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ethioboy
2012-09-25, 00:44
I'm not sure how old the study is but it was posted in another thread a few days, and looks pretty interesting.


University of Khartoum
The area known today as Sudan may have been the scene of pivotal human
evolutionary events, both as a corridor for ancient and modern migrations, as well
as the venue of crucial past cultural evolution. Several questions pertaining to the
pattern of succession of the different groups in early Sudan have been raised. To
shed light on these aspects, ancient DNA (aDNA) and present DNA collection
were made and studied using Y-chromosome markers for aDNA, and
Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers for present DNA. Bone samples from
different skeletal elements of burial sites from Neolithic, Meroitic, Post-Meroitic
and Christian periods in Sudan were collected from Sudan National Museum.
aDNA extraction was successful in 35 out of 76 samples, PCR was performed for
sex determination using Amelogenin marker. Fourteen samples were females and
19 were males. To generate Y-chromosome specific haplogroups A-M13, B-M60,
F-M89 and Y Alu Polymorphism (YAP) markers, which define the deep ancestral
haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree of Y-chromosome were used. Haplogroups
A-M13 was found at high frequencies among Neolithic samples. Haplogroup
F-M89 and YAP appeared to be more frequent among Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and
Christian periods. Haplogroup B-M60 was not observed in the sample analyzed.
For extant DNA, Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup variations were studied
in 15 Sudanese populations representing the three linguistic families in Sudan by
typing the major Y haplogroups in 445 unrelated males, and 404 unrelated
individuals were sequenced for the mitochondrial hypervariable region.
Y-chromosome analysis shows Sudanese populations falling into haplogroups A,
B, E, F, I, J, K, and R in frequencies of 16.9, 8.1, 34.2, 3.1, 1.3, 22.5, 0.9, and
13% respectively. Haplogroups A, B, and E occur mainly in Nilo-Saharan speaking
groups including Nilotics, Fur, Borgu, and Masalit; whereas haplogroups F, I, J, K,
and R are more frequent among Afro-Asiatic speaking groups including Arabs,
Beja, Copts, and Hausa, and Niger-Congo speakers from the Fulani ethnic group.
Mantel test reveal a strong correlation between genetic and linguistic structures
(r= 0.30, p= 0.007), and a similar correlation between genetic and geographic
distances (r= 0.29, p= 0.025) that appears after removing nomadic pastoralists of
no known geographic locality from the analysis. For mtDNA analysis, a total of 56
haplotypes were observed, all belonging to the major sub-Saharan African and
Eurasian mitochondrial macrohapolgroups L0, L1, L2, L4, L5, L3A, M and N in
frequencies of 12.1, 11.9, 22, 4.2, 6.2, 29.5, 2, and 12.2% respectively.
Haplogroups L6 was not observed in the sample analyzed. The considerable
frequencies of macrohaplogroup L0 in Sudan is interesting given the fact that this
macrohaplogroup occurs near the root of the mitochondrial DNA tree. Afro-Asiatic
speaking groups appear to have sustained high gene flow form Nilo-Saharan
speaking groups. Mantel test reveal no correlations between genetic, linguistic (r =
0.12, p = 0.14), and geographic distances (r = -0.07, p = 0.67).
Accordingly, through limited on number of aDNA samples, there is enough data to
suggest and to tally with the historical evidence of the dominance by Nilotic
elements during the early state formation in the Nile Valley, and as the states
thrived there was a dominance by other elements particularly Nuba/Nubians. In
Y-chromosome terms this mean in simplest terms introgression of the YAP
insertion (haplogroups E and D), and Eurasian Haplogroups which are defined by
F-M89 against a background of haplogroup A-M13. The data analysis of the
extant Y-chromosomes suggests that the bulk of genetic diversity appears to be a
consequence of recent migrations and demographic events mainly from Asia and
Europe, evident in a higher migration rate for speakers of Afro-Asiatic as
compared to the Nilo-Saharan family of languages, and a generally higher
effective population size for the former. While the mtDNA data suggests that
regional variation and diversity in mtDNA sequences in Sudan is likely to have
been shaped by a longer history of in-situ evolution and then by human migrations
form East, west-central and North Africa and to a lesser extent from Eurasia to the
Nile Valley.
University

http://etd2.uofk.edu/content/html/pdf/en/en.4312.pdf

So yea I find it interesting that most of the neolithic samples were mostly A.. I would have expected more E, and considering the expansion of J1 in the horn during the neolithic, you'd expect some eurasian h.groups as well,but they seem to come later... which I also find interesting..

Im also not surprised by the linguistic correlation of which applies only to y dna it seems.. MT dna seems more localizd and diverse suggesting patrirchal societies were dominant (which makes sense).

Interesting study none the less, which they had a full paper though..

beyoku
2012-09-25, 18:30
Repost Here (http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/32316-Y-Chromosome-Lineages-of-Ancient-Nubians?highlight=),

The lack of E, IMO is unsurprising in the oldest samples if using ancinettechnology and language to hypothesize who they are supposed to be:

http://i204.photobucket.com/albums/bb178/beyoku/map1.png

What surprised me is the lack of Haplogroup B. After doing some reading over the weekend my running hypothesis is that it was a Southern Saharan linage mostly associated with Ancient Aquatic culture. It dispersed to the south. Its somewhat of a hard fit, but I think its a good guess?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945812/bin/nihms235952f3.jpg

B-M150 map
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uqlFudEVY8U/Swm_YifBbuI/AAAAAAAAACs/uRW27PKcqL4/s1600/Haplogroup_B.jpg

amerinese
2012-09-25, 18:39
Is that really Y-DNA F* they are finding? I don't see a list of Y-SNP's they tested for. Y clades in the summary there look somewhat shallow.

Lol_Race
2012-09-25, 18:54
What surprised me is the lack of Haplogroup B. After doing some reading over the weekend my running hypothesis is that it was a Southern Saharan linage mostly associated with Ancient Aquatic culture. It dispersed to the south. Its somewhat of a hard fit, but I think its a good guess?
Seems very possible. Interestingly, Hassan 2008 found no B in modern Nubians, but they did find some A (the samples were mostly E-M35 and J though).

Is that really Y-DNA F* they are finding? I don't see a list of Y-SNP's they tested for. Y clades in the summary there look somewhat shallow.
Ancient Y-DNA results tend to have a low resolution, due to poor preservation. They don't seem to have tested for any F subclades. Most likely, the F lineages belongs to J/T.

Mister G
2012-10-06, 05:18
Haplogroup
F-M89 and YAP appeared to be more frequent among Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and
Christian periods.

only thing i can say, it is interesting.