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View Full Version : The Development of Ancient States in the Northern Horn of Africa, c. 3000 BC–AD 1000:



ethioboy
2012-06-05, 05:17
Very interesting paper I just got a hold of.. published 2010

Link will be attached, it outlines pre axumite civilizations in the northern horn as well as sudan.. along with a brief overview of axumite history and a quick section on post axumite history (at the very end of the paper)

basic conclusion of the paper:


At present, the development of early complex societies and states in the northern Horn of
Africa can be tentatively outlined as follows:
1. In the 4th millennium BC, an incipient hierarchical society emerged along the middle
Atbara valley.
2. In the early 3rd millennium BC these people moved northwards, following the
progressive shift of the Gash river to the present delta, and occupied a strategic
position as a gateway to the sources of frankincense, gold, and ivory in the lowlands
and along the western slopes of the highlands.
3. In mid-3rd to mid-2nd millennia BC a complex society consolidated itself in the Gash
Delta, and was part of an exchange circuit with Egypt, Nubia and southern Arabia.
4. Beginning in the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Gash Delta was cut off from the
exchange network with Nubia and Egypt, although a hierarchical society survived in
the region. At the same time people culturally related to the occupants of the Gash
Delta occupied the Barka valley and acted as intermediaries between the Nile Valley
and/or the coast and the highlands.
5. In the early 1st millennium BC, the progressive inclusion of the highlands into the
South Arabian area of commercial expansion most likely stimulated the rise of
hierarchical societies in Eritrea.
6. In the mid-1st millennium BC, an early state arose in northern Tigray and central
Eritrea, maybe as a commercial partner of the Yemeni kingdom of Saba.
7. In the late 1st millennium BC, the pre-Aksumite state disappeared in Tigray. A new
polity emerged at Aksum and was included into the Roman trade circuit of the Red
Sea.
8. In the early to mid-1st millennium AD, the kingdom of Aksum was consolidated as a
large territorial state, becoming an important commercial partner of the Roman and
Byzantine empires.
9. In the late 1st millennium AD, the kingdom progressively declined, most likely
because of environmental crises, migrations from the Eastern Desert, and the Arab
commercial and political expansion along the Red Sea.

link
http://www.filedropper.com/thedevelopmentofancientstatesinthenorthernhornofaf rica

Bandar Qasim
2012-06-05, 05:28
Looks interesting, thanks for sharing. ;)

Lol_Race
2012-06-05, 16:08
Thanks ethioboy. :)

Opie
2012-06-05, 17:38
Awesome. Thanks

hanan
2012-06-05, 19:11
Thank you :)

BerberWarrior
2012-06-05, 19:14
does that include the Meroe kingdom?

ethioboy
2012-06-05, 19:35
^no, however it mentions pre meroitic people groups within the area..

Doctoris Scientia
2012-06-05, 20:26
Thanks Ethioboy! Appreciate it.

Lol_Race
2012-06-06, 15:15
I thought the additional focus on the Eritrean-Sudanese lowlands was particularly interesting. This area doesn't seem as well-researched as the Eritrean-Tigrayan highlands. Also, social complexity in the lowlands apparently predates social complexity in the highlands, although they appear distinct and unrelated.

This part on the Ona Culture (highlands) was also interesting...


The Hamasien tradition (c. 900-400 BC) is represented by several sites, which have been ascribed to the so-called Ancient Ona Culture near Asmara. The ceramics include red jars with a rounded bottom and everted rim, and bowls often decorated with rim-bands of incised triangles (Tringali 1981; Schmidt et al. 2008b; Mehari 2008). This tradition probably emerged in the 2nd millennium BC, because two fragments of jars similar to those from the Ancient Ona were found associated with late Middle Kingdom ceramics (c. 1800-1650 BC) at Wadi Gawasis on the Red Sea coast in Egypt (Fattovich and Bard 2007).
Wadi Gawasis (http://www.bu.edu/archaeology/research-centers-labs/mersa/) is where ships were sent to the Land of Punt.

BerberWarrior
2012-06-06, 15:22
I remember Hatchepsout made an expedition to the Horn of Africa once and there are even paintings representing what seems to be some somali tribe :p

--> http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/exploration.htm

Lol_Race
2012-06-06, 15:52
I remember Hatchepsout made an expedition to the Horn of Africa once and there are even paintings representing what seems to be some somali tribes :p

--> http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/exploration.htm
The exact location of the Land of Punt is not known, or if it was even a distinct culture throughout all of the Egyptian expeditions. According to the Ancient Egyptians, it was located somewhere in the southern Red Sea area.

The products Egyptians acquired from Punt point to the Horn of Africa, as well as the depicted wildlife. Oxygen isotope analysis on a baboon brought to Egypt from Punt points to Eritrea and parts of Ethiopia (baboons from Yemen and Somalia don't match), and apparently ceramics found in the Ona Culture, located in the Eritrean highlands.

chicken
2012-06-10, 07:40
no it was somalia. ancient egyptian pottery has been recovered from somalia

Bandar Qasim
2012-06-10, 07:52
no it was somalia. ancient egyptian pottery has been recovered from somalia

If you make such an assertive statement at least provide a source. Why would Ancient Egyptians bother traveling that far when most of the goods Punt was known for could be found in areas closer to Egypt?

Esekon Kimatt
2012-06-10, 12:34
If you make such an assertive statement at least provide a source. Why would Ancient Egyptians bother traveling that far when most of the goods Punt was known for could be found in areas closer to Egypt?

Perhaps to acquire women ;)

brainblaster456
2012-06-10, 13:06
I know there is plenty of Frankincesense in the somali highlands. one of the main resources in the land of punt expedition.

http://informedfarmers.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Somali_man_Myrrh_tree.jpg http://ferrebeekeeper.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/frankincense12-21.jpghttp://i.ebayimg.com/00/s/MTA1MFgxMjg2/$(KGrHqVHJBME9!Hdm5rFBPYY8qY1Fw~~60_35.JPG

Frankincesnse and Myrrh range

http://simun.info/ehlog/wp-content/uploads/2006/09/frankincense_sources.jpg