I just read about this line on Dienekes' site. Please see: Y-chromosome and mtDNA of Henri IV (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/01/y-chromosome-and-mtdna-of-henri-iv.html)

Wikipedia


Capetian dynasty

The Capetian dynasty (pron.: /kəˈpiːʃⁱən/), also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. In contemporary times, both King Juan Carlos of Spain and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg are members of this family, both through the Bourbon branch of the dynasty.

The name of the dynasty derives from its founder, Hugh, who was known as "Hugh Capet". The meaning of "Capet" (a nickname rather than a surname of the modern sort) is unknown. While folk etymology identifies it with "cape", other suggestions suggest it to be connected to the Latin word caput ("head"), and thus explain it as meaning "chief" or "head".

Historians came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice. The name "Capet" has also been used as a surname for French royals, particularly but not exclusively those of the House of Capet. One notable use was during the French Revolution, when the dethroned King Louis XVI (a member of the House of Bourbon and a direct male-line descendant of Hugh Capet) and Queen Marie Antoinette (a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine) were referred to as "Louis and Antoinette Capet" (the queen being addressed as "the Widow Capet" after the execution of her husband).

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-g3vpvsdnH5s/UOIU6KmcyTI/AAAAAAAAIFw/EVsRG5rPu-4/s200/469px-HenriIV.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabtu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabatu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabatu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubbutu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kubtu_.jpg


Note the word in Hebrew for "he is heavy/honorable," below. Compare to Akkadian, above. And, to Indo-European, "Capetian."

Ergative Constructions in Early Semitic Languages
Hans Peter Muller
1995

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kabed_zpsfcc22ed9.jpg


Akkadian --> Hebrew --> French ???

Humanist
2013-01-05, 05:21
From a post in the Assyrian Y-DNA thread, from August of last year.


Populations/areas who appear to be our best matches, based on STR data, and limited by the currently available dataset:

N=94 (8/25/12)

24.5% R1b (Alawites (N Syria, Turkey/Syria border area))
17.0% J1 (Arabians, NE Turks, Dagestanis)
14.9% T (Egypt, Africa, Levant?)
13.8% J2 (??)
9.6% E1b1b1 (??)
9.6% G (Ashkenazi men appear to match a few Assyrians well)
4.3% R2a (Arabian)
2.1% Q1b (Ashkenazi and other Middle Easterners)
2.1% R1a (??)
1.1% F (Arabian)
1.1% L (??)

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I never gave much thought to this suggestion, but the population listed for Y-DNA G and Q1b, above, and what I believe to be the underestimation of the influence of Akkadian in the Near East in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, made me rethink my (unfortunate) kneejerk rejection of the possibility when it has been mentioned by others in the past.

Wikipedia


Scythians

In it, the names of Herodotus and the names of his title, except Saka, as well as many other words for "Scythian," such as Assyrian Aškuz...


GailT posted this over on Anthrogenica (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?506-U7-Frequencies-From-Some-Sources-(U7-%26%238805%3B-5-)&p=2913&viewfull=1#post2913):


In the Sarkissian study the U7 (haplotype 16256T-16318t) individual (sample RD-3) is Sarmatian. There is a modern U7a3 sample from Iraq that shares 16256T-16318t and also has 16368: JQ705966 Iraq - Kirkuk, Mizrachi

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Wikipedia

Sagartians


The Sagartians (Asagartiya, Old Persian Aš-ša-kar-ti-ia, BabylonianKURSa-ga-ar-ta-a-a, Greek Σαγαρτιοι) were an ancient Iranian tribe, dwelling in the Iranian plateau. Their exact location is unknown; they were probably neighbors of the Parthians in northeastern Iran. According to Herodotus (1.125, 7.85) they were related to the Persians (Southwestern Iranian), but they may also have entered a political union with the Medians (Northwestern Iranian) at some point (J. van Wesendonk in ZII 9, 1933, pp. 23f.). Ptolemy (6.2.6) locates them in Media, while Stephanus of Byzantium claims that there was a peninsula in the Caspian Sea called Sagartía. They were nomadic pastoralists, their main weapon being the lasso (Herodotus 7.85).

It is unclear whether they are identical to the Zikirti mentioned by Sargon II as inhabitants of northern Zagros in the late 8th century BC. They may have been granted the district of Arbela by Median king Cyaxares as a reward for their aid in the capture of Niniveh.[1]

According to Herodotus (3.93), the Sagartians belonged to the 14th Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. A Sagartian delegation appears among the tribute bearers on the Apadana relief.

Humanist
2013-01-05, 10:10
Loan? West Semitic?



AUGURY

Originally, prophesying by the flight of birds; but later the term was applied to all forms of foretelling (augur = avi-gur, οἰωνὸς, οἰωνισταί, etc.).

Augury was first systematized by the Chaldeans. The Greeks were addicted to it; and among the Romans no important action of state was undertaken without the advice of the augurs. In fact, the belief in augury has existed at all times, among the uncivilized as well as the most civilized nations, to the present day, the wish to know the future continually giving rise to some art of peering into it.


Source: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2133-augury


SURETH
'pal
[Religion → Divination]
English : augury , the art / practice of foretelling events by auspices / omens / portents , divination , prognostication , presaging
Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/palu3.jpg


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apalu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apalu2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/apilu-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aplu.jpg

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SUMERIAN
ba-al to dig up/out, excavate, mine, quarry (herû); to unload (a boat)
abul(la), a-bul5-la city gate, main gate/entrance [<-- Also in AKKADIAN and SURETH]
bala (rotating) term of office or service, turn of duty; reign; prebend cf. bala-gub-ba term of duty
abgal (apkal) (a high priestly official of the early Nanše cult); (mythical) sage



2012 “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Musasir, Kumme, Ukku and Šubria – the Buffer States between Assyria and Urartu.” In S. Kroll et al. (ed.), Urartu-Bianili. Acta Iranica 51 (Leuven 2012) 243-264.

by Karen Radner


Further-more the scholars of Subria pursued Hurrian disciplines: they performed the ancient art of augury and the scapegoat rituals typical of the Hurrian tradition.149

Augury was a branch of learning typical of Northern Syria and Anatolia, rather than of Mesopotamia, and when augurs are attested in Assyria 150 their origins are usually specified: these augurs from Hamath, Kum-muhhu (Commagene) and Subria are the heirs of a well documented second millennium tradition practised already by Idrimi of Alalah and the experts in the service of the Hittite kings. 151 Our earliest evidence for Subrian augury dates to the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC).


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/radner_subria_buffer.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-05, 21:40
From another thread:


An Assyrian J2a3b (M67) haplotype, based on the haplotypes in the Ysearch database, has the following "nearest" matches (2 steps) at 12 markers. Although the majority of Ysearch samples are from European men, there are a decent number of non-European haplotypes in the database.

1.Scotland
2.Portuguese?
3.Spaniard?
4.England
5.France
6.Anglo-American

Humanist
2013-01-06, 01:53
I never gave much thought to this suggestion, but the population listed for Y-DNA G and Q1b, above, and what I believe to be the underestimation of the influence of Akkadian in the Near East in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, made me rethink my (unfortunate) kneejerk rejection of the possibility when it has been mentioned by others in the past.

A comment of mine from August of last year, on Athrogenica (http://www.anthrogenica.com/forum.php), regarding Q1b in Assyrians:


The Q-L245 subclade has been previously dubbed the "Ashkenazi" Q1b branch. On the FTDNA Q1b page, men derived for Q-L245 consist of one or more individuals from the following groups (may not be exclusive): Jewish (Ashkenazi and Mizrahi), NW Europeans (Dutch, Irish and German), Armenian, Saudi, Iraqi, and Assyrian. Marko Heinila, I believe based on his most recent work, dates the Q-L245 TMRCA to 2600 years. Right about the time of the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire. Perhaps a foreign element was introduced into the ME population at that time?

Humanist
2013-01-06, 09:49
“Judean”: A Special Status in Neo-Babylonian and Achemenid Babylonia?

by Laurie Pearce

Pp. 267-277 in M. Oeming and O. Lipschits, eds. The Judeans in the Achaemenid Age: Negotiating Identity in an International Context. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2011.


While Judeans are readily identified in the Murašû texts on the basis of the Yahwistic names, the size of that group must be kept in perspective. Fewer than 100 Judeans are identified in the approximately 700 Murašû texts, and they are estimated to constitute 2.8% of the individuals mentioned in the Murašû archive and no more than 3% of the Nippur population. (Zadok 1979: 23, 78). Although those 100 individuals hardly represent a significant portion of the exiled population, their status and interactions emulate those of other Babylonian and foreign dependents; new evidence substantiates their ordinary standing.

Forty-four tablets written in .l-Y.h.du [al-Yahuda], dating from Nebuchadnezzar 33 to Xerxes 9, preserve approximately 75 Yahwistic names borne by more than 200 individuals. 4 It is clear that the 200+ individuals bearing Yahwistic names at .l-Y.h.du constitute a significantly larger portion of the documented population than do the Judeans in the Mura.u [Murasu] texts at Nippur. The .l-Y.h.du texts chronologically link the Judean presence in Babylonia from shortly after the start of the Exile to the start of the Mura.u documentation and provide a unique opportunity to evaluate Judean status in a context where they represent a significant percentage of the town's population. The picture that emerges is that of a group of ethnically homogeneous state dependents, concentrated in a town named for their place of origin. Like their counterparts in the Mura.u texts, Judeans at .l-Y.h.du participated in economic activity in ways that indicate they were wholly integrated into the Babylonian state structure and practices.

Humanist
2013-01-06, 13:12
We will want to test L943 further. If I receive their authorization to test, I have in mind Assyrian kits #90492 and #184027.

- - - Updated - - -

Tentative addition of L943 to the following tree (originally prepared by ht35 project admin, Vincent Vizachero):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943.jpg


Received the OK from one of the men so far. Order placed for L943.

GD, using the "Hybrid mutation model," for the three men derived for L943:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943_gd.jpg


The L943 results are out for the third Assyrian L584+ man. He is ancestral. Meaning that the two Assyrian L943+ men, on the Y-DNA line exclusively, are more closely related to the Jewish Cohanim man, than they are to the third Assyrian (autosomally, of course, the three Assyrians are very similar). When I learned of the connection between the Assyrian men and the Cohanim man my initial thought was to Babylon ~2000 years ago. I have seen nothing to change my mind so far. Although, an area such as Nisibis is also a good candidate. We will know more when the 111 marker results for the L943+ Assyrian man are reported.

Edit: And, how could I forget the possibility of Adiabene (i.e. the story of Queen Helena).

Assyrian L584+ kit #184027 is even more distant, going by GD, from the other men. And, this is not the end of the story when it comes to R-L23 in Assyrians. There are other men that are potential L584 candidates. Men in L277. And men who, based on their limited markers, do not fit neatly in any of the above groups. Given the complete record to date, I would not be surprised if L584 were at least 3000 years old.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l584_zps45f75c3d.jpg


And again, when I refer to "Assyrians" here, I am referring nearly exclusively to "Nestorians." We are still basically in the dark when it comes to R1b in Chaldean Catholics and Syriac Orthodox.

Humanist
2013-01-06, 20:33
The Babylonian theme continues. I do not know if there is any connection, but I did get a kick out of the Akkadian translation at the bottom of "nazalu." Compare to my signature. :)

SURETH
'nṣala
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : (intransitive verb) : to ooze , to exude , to drip / flow slowly through interstices
Dialect : Urmiah

'nzala
English : (transitive verb) : to sway , to swing , to cause to swing , to cause to incline to one side / inflect (?) / bend (?) , to influence (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'nizla
[Human → Disease]
English : pus (discharge produced by suppuration) , sanies
Dialect : Urmiah

'šeiut 'nizla
[Measures → Weight]
English : equipoise , equality of weight / force , equilibrium , balance , the state in which two ends of a thing are balanced / equal / counterpoised
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazalu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazalu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazalu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_nizlu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-06, 22:19
Wikipedia


Zion

....

Etymology

The etymology of the word Zion (ṣiyôn) is uncertain.[1][2][4] Mentioned in the Bible in the Book of Samuel (2 Samuel 5:7) as the name of the Jebusite fortress conquered by King David, its origin likely predates the Israelites.[1][2] If Semitic, it may be derived from the Hebrew root ''ṣiyyôn ("castle") or the Hebrew ṣiyya ("dry land," Jeremiah 51:43). A non-Semitic relationship to the Hurrian word šeya ("river" or "brook") has also been suggested.[4]

Orthography

The form Tzion (Hebrew: ציון; Tiberian vocalization: Ṣiyyôn) appears 108 times in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and once as HaTzion.[5] It is spelled with a Tzadi and not Zayin.[6] The commonly used form is based on German orthography,[7] where z is always pronounced [t͡s] (e.g. "zog" [t͡soːk]), hence "Tsion" in German literature.[clarification needed] A tz would only be used if the preceding vowel is short, and hence use of Zion in 19th century German Biblical criticism. This orthography was adopted because in German the correct transliteration can only be rendered from the one instance of HaTzion in Kings II 23:17, where the a vowel is followed by a double consonant tz.


SURETH (loan from modern Hebrew?)
'ṣihon
[Humanities → Geography → Countries]
English : Zion (a hill in Jerusalem, royal residence of King David)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (RS = Akkadian cuneiform from Ras Shamra (Ugarit))*
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sai.jpg


*

Hurrian as a living language in Ugaritic society
by Juan-Pablo Vita

D. A. Barreyra Fracaroli, and G. del Olmo Lete (eds.), Reconstructing a Distant Past. Ancient Near Eastern Essays in Tribute to Jorge R. Silva Castillo, Aula Orientalis-Supplementa 25, Sabadell – Barcelona 2009, 219-231.

Link to PDF (http://csic.academia.edu/JuanPabloVita/Papers/1493079/Hurrian_as_a_living_language_in_Ugaritic_society). Need to be registered.

From 1.6, of the paper:

All of the above allows us to assert that Hurrian is the second ethnic, linguistic and cultural component basic to the kingdom of Ugarit (Vita 1999: 456). The Hurrian texts found in Ras Shamra particularly show the importance of Hurrian religion and mythology in the cult of Ugarit. The Ugaritc pantheon includes, indeed, some deities which in all probability are Hurrian, such as Išḫara or Pidrayu, they also have their practical application in texts such as the Ugaritic ritual RS 24.260 (1.115) dedicated to Išḫara (ušḫr). The Hurrian pantheon itself is known in Ugarit thanks to canonical and ritual lists and, despite great difficulties in the proper understanding and interpretation of the texts, it is possible to attempt their reconstruction with the presence of deities such as Teššub, Kumarb/wi or Šawuška (Laroche 1968a: 518-527; 1968b; Mayer 1996; Dietrich – Mayer 1997; del Olmo 1999: 82-86).

Map, showing location of Ugarit (modern ~ Latakia Governorate, in NW Syria, bordering Turkey). Not from paper. The Latakia Governorate has an Alawite majority population.

http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/activity/mycenaean_Trace/media/MapUluBurun.gif

Source: http://score.rims.k12.ca.us

Humanist
2013-01-07, 03:41
The Babylonian theme continues. I do not know if there is any connection, but I did get a kick out of the Akkadian translation at the bottom of "nazalu." Compare to my signature. :)

SURETH
'nṣala
[Humanities → Geography → Rivers]
English : (intransitive verb) : to ooze , to exude , to drip / flow slowly through interstices
Dialect : Urmiah

'nzala
English : (transitive verb) : to sway , to swing , to cause to swing , to cause to incline to one side / inflect (?) / bend (?) , to influence (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'nizla
[Human → Disease]
English : pus (discharge produced by suppuration) , sanies
Dialect : Urmiah

'šeiut 'nizla
[Measures → Weight]
English : equipoise , equality of weight / force , equilibrium , balance , the state in which two ends of a thing are balanced / equal / counterpoised
Dialect : Urmiah



AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazalu.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazalu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nazalu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_nizlu.jpg


Wikipedia


Lever

Early use

The earliest remaining writings regarding levers date from the 3rd century BC and were provided by Archimedes. "Give me a place to stand, and I shall move the Earth with it"[note 1] is a remark of Archimedes who formally stated the correct mathematical principle of levers (quoted by Pappus of Alexandria).[1]

It is assumed[2] that in ancient Egypt, constructors used the lever to move and uplift obelisks weighting more than 100 tons.

....

Classes of levers

Levers are classified by the relative positions of the fulcrum and the input and output forces. It is common to call the input force the effort and the output force the load or the resistance. This allows the identification of three classes of levers by the relative locations of the fulcrum, the resistance and the effort:[3]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Lever_%28PSF%29.png/685px-Lever_%28PSF%29.png

Humanist
2013-01-07, 07:40
A short YouTube clip on the Hittites. Narrated by Jeremy Irons.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ypGkwWo6aU

Humanist
2013-01-07, 11:10
We will want to test L943 further. If I receive their authorization to test, I have in mind Assyrian kits #90492 and #184027.

- - - Updated - - -

Tentative addition of L943 to the following tree (originally prepared by ht35 project admin, Vincent Vizachero):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/l943.jpg

I am guessing these Iraqi Arab men may be Z2103+/Z2105+.

From a previous post:

Comparing the R-M269 modals of Druze, Alawites, and Assyrians. Adding the modal for what appears to be the most frequent Iraqi Arab R-L23 haplotype (see the Iraqi DNA Project). Standard FTDNA 1-12 and DYS464. Please note that the Iraqi Arabs are ancestral for L584 [and probably the same for L277].



L584- IQA 12 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 14 15 17 17
L584+ ASY 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 15 15 17 17
L584? ALW 13 24 14 11 11 15 xx xx xx 14 13 30 xx xx xx xx
L584? DRZ 13 24 14 11 xx xx 12 12 ?? 13 13 29 xx xx xx xx

The “Super Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype” (SWAMH)

DYS464=15-15-17-17

Humanist
2013-01-07, 14:36
By Yoab Benjamin (Assyrian Christian customs)


Afterwards, the groom's party will offer elaborate gifts (pernitha) for the bride, to gratify the bride's family. Usually the pernitha includes a silver waist-belt (kamarra or hayyasa)...

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kamara.jpg

EA = El Amarna

Wikipedia


Tushratta was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten—approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II. His sister Gilukhipa and his daughter Tadukhipa were married to the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III; Tadukhipa later married Akhenaten who took over his father's royal harem.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamru1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamruB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gamruB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahames4.jpg


The Sureth pronunciation appears to best match the form found in Assyrian and Babylonian Letter (ABL) 408.

Please refer to 3:10 and 7:10 of the video.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aheiasi.jpg


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt1r5kGy26I


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasu__.jpg

The above Akkadian word refers to this word:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ahazu2-1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hisu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasahusenni.jpg

I found a relevant entry on Dr. Stephen A. Kaufman's (http://huc.edu/faculty/faculty/kaufman.shtml) very useful site, the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/). As you will note, the word occurs in both Syriac and Samaritan.


ḥyṣ, ḥyṣʾ (ḥyāṣ, ḥyāṣā) v.n. chain; strenuousness

1 device for clamping together Syr. --(a) band, swathe, girdle Syr. (a.1) ephod Sam. --(b) carpenters' screw Syr.
2 strength Sam. --(a) (gram.) gemination Syr.
3 compact, agreement (??) Syr.

In Samaritan, meaning 1, "ephod."

Wikipedia


Ephod


An ephod (Hebrew אֵפוֹד) (pron.: /ˈɛfɒd/ or /ˈiːfɒd/) was an article of clothing, and an object of worship in ancient Israelite culture, and was closely connected with oracular practices and priestly ritual.

In the Books of Samuel, David is described as wearing an ephod when dancing in the presence of the Ark of the Covenant (2 Samuel 6:14) and one is described as standing in the sanctuary at Nob, with a sword behind it (1 Samuel 21:9) in the book of Exodus and in Leviticus one is described as being created for the Jewish High Priest to wear as part of his official vestments (Exodus 28:4+, 29:5, 39:2+; Leviticus 8:7).

In the Book of Judges, Gideon and Micah each cast one from a metal, and Gideon's was worshipped (Judges 8:26-27, Judges 17:5).

....

Wearing and composition

A passage in the Book of Exodus describes the Ephod as an elaborate garment worn by the high priest, and upon which the Hoshen, or breastplate containing Urim and Thummim, rested. According to this description, the Ephod was woven out of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet threads, was made of fine linen, and was embroidered with skillful work in gold thread (Exodus 28:6-14) the Talmud argues that each of the textures was combined in six threads with a seventh of gold leaf, making 28 threads to the texture in total.[4]

The Biblical description continues without describing the shape or length of the ephod, except by stating that it was held together by a girdle, and had two shoulder straps which were fastened to the front of the ephod by golden rings, to which the breastplate was attached by golden chains (Exodus 28:6-14) from this description it appears to have been something like a minimalist apron or skirt with braces,[5] though Rashi argued that it was like a woman's riding girdle.[6] The biblical description also adds that there were two engraved gems over the shoulder straps (like epaulettes), made from shoham (thought by scholars to mean malachite,[7] by Jewish tradition to mean heliodor,[8] and in the King James Version is translated as "onyx"), and with the names of the 12 tribes written upon them; the classical rabbinical sources differ as to the order in which the tribes were named on the jewels (Sotah 36a).

Jewish High Priest wearing the sacred vestments. The ephod is depicted here in yellow.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/PLATE4DX.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-07, 23:45
The Sureth pronunciation appears to best match the form found in Assyrian and Babylonian Letter (ABL) 408. Refer to 3:10 and 7:10 of the video.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/aheiasi.jpg

Could not find much on ABL 408. Not sure if these add anything of substance for our purposes.

1. ROYAL DECISIONS AND COURTIERS' COMPLIANCE: ON SOME FORMULAE IN NEO-ASSYRIAN AND NEO-BABYLONIAN LETTERS

Simonetta Ponchia - Padova


On the contrary, several messages are aimed at illustrating aspects and particular problems pertaining to different administrative sectors, that probably the imperial bureaucratic standardization failed to take into account. In ABL 408 the precise information is the necessary premise to a concrete proposal: "The king my lord knows that GN is situated in a crossroads (and that) the road stretch from GN to GN is too long and heavy for the animals; the king my lord should give order that a post-station should be erected in GN".

2. A Letter from Šamaš-šumu-ukīn to Esarhaddon

Simo Parpola
Iraq, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Spring, 1972), pp. 21-34


16. In il-pur-vu-u-ni, the scribe has omitted the subjunctive marker u before the pronominal suffix -su. This is hardly a mistake, but rather a Neo-Assyrian scribal convention, for similar omissions (and even the same spelling) occur in other texts too. Cf. i3-pur-4u-u-ni ABL 408: 22, il-pur-ni 90: 8, is-pur-ne-ni 1026: 6 (against this ia-pur-u-ne-ni 569: 7), dl-pur-ka-ni KAV 115: I4, d3-kun-ka-a-ni ABL 424: 17, ta-na-sar-Jt-u-ni VTE i68, etc. There is no doubt that the missing u was actually pronounced; but from the point of view of morphographemics (see I. J. Gelb, Milanges Marcel Cohen, p. 73 ff.), its expression in writing was not obligatory, since the subjunctive mood was easily recognizable from the enclitic -ni which in Neo-Assyrian was appended to all subjunctive forms and had in practice replaced u as the subjunctive marker.

3. K. 4675+ - THE ZAMUA ITINERARY

Louis D. Levine - Toronto


Among the six names that precede Babite in the text, the best known is Arzuhina. Arzuhina is the name of both a town and a province. RefereI?-ces in Nuzi establish that the town was administratively part of the district of Arrapha (modern Kirkuk) during the Mitanni period 12. The difficult letter ND 2734+13 shows that the Neo-Assyrian province of Arzuhina was adjacent to or included the Radanu river. Both of these lines of evidence lead to the conclusion that Arzuhina, both town and province; lay south of the lower Zab. Further information on the location of the town comes from ABL 408, which shows that Arrapha could be reached from ~rzuhina. The fact that Arrapha is not mentioned in the itinerary indicates a location for Arzuhina to the east of Arrapha.

....

Of the three remaining names in this part of the text, Dur-atanate, Maturaba, and Dur-talite, nothing is known about Maturaba aside from the fact that it lay between the other two. Dur-atanate is mentioned only in the itinerary, and the two letters ABL 408 and 635. All three refer to -the area bounded by Sare on the one hand and Southern Kurdistan on the other. From ABL 635, it is clear that Dur-atanate is a station between Sare and Dur-talite. ABL 408 reads: "The stretch from Urzuhina to Arrakdi is becoming a burden for the animals. Let the king, my lord, give orders that a (mule) express be stationed in Dur-atanate so we can strengthen each other" (translation courtesy of S. Parpola). This, together with the itinerary, shows that Dur-atanate was a point on the way from Arzuhina to the east. Thus, Arzuhina, Sare and Dur-atanate probably formed a rough triangle, with Sare at the head north of the Lower Zab, and Arzuhina to the west of Dur-atanate to be a major site. It may have been little more than a provisioning post along a well travelled route, as the name can be taken to suggest.

....

Dur-talite is more complex. According to the itinerary, it is located near the mountain pass of Babite. Since Sare must lie to the north or northwest, we can presume that the course of the itinerary is generally southward, and that would place Dur-talite tothe south or southeast of Dur-atanate as well. Further, Dur-talite is apparently accessible directly from Arzuhina (ABL 408).

Dur-talite appears to have been more than a posting station. It is mentioned in the royal inscriptions of Sargon II, in the same two letters as Dur-atanate (ABL 408 and 635), in a broken context with Arzuhina inABL 1192, and in an administrative text from Nimrud, where it appears to be under the jurisdiction of the governor of Arzuhina (ND 2679) IH. Thus, the relationship between the four places Sare, Arzuhina, Dur-atanate and Dur-talite can be sketched as in Figure 4.

....

19) There have been a number of discussions of the possible phonology of the name Lagalagi, based, as is now clear, on bad copies of the texts. In the itinerary, the one preserved spelling is La-ag-ga-la-gi. In ABL 408,16, Parpola's collation shows La!-a!-ga-la-gi. Ashurnasirpal's Annals have La-ga-la-ga (AKA 304). All are prefixed by URU. The broken URUTa_ga_[ ... ] of ABL 701 may refer to an entirely different place, as there is no context for the letter.

....

It is finally possible to return to the itinerary, and offer a suggestion on the nature of the text itself. It must be noted that the text is unique in genre, that it was presumably found at Nineveh, that "by external appearance it resembles the letters of Samas-beluu~ur", and that "the signs are like those of that same individual" (personal communi-cation from S. Parpola). ABL 408, which we have had reason to refer to often, is a letter sent to the king by Samas-belu-u~ur, and it contains a litany of self-justification. Apparently having been accused of not providing the mule express for a messenger, Samas-belu-u~ur claims that he provided mules for the outward journey from Arzuhina, and arranged for the posting of mule teams in Dur-talite and Lagalagi, "(When) he departed from Urzuhina, there were two mules at his disposal, (mule) express after (mule) express, until the town of Arrakdi" (11. 18-21 - translation courtesy of S. Parpola).

....

The correspondence in place names between the two documents, the fact that they are apparently sent by the same individual, and that the "itinerary" was found in the royal chancellory all suggest that the two are connected. One might suggest that our itinerary is in the nature of an attachment to the letter ABL 408, an explicit "verbal map'" sent to the king to explain the journey that seems to have caused the difficulty referred to in the letter. There can be little doubt that both documents describe the "royal road" (harran sarri) to Azri referred to in a letter from Nergal-uballit, the governor of Arzuhina, apparently to Tiglath-pileser III.

If the itinerary is the attachment to ABL 408, it may also explain the anomalies around the numbering of the marditus in K. 4675 +. When used by itself in the Neo-Assyrian documents, marditu means a stage in a journey or activities connected with a stage in a journey23. But it is also used in the Assyrian correspondence in the phrase bit marditu. Such stations had officials attached to them (ABL 414), and were almost certainly located along the royal road system, where they would have been points for provisioning royal (and other?) messenger services. Given the regular nature of the marditu in most of the itinerary, we would expect that the bit marditus were placed regularly along the routes at one day intervals, and the normal length of a marditu was one day.

....

The journey described by K. 4676 consisted of eleven marditus, and should have taken eleven days. Instead, it took fourteen. This is the anomaly of K. 4765+, and is probably the reason for its composition. Indeed, the self-justifying letter ABL 408 reports on events that terminate at Arrakdi, the point at which the marditus and the days begin to diverge. One almost expects that a letter from the king to Samas-belu-u~ur awaits discovery in Arzuhina, a letter in which the king tells Samas-belu-u~ur that he is not interested in what happened up to Arrakdi, as reported in ABL 408, but rather what went on afterward. Why, he wants to know, did Samas-belu-u~ur take a route other than the direct one between Arrakdi and Dur-Assur? And just what was he doing for three days in all of those places that no-one had every heard of. But the letter, along with Samas-belu-u~ur's answers, remain at this point just another of those enigmas with which the past teases us.

Humanist
2013-01-08, 01:03
As you will note, the word occurs in both Syriac and Samaritan.

Wikipedia

Samaritans


Archaeologists Aharoni, et al., estimated that this "exile of peoples to and from Israel under the Assyrians" took place during ca. 734 BCE to 712 BCE.[46] The authors speculated that when the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom of Israel, resulting in the exile of many of the Israelites, a subgroup of the Israelites that remained in the Land of Israel "married Assyrian and female exiles relocated from other conquered lands, which was a typical Assyrian policy to obliterate national identities."

Humanist
2013-01-08, 04:08
Could not find much on ABL 408. Not sure if these add anything of substance for our purposes.

3. K. 4675+ - THE ZAMUA ITINERARY

Louis D. Levine - Toronto


Among the six names that precede Babite in the text, the best known is Arzuhina. Arzuhina is the name of both a town and a province. RefereI?-ces in Nuzi establish that the town was administratively part of the district of Arrapha (modern Kirkuk) during the Mitanni period 12. The difficult letter ND 2734+13 shows that the Neo-Assyrian province of Arzuhina was adjacent to or included the Radanu river. Both of these lines of evidence lead to the conclusion that Arzuhina, both town and province; lay south of the lower Zab. Further information on the location of the town comes from ABL 408, which shows that Arrapha could be reached from ~rzuhina. The fact that Arrapha is not mentioned in the itinerary indicates a location for Arzuhina to the east of Arrapha.

....

Of the three remaining names in this part of the text, Dur-atanate, Maturaba, and Dur-talite, nothing is known about Maturaba aside from the fact that it lay between the other two. Dur-atanate is mentioned only in the itinerary, and the two letters ABL 408 and 635. All three refer to -the area bounded by Sare on the one hand and Southern Kurdistan on the other. From ABL 635, it is clear that Dur-atanate is a station between Sare and Dur-talite. ABL 408 reads: "The stretch from Urzuhina to Arrakdi is becoming a burden for the animals. Let the king, my lord, give orders that a (mule) express be stationed in Dur-atanate so we can strengthen each other" (translation courtesy of S. Parpola). This, together with the itinerary, shows that Dur-atanate was a point on the way from Arzuhina to the east. Thus, Arzuhina, Sare and Dur-atanate probably formed a rough triangle, with Sare at the head north of the Lower Zab, and Arzuhina to the west of Dur-atanate to be a major site. It may have been little more than a provisioning post along a well travelled route, as the name can be taken to suggest.

....

Dur-talite is more complex. According to the itinerary, it is located near the mountain pass of Babite. Since Sare must lie to the north or northwest, we can presume that the course of the itinerary is generally southward, and that would place Dur-talite tothe south or southeast of Dur-atanate as well. Further, Dur-talite is apparently accessible directly from Arzuhina (ABL 408).

Dur-talite appears to have been more than a posting station. It is mentioned in the royal inscriptions of Sargon II, in the same two letters as Dur-atanate (ABL 408 and 635), in a broken context with Arzuhina inABL 1192, and in an administrative text from Nimrud, where it appears to be under the jurisdiction of the governor of Arzuhina (ND 2679) IH. Thus, the relationship between the four places Sare, Arzuhina, Dur-atanate and Dur-talite can be sketched as in Figure 4.

....

19) There have been a number of discussions of the possible phonology of the name Lagalagi, based, as is now clear, on bad copies of the texts. In the itinerary, the one preserved spelling is La-ag-ga-la-gi. In ABL 408,16, Parpola's collation shows La!-a!-ga-la-gi. Ashurnasirpal's Annals have La-ga-la-ga (AKA 304). All are prefixed by URU. The broken URUTa_ga_[ ... ] of ABL 701 may refer to an entirely different place, as there is no context for the letter.

....

It is finally possible to return to the itinerary, and offer a suggestion on the nature of the text itself. It must be noted that the text is unique in genre, that it was presumably found at Nineveh, that "by external appearance it resembles the letters of Samas-beluu~ur", and that "the signs are like those of that same individual" (personal communi-cation from S. Parpola). ABL 408, which we have had reason to refer to often, is a letter sent to the king by Samas-belu-u~ur, and it contains a litany of self-justification. Apparently having been accused of not providing the mule express for a messenger, Samas-belu-u~ur claims that he provided mules for the outward journey from Arzuhina, and arranged for the posting of mule teams in Dur-talite and Lagalagi, "(When) he departed from Urzuhina, there were two mules at his disposal, (mule) express after (mule) express, until the town of Arrakdi" (11. 18-21 - translation courtesy of S. Parpola).

....

The correspondence in place names between the two documents, the fact that they are apparently sent by the same individual, and that the "itinerary" was found in the royal chancellory all suggest that the two are connected. One might suggest that our itinerary is in the nature of an attachment to the letter ABL 408, an explicit "verbal map'" sent to the king to explain the journey that seems to have caused the difficulty referred to in the letter. There can be little doubt that both documents describe the "royal road" (harran sarri) to Azri referred to in a letter from Nergal-uballit, the governor of Arzuhina, apparently to Tiglath-pileser III.

If the itinerary is the attachment to ABL 408, it may also explain the anomalies around the numbering of the marditus in K. 4675 +. When used by itself in the Neo-Assyrian documents, marditu means a stage in a journey or activities connected with a stage in a journey23. But it is also used in the Assyrian correspondence in the phrase bit marditu. Such stations had officials attached to them (ABL 414), and were almost certainly located along the royal road system, where they would have been points for provisioning royal (and other?) messenger services. Given the regular nature of the marditu in most of the itinerary, we would expect that the bit marditus were placed regularly along the routes at one day intervals, and the normal length of a marditu was one day.

....

The journey described by K. 4676 consisted of eleven marditus, and should have taken eleven days. Instead, it took fourteen. This is the anomaly of K. 4765+, and is probably the reason for its composition. Indeed, the self-justifying letter ABL 408 reports on events that terminate at Arrakdi, the point at which the marditus and the days begin to diverge. One almost expects that a letter from the king to Samas-belu-u~ur awaits discovery in Arzuhina, a letter in which the king tells Samas-belu-u~ur that he is not interested in what happened up to Arrakdi, as reported in ABL 408, but rather what went on afterward. Why, he wants to know, did Samas-belu-u~ur take a route other than the direct one between Arrakdi and Dur-Assur? And just what was he doing for three days in all of those places that no-one had every heard of. But the letter, along with Samas-belu-u~ur's answers, remain at this point just another of those enigmas with which the past teases us.

It is interesting to note that both Sureth words for "waist-belt," in contrast to the Babylonian theme I have many times mentioned, may be Mitanni/Assyrian (i.e. N Mesopotamian) in origin (if they are indeed Akkadian).

The general location of Arzuhina ("east of Arrapha")?

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/arzuhina_zps6f904960.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-08, 07:10
The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE)

Sharon R. Steadman, Gregory McMahon

Oxford University Press, Sep 15, 2011

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/anatolia_se_turkey_zpsed8cb6ad.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-08, 19:27
Wikipedia

Teppe Hasanlu


Teppe Hasanlu or Tappeh Hassanlu (Persian: تپه حسنلو) is an archeological site of an ancient city[1] located in northwest Iran (in the province of West Azerbaijan), a short distance south of Lake Urmia. The nature of its destruction at the end of the 9th century BC essentially froze one layer of the city in time, providing researchers with extremely well preserved buildings, artifacts, and skeletal remains from the victims and enemy combatants of the attack.

....

Starting in the Middle Bronze III period or hasanlu VIa (1600–1450 BC), there are important changes in material culture. This is best attested at the site of Dinkha Tepe, but is also present at Hasanlu. The most obvious change is the rapid abandonment of old styles of pottery, especially painted Khabur Ware, and the increased importance in producing monochrome unpainted pottery that is frequently polished or burnished. This ware is known as Monochrome Burnished Ware or, formerly, "Grey Ware" — the ware occurs in a wide range of colors and this is something of a misnomer. In the Late Bronze Age or Hasanlu Period V, Monochrome Burnished Ware comes to dominate the ceramic assemblages of the Ushnu and Solduz valleys of the southern Lake Urmia Basin. Some scholars link changes in pottery forms to cultural contact with Assyria, this being a period of expansion for the Middle Assyrian kingdom, when such kings as Adad-nirari I (1295-1264 BC), Shalmaneser I (1263-1234 BC), and Tukulti-Ninurta I (1233-1197 BC) were conducting campaigns into the Zagros mountains to the south.[13] During this time, there was occupation on the High Mound and Low Mound of Hasanlu, and graves have been excavated at Dinkha Tepe and Hasanlu.

....

The continued presence in significant quantities of Assyrian goods or copies, alongside objects of local manufacture, attest to continued cultural contact with Assyria at this time; iron first appears in bulk at Hansanlu at around the same time Assyria seized control of the metal trade in Asia Minor.[14] While the Neo-Assyrian Empire was beginning a period of renewed power and influence in the 9th century, it is also at this time that the existence of the kingdom of Urartu, centered around Lake Van, is first attested in the Neo-Assyrian annals and related literature. By the time we hear about it, it is already a fully developed state - the circumstances attending its rise in the 2nd millennium are obscure.[15] Urartu’s expansion during this period brought the area south of Lake Urmia under its influence, although material finds at Hasanlu suggest that the city may have remained independent.[16] Nevertheless, Hansanlu was catastrophically destroyed.

We know a great deal about Iron II/Hasanlu IVb because of the violent sacking and burning at around 800 BC, probably by the Urartians.[17] Over 150 human victims were found where they had been slain. Some victims were mutilated and distributions of other bodies and the wounds they received suggest mass executions. Amid the burned remains of the settlement the excavators found thousands of objects in situ. Hasanlu IVb is a veritable Pompeii of the early Iron Age Near East. Some have suggested that the Iron II culture of Hasanlu, which has close ties to Mesopotamia and northern Syria, indicates the settlement came under the control of a foreign power, or experienced an influx of new occupants, or perhaps made internal changes to its political system.[13]

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Hasanlu aDNA??

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanlu.jpg

ImageBased
2013-01-08, 19:40
A short YouTube clip on the Hittites. Narrated by Jeremy Irons.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ypGkwWo6aU


I've been reading a lot on Assyrians, they're interesting for a number of racial reasons. I'm still trying to place them but still haven't figured it all out yet.

Humanist
2013-01-08, 21:11
Wikipedia

Teppe Hasanlu


Teppe Hasanlu or Tappeh Hassanlu (Persian: تپه حسنلو) is an archeological site of an ancient city[1] located in northwest Iran (in the province of West Azerbaijan), a short distance south of Lake Urmia. The nature of its destruction at the end of the 9th century BC essentially froze one layer of the city in time, providing researchers with extremely well preserved buildings, artifacts, and skeletal remains from the victims and enemy combatants of the attack.

....

Starting in the Middle Bronze III period or hasanlu VIa (1600–1450 BC), there are important changes in material culture. This is best attested at the site of Dinkha Tepe, but is also present at Hasanlu. The most obvious change is the rapid abandonment of old styles of pottery, especially painted Khabur Ware, and the increased importance in producing monochrome unpainted pottery that is frequently polished or burnished. This ware is known as Monochrome Burnished Ware or, formerly, "Grey Ware" — the ware occurs in a wide range of colors and this is something of a misnomer. In the Late Bronze Age or Hasanlu Period V, Monochrome Burnished Ware comes to dominate the ceramic assemblages of the Ushnu and Solduz valleys of the southern Lake Urmia Basin. Some scholars link changes in pottery forms to cultural contact with Assyria, this being a period of expansion for the Middle Assyrian kingdom, when such kings as Adad-nirari I (1295-1264 BC), Shalmaneser I (1263-1234 BC), and Tukulti-Ninurta I (1233-1197 BC) were conducting campaigns into the Zagros mountains to the south.[13] During this time, there was occupation on the High Mound and Low Mound of Hasanlu, and graves have been excavated at Dinkha Tepe and Hasanlu.

....

The continued presence in significant quantities of Assyrian goods or copies, alongside objects of local manufacture, attest to continued cultural contact with Assyria at this time; iron first appears in bulk at Hansanlu at around the same time Assyria seized control of the metal trade in Asia Minor.[14] While the Neo-Assyrian Empire was beginning a period of renewed power and influence in the 9th century, it is also at this time that the existence of the kingdom of Urartu, centered around Lake Van, is first attested in the Neo-Assyrian annals and related literature. By the time we hear about it, it is already a fully developed state - the circumstances attending its rise in the 2nd millennium are obscure.[15] Urartu’s expansion during this period brought the area south of Lake Urmia under its influence, although material finds at Hasanlu suggest that the city may have remained independent.[16] Nevertheless, Hansanlu was catastrophically destroyed.

We know a great deal about Iron II/Hasanlu IVb because of the violent sacking and burning at around 800 BC, probably by the Urartians.[17] Over 150 human victims were found where they had been slain. Some victims were mutilated and distributions of other bodies and the wounds they received suggest mass executions. Amid the burned remains of the settlement the excavators found thousands of objects in situ. Hasanlu IVb is a veritable Pompeii of the early Iron Age Near East. Some have suggested that the Iron II culture of Hasanlu, which has close ties to Mesopotamia and northern Syria, indicates the settlement came under the control of a foreign power, or experienced an influx of new occupants, or perhaps made internal changes to its political system.[13]

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Hasanlu aDNA??

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanlu.jpg


From the site where the "unknown language" was identified, and where other significant finds have been made. It is a tragedy that Ziyaret Tepe and other sites will soon be lost forever. I do appreciate that the Turkish government has permitted digs at the sites before their eventual demise.

THE ASSYRIAN CITY OF TUSHHAN: A RACE AGAINST TIME
Article created on Saturday, October 13, 2012

David Connolly of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (PAST HORIZONS - Adventures in Archaeology)




And, just like linguists such as Dr. Geoffrey Khan of Cambridge, I count these men as heroes in my book.

Source: University of Akron

Dr. Timothy Matney

This is interesting. I did a search for "Hasanlu" and "aDNA" and came across this result. However, the actual document does not contain any mention of Hasanlu.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasanlu_search.jpg


A few bits from the document (https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fgozips.uakron.edu%2F~matney%2FaDN A%2520methods.doc&ei=RX_sUL3ZOrSP0QH-1IC4BQ&usg=AFQjCNH7zbcO1Beci4K6qe9Q4y5wkCDh9g&bvm=bv.1357316858,d.dmg):


Ancient DNA Methodolgy
I. Samples. Teeth, preferably molars or premolars, will be the source of the ancient DNA (aDNA) for this project. Teeth will be used because they are durable and less susceptible to contamination due to the protective, enamel crown. No broken or pathological specimens will be used, since they are more likely to contain contaminants in the pulp cavity. In addition, teeth that are still positioned in their respective alveolar crypts will be preferred over loose teeth because there is an opening at the apex of the root that, when exposed, can be a potential entry point for contaminants. DNA will be extracted from two teeth per individual. I will use the relatively successful method of relying on overall bone preservation for determining which individuals to sample. A sample will not be used for this project if it is deteriorated, relatively soft, or thin and fragile.

....

IV. Molecular Genetic Analyses. The DNA will be amplified by PCR in a thermocycler dedicated to aDNA analyses. The exact amounts of reagents for the PCR will follow standard protocols (Bartlett & Stirling 2003), and will be refined according the amount of aDNA template and contaminants present. A feasibility study is currently underway to determine the amount of aDNA available for analysis, as well as to establish a standard PCR recipe for future samples.

For the mtDNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) will be detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Samples will be checked for markers defining haplogroups M, N, R, H, V, J, T, U, I, W ad X and their corresponding branches, as these are the most prevalent types in this region of the world (Macaulay et al. 1999; Richards et al. 1999; Kivisild et al. 1999). In addition, the hypervariable region I (HVS I) of all mtDNAs will be sequenced using BigDye Terminator kit (Applied Biosystems), and read on ABI 3100 Gene Analyzers. The combination of SNP and HVSI data will be used to assign a haplogroup to each individual. Maternal lines will be determined based on the sequence data of the HVS I.

Dr. Matney was involved with another aDNA study a few years back.

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I wonder if there is any connection to my post from the aDNA thread:


Dienekes : Talk by Christina Papageorgopoulou on Mesolithic/Neolithic Greek DNA (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/12/talk-by-christina-papageorgopoulou-on.html)

Note the yellow bars. Iran ~1650 BCE and ~6500 BCE.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/iran_aDNA.jpg


Maximizing the information of DNA extracts obtained from skeletal remains

Christian Sell, Susanne Kreutzer, Melanie Strobel
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

http://imgpublic.mci-group.com/ie/PCO/AllAbstracts_FINAL.pdf

Humanist
2013-01-08, 23:11
Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/armenoid.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 01:16
SURETH
kassi <-- How our Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, is addressed.
[Religion]
English : 1) My lord , my master (a title usually reserved to the patriarchal immediate family) 2) my friend , my beloved
Dialect : Urmiah

qaša <-- Our word for "priest."
[Human being]
English : 1) an elder , an aged person ; 2) legal : an older man who (on account of his age) occupies the office of a judge ; 3) religion : a presbyter , a priest ;
Dialect : Urmiah

qaššišuta
[Human being]
English : 1) seniority , being a senior / older / the elder , priority of birth / office / service , primogeniture / birthright (?) ; 2) the office of a presbyter , priesthood ;
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussi__a.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi1_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi2_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi3_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Kasi4_.jpg




Royal land (land designated as makkur šarri or, in the fifth century[BCE], as bit kussî, literally throne land) was under direct management or it was leased to rent farmers.

Michael Jursa
University of Vienna, Institut für Orientalistik

Taxation and Service Obligations in Babylonia from Nebuchadnezzar to Darius and the Evidence for Darius’ Tax Reform

R. Rollinger/B. Truschnegg/R. Bichler (Hrsg.), Herodot und das Persische Weltreich -- Herodotus and the Persian Empire (= CLEO: Classica et Orientalia, Vol. 3), Harrassowitz-Verlag, Wiesbaden: 2011, 431-448


My cousin (second from right, below), visited New York this week. Apparently, it is not only the Patriarch who is addressed as "Kassi," all bishops are as well.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mar_paulus.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 05:00
From the banner image of a course web page on Assyrians (University of Akron):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_akron_zpse0653bd0.jpg

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Languages, Genes, and Subartu ("where the languages are confused")

All populations are Dodecad, save for the Syrians (Behar et al.)

IE = Indo-European (Armenians)
IE_IR = Indo-Iranian (Iranians and Kurds)
AA = Afro-Asiatic (Assyrians and Syrians)
TRK = Turkic (Anatolian Turks)

ARM = Armenian
ASY = Assyrian
IRN = Iranian
KRD = Kurd
SYR = Syrian
TUR = Anatolian Turk

Based on Dodecad K12b values.

Cluster and NJ analyses respectively:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cluster_subartu_zpse8787cf1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nj_subartu_zps9aaf54c7.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 06:07
From the banner image of a course web page on Assyrians (University of Akron):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_akron_zpse0653bd0.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

Languages, Genes, and Subartu ("where the languages are confused")

All populations are Dodecad, save for the Syrians (Behar et al.)

IE = Indo-European (Armenians)
IE_IR = Indo-Iranian (Iranians and Kurds)
AA = Afro-Asiatic (Assyrians and Syrians)
TRK = Turkic (Anatolian Turks)

ARM = Armenian
ASY = Assyrian
IRN = Iranian
KRD = Kurd
SYR = Syrian
TUR = Anatolian Turk

Based on Dodecad K12b values.

Also, here is a MDS. I have added the Iraqi Mandaeans (MAN_AA). Although the sample size is very small (N=2).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mds_iraqi_mandaean_zps4edc0540.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 08:09
From a recent blog entry by Dr. James McGrath: John the Baptist and the Gnostics (http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringourmatrix/2013/01/john-the-baptist-and-the-gnostics.html)


I will say again something I say more and more often of late. If the Mandaean sources were discovered for the first time today, they would make international headlines. First there would be an attempt to decipher their unique alphabet. Then it would be realized that they are in a dialect of Aramaic. Then it would come to light that they mention John the Baptist and Jesus and other familiar figures from the New Testament, but in very different ways. There would be incredible excitement, and lots of scholarly attention. The relative scholarly neglect of Mandaean sources is thus baffling.

Well, I certainly could not agree more. Baffling it certainly is. This neglect extends to population genetics. Despite the recent Al-Zahery et al. paper, and the efforts of those in the genetic genealogy community, Mandaean uniparental markers remain more or less a mystery, and the autosomal dataset, as mentioned in the post above, stands at only 2.

On a personal note, Dr. McGrath was one of the very few in academia (Assyriology, Linguistics, and Biblical studies mostly) to ever reply to one of my attempts at contact. I have sent a few emails over the years. Incidentally, the only other reply I ever received was from another Mandaean scholar, Dr. Jorunn J. Buckley. As for academics in the DNA realm, Dr. Roy King of Stanford has been without a doubt the most accessible.

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My cousin (second from right, below), visited New York this week. Apparently, it is not only the Patriarch who is addressed as "Kassi," all bishops are as well.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mar_paulus.jpg

Forgot to post this Akkadian word.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kussu_zps6450fc35.jpg



Some may be interested to view this:

The current Kassi of the Church of the East is Mar Dinḥa IV. I put this video together a couple of years back, from some old footage of the Church of the East Patriarch:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IpI271WeUfw

Humanist
2013-01-09, 09:29
Ergativity

R.M.W. Dixon
Australian National University

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergative_zps9f11bc2f.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Neo_Assyrians_ergativity_zpsddd20333.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 19:10
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Neo_Assyrians_ergativity_zpsddd20333.jpg


Ergativity

R.M.W. Dixon
Australian National University

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergative_zps9f11bc2f.jpg

More from Dixon (I believe "centuries" should be "millennia"):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergativity1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergativity1b.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergativity2.jpg


Ergativity (to some degree) appeared to be nearly everywhere from Anatolia to the Caucasus, western Iran?, and parts of Mesopotamia, in ancient times. Was it an areal feature of the greater Near East?

Another interesting bit I came across, on the topic:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ergativity_handbook.jpg

The Handbook of Historical Linguistics
Volume 21 of Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics
Brian Joseph, Richard Janda
2008

From what I have read, and from what I can make sense of the material, most scholars appear to attribute the possible ergative characteristics in Sureth to contact with Kurdish. This may in fact be completely correct. As Kurdish, one would assume, would have (and has) influenced our language over the course of the last several centuries. However, as anyone who has read this thread will already have come to realize, I have a difficult time trusting conclusions that may be based, in significant part, on what I believe are faulty premises.

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From the Hans-Peter Mueller paper referred to previously:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hans_peter_muller.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 19:51
Around the time of the Bronze Age collapse, the beginning of an enduring Assyrian dynasty, lion-skin cloaks, cremations, horses and foals, Ḫanigalbat/Mitanni...

The Seal of Ili-pada
Frans Wiggermann
Publication Date: 2006
Publication Name: in Paul Taylor (ed.), The Iconography of Cylinder Seals


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wiggermann.jpg

[And, the seal of Ili-pada]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wiggermann2.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-09, 22:13
THE MIDDLE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE

The rise of the Assyrian Empire
Starting around 1350 BC we can document the rise of the Assyrian Empire in northern Mesopotamia, originally centred around the cities of Assur and Mosul in northern Iraq. This empire survived for more than seven centuries, would eventually incorporate much of the Near East, and was the direct ancestor of the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid Empires. Earlier Empires in the Near East, such as those of Akkad, Ur III, The Hittites, and New Kingdom Egypt, were much more short lived and generally smaller in scale. The Assyrian Empire constitutes a turning point in the history of the Near East, and the question at stake is how this state could become so successful.

Around 1250 BC the Assyrians had conquered the Habur region and the Balikh Valey, whereas the Hittite sphere of influence extended west of the Euphrates. Around 1180 poorly understood but momentous changes took place in the Near East, resulting in the demise of the Hittite and Egyptian Empires, and the weakening of the network of Assyrian settlements in northern Syria. What is remarkable, however, is that the Assyrian Empire suffered only a temporary set back and emerged stronger out of this period. Here, one can draw a parallel with the early Roman Empire, which survived 15 years of Punic occupation in Italy. The intriguing question is what allowed the Assyrian Empire to survive where other contemporary empires failed. One answer that has been given to this question is that the Assyrians developed a network of settlements in occupied territories, on a more systematic scale than earlier Empires, that allowed them to retain their hold over their territories.

The Consolidating Empire Project
http://dunnu.nl/

Humanist
2013-01-10, 06:40
1
SURETH
sparigla
[Country → Fruits]
English : a quince
Dialect : Urmiah, Eastern Syriac, NENA, Al Qosh


AKKADIAN (NEO-ASSYRIAN?)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/supurgillu.jpg



2
SURETH
sappana
[Professions]
English : a seaman , a sailor
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN (STANDARD BABYLONIAN/NEO-BABYLONIAN?)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapannu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-10, 07:55
SYRIAC (Source: CAL)
šbṭ, šbṭʾ (šḇāṭ, šḇāṭā) v.n. #4 beating down

1 straight hair Syr.
2 smooth cloth Syr.
3 salt pork Syr.

SURETH
'sabit
[Science]
English : proved , ascertained by experiment or standard , proven / known / tried , attested / substantiated / manifest , demonstrated , certified , witnessed (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (STANDARD BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabatu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabbituB1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabbituB2.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabbitu.jpg

The word immediately above refers to these two words:
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/beruB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/muirru.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-10, 13:07
Middle Assyrian
A. Tell Sabi Abyad (Middle Assyrian Administration?)
G. Nemrik
H. ~ Tell Shiukh Fawqani (also NA)

Neo-Assyrian
B. Ziyaret Tepe (Neo-Assyrian Administration?)
C. ~ Kavusan Höyük (?)
D. Carchemish (?)
E. Dur-Katlimmu (?)
H. ~ Tell Shiukh Fawqani (also MA)

Sites "B" and "C" are located close to each other.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Mitanni
F. Tell el Fakhariya (Washukanni?) <-- NOT INTENDED TO INDICATE CREMATION

Source: Assyrians and Arameans in the Upper Euphrates Valley
Aline Tenu
University of Cambridge

Covering "F" with Royal Seal of Shaushtatar of Mitanni.


An argument against cremation at Neo-Assyrian Tell Barri (placing a blue "x" at the ~ location).

Tell Barri (Syria), seasons 1980–2006

Arkadiusz Sołtysiak


[T]he case of individual 895 from Tell Barri is even more complicated, because the burned skeleton was found in anatomical position, with undisturbed articulations. The body had been buried in two large jars joined by their rims. The child could not have been burned inside the jars since no trace of ash was found and the vessels themselves showed no sign of burning. It is probable that this was not a case of an intended cremation, but rather an unusual accident. Th e jars were well sealed with bitumen and the body inside decayed in an empty space. Some time after the burial a fire began on the ground just above the grave and the jars covering the defleshed bones acted as an oven. Ash from this fire was found during the excavations and it is likely that the fire was not related to any funerary practices, but rather purely accidental. Th e elevated temperature, which may have been located near the grave and lasted for some time, was high enough to affect the bones but left no traces on the jars. Th is unusual case clearly demonstrates that every incidence of burned human bone in Mesopotamia must be studied with great care instead of automatically labeling it as an example of intentional cremation.


Assyrian Cremation Sites (and one argument against cremation (blue "x"))

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremations_mit_.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-10, 19:20
From a post in the Assyrian Y-DNA thread, from August of last year.

Populations/areas who appear to be our best matches, based on STR data, and limited by the currently available dataset:

N=94 (8/25/12)

24.5% R1b (Alawites (N Syria, Turkey/Syria border area))
17.0% J1 (Arabians, NE Turks, Dagestanis)
14.9% T (Egypt, Africa, Levant?)
13.8% J2 (??)
9.6% E1b1b1 (??)
9.6% G (Ashkenazi men appear to match a few Assyrians well)
4.3% R2a (Arabian)
2.1% Q1b (Ashkenazi and other Middle Easterners)
2.1% R1a (??)
1.1% F (Arabian)
1.1% L (??)

A haplogroup of possible relevance, above, in blue bold.


An argument against cremation at Neo-Assyrian Tell Barri (placing a blue "x" at the ~ location).

Assyrian Cremation Sites (and one argument against cremation (blue "x"))

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/cremations_mit_.jpg

BURIAL CUSTOMS AT TELL ARBID (SYRIA) IN THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE CULTURAL INTERRELATIONS WITH THE NILE DELTA AND THE LEVANT
Zuzanna Wygnańska
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
2008

Abstract:
Eight seasons of excavations on the site of Tell Arbid in the basin of the Khabur River in northeastern Syria (1997–2005) resulted in the discovery of 29 graves of MBA date. An analysis of this set of burials indicated that a new burial rite, characterized by strong family and clan ties, had been introduced about the beginning of the second millennium BC. Parallels for MBA burial practices have been recorded on neighboring sites in the Upper Khabur area and in southern Mesopotamia. Equid burials accompanied some of the human graves and it seems that the custom saw a revival in this period once again after the EBA. Close parallels for this custom as well as other elements of the burial practices at sites in the eastern Nile Delta and in the southern Levant are interesting to note. The spread of similar practices can be linked with high probability to the presence and growing political dominance of the West Semites.

The "Aramaeans" as a West Semitic/Hittite-Luwian/Hurrian amalgam still makes the most sense to me, based on the totality of the data.

Humanist
2013-01-10, 23:57
Just throwing this (no pun) one out there. I reckon this may be a loan from another Semitic or non-Semitic language.

SURETH
'supra
[City → Inn]
English : a table-cloth
Dialect : Urmiah

'ṣupra
[Feeding]
English : 1) a table -cloth ; 2) food placed on a spread cloth or on the table to be partaken of
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/saparru.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/supuru.jpg
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/supuru2.jpg


Note the comment regarding "supuru," at bottom.
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/tarbasu.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/tarbasu1.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/tarbasu2.jpg


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_HmL95svhJNo/S1YmoKlpsYI/AAAAAAAAEDs/nk08ns-jad0/s576/Hawaiian_postcard_1961.jpg

http://i01.i.aliimg.com/photo/v3/245065389/Polyester_table_cloth_organza_overlay_table_cover. jpg

http://www.astropix.com/IMAGES/SHOW_DIG/Lunar_Halo.JPG

http://ubdavid.org/bibleexploration/know-your-bible1/graphics/18_the-sheepfold.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-11, 02:03
Just throwing this (no pun) one out there. I reckon this may be a loan from another Semitic or non-Semitic language.

SURETH
'supra
[City → Inn]
English : a table-cloth
Dialect : Urmiah

'ṣupra
[Feeding]
English : 1) a table -cloth ; 2) food placed on a spread cloth or on the table to be partaken of
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/saparru.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/supuru.jpg
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/supuru2.jpg


Note the comment regarding "supuru," at bottom.
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/tarbasu.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/tarbasu1.jpg

http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/tarbasu2.jpg


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_HmL95svhJNo/S1YmoKlpsYI/AAAAAAAAEDs/nk08ns-jad0/s576/Hawaiian_postcard_1961.jpg

http://i01.i.aliimg.com/photo/v3/245065389/Polyester_table_cloth_organza_overlay_table_cover. jpg

http://www.astropix.com/IMAGES/SHOW_DIG/Lunar_Halo.JPG

http://ubdavid.org/bibleexploration/know-your-bible1/graphics/18_the-sheepfold.jpg

Adding to Akkadian "saparru." And Sureth.


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/saparru.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru2_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru3_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saparru4_.jpg


SURETH
sapir : to wait (Geoffrey Khan adds, "to expect")

Humanist
2013-01-11, 04:36
From a previous post:


In the Dur-Sharrukin cylinder inscription, the task of linguistic unification is given to the Assyrian monarch Sargon II, who ruled from 722 to 705 B.C.:


Peoples of the four regions of the world, of foreign tongue and divergent speech, dwellers of mountain and lowland, all that were ruled by the light of the gods, lord of all, I carried off at Assur, my lord's command, by the might of my scepter. I made them of one mouth...

William M. Schniedewind
Kershaw Chair of Ancient Eastern Mediterranean Studies
Professor of Biblical Studies & Northwest Semitic Languages
University of California, Los Angeles

Wikipedia


During the 6th century BCE, the Babylonian captivity brought the working language of Mesopotamia much more into the daily life of ordinary Jews. Around 500 BCE, Darius I of Persia proclaimed[citation needed] that Aramaic would be the official language for the western half of his empire, and the Eastern Aramaic dialect of Babylon became the official standard. Documentary evidence shows the gradual shift from Hebrew to Aramaic...

Wikipedia


Darius I (Persian: داريوش بزرگ ‎, Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš; 550–486 BCE) was the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire...

....

Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire.


I am curious when the various dialects of the language group we today regard as the descendant of "Old Aramaic" were first attested in the written record (or otherwise). And yes, this curiosity goes back to something I have mentioned several times over the last few months (since I began reading the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary). Scholar or not, something does not make sense. I am sorry. It does not make sense from the historical perspective. It does not make sense from the genetics (of modern populations) perspective. And it does not make sense, in my opinion, from the linguistic (specifically, lexicon) perspective. It only makes sense, in my opinion, from the Abrahamic perspective. Do not get me wrong, I certainly do not believe that I speak Akkadian. But, as stated previously, I believe the influence of Akkadian (specifically Babylonian), probably Persian, and perhaps other Indo-European languages like Greek have not been given their proper due in linguistic analyses. Also, please refer to the article by Jacques Berlinerblau, "The Unspeakable in Biblical Scholarship (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1043591&viewfull=1#post1043591)."

A blogger or two may use this as a source for fodder, and that is fine. There are very few people out there telling "our" story. But there are many thousands telling the "Christian" story, the "Jewish" story, etc. So, it is worth it in my opinion. I began my search into my origins believing I was descended from Ashurbanipal himself (I am joking a bit). However, in my opinion, based on the complete record to date, as I have stated before, I am probably more of a mix between Babylonians from the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, Persians, and Greco-Macedonians/Anatolians. So, for folks thinking that this is about trying to preserve an "Assyrian" identity, well, then, I am not sure what to tell you, since I am basically saying that if I am Assyrian genetically, the Assyrian component may be a minority component, and that there are extremely few words of Neo-Assyrian origin in our lexicon. Does this mean that I am right about anything? No. But, it does, I think, suggest that I am sincere in my pursuit of the reality, rather than a fiction, an ignorant bliss, or what have you.

Here is a bit of information on one particular Aramaic dialect.

Wikipedia


The term Galilean dialect generally refers to the form of Aramaic language spoken by people in Galilee during the late Second Temple period, for example at the time of Jesus and the disciples, as distinct from a Judean dialect of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic spoken in Jerusalem.

Wikipedia


The Second Temple period in Jewish history in Judea lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed. The Second Temple period ended with the First Jewish–Roman War and the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple.

After the death of the last Jewish Prophets of the antiquity and still under Persian rule, the leadership of the Jewish people was in the hands of five successive generations of zugot ("pairs of") leaders. They flourished first under the Persians (c. 539–c. 332 BCE), then under the Greeks (c. 332-167 BCE), then under an independent Hasmonean Kingdom (140-37 BCE), and then under the Romans (63 BCE-132 CE). As a result the sects of Pharisees and Sadduccees were formed.

Humanist
2013-01-11, 07:03
I have mentioned Standard Babylonian many times by now. I had no idea what it was before it began appearing in a good many of the comparisons I was making between the contents of the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary and Sureth. What would be the implications, if any, of acknowledging Standard Babylonian influence on the language group we today refer to as Aramaic? I am not saying that it is certainly there, although I believe it is. Because, quite frankly, I am not in a position to analyze linguistic data with sufficient competence. But, if a genuine link was established, what would be the possible implications, if any? Please pay particular attention to the first paragraph, below.




Standard Babylonian

George , Andrew (2007) 'Babylonian and Assyrian: a history of Akkadian.' In: Postgate, J. N., (ed.), Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, pp. 36, 57-59.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian1_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian2_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/standard_babylonian3_.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-11, 08:57
I do not wish to pick on Israel, but the fact remains that they are inextricably linked to just about everything that is of relevance.

A bit old, but perhaps it is still current.


The residence at Ayyelet ha-Shahar, the earliest evidence of the Assyrian presence in Israel, represents the laying of the foundations for the lasting Assyrian rule in Israel. This residence, and the beginning of the Assyrian domination over northern Israel, can now be dated to the period between the destruction of Hazor by Tiglath-Pileser III (732 B.C.E.) and the 6th year of the reign of Sargon II (716 B.C.E.).

Tel Aviv 17 (1990)
THE DATE OF THE "ASSYRIAN RESIDENCE" AT AYYELET HA-SHAHAR
Oded Lipschitz

- - - Updated - - -

An entry from August. The links for this comparison, like hundreds of others, are no longer functioning. It is an example of one of the many verbs I posted in the past. It is attested from Old Akkadian on.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/masu_.jpg


SURETH (Source: Geoffrey Khan)
mṣy : to be able; to prevail

Humanist
2013-01-11, 10:14
Akkadian, according to Wikipedia, had a SOV word order. Sureth, according to Wikipedia, has a SVO word order. According to Wikipedia, proto-Semitic was VSO. The same VSO order was the standard in Old Aramaic. Searching for an explanation of the relationships between the types of word orders, and if there is a prevalent direction of change from one type to another type, I came across this recent paper (I understand it is more complicated, i.e. drift, contact, etc.):


In word order change, the progression SOV > SVO or sometimes VSO seems to have no exceptions apart from cases of diffusion, but the other progression SVO > VSO/VOS has a number of counterexamples. Givón (12) discusses the shift from VSO to SVO in Biblical Hebrew and suggests that a similar change appears to have taken place in Luo and Indonesian. England (13) argues for the same change in the Mayan family. A similar shift in the Austronesian family from VSO/VOS to SVO and then back to VSO is discussed below.

In connection with the arrow of time SOV > SVO > VSO/VOS, we are discussing two different progressions. One has SOV mutating to SVO (or perhaps occasionally VSO), but not the reverse (back to SOV). According to Givón, “To my knowledge all documented shifts to SOV from VO … can be shown to be contact induced” (12), a conclusion also arrived at by Tai (14) and Faarlund (15).

The other progression has SOV > SVO > VSO/VOS or sometimes SOV > VSO > SVO. Givón has emphasized the latter: “It seems that natural word-order drift follows the paradigm SOV > VSO > SVO as a major typological continuum” (12). Here we disagree with Givón. We find, on the basis of the distribution of word order types, that in natural drift we have SOV > SVO far more often than SOV > VSO. There are many known cases, such as English and some Romance languages, where historical records show that SOV has become SVO without an intervening VSO stage.

The origin and evolution of word order (http://www.pnas.org/content/108/42/17290.full)
Published online before print October 10, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1113716108
PNAS October 18, 2011 vol. 108 no. 42 17290-17295
Murray Gell-Mann, and Merritt Ruhlen

Humanist
2013-01-11, 11:35
I am going to try and restore words from comparisons with dead links as I come across them again. Here is one. The Akkadian word is not a verb.


SURETH (source: G. Khan)
qareš : to cover; to roof (a house)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasu2_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gursu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurus_garas.jpg

Wikipedia


The vulva (from the Latin vulva, plural vulvae, see etymology) consists of the external genital organs of the female mammal.[1] This article deals with the vulva of the human being, although the structures are similar for other mammals.

The vulva has many major and minor anatomical structures, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of vestibule, vulval vestibule, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and the opening of the vagina. Its development occurs during several phases, chiefly during the fetal and pubertal periods of time. As the outer portal of the human uterus or womb, it protects its opening by a "double door": the labia majora (large lips) and the labia minora (small lips).

....

The clitoris is located at the front of the vulva, where the labia minora meet. The visible portion of the clitoris is the clitoral glans. ...The clitoral hood is the female equivalent of the male foreskin.[4] Often the clitoral hood is only partially hidden inside of the pudendal cleft.

Humanist
2013-01-11, 12:57
I am going to try and restore words from comparisons with dead links as I come across them again. Here is one. The Akkadian word is not a verb.


SURETH (source: G. Khan)
qareš : to cover; to roof (a house)


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasu_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/karasu2_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gursu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/gurus_garas.jpg

Wikipedia


The vulva (from the Latin vulva, plural vulvae, see etymology) consists of the external genital organs of the female mammal.[1] This article deals with the vulva of the human being, although the structures are similar for other mammals.

The vulva has many major and minor anatomical structures, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of vestibule, vulval vestibule, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and the opening of the vagina. Its development occurs during several phases, chiefly during the fetal and pubertal periods of time. As the outer portal of the human uterus or womb, it protects its opening by a "double door": the labia majora (large lips) and the labia minora (small lips).

....

The clitoris is located at the front of the vulva, where the labia minora meet. The visible portion of the clitoris is the clitoral glans. ...The clitoral hood is the female equivalent of the male foreskin.[4] Often the clitoral hood is only partially hidden inside of the pudendal cleft.

Continuation of the above post.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/igaris.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/igaru.jpg


SUMERIAN
é-gar8 wall


SYRIAC
igara
[City → Hotel]
English : a roof , a house top
Dialect : Classical Syriac

Humanist
2013-01-11, 14:55
Not sure about this one.

SURETH
iṣapa
English : to heed , to be careful , to regard with care , to take notice of , to obey (?) / hearken (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/azibatu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezbu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezebu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ezib.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-11, 16:11
SURETH
'rta
[Human → Speech]
English : (transitive verb) : to admonish , to warn , to caution , to reprimand / reprove gently but seriously , to warn against offence , to advise , to instruct
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/retu1.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/retu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/retu3.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-12, 05:51
One must examine the question of the origins of the Kassites, to understand the later Babylonian eras (e.g. Neo-Babylonians)


A few thoughts.

Perhaps the Chaldeans (Assyrian Akkadian: "Kaldu"; Babylonian Akkadian: "Kasdu") were a sort of "Old Guard." I am not saying that they did not have recent immigrants among them, but perhaps they were, by and large, Babylonians. Babylonians who placed an importance on the traditions of old (Sumero-Akkadian and Kassite??*). So, perhaps "Chaldean" was more of a socio-cultural class identifier, than anything else. That is why they are not attested in the written record before 878 BCE. That is why they appeared to "adopt" the Sumero-Akkadian traditions en masse. Just a thought.


SUMERIAN
gal-di (ppl. of gal - du11) greatly accomplished, pre-eminent, excellent, excelling (ra'bu, tizqāru); cf. gal-gal-di boaster, boasting(?) (mukabbiru) (Attinger, Eléments 510ff.)
gal, gu-ul v. and adj. (to be) big, large, great; older, elder, eldest
kal to be precious, dear, valuable
ĝiš - dù to bring an offering (Sjöberg, AV Limet 139)
ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)
ĝeštu(g)1-3 ear; intelligence, mind, understanding, reason


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasdu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kasittu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kassu.jpg


** (EA = El-Amarna)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kaldu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/kuldu.jpg



* Wikipedia

The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC (short chronology).

The Kassite language is thought to have been related to Hurrian,[1] and not Indo-European or Semitic although the evidence for its genetic affiliation is meager due to the scarcity of extant texts. However, several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they might have had an Indo-European elite similliar to the Mitanni.[2]

Wikipedia


Ḫaldi (dḪaldi, also anglicized as Khaldi) was one of the three chief deities of Ararat (Urartu). His shrine was at Ardini. The other two chief deities were Theispas of Kumenu, and Shivini of Tushpa.[1]

Of all the gods of Ararat (Urartu) panthenon, the most inscriptions are dedicated to him.[citation needed] His wife was the goddess Arubani. He is portrayed as a man with or without a beard, standing on a lion.[citation needed]

Khaldi was a warrior god whom the kings of Urartu would pray to for victories in battle. The temples dedicated to Khaldi were adorned with weapons, such as swords, spears, bow and arrows, and shields hung off the walls and were sometimes known as 'the house of weapons'.

**

What are the Amarna Tablets?
The clay tablets are mainly diplomatic letters (with a few myths and epics) written in cuneiform script (wedge prints made in wet clay then baked), often covering both sides of a tablet for efficiency.

When were the tablets written?
A very brief period historically: the second half of the fourteenth century BCE (1400-1300 BCE), the “New Kingdom” period in Ancient Egypt and late Bronze Age in Palestine. The actual duration of the correspondence is likely not much more than 25 years total. The tablets take us intimately into one of the most popularly recognized periods in ancient Egypt with connections to Nefertiti and her husband Akhenaten, sometimes credited with being one of the first monotheists.

The tablets found in El-Amarna are mostly “letters received” from abroad, not letters written in Egypt.

Letters from abroad came from other kings of Babylonia, Assyria, Hatti (Hittites in Eastern Asia Minor), Mittani (Hurrian, north of Assyria), and Cyprus (Alashiya), but the majority come from vassal rulers in Syria-Palestine (Canaan, Lebanon, Ugarit, and the eastern Mediterranean coastal lands).

Letters from Egypt were written by scribes of the pharaohs and were sent out of Egypt and presumably lie in the ruins of the cities where they were received. Some draft letters by the pharaohs, however, stayed in Akhetaten. We can also assume that most copies of vital correspondence were archived locally in the Egyptian language, rather than in their Akkadian translations.

What topics do they deal with?
Exchanges of gifts between rulers (e.g., fancy furniture, gold, linen, etc.)
Diplomatic marriages (one letter from a Babylonian king asked for proof that his sister, one of Pharaoh’s earlier wives, is still alive before sending the Pharaoh his daughter as a new wife!)
News about events in distant cities: Byblos, Tyre, etc.
Requests for grain and other foodstuffs, lumber, ships, military aid, etc.
Vassals’ concerns about the rising military threat of the Hittites on the northern borders of Egyptian influence and concern from Jerusalem and Gezer, too, about the military threat from the ‘Apiru.
A few contain myths and legends.

Source: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/ancient_texts/elamarna.shtml


A naming tradition that dates back to at least the period of Kassite dominated Middle Babylonia, may survive to this day, in the modern Assyrian community.

The Ethno-linguistic Character of Northwestern Iran and Kurdistan in the Neo-Assyrian Period.
Ron Zadok, 2002

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_2.jpg



As semi-nomadic groups before they settled, the Kassites were organised in family and tribal units which were named as 'House of so-and-so' (Akkadian Bit + the name of a person, usually an ancestor). After they lost political control of Babylonia, the Kassites remained there and in neighbouring areas, and maintained their organisational houses with ancestral Kassite names. These remained the administrative units of some areas after the disappearance of the main dynasty of Kassite kings...

....

The three main Chaldaean groups were Bit-Dakkuri between Babylon and Nippur, Bit-Amukani between Nippur and Uruk, and Bit-Jakin in the marshy south. While their empire was a strong one, it also faced opposition from a resurgent Egypt in the west, various states in Anatolia, and invasions from the north by Scythians and Cimmerians. The state's archives have not been preserved, so the fine detail of Babylonian rule in the empire has been lost.

Source: http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsMiddEast/MesopotamiaBabylon.htm


Wikipedia

"Cities of Sumer." I have added what I believe are roughly accurate locations for the three main Chaldean groups:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chaldea_sumer.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-12, 22:04
A continuation of the above post.



http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chaldea_sumer.jpg


When I read the name "Bit-Yakin," I was reminded of an Akkadian word I had come across a while back. Not necessarily related in any way.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku1-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku2-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku3-1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku4_.jpg

Wikipedia


Chaldea as the name of a country is used in two different senses. In the early period it was the name of a small territory in southern Babylonia extending along the northern and probably also the western shores of the Persian Gulf.[1] It is called in Assyrian mat Kaldi "land of Chaldea". The expression mat Bit Yakin is also used, apparently synonymously. Bit Yakin was likely the chief or capital city of the land. The king of Chaldea is also called the king of Bit Yakin, just as the kings of Babylonia are regularly styled simply king of Babylon, the capital city. In the same way, the Persian Gulf was sometimes called "the Sea of Bit Yakin, instead of "the Sea of the Land of Chaldea."

A few bits from Wikipedia on most of the Sumerian cities in the vicinity of Bit-Yakin.


Eridu is an ancient Sumerian city in what is now Tell Abu Shahrain, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq. Eridu was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia, and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world.[1] Located 12 km southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of Sumerian cities that grew about temples, almost in sight of one another. In Sumerian mythology, Eridu was originally the home of Enki, who was considered to have founded the city, later known by the Akkadians as Ea. His temple was called E-Abzu, as Enki was believed to live in Abzu ("Deep Ocean"), an aquifer from which all life was believed to stem.



Uruk was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.[1]

....

In myth and literature, Uruk was famous as the capital city of Gilgamesh, hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh. It is also believed Uruk is the biblical (Genesis 10:10) Erech, the second city founded by Nimrod in Shinar.

....

Eanna district
The Eanna district is historically significant as both writing and monumental public architecture emerge here during Uruk periods VI-IV. The combination of these two developments places Eanna as the first true city and civilization in human history. Eanna during period IVa contains the earliest examples of cuneiform writing and therefore the earliest writing in history. Although these cuneiform tablets have been deciphered, difficulty with site excavations has obscured, the purpose and sometimes even the structure of many buildings.

The first building of Eanna, Stone-Cone Temple (Mosaic Temple), was built in period VI over a preexisting Ubaid temple and is enclosed by a limestone wall with an elaborate system of buttresses. The Stone-Cone Temple, named for the mosaic of colored stone cones driven into the adobe brick façade, may be the earliest water cult in Mesopotamia. It was ritually demolished in Uruk IVb period and its contents interred in the Riemchen Building.



Ur was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.[4] Once a coastal city near the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf, Ur is now well inland, south of the Euphrates on its right bank, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Nasiriyah.[5]

The city dates from the Ubaid period circa 3800 BC, and is recorded in written history as a City State from the 26th century BC, its first recorded king being Mesh-Ane-pada. The city's patron deity was Nanna (in Akkadian Sin), the Sumerian and Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) moon god, and the name of the city is in origin derived from the god's name, URIM2KI being the classical Sumerian spelling of LAK-32.UNUGKI, literally "the abode (UNUG) of Nanna (LAK-32)".[6]

The site is marked by the ruins of the Ziggurat of Ur, which contained the shrine of Nanna, excavated in the 1930s. The temple was built in the 21st century BC (short chronology), during the reign of Ur-Nammu and was reconstructed in the 6th century BC by Nabonidus, (the Assyrian born last king of Babylon) in the 6th century BC. The ruins cover an area of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) northwest to southeast by 800 metres (2,600 ft) northeast to southwest and rise up to about 20 metres (66 ft) above the present plain level.[7]

Biblical Ur
Ur is considered by many to be the city of Ur Kasdim mentioned in the Book of Genesis (Biblical Hebrew אוּר) as the birthplace of the Hebrew patriarch Abram, traditionally believed to be sometime in the 2nd millennium BC.



Larsa was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu. It lies some 25 km southeast of Uruk in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate, near the east bank of the Shatt-en-Nil canal at the site of the modern settlement Tell as-Senkereh or Sankarah.

According to the Sumerian king list, "Larag" (Sumerian: LA-RA-AKKI[3]) was one of the five cities to "exercise kingship" in the legendary antediluvian era. The historical "Larsa" was already in existence as early as the reign of Eannatum of Lagash, who annexed it to his empire.

Humanist
2013-01-12, 23:47
A possible connection between two past posts.


BIT ZAMANI AND ASSYRIA

Jeffrey SZUCHMAN, 2009


To date, excavations in the region have uncovered Middle and Late Assyrian occupations, with a clear interval between them, during which a markedly different culture occupied the region. However, it has been very difficult to equate that break with the archaeological reflection of Aramean presence, during the period between the Middle and the Late Assyrian occupations. The sites of Üçtepe, Ziyaret Tepe, and Giricano all offer challenges to understanding the complex changes that occurred during the transition from the LBA to the EIA.

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamani_zpscd39134a.jpg



SURETH
ṣavana (ṣawana --> ṣamana or ṣabana)
[Art]
English : 1) ugly , offensive to the sight , contrary to beauty , unsightly , hideous , ill-favored / ill-favoured , unhomely , horrible / frightful / ghastly / gruesome / fearsome / grisly / direful / terrible ; 2) influential , powerful , weighty , having leverage / clout / pull
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamanu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamanu2.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamanu3.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/zamu2.jpg

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Bold by me.


This king [Tukulti-Ninurta II (891-883 BC)] campaigned in the area and successfully extracted tribute from Amme-ba‘li, the local king of the Anatolian state of Bit Zamani (near the still-living Turkish city of Diyarbakir). This renewed Assyrian involvement in the north, but it was left to the son of Tukulti-Ninurta II, Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC), to establish the Assyrian presence on firm foundations. Ashurnasirpal campaigned here in his second and fifth years (882 and 879 BC), and a revolt of Amme-ba‘li was brutally suppressed. This paved the way for Ashurnasirpal to implement a truly imperial agenda.

Ziyaret Tepe: Digging the frontier of the Assyrian Empire

Current World Archaeology . Issue 37

Humanist
2013-01-13, 00:48
Please first refer to this post: #1445 (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/13197-Origin-of-the-Ancient-Assyrians-(split)-mod?p=1086004&viewfull=1#post1086004). Note the location, and other facts related to Bit-Yakin under "Chaldea."

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku4_.jpg


From a very early stage in their civilization, the Sumerians had taken to placing their important temples on platforms or, in the case of ziggurats, on a stepped series of platforms. There are a variety of reasons why they may have done this. In the first place, its elevated position would have symbolized its elevated relationship with the people of the city— literally putting it above the humdrum of everyday life. It also put their priests closer to the heavens, where they could better communicate with the deity so he could hear their prayers and speak his will. A big part of the relationship between the people and their god was pure show business. Life was hard and life was short, let’s at least spice it up with a bit of spectacle. By all accounts, Sumerian priests put on a good show and where better to stage it than on a high platform where the whole population could see it. It certainly made an impression on Jacob. On a practical level, it protected the temple from the violent floods that periodically devastated the land (it is only massive dams that hold them back today) and reduced the security problems in the place where most of the city's portable wealth was kept.

http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/ur%20of%20the%20chaldees/ur02_ziggurat.restored.png

Source: http://www.odysseyadventures.ca ("Adventures in Archaeology")

Humanist
2013-01-13, 02:37
Continuing the above post. Refer to the Akkadian/Sumerian term "ajakku," and "Bit-Yakin."

Wikipedia


Jacob, also later known as Israel, as described in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament and the Qur'an was the third patriarch of the Hebrew people with whom God made a covenant, and ancestor of the tribes of Israel, which were named after his descendants.

Jacob wrestling with an angel, as imagined in a Bible illustration

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Jacob_Wrestling_with_the_Angel.jpg/250px-Jacob_Wrestling_with_the_Angel.jpg

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Adding to the discussion regarding "ajakku," and "Bit-Yakin."

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/equ.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-13, 07:53
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/ajakku3-1.jpg

From the "ajakku" term. I do not know if it is of any significance, but it is interesting to note that many of the words in the Shalmaneser I (MA) inscription contain an "a" suffix.

Humanist
2013-01-13, 09:03
However, in my opinion, based on the complete record to date, as I have stated before, I am probably more of a mix between Babylonians from the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, Persians, and Greco-Macedonians/Anatolians.

During the Neo-Assyrian era, the Assyrian Heartland receives a large number of deportees from S Iran and Babylonia. Other sources of incoming deportees include the Levant and Anatolia.

~612 BCE The Assyrian Empire comes to an end. Most of its major centers are destroyed. There is continuity in some parts. However, Assyria as it existed is no more. The base of power transfers to the south (Babylon) and east (Persia).

539 BCE Persian domination over Mesopotamia begins.

331 BCE Greco-Macedonian domination over Mesopotamia begins.

Persian domination returns with the Parthians and remains for the greater part of the period through to the Arabo-Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE.

During the early Christian era Mesopotamia receives Greek-speaking Christian deportees from the west.

~ 400 CE Church of the East's center becomes Seleucia-Ctesiphon.

762 CE Baghdad becomes the Abbasid capital.

That is my basic outline through the 1st millennium CE. That, plus the other data I have referred to in this thread, is why I say that I may be, in significant part a mix of southern Mesopotamians, Iranians, and Greco-Macedonians/Anatolians. And, why I believe, linguistically, it would make sense to look more to Akkadian, Persian, and Greek for influences on the language that is Sureth.

Humanist
2013-01-13, 10:51
From the Assyrian Y-DNA thread:


With some luck, in a few weeks, we will have the STR markers of an Assyrian J1-P58 man tested at 23andMe. His 23andMe result is already included in the J1 frequency, reported above.


Kit was received by FTDNA today. Look for results in mid to late January.


Results are out. Y-Search returns no results within a GD of 6 at 37 markers. FTDNA returns two matches (GD=2). The first man lists Lithuania as country of maternal origin, but does not list a country of paternal origin. The second man lists Ukraine as country of both maternal and paternal origin.

This, and other evidence, fits in well, with this fact from Wikipedia:


Beginning with the Sassanid Empire and up to the 11th century, Sassanid Assyria ["Asuristan"] was the center of Judaism in the world. The major book defining Judaism, the Babylonian Talmud, was written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic in Asuristan between the 3rd and 5th centuries. The Babylonian Talmudic academies were all established relatively near to Seleucia-Ctesiphon. The first Talmudic academy was founded in Sura by Rav (175–247) in about 220. One of the most influential Talmudic teachers, Rava (270-350), who was influenced by both Manichaean polemic and Zoroastrian theology, studied in another Talmudic academy at Pumbedita.

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Wikipedia on Babylon


It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world from ca. 1770 to 1670 BC, and again between ca. 612 and 320 BC. It was perhaps the first city to reach a population above 200,000.

Humanist
2013-01-13, 11:12
What I am really hoping for is a lot of aDNA from Mesopotamia. I may be underestimating the more ancient ancestral ties, and overestimating the more recent. There are plenty of ancient remains to test from Mesopotamia. Whether or not DNA can be extracted is another question.

Humanist
2013-01-13, 21:14
Perhaps the closest thing we will get to Mesopotamian aDNA. At least, in the relatively near future.


BEAN: Bridging the European and Anatolian Neolithic (https://sites.google.com/site/beanresearchnetwork/description-of-research-projects)
The BEAN network proposes to carry out much-needed research into the origins of settled farming life in Europe and the Europeans themselves while training the next generation of European researchers in the cutting-edge techniques of three different research areas:

1. Anthropology and Genetics

2. Simulations and Modelling

3. Prehistoric Archaeology

These scientific disciplines reinforce each other to form a robust research framework within which researchers in the BEAN network can approach one of the most pressing archaeological questions of our time: the Neolithisation of Europe.

It would be great to have some Alawite samples to compare the western Anatolian aDNA to.


Wikipedia


An Alawite falconer photographed by Frank Hurley in Baniyas, Syria, during World War II

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Alawite_falconer.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-13, 23:08
I have stated before that a decent chunk of the Sumerian lexicon looked "familiar" to me. Although I am still of that opinion, there are a significant portion (perhaps majority) of words in Sumerian that appear foreign. This may be because I am somewhat familiar with the language, but to me, some words in Sumerian remind me of Persian.

The same (i.e. nouns) has been said regarding the supposedly very small number of Akkadian "loans" in what we today refer to as Neo-Aramaic. Although I certainly have respect for those in the field, and their accomplishments, I have many questions regarding this point. In my layman's opinion, when speaking strictly about the lexicon, a very significant portion of the "Neo-Aramaic" lexicon (including many dozens of verbs) may be Akkadian in origin. Including a good many from Standard Babylonian. But very few from Neo-Assyrian. If one looks back at the complete record, this is not as fantastical a position, when one considers the other possibilities.

Today's world, in my opinion, began with the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire. In Babylon, the Indo-European (Greco-Macedonian), Indo-Iranian IE (Persian), West Semitic (Canaanite), and Sumero-Akkadian (Mesopotamian) worlds came together, in one place, at the same time, perhaps for the first time. It was this fusion of peoples, and ideas, that gave birth to our world. A world dominated (at least in the "West"), for the better part of the last 2500 years, by the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/ReligionSymbolAbr.PNG/220px-ReligionSymbolAbr.PNG

Wikipedia


Symbols of the Abrahamic religions: Judaism represented by the Star of David (top), Christianity represented by the Cross (left), and Islam represented by the Arabic calligraphy of the word God (Allah) (right)


A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic

Part II (2011)

Sergey Loesov

Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow


The etymology of the -ē suffix

How does this evidence square with our ideas about the origin of the -ē suffix? There is no consensus about its etymology, except that it was not the masculine-plural-definite nominal ending in Proto-Aramaic (save perhaps for the nisba nouns). Three theories have been enjoying support since the late 19th century: 1) *-ayyāʔ > -ē; 2) generalization of the -ē that since prehistoric times had been used to the right of the nisba āy- in the whole of Aramaic; 3) borrowing of the Assyrian [Akkadian] masculine plural ending -ē.

....

Theory (3), shared by the present writer, is a strong claim, therefore it requires typological and historical justifications...

....

It is a commonplace (mentioned above in connection with Arabic broken plurals) that plural markers are normally borrowed from the lexicon. Now Kaufman (1974) counts some one hundred fifty Akkadian loanwords in the whole of Aramaic, and I believe not much would have changed had they been a few more hundreds.


Babylonian lexicon, but Assyrian influence in other areas? If you will recall, Geoffrey Khan also suggested a possible connection to the Assyrian variety of Akkadian specifically.

Humanist
2013-01-14, 01:37
Reading the libraries of Assyria and Babylonia (page proofs)
by Eleanor Robson

in J. König, K. Oikonomopoulos, and G. Woolf (eds.), Ancient Libraries, Cambridge University Press 2013, pp. 38-56


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/robson-1.jpg


And something I have referred to before.

Wikipedia


Transmission of the Classics

....

The first stage of this process was the translation into Arabic of Greek philosophical and scientific works that had been preserved by Eastern Christians in Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. The translators were mostly Nestorian and Jacobite Christians, working in the two hundred years following the Abbasid period. The most important translator of this group was the Syriac-speaking Christian Hunayn Ibn Ishaq (809-873), known to the Latins as Joannitius. The texts were first translated into Syriac, then into Arabic. Despite this process, the translations were generally accurate, aiming for a literal reading rather than elegance.


And a relevant bit on Mandaeans:


Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, through her work on the scribal colophons in the numerous Mandaean texts, seems to have shown that the scribal tradition itself goes back to pre-Islamic times, and that the earliest of the series of scribes mentioned in the texts can be dated to approximately 200.

Source: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/alpha/jb/mandaeans.html

Humanist
2013-01-14, 04:04
Another.


I am going to try and restore words from comparisons with dead links as I come across them again.


One of my favorite "familiar" words. Found something in Neo-Assyrian too. I will post the Babylonian words again as well.


Sureth ("mindi"/"mdi"/"mindiyana") See this Wikipedia article, Placeholder name (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placeholder_name), to get an idea how "mindi" is used in my dialect of Sureth. Although the word "mindiyana" is listed simply as the plural of "mindi" by Khan, as I understand it, it is used more often to say "thing," and "mindi" is used more often as a "placeholder name (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placeholder_name)" word, for instance, "something," and "whatchamacallit." At least in my dialect (well, by me). Sureth "mindi" is pronounced like the English feminine name "Mindy."


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mindanu1_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/menimeni_Sureth_mindi_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mindu__.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-14, 05:20
Here again is the sort of history I rarely see considered in linguistic analyses of my language, and related languages.

Wikipedia


The Second Temple was an important Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE. It replaced the First Temple which was destroyed in 586 BCE, when the Jewish nation was exiled to Babylon. Jewish eschatology includes a belief that the Second Temple will in turn be replaced by a future Third Temple.

History

The accession of Cyrus the Great of Persia in 538 BCE made the re-establishment of the city of Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the Temple possible.[1] According to the Bible, when the Jewish exiles returned to Jerusalem following a decree from Cyrus the Great (Ezra 1:1-4, 2 Chron 36:22-23), construction started at the original site of Solomon's Temple, which had remained a devastated heap during the approximately 70 years of captivity (Dan. 9:1-2). After a relatively brief halt due to opposition from peoples who had filled the vacuum during the Jewish captivity (Ezra 4), work resumed c. 521 BCE under the Persian King Darius the Great (Ezra 5) and was completed during the sixth year of his reign (c. 518/517 BCE), with the temple dedication taking place the following year.

....

Based on the biblical account, after the return from Babylonian captivity arrangements were immediately made to reorganize the desolated Yehud Province after the demise of the Kingdom of Judah seventy years earlier. The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42,360,[4] having completed the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their proceedings by a strong religious impulse, and therefore one of their first concerns was to restore their ancient house of worship by rebuilding their destroyed Temple and reinstituting the sacrificial rituals known as the korbanot.

....

Destruction of the Temple

In 66 AD the Jewish population rebelled against the Roman empire. Four years later, in 70 AD, Roman legions under Titus retook and subsequently destroyed much of Jerusalem and the Second Temple. The Arch of Titus, located in Rome and built to commemorate Titus's victory in Judea, depicts a Roman victory procession with soldiers carrying spoils from the Temple, including the Menorah. Although Jews continued to inhabit the destroyed city, Jerusalem was razed by the Emperor Hadrian at the end of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 CE when he established a new city called Aelia Capitolina.

Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (1850 painting by David Roberts)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Roberts_Siege_and_Destruction_of_Jerusalem.jpg

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Wikipedia


Aelia Capitolina

Jerusalem was still in ruins from the First Jewish-Roman War in 70. Josephus, a contemporary, reports that "Jerusalem ... was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation."[1]

When the Roman Emperor Hadrian vowed to rebuild Jerusalem from the wreckage in 130, he considered reconstructing Jerusalem as a gift for the Jewish people. The Jews awaited with hope, but then after Hadrian visited Jerusalem, he decided to rebuild the city as a Roman colony which would be inhabited by his legionnaires.[2] Hadrian's new plans included temples to the major regional deities, and certain Roman gods, in particular Jupiter Capitolinus. Jews secretly started putting aside arms from the Roman munitions workshops; soon after, a revolt broke out under Simeon ben Kosiba. This Bar Kokhba revolt, which the Romans managed to suppress, enraged Hadrian, and he came to be determined to erase Judaism from the province. Circumcision was forbidden, Iudaea province was renamed Syria Palaestina and Jews (formally all circumcised men, Arabs too) were banned from entering the city on pain of death.

Humanist
2013-01-14, 09:16
The dentition of Abraham's people. Why Abraham left Mesopotamia (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9871395).

Neiburger et al.

N Y State Dent J. 1998 Nov;64(9):25-9.

Abstract

Ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq) in 2000 B.C. was the home of the biblical figure Abraham and his people. An analysis of skeletal material from cemeteries in the ancient cities of Ur (birthplace of Abraham) and Kish shows a homogeneous, short-lived population that suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent of inhabitants), periodontal disease (42 percent) and caries (two percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates the population suffered from extensive disease and nutritional deficiency. Of special note was a possible case of endodontic treatment. The people of Abraham had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. It is probable that Abraham, if in truth he existed, left Mesopotamia because of the threat of famine, as evidenced by biblical record, geologic strata and dental analysis.

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Dentition on Bahrain, 2000 B.C. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1980.tb01256.x/abstract)

KAREN H0JGAARD

Article first published online: 1 OCT 2007

DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1980.tb01256.x

Abstract –

Teeth and jaws excavated from 25 burial mounds on the island of Bahrain were examined. Dating: 2000 B.C. The number of individuals, buried was estimated from the dentition. An approximate determination of the age for death was attempted. Non-metric and metric traits of the teeth were observed. The teeth showed Caucasoid but no Mongoloid traits. They were small, worn at an early age, with a great deal of carious lesions, no multiple fractures, only a little calculus and alveoloclasia but frequent enamel hypoplasia, The mandibles, showed fine healing after the widespread antemortem loss of molars, possibly extracted due to the consequence of caries, caused by the consumption of many carbohydrates.

Humanist
2013-01-15, 07:31
Results are out. Y-Search returns no results within a GD of 6 at 37 markers. FTDNA returns two matches (GD=2). The first man lists Lithuania as country of maternal origin, but does not list a country of paternal origin. The second man lists Ukraine as country of both maternal and paternal origin.


YHRD search of the above J-P58 Assyrian haplotype (10 markers):

Top 10 in descending order by frequency:

1. 3 114 2.63% Jordan [Arab-Qahtanit]* Afro-Asiatic Semitic Asia
2. 4 191 2.09% Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates [Arab] Eurasian Asia
3. 1 52 1.92% Qena, Egypt [Egyptian] Afro-Asiatic Semitic Africa
4. 1 52 1.92% Sohag, Egypt [Egyptian] Afro-Asiatic Semitic Africa
5. 1 54 1.85% Tunis, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afro-Asiatic Semitic Africa
6. 1 64 1.56% Stawropol, Russian Federation [Russian] Eurasian European Eastern European Europe
7. 1 65 1.54% Sao Paulo State, Brazil [European] Eurasian European Latin America
8. 4 263 1.52% Oman [Omani] Afro-Asiatic Semitic Asia
9. 2 155 1.29% Sfax, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afro-Asiatic Semitic Africa
10. 2 163 1.23% Israel & Palestinian Authority Area [Arab] Afro-Asiatic Semitic Asia


*


The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani (Arabic: قحطان‎; transliterated: Qahtan or Qaḥṭān or Kahtan) refer to Semitic peoples either originating in, or claiming genealogical descent from the southern extent of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen.[1][2]
Assyrian-Arabian links are often with Arabians of the Persian Gulf and southern Arabia. It is interesting to note the African/Egyptian links again as well.

When I extended the number of markers entered into YHRD, the best match was from Fernandes et al. (refer to the population in blue bold, above). Fernandes et al. tested Palestinian Christians and Palestinian Muslims. The Palestinian Christians, surprisingly, had a relatively low level of J1. I believe ~10%. The Palestinian Muslims had a much higher J1 frequency. I do not know which of the two populations the "match" is with.

Humanist
2013-01-15, 08:46
In one of the FTDNA projects, the above J-P58 Assyrian has been placed in a category with men listing the following countries for their Y-DNA origin (excluding "Unknown origin" of 7):

First column = # of men from the particular country in the same category as this particular Assyrian J-P58

4 United Arab Emirates
3 Kuwait
3 Qatar
3 Saudi Arabia
1 Belarus
1 Egypt
1 Portugal
1 Spain
1 Sudan
1 Yemen

Humanist
2013-01-15, 11:57
SURETH
malaḥa
[Religion]
English : an angel (a celestial being of the lowest hierarchy that "is sent on foot" as a messenger) , a messenger of Jehovah / Yahweh / God
Dialect : Urmiah

'riš mallaḥi
[Religion]
English : an archangel
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist:
I believe the word may also mean something akin to "giant," with a negative connotation. I am not sure, however, if that is true. My paternal grandfather, when describing events that occurred during the time of the Seyfo, used a word sounding very similar to "malaḥa," when referring to the perpetrators of the atrocities.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malku.jpg

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Wikipedia


Chthonic (pron.: /ˈkθɒnɪk/, from Greek χθόνιος – chthonios, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών – chthōn "earth";[1] pertaining to the Earth; earthy; subterranean) designates, or pertains to, deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in relation to Greek religion. The Greek word khthon is one of several for "earth"; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does) or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). It evokes at once abundance and the grave.

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A post on Gene Expression, "The voyage of Krishna Crusoe (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2013/01/the-voyage-of-krishna-crusoe/)," led me to this entry on Wikipedia:

Meluhha [<-- Very similar to the words referred to previously for "salt," "mariner / skipper of a boat," and "to steer, to guide, to sail."]


Meluḫḫa or Melukhkha is the Sumerian name of a prominent trading partner of Sumer during the Middle Bronze Age. Its identification remains an open question.

....

A number of scholars suggest that Meluhha was the Sumerian name for the Indus Valley Civilization. Finnish scholars Asko and Simo Parpola identify Meluhha (earlier variant Me-lah-ha) from earlier Sumerian documents with Dravidian mel akam "high abode" or "high country". Many items of trade such as wood, minerals, and gemstones were indeed extracted from the hilly regions near the Indus settlements. They further claim that Meluhha is the origin of the Sanskrit mleccha, meaning "barbarian, foreigner".[2]

Humanist
2013-01-15, 12:28
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/2017_1377819.jpg

The Herring Net, 1885
Winslow Homer


SURETH (also A. Annus, 2006)
mallaḥa
[Transport → Sea]
English : 1) a (ship) pilot , one employed to steer a vessel ; 2) a mariner , a sailor
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

maluḥa [milḥa]
[Feeding → Food]
English : 1) masculine : salt ; 2) adjective : salt , made of salt ; feminine : ܡܲܠܘܼܚܬܵܐ : 1) : salt ; 2) adjective : salt , made of salt
Dialect : NENA


SUMERIAN
má-lah4 boat owner, skipper, boatman
luh to be clean; to clean, wash; to purify, refine
luh-ha cleaned, refined


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malahu.jpg


Continuing the comparison from the post immediately above between Sureth, Sumerian, and Akkadian. Specifically, here, between Sumerian (i.e. "luh"/"luh-ha") and Sureth. Need to search Akkadian.


SURETH
'lḥa
[Humanities → Language]
English : to erase , to rub , to scrape out , to obliterate , to rub off , to wipe away
Dialect : Urmiah

---------- Post Merged at 19:40 ----------

So far, I have come across this Akkadian word. But, it appears to have the opposite meaning to the Sumerian and Sureth terms. Will search more later.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/luuB.jpg

Wikipedia

Salting the earth


Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation.[1][2] It originated as a symbolic practice in the ancient Near East and became a well-established folkloric motif in the Middle Ages.[3] Since high levels of soil salinity damage most crops,[4] there is a common misconception that salt was used to poison farmland, but the required amounts would be unfeasible for herbicidal warfare.[citation needed]

The custom of purifying or consecrating a destroyed city with salt and cursing anyone who dared to rebuild it was widespread in the ancient Near East, but historical accounts are unclear as to what the sowing of salt meant in that process.

Various Hittite and Assyrian texts speak of ceremonially strewing salt, minerals, or plants (weeds, "cress", or kudimmu, which are associated with salt and desolation[5]) over destroyed cities, including Hattusa, Taidu, Arinna, Hunusa,[2] Irridu,[6] and Susa.[7] The Book of Judges (9:45) says that Abimelech, the judge of the Israelites, sowed his own capital, Shechem, with salt, ca. 1050 BC, after quelling a revolt against him. This may have been part of a ḥērem ritual.[2] (cf. Salt in the Bible)

Humanist
2013-01-15, 18:42
Please refer to the last few posts above.



SURETH
malaḥa
[Religion]
English : an angel (a celestial being of the lowest hierarchy that "is sent on foot" as a messenger) , a messenger of Jehovah / Yahweh / God
Dialect : Urmiah

'riš mallaḥi
[Religion]
English : an archangel
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist:
I believe the word may also mean something akin to "giant," with a negative connotation. I am not sure, however, if that is true. My paternal grandfather, when describing events that occurred during the time of the Seyfo, used a word sounding very similar to "malaḥa," when referring to the perpetrators of the atrocities.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malku.jpg


A post on Gene Expression, "The voyage of Krishna Crusoe (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2013/01/the-voyage-of-krishna-crusoe/)," led me to this entry on Wikipedia:

Meluhha [<-- Very similar to the words referred to previously for "salt," "mariner / skipper of a boat," and "to steer, to guide, to sail."]

More from the Wikipedia article on "Meluhha":


Later texts from the 1st millennium BC suggest that "Meluhha" and "Magan" were kingdoms adjacent to Egypt. Assurbanipal writes about his first march against Egypt, "In my first campaign I marched against Magan, Meluhha, Tarka, king of Egypt and Ethiopia, whom Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, the father who begot me, had defeated, and whose land he brought under his way."

Apart from Assurbanipal's reference, there is no mention of Meluhha in any Mesopotamian text after about 1700 BC[citation needed], which corresponds to the time of decline of the Indus Valley. This is a single instance reference to Meluhha nearly 1,500 years after the 'high tide' of contact between the Indus Valley and Sumeria in 2000 BCE. Direct contacts ceased even during the Mature Harappan phase between these two centers and Oman and Bahrain, Magan and Dilmun had become intermediaries. Sumeria had 'forgotten' the Indus Valley after the sack of Ur by the Elamites and subsequent invasions in Sumeria and its trade and contacts shifted west and Meluhha passed almost into mythological memory. The resurfacing of the name probably relates to cultural memory of similarity of items of trade.

Was Assurbanipal referring to geography, or is there a possibility he was referring to a personal quality of Taharqa, when he mentioned "Meluhha," immediately preceding "Tarka?"

Wikipedia

Taharqa


Taharqa was a pharaoh of the Ancient Egyptian 25th dynasty and king of the Kingdom of Kush, which was located in Northern Sudan.

....

Assyrian invasion of Egypt

It was during his reign that Egypt's enemy Assyria at last invaded Egypt. Esarhaddon led several campaigns against Taharqa, which he recorded on several monuments. His first attack in 677 BC, aimed to pacify Arab tribes around the Dead Sea, led him as far as the Brook of Egypt. Esarhaddon then proceeded to invade Egypt proper in Taharqa's 17th regnal year, after Esarhaddon had settled a revolt at Ashkelon. Taharqa defeated the Assyrians on that occasion. Three years later in 671 BC the Assyrian king captured and sacked Memphis, where he captured numerous members of the royal family. Taharqa fled to the south, and Esarhaddon reorganized the political structure in the north, establishing Necho I as king at Sais. Upon Esarhaddon's return to Assyria he erected his victory stele, showing Taharqa's young son Ushankhuru in bondage.

Upon the Assyrian king's departure, however, Taharqa intrigued in the affairs of Lower Egypt, and fanned numerous revolts. Esarhaddon died en route to Egypt, and it was left to his son and heir Ashurbanipal to once again invade Egypt. Ashurbanipal defeated Taharqa, who afterwards fled to Thebes.

Humanist
2013-01-16, 03:34
From the FTDNA Arab J1 project's "Background" page. Sources, apart from what is stated in the first line, and religious tradition, are not provided.


According to the Arab genealogists the Arabs are the descendant of Eber (Aber)thier mythical grate grandfather.

The Aber two branches are:

1-The(Abrahemites) The descendants of Abraham PBUH ,Divided into two main groups the ancient (Ishmailite )Arabs or the Northern Arabs the descendants of (Ismail) ,and the second Ishmailite group the Adnanite Arabs .

Their origins believed to be from the southern Mesopotamia the modern Iraq and the first appearance of the Ismailite Arabs was in Mecca and its surrounding aria (Al Hejaz) probably between (1700-1500 BC),
Then they spread to (Najad ) and to all over Arabia .

The Adnanite arabs existed between (200BC -50 BC)and Divided into two main branches Mudhar and Rabeaa , from Mudhar came Qurayish the tribe of the prophet Mohammad (PBUH) .


2-The Qahtanite Arabs or the southern Arabs the Descendants of Qahtan , existed probably in 2500 BC.

The Qahtanite are divided into two branches,the Sabaeans and the Hadhramies, the Sabaies by their turn divided into Himyarites and Kahlanies;

-From Himyarites Arabs Came Qudhaa ,thu Raidan ,Malik and Kaab.

-From the Kahlanies came Al Azd, Mudhaj, Hamadan, Khuolan, Tayi,Lakhm ,Jutham , Kinda , Amila , Ashar ,AlHan and Bujaila .

They were located in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, the modern Yemen and Oman, gradually they spread all over Arabia.

- - - Updated - - -


SURETH
malaḥa
[Religion]
English : an angel (a celestial being of the lowest hierarchy that "is sent on foot" as a messenger) , a messenger of Jehovah / Yahweh / God
Dialect : Urmiah

'riš mallaḥi
[Religion]
English : an archangel
Dialect : Urmiah

Humanist:
I believe the word may also mean something akin to "giant," with a negative connotation. I am not sure, however, if that is true. My paternal grandfather, when describing events that occurred during the time of the Seyfo, used a word sounding very similar to "malaḥa," when referring to the perpetrators of the atrocities.


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/malku.jpg

One of the Syriac meanings listed in the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon for "malaḥa," is "devil."

Humanist
2013-01-17, 03:34
I read the word below, in bold, and thought I would check for the comparable term in Sureth.

A Babylonian Scholar in Assur
by Frans Wiggermann

in R. J. van der Spek e.a. (eds), Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society (FS Marten Stol), Bethesda: CDL Press, 2008


Assur was a small and crowded town, where new houses could not be built without infringing on pre-existing rights. The king had the power to do so, and it seems likely that the building of the sacred precinct created room not only for the god, but also for the newly imported scribe, and that the wall enclosed not only the temple, but also the private home. In fact, the text, if read correctly at this point, suggests that Marduk, or rather his temple, was the legitimate owner of the house after it was built, since Marduk-n⁄din-aÓÓ¤, the builder and future inhabitant, implores the god to grant ([qasu]) it to him for his troubles (Text 1:21). In or near the B⁄b Marduk a peddler ([sahiru]), Urad-<fie>r›a by name, conducted his business (Aynard, Durand 1980:14.8, 14f.).4 If he sold votives they could be inscribed next door.


SURETH
'sḥara
[Trade]
English : 1) (intransitive verb) : to peddle , to be a peddler / pedlar / hawker , to travel about with wares for sale; 2) to beg , to go begging , to entreat (?) , to implore (?) , to beseech (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahiru.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saharu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saharu2.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-17, 06:17
The Syriac and JBA word may have nothing to do with the Akkadian words. It may be a loan from another language. Its most likely origin is Latin.

SYRIAC and JBA (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)

lwm, lwmʾ (lūmā) n.m. #2nummus coin

1 nummus, a small copper coin Syr, JBA.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lammuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lammu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lima.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/limu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lummuB.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/lummu.jpg

Wikipedia

Nummus (Greek: νουμμίον, noummion), plural nummi (νοῦμμοι) is a Latin term meaning "coin", but used technically for a range of low-value copper coins issued by the Roman and Byzantine empires during Late Antiquity.

In circa 294, during the Tetrarchy, a new large bronze coin of circa 10 grams weight and 30 mm diameter appeared. Its official name was apparently nummus, but it is usually known among numismatists as the follis.[1] The term nummus is thus usually applied solely to the 5th–7th century Byzantine issues. These were small, badly struck coins, weighing less than 1 gram, forming the lowest denomination of Byzantine coinage. They were valued officially at 1⁄7,200 of the gold solidus but more usually rated to 1⁄6,000 or 1⁄12,000.[1] The nummus usually featured the profile of the reigning Byzantine emperor on the obverse and the Byzantine imperial monogram on the reverse, although some coins of Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) display its numerical value by the Greek numeral "A" instead.[1]

Humanist
2013-01-17, 07:28
A naming tradition that dates back to at least the period of Kassite dominated Middle Babylonia, may survive to this day, in the modern Assyrian community.

The Ethno-linguistic Character of Northwestern Iran and Kurdistan in the Neo-Assyrian Period.
Ron Zadok, 2002

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bit_2.jpg


As semi-nomadic groups before they settled, the Kassites were organised in family and tribal units which were named as 'House of so-and-so' (Akkadian Bit + the name of a person, usually an ancestor). After they lost political control of Babylonia, the Kassites remained there and in neighbouring areas, and maintained their organisational houses with ancestral Kassite names. These remained the administrative units of some areas after the disappearance of the main dynasty of Kassite kings...

....

The three main Chaldaean groups were Bit-Dakkuri between Babylon and Nippur, Bit-Amukani between Nippur and Uruk, and Bit-Jakin in the marshy south. While their empire was a strong one, it also faced opposition from a resurgent Egypt in the west, various states in Anatolia, and invasions from the north by Scythians and Cimmerians. The state's archives have not been preserved, so the fine detail of Babylonian rule in the empire has been lost.

Source: http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsMiddEast/MesopotamiaBabylon.htm


A Babylonian Scholar in Assur
by Frans Wiggermann

in R. J. van der Spek e.a. (eds), Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society (FS Marten Stol), Bethesda: CDL Press, 2008

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/wiggermann__Babylonian_Assur-1.jpg


Again, and as always, this is not a political statement. However, it is obviously relevant.


Why “Bet”? Other than it has already been used by many Assyrians in the past and present, “Bet” specifically means “house of” or “of the house”, therefore, Bet Joseph would translate to “house of Joseph”. It is important to note that this is not technically “changing” the last name, it is merely clarifying the name to inform what “household” (or Bai-tu-ta in neo-Aramaic) one comes from. Since the passing down of a common last name is a recent occurrence for Assyrians, the past two generations will inherit the opportunity to change the course of the Assyrian nation. Also, since men carry on the name of the family, it is important for the Assyrian male to add the “Bet” prefix to their last name.

Atouraya Bet Younadam


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/bitu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-17, 10:50
SURETH
tarqalta
[Human → Body]
English : stumbling , tripping while walking , missing a step
Dialect : Urmiah

tarquli
[Human → Body]
English : (intransitive verb) : to stumble , to trip while walking
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (please refer to the examples)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu1.jpg

Restoring bad links. Although the definition given is "mooring post," the examples provided are worth a read, I think.

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu1_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu2_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkullu3_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

Wikipedia


A Mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, a wharfs, jetties, piers, anchor buoys, and mooring buoys. A ship is secured to a mooring to forestall free movement of the ship on the water. An anchor mooring fixes a vessel's position relative to a point on the bottom of a waterway without connecting the vessel to shore. As a verb, mooring refers to the act of attaching a vessel to a mooring.[1]


A weir (pron.: /ˈwɪər/) is a barrier across a river designed to alter the flow characteristics. In most cases, weirs take the form of a barrier, smaller than most conventional dams, across a river that causes water to pool behind the structure (not unlike a dam) and allows water to flow over the top. Weirs are commonly used to alter the flow regime of the river, prevent flooding, measure discharge and help render a river navigable.


Cudgel – A stout stick carried by peasants during the Middle Ages. It functioned as a walking staff and a weapon for both self-defence and in wartime. Regiments of Clubmen were raised as late as the English Civil War. The cudgel is also known as the Singlestick.


Hawser is a nautical term for a thick cable or rope used in mooring or towing a ship.[1][2] A hawser passes through a hawsehole, also known as a cat hole,[3] located on the hawse.[4]

Humanist
2013-01-17, 12:47
AKKADIAN

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasu1.jpg

SURETH

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nps2.jpg

Another, of what are many. Last attested, Standard Babylonian.

SURETH
'npaṣa
[Industry]
English : (transitive verb) : to beat , to toss , to shake , to cause to move with violent vibration , to move abruptly one way or the other
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasu_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -


During the Neo-Assyrian era, the Assyrian Heartland receives a large number of deportees from S Iran and Babylonia. Other sources of incoming deportees include the Levant and Anatolia.

~612 BCE The Assyrian Empire comes to an end. Most of its major centers are destroyed. There is continuity in some parts. However, Assyria as it existed is no more. The base of power transfers to the south (Babylon) and east (Persia).

539 BCE Persian domination over Mesopotamia begins.

331 BCE Greco-Macedonian domination over Mesopotamia begins.

Persian domination returns with the Parthians and remains for the greater part of the period through to the Arabo-Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE.

During the early Christian era Mesopotamia receives Greek-speaking Christian deportees from the west.

Lakhmid migrations to the north.

~ 400 CE Church of the East's center becomes Seleucia-Ctesiphon.

762 CE Baghdad becomes the Abbasid capital.

That is my basic outline through the 1st millennium CE. That, plus the other data I have referred to in this thread, is why I say that I may be, in significant part a mix of southern Mesopotamians, Iranians, and Greco-Macedonians/Anatolians. And, why I believe, linguistically, it would make sense to look more to Akkadian, Persian, and Greek for influences on the language that is Sureth.

Adding possible Arabian links during the early centuries of the 1st millennium CE. Please see bold.

Wikipedia


The Lakhmids (Arabic: اللخميون‎), Banu Lakhm (Arabic: بنو لخم‎), Muntherids (Arabic: المناذرة‎), were a group of Arab Christians and nowadays, Muslims who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah their capital in 266. Poets described it as a Paradise on earth, an Arab Poet described the city's pleasant climate and beauty "One day in al-Hirah is better than a year of treatment". The al-Hirah ruins are located 3 kilometers south of Kufa, on the west bank of the Euphrates. Their descendants today are the Mandharis, who are a prominent tribe who are considered Sheikhs in Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, and the Sultanate of Oman. The Abbabids, another prominent tribe in Yemen and the southern part of The Sultanate of Oman. And the Na'amanis, another Arab tribe in Oman. All of the tribes mentioned before belong to either Ibadhi or Sunni Islam. Some other famous descendants include the powerful Druze Arslan princely family.

....

Two years after his death, in the year 330, a revolt took place where Aus ibn Qallam was killed and succeeded by the son of Imru' al-Qais, 'Amr. Thereafter, the Lakhmids' main rivals were the Ghassanids, who were vassals of the Sassanids' arch-enemy, the Byzantine Empire. The Lakhmid kingdom was a major centre of the Nestorian sect of Christianity which was nurtured by the Sassanids, as it opposed the Orthodox religion of Byzantium.

The Lakhmids remained influential throughout the 6th century. Nevertheless, in 602, the last Lakhmid king, Nu'man III, was put to death by the Sassanid king Khosrau II because of a false suspicion of treason, and the Lakhmid kingdom was annexed. Islam overran the Sassanid Empire in the 7th century. At that point, the city was abandoned and its materials were used to re-construct Kufa, its exhausted twin city.

It is now widely believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid kingdom was one of the main factors behind the Fall of Sassanid dynasty to the Muslim Arabs and the Islamic conquest of Persia, as the Lakhmids agreed to act as spies for the Muslims after being defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid.[1]

Humanist
2013-01-17, 13:41
May have no relation.

SURETH
'madnḥa
[Humanities → Geography]
English : the East , the direction of sunrise , Levant [<-- Please note that the Levant is included as a meaning, despite being well west of Urmia]
Dialect : Urmiah

madnḥaia
[Humanities → Geography]
English : eastern , belonging to or characteristic of the East , oriental, [Nestorians and Chaldean Catholics]
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu1_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu2_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu3_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/madanu4_.jpg





Madana, Madanu (Akkad.): Director of the Anunnaki Gods.

Enlil: “Lord Wind,” Sumerian Storm God who became the Akkadian Earth God. He is also the Messenger God and Creator of the Pickax for Farming. He decrees the Fates of men and establishes castes. Chief God of Nippur. Aliases: Imkhursag, Mullil (“the Great Mountain”), Naru/Narru: “Creator of Mankind.”

Marduk (Akkad.): “Sun Child” or “Son of the Sun.” Chief God of Babylon.

SUMERIAN AND AKKADIAN* DEITIES (http://www.atkinslightquest.com/Documents/Religion/Legends-Folklore/Sumerian-and-Akkadian-Deities.htm)

Humanist
2013-01-17, 15:08
SURETH
'ḥda [imperative ḥdi (?)]
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to be glad , to be happy , to rejoice , to be cheerful , to feel joy
Dialect : Eastern Syriac,


[U]AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hadu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-18, 08:19
SURETH
(m)ṭamir
English : 1) = ܛܵܡܸܪ : to bury ; 2) metaphor : to lay a snare privily , to plot secretly (?) / to frame someone up
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/temeru.jpg


SUMERIAN
ki - túm to bury

Humanist
2013-01-18, 09:24
From a discussion group post I came across yesterday:


Zammit, in his etymological dictionary of Qur'anic Arabic, lists only one cognate for Arabic ṭlb 'to seek, search' (cf. ṭālib 'student' ) - Ugaritic ṭlb, glossed as 'verlangen'. I'm presuming this is taken from Aistleitner's Wörterbuch der Ugaritischen Sprache; however, I don't have access to this, and none of the other resources at my disposal (including del Olmo Lete and Sanmartin; Hoftijzer and Jongeling) mentions this word. Does anyone know anything about it - or about any other potential Semitic cognates?

Stewart Felker,
University of Memphis

The relevant word in Sureth is listed as a loan from Arabic in the Sureth Online Dictionary. If it is in Ugaritic, I reckon it is more likely a loan by Arabic from Sureth. One or both of the Sureth terms may be West Semitic (e.g. Ugaritic, Old Aramaic). Less likely, although I suppose possible, is that they are from the Neo-Assyrian variety of Akkadian ("dalabu"). The word, "ṭlb," I believe, may have a relationship to the Akkadian name for Ishtar (Venus), "Dilbat."

SURETH
'ṭalib
[Human → Speech]
English : 1) with ܡܸܢ : of / from : to ask , to require from someone , see ܡܒܵܩܸܪ ; 2) especially Al Qosh : to beg ; 3) to propose , to ask in marriage ; 4) past participle feminine : ܛܠܝܼܒܬܵܐ : a fiancée , a betrothed woman , an engaged woman ; 5) 2 Kings : 6, 5 : to borrow ; 6) ܛܵܠܸܒ ܚܵܬܸܪ : to take leave ; ܛܵܠܸܒ ܡܲܚܠܵܥ݇ܝܬܵܐ : to say Goodbye , literally : "to ask for forgiveness" ; 7) Al Qosh : = ܛܵܠܵܒ : after , in the search of , for the sake of
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


'ṭalab
[Legal]
English : 1) a demand , a requisition , a summons (?) ; 2) Al Qosh, also ܛܵܠܸܒ : after , in search of , for the sake of
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Al Qosh


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/dalapu_-1.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-18, 10:56
SURETH
'galla
[Humanities → Geography]
English : billow , a great wave , a surge of the sea or other water
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (STANDARD BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/galluA.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/galluB.jpg



billow [ˈbɪləʊ]
n
1. (Earth Sciences / Physical Geography) a large sea wave
2. a swelling or surging mass, as of smoke or sound
3. (Earth Sciences / Physical Geography) a large atmospheric wave, usually in the lee of a hill
4. (plural) Poetic the sea itself

Collins English Dictionary



Ivan Aivazovsky. The Billow. 1889. Oil on canvas. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.
http://www.artsstudio.com/reproductions/paintings/aiv-wave-00.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-18, 13:23
1
SURETH
'šta 'šti[/COLOR] (?)]
[Feeding → Drink]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to drink , to swallow any liquid , to bib ; 2) to imbibe , to take intoxicating liquors (to excess) , to booze / to boose , to tipple
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/satu.jpg


2
SURETH
'škava ['škawa --> 'škama or 'škaba]
[Human → Sleep]
English : (intransitive verb) : to be lying , to lie down / assume a position of rest (extended on the ground or bed ...) , to take a rest / to rest
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sakapu.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

The overwhelming majority of genetic analyses, based on our autosomal DNA, have us (Assyrians) in northern Mesopotamia. That is, save for one. The [I]Eurogenes SPA (Spatial Ancestry analysis (http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/spa/index.html)) run (excluding Central Asians) from last summer. In it, David W., otherwise known as "Polako," promised to show us where we (project participants) originated, before migrating to our present locations. These were the median and individual points for the Assyrians and the two Iraqi Mandaeans:


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa1bc_temples_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/asy_man_spa_babylonia_.jpg


Cities and Urban Landscapes in the Ancient Near East and Egypt with Special Focus on the City of Babylon

Olof Pedersén, Paul J.J. Sinclair,
Irmgard Hein and Jakob Andersson1


Babylon was long a leading city in the world. The most famous periods were when the city was capital of Babylonia during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (604–562 BC in the Neo-Babylonian period) and about a millennium earlier during the reign of Hammurapi (1792–1750 BC, middle chronology) in the Old Babylonian period. The most magisterial period of Babylon was as capital during the Neo-Babylonian period under Nebuchadnezzar II when it was the largest city in the world within city walls. Whereas the capital of Hammurapi is known from references in contemporaneous documents from other sites, the high groundwater level has so far made it virtually impossible to reach that level by means of normal archaeological excavations. The situation is quite different and archaeologically much more promising for the Neo-Babylonian capital. The city was gradually abandoned during the Hellenistic period and many inhabitants moved to Seleucia on the Tigris and later on to nearby Ktesiphon. Finally, all these cities were abandoned and the capital moved to Baghdad.

....

The population of Babylon during Nebuchadnezzar’s reign was mixed. Babylonians and Chaldeans representing the old inhabitants spoke Babylonian, an Akkadian dialect, while other groups distinguished themselves as Arameans and spoke their own language. In addition, there were large groups of people from all over the Babylonian empire, as well as outside it. Even hundreds of foreign mercenaries are attested in Babylon for protection. Sumerian, no longer a spoken language, continued to be used for scholarly and religious purposes. Information about the people can be found in the archives and libraries with cuneiform texts on clay tablets preserved in the city.79

ZephyrousMandaru
2013-01-18, 14:24
^So, does this suggest that our biogeographical origins further south of Mesopotamia, than has been previously proposed? If so, maybe my placement in Southeastern Iraq on DNA Tribes' Shaded World Grid isn't as inaccurate as I thought it was.

Humanist
2013-01-18, 15:19
^So, does this suggest that our biogeographical origins further south of Mesopotamia, than has been previously proposed? If so, maybe my placement in Southeastern Iraq on DNA Tribes' Shaded World Grid isn't as inaccurate as I thought it was.

It is more complicated, but please see my "basic outline" below.


During the Neo-Assyrian era, the Assyrian Heartland receives a large number of deportees from S Iran and Babylonia. Other sources of incoming deportees include the Levant and Anatolia.

~612 BCE The Assyrian Empire comes to an end. Most of its major centers are destroyed. There is continuity in some parts. However, Assyria as it existed is no more. The base of power transfers to the south (Babylon) and east (Persia).

539 BCE Persian domination over Mesopotamia begins.

331 BCE Greco-Macedonian domination over Mesopotamia begins.

Persian domination returns with the Parthians and remains for the greater part of the period through to the Arabo-Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE.

During the early Christian era Mesopotamia receives Greek-speaking Christian deportees from the west.

Lakhmid migrations to the north.

~ 400 CE Church of the East's center becomes Seleucia-Ctesiphon.

762 CE Baghdad becomes the Abbasid capital.

That is my basic outline through the 1st millennium CE. That, plus the other data I have referred to in this thread, is why I say that I may be, in significant part a mix of southern Mesopotamians, Iranians, and Greco-Macedonians/Anatolians. And, why I believe, linguistically, it would make sense to look more to Akkadian, Persian, and Greek for influences on the language that is Sureth.


Herodotus' accounts of "Babylonia, Chaldea, and Assyria" are suspect according to some scholars. With some even suggesting Herodotus never set foot in Babylon.

Herodotus appears to confuse Assyria and Babylonia. But, perhaps we are the ones who are confused. Or, rather, at least this non-academic. At least with regard to certain questions.

Herodotus: From The History of the Persian Wars, c. 430 BCE


Assyria possesses a vast number of great cities, whereof the most renowned and strongest at this time was Babylon, where, after the fall of Nineveh, the seat of government had been removed.

....

Many sovereigns have ruled over this city of Babylon, and lent their aid to the building of its walls and the adornment of its temples, of whom I shall make mention in my Assyrian history. Among them two were women. Of these, the earlier, called Semiramis, held the throne five generations before the later princess. She raised certain embankments well worthy of inspection, in the plain near Babylon, to control the river, which, till then, used to overflow, and flood the whole country round about...

....

The Assyrians [Babylonians??] went to war with helmets upon their heads made of brass, and plaited in a strange fashion which is not easy to describe. They carried shields, lances, and daggers very like the Egyptian; but in addition they had wooden clubs knotted with iron, and linen corselets. This people, whom the Hellenes call Syrians, are called Assyrians by the barbarians. The Chaldeans served in their ranks, and they had for commander Otaspes, the son of Artachaeus.

Humanist
2013-01-18, 16:26
The Lakhmids may have been brachycephalic? If you add the deportation of the Greek-speaking Christians, it is no surprise that brachycephalic types became much more common in Mesopotamia during the 1st millennium CE.

Wikipedia
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/NE_565ad.jpg

Arabs of central Iraq, their history, ethnology, and physical characters (1935)
Henry Field

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/south_arab.png

saran
2013-01-18, 16:26
@Humanist,

Have you seen any Y DNA study on a population called Koli from Iran?

The Koli, the Jatt, and the Tamin seemingly have some association.
Koli - "Indians who fought with the Banu Tamim" http://books.google.com/books?id=df2mIOnbrDoC&pg=PA84
Zott - "Indians ... fighting alongside an Arab tribe in Mesopotamia, the Tamim" http://books.google.com/books?id=df2mIOnbrDoC&pg=PA20

I may be wrong, but the Tamim rather than being originally Arab, look like an Israeli tribe to me. Their origin, and the origin of Pathans, seems to be the same. http://books.google.com/books?id=eQk8AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA9
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebuchadnezzar_II

Humanist
2013-01-18, 17:00
@Humanist,

Have you seen any Y DNA study on a population called Koli from Iran?

The Koli, the Jatt, and the Tamin seemingly have some association.
Koli - "Indians who fought with the Banu Tamim" http://books.google.com/books?id=df2mIOnbrDoC&pg=PA84
Zott - "Indians ... fighting alongside an Arab tribe in Mesopotamia, the Tamim" http://books.google.com/books?id=df2mIOnbrDoC&pg=PA20

I may be wrong, but the Tamim rather than being originally Arab, look like an Israeli tribe to me. Their origin, and the origin of Pathans, seems to be the same. http://books.google.com/books?id=eQk8AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA9

Hi saran. Sorry, I have not heard of any DNA studies on them. Thank you very much for the links, though.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------

The primary Assyrian T-PS21 line has some very distant connections to Colonial Americans. Kit # 62118, another Assyrian T-PS21 (probable), is not that closely related to the primary Assyrian T-PS21 group, but apparently he too has a possible link to a man with Colonial American/Canadian ties. Assyrian kit #62118 has one match on FTDNA. It is a 12/12 match.

Here is the public information regarding the most distant paternal ancestor of the match:


We first traced our lineage back to Solomon (Bala) Brega, editor and publisher born 1790 in Baltimore, MD, and flourished in the 1840s and 1850s in Hamilton, Peel County, Ontario. In 1813, a Solomon B. Brega of Charlestown, Mass. printed "The Freeman's Guide", a collection of state constitutions then existing, plus the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Our most recent research indicates that Solomon probably changed his name from Balabrega around 1809-1810 and that his father's name was Jacob Balabrega of Philadelphia and Baltimore. Additional research indicates that William P. Brega, Solomon's first son, changed his name to William Brega Davis around 1835.

Something else I came across:


Looking for general information on Italian migration to Spain in 1700s. Was this common?

Our family history (unproven) says that ancestor Ricardo Val Brega was exiled from Spain for political reasons, then went to Ireland. His son, Solomon Brega, was born in the US circa 1795.

I have found zero information on any Bregas in Spain, but of course found lots in Italy. The areas where the name is most common appear to be Ancona, Milano, Pavia, Piacenza, & Roma. Of course, this is in modern times, so the pattern may have been different 200+ years ago.

I see that Milano, Pavia, & Piacenza are relatively near each other. Would anyone know whether this region holds the origin of the surname? There is an ancient region of Ireland called the Kingdom of Brega, in the Meath/Dublin area. A linguist has told me that Brega has the sound of a "pan-Celtic" word, which means it would be found all over Europe. So I would also be interested in resources with information on Celtic-Italian connections. (I do know that there is a Celtic region of Spain.)

Humanist
2013-01-18, 18:24
I need to search Akkadian further.

SURETH
'ṭalé / 'ṭali
[Human → Sleep]
English : to sleep , to go to sleep
Dialect : NENA,

'ṭla
[Human → Sleep]
English : to sleep , to slumber , to drowse (?) , to doze (?)
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, [Urmia]

(Humanist)
tatil ?
English : to be off from school, on vacation, etc.

atilia
[Sky → Astronomy]
English : Lishani : an eclipse of the sun and the moon
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'ḥasip
[Science → Physical sciences]
English : 1) Maclean : to turn ; 2) Lishani : adjective : eclipsed , see ܐܵܬܹܠܝܵܐ
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN (including STANDARD BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/utulu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/atallu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hasabuB.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-18, 20:54
Please note how much (or rather, how little) of the area has been excavated to date. This pertains to the city of Babylon specifically. Not all of Babylonia.

‘Work on a Digital Model of Babylon using Archaeological and Textual Evidence’
in: Mesopotamia: Rivista di archeologia, epigrafia e storia orientale antica 46, Firenze 2011, pp. 9-22.

Olof Pedersén

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylon_.jpg

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This one may have a chance, I suppose.

SURETH
'rṣapa
[Industry]
English : (intransitive verb) : 1) to crowd , to press together , to ram in , to make compact / solid ; 2) -?- throng, people ... : to crowd / to be huddled together (?) , to throng (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raspu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasapu1.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rasapu2.jpg

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Not sure about this one either.

SURETH
'ḥlada
[Transport → Surface]
English : 1) to creep , to crawl , to slither ; 2) to glide , to move smoothly ; 3) to move slowly
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/halalu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hallalatti.jpg



fur·tive (fûrtv)
adj.
1. Characterized by stealth; surreptitious.
2. Expressive of hidden motives or purposes; shifty. See Synonyms at secret.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/furtively

Humanist
2013-01-18, 21:56
SYRIAC and others (source: Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)
sbk vb. #2 to adhere, be interwoven with


AKKADIAN (last attested, MIDDLE BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaku1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sabaku2.jpg

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Please refer to the second to last line, above. "Lambert-Millard Atra-hasis 126:5 (MB)."

Wikipedia


Atra-Hasis ("exceedingly wise") is the protagonist and namesake of an 18th century BCE Akkadian epic. An "Atra-Hasis" appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before the flood. The Atra-Hasis tablets include both a creation myth and a flood account, which is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis[1] can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BCE), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BCE. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later fragmentary Assyrian version, having been first rediscovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but, because of the fragmentary condition of the tablets and ambiguous words, translations had been uncertain. Its fragments were assembled and translated first by George Smith as The Chaldean Account of Genesis; the name of its hero was corrected to Atra-Hasis by Heinrich Zimmern in 1899.

In 1965 W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard[2] published many additional texts belonging to the epic, including an Old Babylonian copy (written around 1650 BCE) which is our most complete surviving recension of the tale. These new texts greatly increased knowledge of the epic and were the basis for Lambert and Millard’s first English translation of the Atrahasis epic in something approaching entirety.[3] A further fragment has been recovered in Ugarit. Walter Burkert[4] traces the model drawn from Atrahasis to a corresponding passage, the division by lots of the air, underworld and sea among Zeus, Hades and Poseidon in the Iliad, in which “a resetting through which the foreign framework still shows”.

In its most complete surviving version, the Atrahasis epic is written on three tablets in Akkadian, the language of ancient Babylon.[5]

Humanist
2013-01-19, 08:25
I am curious when the various dialects of the language group we today regard as the descendant of "Old Aramaic" were first attested in the written record (or otherwise).

Wikipedia


Jewish Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by Jewish writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian Talmud (which was completed in the seventh century) and of post-Talmudic (Geonic) literature, which are the most important cultural products of Babylonian Jewry. The most important epigraphic sources for the dialect are the hundreds of Aramaic magic bowls written in the Jewish script.[1]

The language was closely related to other Eastern Aramaic dialects such as Mandaic and the Eastern Syriac of the Assyrian Church. Its original pronunciation is uncertain, and has to be reconstructed with the help of these kindred dialects and of the reading tradition of the Yemenite Jews,[2] Iraqi, Syrian or Egyptian Jews, and the value of the Yemenite reading tradition has been challenged by some scholars.[3] (The vocalized Aramaic texts with which Jews are familiar, from the Bible and the prayer book, are of limited usefulness for this purpose, as they are in a different dialect.)

Humanist
2013-01-19, 12:47
I came across this term in a paper by Dr. Mario Fales.

SURETH
'rakša
[Animals → Domestic]
English : a horse , a hackney (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN [NEO-ASSYRIAN]
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raksu.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/raksu2.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakkasu.jpg


Wikipedia


The Hackney is a recognized breed of horse that was developed in Great Britain. In recent decades, the breeding of the Hackney has been directed toward producing horses that are ideal for carriage driving. They are an elegant high stepping breed of carriage horse that is popular for showing in harness events. Hackneys possess good stamina, and are capable of trotting at high speed for extended periods of time.

A Hackney horse during a competition.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Hackney_horse.jpg/800px-Hackney_horse.jpg




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mmtb9Xrt0Aw

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SURETH
'plaṭa
English : to go out , to depart , to evacuate , to slip / sneak out of a place , to take French leave (?)
Dialect : Urmiah

'pliṭa
English : having gone out / departed
Dialect : Urmiah

paloṭi
[Industry]
English : 1) to cast , to cast out , to put out , to expel (demons -?-) , to extract (a tooth ...) ; 2) to invent , to originate , to create , to generate , to start , to produce , to initiate / bring into being
Dialect : Urmiah

'paliṭ
English : 1) to go out , to come out ; with ܡܸܢ : to leave a place ; 2) to result , to ensue , to follow as a result , very often = ܦܵܐܸܫ : to be , to become ; 3) to escape ; 4) sound : to be heard / uttered / pronounced ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܡܸܢ ܗܵܘܢܘܼܗܝ : to go out of ones mind ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܚܵܠܝܼܨ : to be acquitted , to be cleared / declared not guilty / exonerated / absolved ; ܚܵܠܝܼܨ ܦܵܠܸܛ : to be acquitted , to be cleared / declared not guilty / exonerated / absolved ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܠ ܐܘܼܪܚܵܐ ܕ : to go to meet one arriving ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܠܒܲܗܪܵܐ : to be brought to light , to be revealed , to be exposed , to be divulged (?) / disclosed (?) ; ܦܵܠܸܛ ܡܸܣܟܹܢܵܐ / ܦܵܠܸܛ ܨܸܢܸܚ : to become bankrupt ; ܪܹܫܘܼܗܝ ܒܸܦܵܠܛܵܐ ܝܠܹܗ ܡܸܢ : he understands (a matter)
Dialect : Classical Syriac


[U]AKKADIAN (STANDARD BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/paladu_-1.jpg

Came across this term ("paladu") during a search, so I thought I would fix the broken link in the relevant post.

Humanist
2013-01-19, 14:09
Since we are on the subject of horses. Fixing the bad links in the below posts as well.


SURETH
tarka
[Animals → Domestic]
English : horseriding : the pillion , the space behind a horse-rider where a second person may ride pillion , the croup of the horse (?) , the hindquarters (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN (Standard Babylonian)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkubtu_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/tarkubtu2_.jpg

[ADDING]
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/daraggu-1.jpg



SUMERIAN
ra-gaba, rá-gaba mounted messenger, courier, rider


SURETH

v --> w --> ? b

rakkava [rakkaba]
[Army]
English : a rider , a horseman , a cavalryman , a mounted person , one who rides an animal / a vehicle , a cyclist, a motorcyclist / motorbiker
Dialect : Urmiah

'rkava ['rkaba]
[Transport → Surface]
English : 1) to ride , to be on horseback , to be carried on the back of an animal , to mount , to bestride / astride , to straddle ; 2) to be borne in a vehicle / to drive (?) , to catch (?) / take (?) -train, bus, plane, ride ...- ; 3) to put together , to piece , to assemble , to compose , to set up , to arrange , to compound , to compile (?) , to indite (?) , to mix (?) , cooking : to cook , to prepare , story : to make up , to invent
Dialect : Urmiah

'rkava ['rkaba]
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : 1) being on heat / rut , being sexually excited / hot , randy (?) ; 2) rut , sexual excitement / heat ; 3) to cover (a female) / to copulate , to introduce semen / inseminate ; 4) coition / coitus , copulation , sexual intercourse, making love
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakkabu.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakbu_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/rakabu__.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-20, 05:20
SURETH
saḥla
[Moral life → Intelligence]
English : 1) stupid , foolish , very dull / thick-headed , lacking in understanding / good sense , silly ; 2) insensible (?) / hard-hearted (?) , thick-skinned (?) , numb (?) ; 3) noun : a fool


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sahlu_.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

The History of the Middle-Assyrian Empire
by David Kertai

2010, published in: Talanta : proceedings of the Dutch Archaeological and Historical Society: 25-51.


This article aims to re-evaluate the history of the Middle Assyrian Empire by looking at new archaeological data and by critically re-examining the textual evidence. Special attention will be given to concepts like ‘Empire’, the ‘rise’ and ‘fall’, and related models of social organisation.


The Upper Tigris region
Aššur-bel-kala fought in the Upper Tigris region during his reign. He battled the Aramaeans next to Šimanu in the west of the valley. This area was occupied during this period. The last phase in Giricano consists of mA III pottery with almost no local forms (Schachner 2004, 5; 12-13; for the classification see Phälzner 1995, 234-238). The cities Tušhan and Šimanu (probably) were occupied during this time (Radner 2004, 71; RIMA 2 A.0.89.7 iii 9-14). There is no known province in the Upper Tigris. The region is not mentioned in any of the known lists of provinces. This might be explained either by the incompleteness of these list or by the fact that this region had a different mode of government. Aššur-bel-kala mentions a pahatu (district) of Šimanu, which might indicate the existence of a bel pahate (governor) (RIMA 2 A.0.89.7 iii 9-14). During Aššurbel-kala’s reign Dunnu-ša-Uzibi (Giricano) is abandoned. The last texts from Giricano are dated to the eponym of Ili-iddina (1069-1068). 15 texts were found, 11 of which bore this eponym (Radner 2004, 51-52). This eponym is also found on his royal inscriptions that mention the Aramaean campaigns (Grayson 1991). This dates the texts to the year after which Aššur-bel-kala fought in the region. Apparently his success was not lasting. After the abandonment there is no occupation for some fifty years (Schachner 2004, 5, footnote 15).

After ca.1050 a new kind of pottery appears in the Upper Tigris region. This so called ‘groovy pottery‘ is found throughout eastern Turkey. In Iraq and Syria only one excavation has yielded ‘groovy pottery‘. The appearance of ‘groovy pottery‘ in this area is taken as the end of the Assyrian presence (Roaf/Schachner 2005). It is dangerous to connect pottery to people, but the spread of this material culture is not similar to anything which could be called Aramaean material culture as found in Syria. This is a bit strange as Aššur-bel-kala only mentions battling Aramaeans in the Upper Tigris region. This discrepancy should not surprise us. We saw that royal inscriptions often enhance enemies by locating them everywhere or by indicating they were helped by other kings. This should warn us against trying to fit the Aramaeans into the history of the Upper Tigris region, although erasing them with any kind of certainty is also impossible as they do appear in the Neo-Assyrian period in the west of this region (Grayson 1996). Bartl proposed to equate the makers of the ‘groovy pottery‘ with the Mušku. These are the people who were chased north from Katmuhu by Tighlat-pileser I. She later revised her opinion (Bartl 2001, 398), because the spread of this pottery does not coincide with the area were the Mušku are expected to have lived. Roaf and Schachner propose to see this pottery as overlapping with the northeasterly from the Tigris living Nairi. Aware of the theoretical difficulties of pots and- people arguments they argue for an overlap instead of an equation (Roaf/Schachner 2005, 115-123).

Humanist
2013-01-20, 14:06
Maybe this word has a chance.

SURETH
'ndida
[Moral life → Fault]
English : 1) abominable , causing abhorence , very hateful , detestable , foul / vile , nefarious ; 2) Yoab Benjamin : foul-smelling, stinking, rank
Dialect : Urmiah

AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nadadu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-20, 23:12
Obviously these are much more speculative. Still interesting, I think. There are also ~3000 years separating many of these words and our modern vernacular.

SURETH
'špada
[Army → War]
English : to transfix , to pierce / to skewer / to impale / to spit (?) with a pointed weapon , to pierce , to punch (?) , to thrust (?) / to stab (?) / to jab (?)
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN ("preceded by 'falcon feet.'")

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/sapitu.jpg




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQXoAU2SVWE

Humanist
2013-01-21, 04:36
Obviously these are much more speculative. Still interesting, I think. There are also ~3000 years separating many of these words and our modern vernacular.

SURETH
skl [imperative "sakil" ???]
[Humanities → Language]
English : 1) to do wrong , to behave foolishly ; 2) to understand


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saklu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/saklu2.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-21, 17:44
Edit: Never mind. I believe the word I had posted is from Persian.

Humanist
2013-01-21, 19:49
SURETH
'napiš
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : to breathe
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

'npišta
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : breath , inhalation
Dialect : Eastern Syriac

npišuta
[Science → Natural sciences]
English : animal life , the state of being able to breathe / living , the state of being alive / a soul
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasu1_.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napasu2_.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napistu1.jpg
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/napistu2.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

SURETH
'našiq
[Moral life → Feelings]
English : to kiss
Dialect : Eastern Syriac


AKKADIAN
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nasaqu.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-21, 20:41
Mapping the four major Jewish yeshivot in the Babylon region mentioned on Wikipedia:

Sura, Pumbedita, Nehardea, and Mahuza.

Adding the median Assyrian SPA point, referred to previously (see previous page).


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_yeshivot_assyrians_spa.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-21, 22:11
The truism, "History is written by the victors," comes to mind often, when I am posting in this thread.

The ancient Sumerians were likely guilty of this.

The ancient Assyrians were very likely guilty of this.

What about the Judeo-Christians?

The "victory" need not be on the battlefield. It can be of the heart and mind.

Humanist
2013-01-22, 06:56
Transmission of cultural information in Achaemenid and Hellenistic Babylon

Daniel Beckman

Presented at the 222nd Meeting of the American Historical Society Boston, MA
March 17, 2012


It is evident that the Achaemenid kings based their royal image on traditions from Iran and Mesopotamia, while the Seleucids drew on traditions from Macedonia or Alexander the Great. I will argue in this paper that, while in control of Babylon, both of these foreign powers presented themselves as kings of the city based on standards set by the Babylonian priesthood. This occurred for two reasons: first, the early Achaemenids had not yet settled on their unique forms of royal representation, despite centuries of acclimation to Mesopotamian culture through the Elamites; and second, in times of political instability, the Babylonian priesthood exercised substantial political power. These factors had the effect of preserving the existing customs, which the priesthood could then transmit to the Macedonians. In making this argument, I will focus on the Achaemenid interactions with the Babylonian priests, based on Classical and Babylonian primary sources. I will then use this information to make some brief observations about the Macedonian Period in Babylon.

....

As the kings of Babylon, the Seleukids frequently interacted with the priesthood; they participated in rituals "at the instruction of" the Babylonian priests, and used royal funds to pay for sacrifices. In 187 BC, Antiochus III took part in a ritual in Babylon at Esagila, recorded in a Diary text. Although the text is fragmentary, we know that the ceremony involved a robe belonging to Nebuchadnezzar II.27 This suggests that the Babylonians had a native “ideal king,” and still demanded acceptance of this ideal in exchange for their support.28 And yet, in these same texts which record Seleukid participation in Babylonian ceremonies, the Babylonian scribes repeatedly note that Seleukid kings (across a roughly 150-year period) made their offerings “in Greek fashion. 29” Is it the case that the Seleukids, while participating in a Babylonian ritual, would still emphasize their Macedonian heritage? Considering their obsession with preserving their own native identity, and their literal worship of Alexander, this may not be far-fetched.

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"[A] robe belonging to Nebuchadnezzar II." That is interesting. That would make it nearly 400 years after his death.

Humanist
2013-01-22, 13:28
SURETH
'marir
[Moral life → Will]
English : 1) to be bitter , to be ferocious (?) / violent (?) / ruthless (?) ; 2) metaphor : to be grieved / sorrowful ; 3) Lishani : fanatically
Dialect : Eastern Syriac, Classical Syriac, NENA


AKKADIAN (BABYLONIAN)
http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mararu.jpg

ZephyrousMandaru
2013-01-22, 14:07
Mapping the four major Jewish yeshivot in the Babylon region mentioned on Wikipedia:

Sura, Pumbedita, Nehardea, and Mahuza.

Adding the median Assyrian SPA point, referred to previously (see previous page).


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/babylonian_yeshivot_assyrians_spa.jpg

I strongly suspect that if we had more Chaldean samples, that we may notice a considerable shift southward of Iraq in SPA. At least for the Chaldeans. They in particular, seem to be very, very close to Mizrahi Jews.

Humanist
2013-01-22, 15:13
I strongly suspect that if we had more Chaldean samples, that we may notice a considerable shift southward of Iraq in SPA. At least for the Chaldeans. They in particular, seem to be very, very close to Mizrahi Jews.

That is approaching mat Kaldi. ;)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/chaldea_sumer.jpg

Humanist
2013-01-22, 17:04
There are many words in the 21-volume CAD labelled as Aramaic loans in Akkadian. However, this is the most recent scholarship on the subject:

A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic (Part II)
Sergey Loesov

Hackl (forthcoming, n. 59) observes:


In von Soden 1977 a total of 282 Aramaic loanwords was proposed (collected from Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts). This number has now been reduced to 85 certain/possible loanwords by Abraham/Sokoloff 2011.

I counted 9 words in Volume 10, M, part 1 of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (1977), listed as loans from Aramaic. This particular volume represents ~4.5% (441 pages / 9697 pages) of the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.

A few of these, I believe, are in Sureth. I am curious whether the one below ("masu") is one of the "85 certain/possible [Aramaic] loanwords."

SURETH
'mšaša
[Human → Senses]
English : to grope , to feel with the hands , to attempt to find something in the dark by feeling
Dialect : Urmiah

mašmuši
[Human → Senses]
English : (intransitive verb) : to grope , to feel with the hands , to search / fumble / attempt to find something in the dark (by feeling) , to feel one's way / to scrabble about
Dialect : Urmiah


AKKADIAN
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/masu1.jpg
http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/masu2.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/masau.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/musu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/musamsu.jpg


http://i1111.photobucket.com/albums/h464/handschar1/sammu.jpg