PDA

View Full Version : Iraqis



ashrf1979
2012-11-27, 20:38
Iraqi people


The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqīyūn, Kurdish: گه*لی عیراق Îraqîyan, Aramaic: ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ‎ ʿIrāqāyā) or Mesopotamian people (Arabic: شعب بلاد ما بين النهرين) are the native inhabitants of the country of Iraq,[16] (also known as Mesopotamia), and their related diaspora. From late Assyrian and Babylonian times until the early Islamic era, the Iraqi people spoke Aramaic[17] but also witnessed a minority Arab presence.[18][19]
Arabic had been a minority language in Iraq since the 8th century BC,[18][20] it was spoken in Hatra in the 1st and 2nd centuries,[19] and by Iraqi Christians in Al-Hirah from the 3rd century,[21] and from the 8th century following the Muslim conquest of Persia it became the common language of Iraqi Muslims, due to Arabic being the language of the Qur'an and the Caliphate.[22][23] This change was facilitated by the fact that Arabic being a Semitic language, shared a close resemblance to Iraq's traditional languages of Akkadian and Aramaic. Some of Iraq's Christians and Mandaeans retained dialects of Aramaic, since it remained the liturgical language of their faiths. Kurdish-speaking Iraqis live in the mountainous Zagros region of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. The Kurds and Arabs of Mesopotamia have interacted and intermarried for well over a millennium. Modern genetic studies indicate that Iraqi Arabs and Kurds are very closely related.[24][25] Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's national languages.

Historical names

Iraqis, from Arabic: عراقيين ʻIrāqīyīn; from العراق al-ʿIrāq, from Aramaic: Erech. The contemporary name comes from the Aramaic name of Uruk (Erech), which became the designation for Babylonia some time after the decline of Babylon under the Seleucid and Parthian occupations. This name rendered as العراق al-ʿIrāq in Arabic, became established during the Islamic period as the designation for Babylonia.[29][30] Over the last millennium its usage by governors and geographers increasingly came to comprehend upper Mesopotamia (ancient Assyria / contemporary northern Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan).[31]
Mesopotamians, from Greek: Μεσοποτάμιοι Mesopotάmioi; from Μεσοποταμία Mesopotamίa ("Land between [the] rivers"). This was the classical name used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans after the 4th century BC.[32] It is derived from the Aramaic: Beth Nahrain (Neo-Aramaic: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ) ("House of [the] rivers") which is attested since the 10th century BC as a designation for upper Mesopotamia.[32] The name was used briefly after World War I during the British Mandate of Mesopotamia, as it was the common name in Europe by which the region was known.[29] It would probably be in use today however the name became tarnished by colonialism during the British occupation, and the Iraqi state therefore decided to use the endonym Iraq (العراق al-ʻIrāq) as the official name. The Constitution of Iraq refers to the Iraqi people as "the people of Mesopotamia."
Babylonians, from Akkadian: Babilaya; from Bābilu, via Greek: Βαβυλωνιοι Βabylōnioi. This name was used in Late Babylonian cuneiform texts during the Achaemenid, Seleucid and Parthian periods as a self-designation for the people of central-southern Iraq (Babylonia).[33] During the Sassanian period (224–638), following the decline of the city of Babylon under the preceding Parthians and Seleucids, the country began to be called after Erech; a major city in southern Babylonia (Middle Persian: Erāq), and this name became established in the Islamic era as Irāq (العراق al-ʻIrāq).[29] The name Babil (Babylon) as a reference to the country remained in use throughout the Islamic era by Arabic and Persian geographers;[29] who used the name interchangeably with Iraq.[29] In the early modern era, the region was known as Irak Arabi or Irak Babeli ("Arabic Iraq" or "Babylonian Iraq").[34][35]
Anbāṭ, In the early Islamic period, the Arabian Arabs referred to the people of Iraq as al-Anbāṭ (sg. Nabaṭī) (Nabataean).[36] They also referred to the people of Syria by the same name.[37] Analogous to how the Egyptians were referred to as Copts (قبط qubṭ) by the Arabs.

Genetics

“ The Iraqi population is without doubt much the same today as it was in Sumerian and Babylonian times. ”
—Professor of Anthropology Carleton S. Coon, The Races of Europe.[38]
The Iraqi people are a Caucasian people. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 originated in northern Iraq.[39] In spite of the importance of this region, genetic studies on the Iraqi people are limited and generally restricted to analysis of classical markers due to Iraq's modern political instability,[39] although there have been several published studies displaying the genealogical connection between all Iraqi people and the neighbouring countries, across religious and linguistic barriers. One such study reveals a close genetic relationship between Iraqis, Kurds, Caspian Iranians and Svani Georgians.[24]
Iraqi mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup distribution is similar to that of Iran, Syria, Palestine, Georgia, and Armenia, whereas it substantially differs from that observed in Arabia.[39] Iraqi Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup distribution is similar to that of Lebanon, Turkey, and Syria.[39] No significant differences in Y-DNA variation were observed among Iraqi Arabs, Assyrians, or Kurds.[39]
For both mtDNA and Y-DNA variation, the large majority of the haplogroups observed in the Iraqi population (H, J, T, and U for the mtDNA, J2 and J1 for the Y-DNA) are those considered to have originated in Western Asia and to have later spread mainly in Western Eurasia.[39] The Eurasian haplogroups R1b and R1a represent the second most frequent component of the Iraqi Y-chromosome gene pool, the latter suggests that the population movements from Central Asia/Eastern Europe into modern Iran also influenced Iraq.[39]
Many historians and anthropologists provide strong circumstantial evidence to posit that Iraq's Maʻdān people share very strong links to the ancient Sumerians[28][40] - the most ancient inhabitants of southern Iraq,[28] and that Iraq's Mandaeans share the strongest links to the Babylonians.[41] The Beni Delphi (sons of Delphi) tribe of Iraq is believed to have Greek origins, from the Macedonian soldiers of Alexander the Great and the colonists of the Seleucid Empire.
The Assyrian Christian population are closely related to other Iraqis,[25][28] and also to Jordanians, yet due to religious endogamy have a distinct genetic profile that distinguishes their population.[42] "The Assyrians are a fairly homogeneous group of people, believed to originate from the land of old Assyria in northern Iraq [..] they are Christians and are bona fide descendants of their namesakes."[43] Many Iraqis who today speak Arabic are originally of Assyrian roots.[44][45]
In a 2011 study focusing on the genetics of the Maʻdān people of Iraq, researchers identified Y chromosome haplotypes shared by Marsh Arabs, Iraqis, and Assyrians, "supporting a common local background."[28]
Studies have reported that most Irish and Britons are descendants of farmers who left modern day Iraq and Syria 10,000 years ago.[46] Genetic researchers say they have found compelling evidence that four out of five (80% of) white Europeans can trace their roots to the Near East.[46] In another study, scientists analysed DNA from the 8,000 year-old remains of early farmers found at an ancient graveyard in Germany. They compared the genetic signatures to those of modern populations and found similarities with the DNA of people living in today's Turkey and Iraq.

Identity


Iraqis have historically been a multilingual people, conversant in several languages but having a Semitic lingua franca. Iraqi identity transcends language boundaries and is more associated with geography; the Tigris–Euphrates alluvial plain and its environs.
What defines somebody as being Iraqi are factors including speaking Mesopotamian Arabic, Aramaic or Kurdish, being of Iraqi ancestry, identifying with Iraqi culture and Iraqi history; both ancient and contemporary, and having Iraqi nationality.
While Iraqis are often thought of as comprising several ethnic groups, most Iraqis, as a people with an ancient civic culture and tradition of multilingualism, have historically engaged in healthy inter-communal relations,[48] and favoured a common identity,[48] and due to this Iraqis as a whole can be seen to bear some characteristics of an ethnic group.[48]
The single identity and culture of the Iraqi people is most commonly seen in the Iraqi cuisine. Iraqi cuisine has changed and evolved since the time of the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Abbasids; however several traditional Iraqi dishes have already been traced back to antiquity [49] such as Iraq's national dish Masgouf and Iraq's national cookie Kleicha, which can be traced back to Sumerian times.[50]
Nowadays, the demonym "Iraqi" includes all minorities in the country, such as the Kurds and Turkmen (although these groups often specify their ethnicity by adding a suffix such as "Iraqi Kurdish" or "Iraqi Turkmen"). It is common for Iraqi Arabs to have relatives of Iraqi Kurdish background, and vice versa.
Iraqis trace their ancestry back to the ancient people of the land,[27][51] and are proud of their ancient Mesopotamian roots and legacy,[26][27] which contributed so much to the world.[27] Iraqi author Salim Matar writes that Iraqi people claim that:
“ We are Mesopotamians. We descend from the ancient Mesopotamians. ”

ashrf1979
2012-11-27, 22:03
Ancient Mesopotamians


Semitic Mesopotamians

1-Akkadians

http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/art/figures/KISH010.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Sargon_of_Akkad.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/4/44/20110109201304%21Sargon_of_Akkad.jpg
http://www.atranews.com/kids/H%20Hajjar%20Coloring%20Book/15Sargon.gif
http://www.transoxiana.org/0108/Images/roberts_enheduanna-detail.jpg
http://irandefence.net/picture.php?albumid=195&pictureid=2918
http://www.livius.org/a/iran/sar-e_pol-e_zahab/sar-e_pol-e_zahab_anubanini_drawing.jpg

2-Babylonians

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Hammurabi_bas-relief_in_the_U.S._House_of_Representatives_chambe r.jpg
http://www.achsweb.org/images/mesopotamia_hammurabi01.jpg
http://th03.deviantart.net/fs42/PRE/i/2009/104/4/9/Hammurabi_by_Absinto.jpg
http://irandefence.net/picture.php?albumid=193&pictureid=2734
http://irandefence.net/picture.php?albumid=193&pictureid=2762

3-Assyrians

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/ShalmaneserIII.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Ancient_Orient_Museum_Istanbul_%285%29.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Tilglath_pileser_iii.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Guards_Ashurbanipal_Louvre_AO19901.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Nimrud_Palace_Reliefs_2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/VAM_-_Assurnasirpal_II_Relief_4.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Servants_Dur_Sharrukin_Louvre_AO19878-9.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Servant_Dur_Sharrukin_AO22106.jpg
http://irandefence.net/picture.php?albumid=195&pictureid=2896
http://irandefence.net/picture.php?albumid=193&pictureid=2723
http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Assyrian_reliefs/Assyrian_relief_7.jpg
http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Assyrian_reliefs/Assyrian_relief_6.jpg


4-Chaldeans

http://www.conservapedia.com/images/thumb/0/0b/Nebuchadnezzar-cameo.jpg/350px-Nebuchadnezzar-cameo.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Nebukadnessar_II.jpg
http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Images_Sumer/marsh_3.jpg
http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Images_Sumer/marsh_4.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Marduk-apla-iddina_II.jpg

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sumerians

http://sumerianshakespeare.com/media/f03208d24fa7b00cffff8617ffffe417.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Head_Gudea_Louvre_AO13.jpg
http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Images_Sumer/Ur_nammu_1.jpg
http://tarotcanada.org/sumerian.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Izdubar.png

ashrf1979
2012-11-27, 23:24
Medieval Iraqis

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/%D0%A1%D0%B2%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%90%D0%B1% D0%BE_%D0%A2%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%D 0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9.jpg?uselang=ar
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Arabischer_Maler_des_Kr%C3%A4uterbuchs_des_Dioskur ides_001.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Al-Jazari_-_The_Basin.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Al-Djazari_automate_verseur_de_vin.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Slaves_Zadib_Yemen_13th_century_BNF_Paris.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_001.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Qadi_Abbasid_-_Maqamat_Harir_1237.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Maqamat_hariri.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_005.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_006.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_007.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Arabischer_Maler_um_1335_002.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Arabischer_Maler_um_1335_003.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/Arabischer_Maler_des_Kr%C3%A4uterbuchs_des_Dioskur ides_004.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Irakischer_Maler_von_1287_002.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Meister_des_Buches_der_Lieder_001.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Meister_des_Buches_der_Lieder_002.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Syrischer_Maler_um_1220_001.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Syrischer_Maler_von_1222_001.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Irakischer_Maler_um_1280_001.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Maler_der_Geschichte_von_Bay%C3%A2d_und_Riy%C3%A2d _002.jpg

Mosov
2012-11-27, 23:33
I always admired Iraq and its history. Too bad people like Saddam Hussein and the US invasion of the country greatly tainted the country's image...

saran
2012-11-27, 23:54
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/VAM_-_Assurnasirpal_II_Relief_4.jpg


Do we know when Iraqis stopped wearing earrings? Was it in the Sassanid or the late Parthian period?
Thanks.

ashrf1979
2012-11-28, 00:57
Do we know when Iraqis stopped wearing earrings? Was it in the Sassanid or the late Parthian period?
Thanks.

At least until the Sassanid era ,Arab poet the A'sha (pre-Islam poet ) Description Sassanid soldiers wearing earrings Arab men continued to wear earrings for a short period after Islam In one of the historical accounts says that one of the sons of Imam Hassan in the Battle of Karbala was wearing pearl earring, but he was young boy

Arminfrench
2012-11-28, 01:24
Very interesting thread,what such great cultures flourished in those lands!.

It gets my attention, some of the portrayals clearly show people with strong mongoloid traits. have the mongolic hordes gotten that far to leave their genetic print?.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_001.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_006.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Meister_des_Buches_der_Lieder_001.jpg

ashrf1979
2012-11-28, 05:17
Very interesting thread,what such great cultures flourished in those lands!.

It gets my attention, some of the portrayals clearly show people with strong mongoloid traits. have the mongolic hordes gotten that far to leave their genetic print?.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_001.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Yahy%C3%A2_ibn_Mahm%C3%BBd_al-W%C3%A2sit%C3%AE_006.jpg


During the Abbasid rule were brought many Turks from Central Asia They serve in the Abbasi army Has controlled the power until overthrew by Iranian Buyids

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Meister_des_Buches_der_Lieder_002.jpg
This Portrait of Badr al-Din Lu'lu' (Armenian Shi'a Muslim prince) Was ruled northern Iraq During the Mongol invasion of Iraq,In drawing his name written on his arm.

nk191919
2012-11-28, 16:30
During the Abbasid rule were brought many Turks from Central Asia They serve in the Abbasi army Has controlled the power until overthrew by Iranian Buyids


This Portrait of Badr al-Din Lu'lu' (Armenian Shi'a Muslim prince) Was ruled northern Iraq During the Mongol invasion of Iraq,In drawing his name written on his arm.


There is no question that significant number of Turks from Central Asia were making their way into the Abbasid Court. The Abbasid caliphs began importing Turks as slave-warriors (Mamluks) early in the ninth century. The imperial palace guards of the Abbasids were Mamluks who were originally commanded by free Iraqi (Arabs or Persian) officers. By mid 800s, however, Mamluks themselves were officers and gradually, because of their greater military proficiency and dedication, they began to occupy high positions at court. The mother of Caliph Mutasim (who came to power in 833) had been a Turkish slave, and her influence was substantial.

But I think the fact that some of these faces look Asian can be contributed the kind of art that was used in Iran and it was adopted by the Abbasids and its court. Miniature Painting was imported to Iran from China and The most important function of miniature was illustration. It gave a visual image to the literary plot, making it more enjoyable, and most of these painting are from these illustrations.

Mongolian rulers of Iran instilled the cult of Chinese painting and brought with them a great number of Chinese artisans. Paper itself, reached Iran from China in 753 AD. Hence, the Chinese influence is very strong.

I think the Asian Faces or Features are more or less because of the Art that was adopted by the Iranians. The Turks themselves were a Hybrid people already as we can even see from the way the Central Asians look today.

ashrf1979
2012-11-28, 18:34
http://ayamzaman.tripod.com/zuhor_husain.jpg
http://awsalelffan.eb2a.com/pic_singers/nazem.jpg
http://gdb.rferl.org/927474E5-898F-4013-BAA3-83E0207C6CB9_mw1024_s.jpg
http://www.6rb.com/uploads/photos/nasser.jpg
http://www.iraqnla.org/fp/journal22/images/35.jpg
http://bahoz.hostoi.com/aziz_eli.jpg
http://www.marefa.org/images/thumb/0/0c/%D8%A7%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85_%D9%88%D9%87%D8%A8% D9%8A.jpg/270px-%D8%A7%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85_%D9%88%D9%87%D8%A8% D9%8A.jpg
http://almirbad.com/images//Sections/Art/original/maeda%20nazhat.jpg
http://dc10.arabsh.com/i/03477/3ibe4vh2eyna.jpg
http://im14.gulfup.com/2012-09-20/1348125938921.jpg

http://www.alnaspaper.com/inp/Upload/15115410_w-melatery.jpg
http://images3.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20111225173237/iraqq/ar/images/9/98/Iqpic3ea1db85d3.jpg
http://www.nabd-qloop.com/up//uploads/images/domain-b097b047f6.jpg
http://www.xendan.org/arabic/imgnews/elhammadfy15-5-2012bb.jpg
http://refugeerights.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/slideshow_1.jpg
http://www.iqpic.com/uploads/images/iqpic21dd11cc98.jpg
http://www.nabd-qloop.com/up//uploads/images/domain-c65be8bfc1.jpg
http://www.khabar3ajel.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/bassher.jpg
http://foreversquared.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Iraqis-Marines-OIF-Iraq-Patrol-Combat-War-08.jpg
http://img.youtube.com/vi/Gb8hFBpNwKs/0.jpg
http://www.sotakhr.com/2006/uploads/pics/abbas_jamel.jpg
http://www.bsbslove.com/up/uploads/images/bsbslove-94d964fa7e.jpg
http://www.6rb.com/uploads/photos/3887679329_8e2545c901.jpg
http://ro7ma.net/up/uploads/13421938992.jpg
http://www.alaalem.com/admin/upload/irq_757200824
http://www.uiraqi.com/up/uploads/uiraqi_13429606091.jpg
http://www.faridamaqam4u.com/press/pics/pic_press4.jpg
http://ro7ma.net/up/uploads/13421937034.jpg
http://www.melody4arab.com/music/iraq/qasem_soltan/photo/melody4arab.com_Qasim_Sultan_15478.jpg
http://images.alarabiya.net/73/31/640x392_11569_251194.jpg
http://images.smh.com.au/ftsmh/ffximage/2009/01/31/iraqis_wideweb__470x299,0.jpg
http://www.alnoor.se/images/gallery/news2/4/Kahtan_AlAttar.JPG
http://ro7ma.net/up/uploads/13421937033.jpg
http://img.t555t.com/imgcache/91757.jpg
http://refugeerights.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/slideshow_5.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Rgdwjg0-T4g/Tt2PrP9Lz5I/AAAAAAAAAK8/chRSnMbMzFM/s1600/12942884301.jpg
http://ro7ma.net/up/uploads/13421937031.jpg
http://www.fnr-top.com/imgcache/2/103alsh3er.jpg
http://ar.hibamusic.com/ajouter2/files_uploded/photos_artiste/full_size/majid-al-mohandes-194-3540-3688640.jpg
http://ro7ma.net/up/uploads/13421937032.jpg
http://i1.ifrm.com/14366/80/upload/p3630425.jpg
http://www.uiraqi.com/up/uploads/uiraqi_13378538491.jpg
http://victory.envy.nu/images/20090131-IraqiWomanVoter2.jpg
http://up.arabseyes.com/uploads/08_12_1113233337761.jpg
http://n4hr.org/up/uploads/n4hr_13445458905.jpg
http://i65.servimg.com/u/f65/14/95/05/42/23491710.jpg
http://www.iraqinews.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Iraqi-Minister-for-Womens-Affairs-Ibtihal-al-Zaidi.jpg
http://img174.imageshack.us/img174/4914/715636699pi7.jpg
http://refugeerights.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/slideshow_4.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-AeNXuYSq0EU/TmCyo2bom7I/AAAAAAAAFUE/m4AvGFX0N1E/s1600/iraq-women_praying.jpg
http://www.sumerfm.com/Upload/Staffs/StaffImage_090709071714_19.JPG
http://www.alqabas-kw.com/Temp/Pictures%5C2009%5C11%5C10%5Ccc15b14f-7ff7-4f7d-94c6-cbfbce16c17c.jpg
http://www.chatal3nabi.com/vb/imgcache/2/19818chatal3nabi.jpg
http://media.monstersandcritics.com/galleries/1580739/0161997655085.jpg
http://refugeerights.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/slideshow_2.jpg
http://images.bokra.net/new/454203.jpg
http://www.iraaqna.com/up/uploads/13465249281.jpg
http://iraqpictures.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Iraqis-chiled-Classical-Baghdadian-Costume.jpg
http://www.alaalem.com/admin/upload/irq_1764444145
http://media.monstersandcritics.com/galleries/1580739/0162018155085.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Nvqzpq9ZfEg/SYGiWAqm19I/AAAAAAAADZg/tG6U9ecMqPA/s400/Iraqi+woman.jpg
http://media.monstersandcritics.com/galleries/1580739/0161987255085.jpg
http://www.mercycorps.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/lightbox/photos/IraqiWomen.jpg
http://media.monstersandcritics.com/galleries/1580739/0161985955085.jpg
http://n4hr.org/up/uploads/n4hr_13445458904.jpg
http://static.dot.jo/uploads/repository/64717.jpg
http://msnbcmedia2.msn.com/j/ap/terrorism%20charges%20iraqis-1948720921_v2.grid-4x2.jpg
http://www.iraaqna.com/up/uploads/13465249282.jpg
http://foreversquared.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Transition-Teams-Iraqis-Marines-OIF-Iraq-Patrol-Combat-War-18.jpg
http://n4hr.com/up/uploads/03a816b4d5.jpg
http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4099/4767472776_96ed571c26.jpg
http://www.yemennation.net/user_images/news/1291038515.jpeg
http://ar.hibamusic.com/ajouter2/files_uploded/photos_artiste/full_size/alaa-saad-1722-29821-5380786.jpg
http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/shared/images/2008/09/14/tennis-650_416.jpg
http://0.t.cdn.belga.be/picture:24815244:preview:watermark?v=12d8fd481e2
http://foreversquared.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Iraqis-Marines-OIF-Iraq-Patrol-Combat-War-02.jpg
http://www.iraaqna.com/up/uploads/13465249631.jpg
http://www.iq6rb.com/vb/storeimg/iq6rb_1343124676_128.jpg
http://nimg.sulekha.com/sports/original700/qatar-australia-iraq-asian-cup-soccer-2011-1-22-9-41-20.jpg
http://n4hr.org/up/uploads/n4hr_13445458902.jpg
http://www.elmaha.com/vb/imgview/53095201233620.jpg
http://media1.arabia.msn.com/medialib/2012/10/15/shaza_12-20120612-135214.jpg
http://news.makcdn.com/image1600454_630_700/630X700.jpg
http://img.mawaly.com/images/news/zxy/55920-1324880048.jpg
http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5125/5348319307_59597bcf57.jpg
http://media.nas.mbc.net/media/images/sharingImages/173731.jpg
http://www.gmrup.com/d4/up13321470271.jpg
http://f1.alnaddycdn.com/music/files//299/images/1308125794.jpg
http://uploaded.m0dy.net/240894/m0dy.net-11296793316.jpg
http://n4hr.org/up/uploads/n4hr_12781121203.jpg
http://al-shorfa.com/shared/images/2012/11/20/iraq-children-flags-650_416.jpg
http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/shared/images/2011/12/05/iraq-displaced-grant-650_416.jpg
http://gorillasguides.com/wp-content/uploads/20110402_mother_and_daughter_thumb.jpg
http://uploaded.m0dy.net/240894/m0dy.net-21296792109.jpg
http://www.iraqim.com/storeimg/img_1353070336_193.jpg
http://sphotos-a.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/c82.0.403.403/p403x403/148105_456708067701308_1096688792_n.jpg
http://www.sotakhr.com/2006/uploads/pics/sy6_01.jpg
http://www.iraqim.com/storeimg/img_1353070335_557.jpg
http://uploaded.m0dy.net/240894/m0dy.net-01296792747.jpg

http://uploaded.m0dy.net/240894/m0dy.net-01296791861.jpg

ozkan
2012-11-28, 18:55
Iraqis look light for such a hot country (temperature reach 50 celsius for 6 months 40 celsius for 8 months and 30 celsius for 12 months) this proves that Iraqis came from caucasus mountains
But I think there should be a darkening trend amongst Iraqis because of adaptation and indeed I just googled iraqi children and came out a picture showing darkskinned iraqi boys with negroid flatening noses this proves that the adaptation driven negroidization process is in act and I think that in southern Arabia such as Oman and Yemen young people are already darker than old people
http://blogs.scripps.com/abil/citizens/iraqi_children.jpg

Arminfrench
2012-11-28, 19:45
Very interesting group of phenotypes, I'd like to see more.


These two could be movie stars.

http://www.iraaqna.com/up/uploads/13465249631.jpg

http://media.monstersandcritics.com/galleries/1580739/0161997655085.jpg


The gals is deffo a keeper and the military man looks like Tom Selleck's lost brother.

asingh
2012-11-28, 19:58
^^
She for sure is really pretty. Such diversity in Iraq, must say.

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-28, 20:16
Iraqis look light for such a hot country (temperature reach 50 celsius for 6 months 40 celsius for 8 months and 30 celsius for 12 months) this proves that Iraqis came from caucasus mountains
But I think there should be a darkening trend amongst Iraqis because of adaptation and indeed I just googled iraqi children and came out a picture showing darkskinned iraqi boys with negroid flatening noses this proves that the adaptation driven negroidization process is in act and I think that in southern Arabia such as Oman and Yemen young people are already darker than old people
http://blogs.scripps.com/abil/citizens/iraqi_children.jpg
What lol? Such adaptation that you are talking about takes thousands of years to occur, one would hardly see a difference between a single generation. The youth of south Arabia are most likely darker because they are out in the sun working, while the older people can no longer stick the heat. Surely that is obvious? There is no "negroidization", the people that you see living in Iraq have lived there for roughly 5000 years. If there are any Negroid traits in any of these populations it's due to mixture with slaves.

Fact-Finder
2012-11-28, 20:20
Iraqis look light for such a hot country (temperature reach 50 celsius for 6 months 40 celsius for 8 months and 30 celsius for 12 months) this proves that Iraqis came from caucasus mountains
But I think there should be a darkening trend amongst Iraqis because of adaptation and indeed I just googled iraqi children and came out a picture showing darkskinned iraqi boys with negroid flatening noses this proves that the adaptation driven negroidization process is in act and I think that in southern Arabia such as Oman and Yemen young people are already darker than old people
http://blogs.scripps.com/abil/citizens/iraqi_children.jpg

At what time do you think they moved into Iraq from the Caucasus?
It must have been recent for them to remain that light?

ozkan
2012-11-28, 20:24
See the difference between iraq first team and iraq boy team! the boys look darker
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/blogs/thelede/posts/1215iraq.jpg
http://s3.amazonaws.com/files.posterous.com/temp-2010-09-24/cfIuGBnJvalzdufkInwCFtIavuqkECBhctcDEnDclhukaAooDr cpirzlafbz/Iraqi_soccer_boys.jpg.scaled500.jpg?AWSAccessKeyId =AKIAJFZAE65UYRT34AOQ&Expires=1354130898&Signature=RlrA4e2ZMsdYdARRDV69cJmqSpI%3D

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-28, 20:24
At what time do you think they moved into Iraq from the Caucasus?
It must have been recent for them to remain that light?
He's talking nonsense. Most Iraqis did not come from the Caucasus, since modern Iraqis are primarily a Semitic people.

ozkan
2012-11-28, 20:26
At what time do you think they moved into Iraq from the Caucasus?
It must have been recent for them to remain that light?
Around 1000 BC when Kurds and other Iranian peoples begun to settle in Iraq but later on those iranians became arabized

Arminfrench
2012-11-28, 20:26
What lol? Such adaptation that you are talking about takes thousands of years to occur, one would hardly see a difference between a single generation. The youth of south Arabia are most likely darker because they are out in the sun working, while the older people can no longer stick the heat. Surely that is obvious? There is no "negroidization", the people that you see living in Iraq have lived there for roughly 5000 years. If there are any Negroid traits in any of these populations it's due to mixture with slaves.


I concur.

It takes even thousands of generations for the adapting mutations to show, we wouldnt be able to see them in process.

ozkan
2012-11-28, 20:27
He's talking nonsense. Most Iraqis did not come from the Caucasus, since modern Iraqis are primarily a Semitic people.
Iraqis are just semitic speaking but autosomally they are mostly Iranians with minor semitic input

ozkan
2012-11-28, 21:15
Exactly, environmental affect on genes takes a very long time. Many do not believe it even happens in the first place.

---------- Post Merged at 20:13 ----------


Again, what lol?
Can you provide any evidence towards this? Semitic people have lived in Iraq much longer than any Iranic peoples. Iraqis also cluster closer to other Semitic speaking peoples. Indeed Iraqis (particularly Assyrians) are often held up as the purest example of Semitic people.

Iraqis are autosomally closer to Iranians than to saudiarabians

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-28, 21:25
I concur.

It takes even thousands of generations for the adapting mutations to show, we wouldnt be able to see them in process.
Exactly, environmental affect on genes takes a very long time. Many do not believe it even happens in the first place.

---------- Post Merged at 20:13 ----------


Iraqis are just semitic speaking but autosomally they are mostly Iranians with minor semitic input
Again, what lol?
Can you provide any evidence towards this? Semitic people have lived in Iraq much longer than any Iranic peoples. Iraqis also cluster closer to other Semitic speaking peoples. Indeed Iraqis (particularly Assyrians) are often held up as the purest example of Semitic people.

---------- Post Merged at 20:19 ----------


Around 1000 BC when Kurds and other Iranian peoples begun to settle in Iraq but later on those iranians became arabized
Again I don't think you really understand what you are talking about. I think you have it in your head that Iraq was predominately Iranic and later became Semitized when the Arabs invaded. Judging by your name I'll assume you are a Kurd.
Iranic peoples arrived in Iraq after Semities. You have probably never heard of the Akkadians or Assyrians. Iranic peoples (particarly Kurds, are a much much later arrival in the region, in the case of the Kurds - probably around 1200AD).

---------- Post Merged at 20:25 ----------


Iraqis are autosomally closer to Iranians than to saudiarabians
So are Lebanese, what's your point? You clearly do not know what you are talking about, and that is quite evident considering your poor understanding of evolutionary adaptation.

ozkan
2012-11-28, 22:06
Kurds are attested in Irak since at least 600 BC with the median empire who spoke parthian wich is the forefather of kurdish languages like sorani gilaki baloochi zazaki mazandarani kurmanji but I think they were present but not attested since 1000 BC
Also dont forget the iranian mittanis
http://www.allaboutgemstones.com/images/history_jewelry_persian_empire_map.jpg

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-28, 22:14
Kurds are attested in Irak since at least 600 BC with the median empire who spoke parthian wich is the forefather of kurdish languages like sorani gilaki baloochi zazaki mazandarani kurmanji but I think they were present but not attested since 1000 BC
Also dont forget the iranian mittanis
Connections between Kurds and the Medes are rather weak, and more theoretical than anything else.
Neither of those come close to the age of the Akkadians:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkadian_Empire
Again, I reiterate this fundamental point: the modern Iraqi population is primarily composed of the descendants of the Akkadians, and the Assyrians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyrians). Both are Semitic populations, and both lived in the region much much longer than Iranic peoples. The Arabs came later.

I don't think the Mitanni were Iranian, but even if they were they came after Semitic people had settled there.

ozkan
2012-11-29, 11:37
Connections between Kurds and the Medes are rather weak, and more theoretical than anything else.
Neither of those come close to the age of the Akkadians:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkadian_Empire
Again, I reiterate this fundamental point: the modern Iraqi population is primarily composed of the descendants of the Akkadians, and the Assyrians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyrians). Both are Semitic populations, and both lived in the region much much longer than Iranic peoples. The Arabs came later.

I don't think the Mitanni were Iranian, but even if they were they came after Semitic people had settled there.


Please follow me. first the facts:
1/the median empire language was median (as well as parthian wich was a very close dialect to media sth like US english and british english)
2/median and parthian were the first attested northwestern iranian language
3/by the time of median empire, median language did not yet split into the current northwestern languages wich are azari (now extinct but tati could be a surviving modern form of azari), kurdish, balooch, gilaki, mazandarani, tehrani (extinct but should know that all the languages of northern iran and azerbaidjan were northwestern iranian language like kurdish but have been replaced by the persian wich is a southwestern iranian language originally from southern iran and that's because it was the language of the ancient capital ispahan), taleshi, zazaki...
4/modern russian is not ancient slavonnic but we know and no one denies that russian descends from ancient slavonnic and the same logics is true for kurdish, kurdish is not the median language but it evolved out of the median language

And so:kurdish language as well as kurds have the right to claim the median empire and the median language as their own

please see the map of the tree or the iranian languages
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Iranian_Family_Tree_v2.0.png/983px-Iranian_Family_Tree_v2.0.png

ashrf1979
2012-11-29, 12:00
Iraqi Sub-groups

Mandaeans

Afro-Asiatic
Semitic
Central Semitic
Northwest Semitic
Aramaic
Eastern Aramaic
Mandaic

http://www.cese-iq.net/images/Darfash.gif


Mandaeans (Modern Mandaic: מנדעניא‎ Mandaʻnāye, Arabic: الصابئة المندائيون‎ aṣ-Ṣabi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion. The Mandaeans were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language that evolved from Eastern Middle Aramaic, before switching to colloquial Iraqi Arabic and Modern Persian. Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language. During the century's first decade the indigenous Mandaic community of Iraq, which used to number 60-70,000 persons, collapsed in the aftermath of the Iraq War of 2003; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East.

History

Origin

There are several indications of the ultimate origin of the Mandaeans. Early religious concepts and terminologies recur in the Dead Sea Scrolls, and "Jordan" has been the name of every baptismal water in Mandaeism.[9] This connection with early baptismal sects in the eastern Jordan region and the elements of Western Syrian in the Mandaean language attests to their levantine origin.[9] The ultimate Jewish origin of the Mandaeans can still be found despite the vehement polemics against the Jews in Mandaean literature, in which Moses is a false prophet and Adonai (one of the names of God) is an evil God.[10][11] There are fewer indications of a relation between early Christians and Mandaeans, which make the connection more problematic. Some scholars, including Kurt Rudolph connect the early Mandaeans with the Jewish Christian sect of the Nasoraeans.[11]
The emigration of early Mandaeans from the Jordan Valley took place the latest at the second century CE due to pressure from orthodox Jews.[9] The migrants first went to Harran in upper Mesopotamia and entered the southern provinces of Mesopotamia during the third century CE. It appears that Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was partly influenced by the newcomers. The Mandaeans had also hostile relations with the Byzantine Church and the Babylonian Jews.[9]

Early Persian periods

A number of ancient Aramaic texts dating back to the 2nd century CE were uncovered in Elymais. Although they appear quite similar to the Mandaean Ginza, it is doubtful whether the inhabitants of Elyamis were Mandaeans.[12] Under Parthian and early Sasanian rule, foreign religions were tolerated and Mandaeanism enjoyed royal protection. The situation changed by the ascension of Bahram I in 273, who under the influence of the zealous Zoroastrian high priest Kartir persecuted all non-Zoroastrian religions. It is thought that this persecution encouraged the consolidation of Mandaean religious literature.[12] The persecutions instigated by Kartir seems to temporarily erase Mandaeans from recorded history. Traces of their presence can still however be found in the so-called Mandaean magical bowls and lead strips which were produced from the 3rd to the 7th centuries.[13]


Islamic Caliphates

The Mandaeans re-appear at the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia, when their "head of the people" Anush son of Danqa appears before Muslim authorities showing them a copy of the Ginza Rabba, the Mandaean holy book, and proclaiming the chief Mandaean prophet to be John the Baptist, who is also mentioned in the Quran. The connection with the Quranic Sabians provided them acknowledgement as People of the Book, a legal minority religion within the Muslim Empire. They appear to have flourished during the early Islamic period, as attested by the voluminous expansion of Mandaic literature and canons. Tib near Wasit is particularly noted as an important scribal centre.[13] Yaqut al-Hamawi describes Tib as a town inhabited by Nabatean (i.e. Aramaic speaking) Sabians who consider themselves to be descendants of Seth son of Adam.[13]
The status of the Mandaeans became an issue for the Abbasid al-Qahir Billah. To avoid further investigation by the authorities, the Mandaeans paid a bribe of 50,000 dinars and were left alone. It appears that the Mandaeans were even exempt from paying the Jizya, otherwise imposed upon protected non-Muslims.[13]

Late Persian and Ottoman periods

Early contact with Europeans came about in the mid-16th century, when Portuguese missionarries encountered Mandaeans in Southern Iraq and controversially designated them "Christians of St. John". In the next centuries Europeans became more acquainted with the Mandaeans and their religion.[13]
The Mandaeans suffered persecution under the Qajar rule in the 1780s. The dwindling community was threatened with complete anhililation, when a Cholera epidemic broke out in Shushtar and half of its inhabitants died. The entire Manaean priesthood perished and Mandeism was restored due only to the efforts of few learned men such as Yahia Bihram.[14] Another danger threatened the community in 1870, when the local governor of Shushtar massacred the Mandaeans against the will of the Shah.[14] As a result of these events the Mandaeans retired to the more inaccessible Central Marshes of Iraq.

Modern Iraq and Iran

Following the First World War, the Mandaeans were still largely living in rural areas in the lower parts of British protected Iraq and Iran. Owing to the rise of Arab nationalism Mandaeans were arabised at an accelerated rate, especially during the 1950s and '60s. The Mandaeans were also forced to abandon their stands on the cutting of hair and forced military service, which are strictly prohibited in Mandaenism.[15]
The 2003 Iraq War brought more troubles to the Mandaeans, as the security situation deteriorated. Many members of the Mandaean community, who were known as goldsmiths, were targeted by criminal gangs for ransoms. The rise of Islamic Extremism forced thousands to flee the country, after they were given the choice of conversion or death.[16] It is estimated that around 90% of Iraqi Mandaeans were either killed or have fled after the American-led invasion.[16]
The Mandaeans of Iran lived chiefly in Ahvaz, Iranian Khuzestan, but have moved as a result of the Iraq-Iran War to other cities such as Tehran, Karaj and Shiraz. The Mandaeans, who were traditionally considered as People of the Book (members of a protected religion under Islamic rule) lost this status after the Islamic Revolution. Local authorities in Iranian Islamic Republic are known to encourage harassment and persecution of the Mandaeans.[17]


Population

Mandaeans in Iraq

The pre-Iraq War Iraqi Mandaean community was centered around Baghdad. Mandaean emigration from Iraq began during Saddam Hussein's rule, but accelerated greatly after the American-led invasion and subsequent occupation.[18] Since the invasion Mandaeans, like other Iraqi ethno-religious minorities (such as Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidi, Roma and Shabaks), have been subjected to violence, including murders, kidnappings, rapes, evictions, and forced conversions.[18][19] Mandaeans, like many other Iraqis, have also been targeted for kidnapping since many worked as goldsmiths.[18] Mandaeism is pacifistic and forbids its adherents from carrying weapons.[18][20]
Many Iraqi Mandaeans have fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaean community in Iraq faces extinction.[21][22] Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, only about 5,000 to 7,000 remain there; as of early 2007, more than 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans were refugees in Syria and Jordan as a result of the Iraq War.

Language

The Mandaic language is an eastern dialect of Aramaic, although its alphabet is unique.[33] It has mainly survived as a liturgical language



http://s13.postimage.org/d5odcttaf/iraq_sabean_mandaeans_2010_3_19_8_51_12.jpg
http://www.alraynews.com/images/news/201003/28947546671853654.jpg
http://nimg.sulekha.com/others/original700/iraq-sabean-mandaeans-2010-3-20-7-30-8.jpg
http://www.mehrnews.com/mehr_media/image/2010/05/533912_orig.jpg
http://uploadingit.com/file/f2nfaocsr7rom4qf/large_bb75169135ce3cdea1d970020dd5aa9ejpg.jpg
http://store2.up-00.com/Dec10/Juj91090.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_MjHqFV54cGM/TTlah9tMGNI/AAAAAAAAFG0/O6fEs2EQhAk/s1600/Mandaeans.jpg
http://i48.tinypic.com/2qsux50.jpg
http://www.dn598.com/news/20100319/dn598-1215-FWXR.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4020/4622605949_0644c9b2ef_z.jpg
http://i47.tinypic.com/dzczlk.jpg
http://jahanimages.com/images/docs/000110/n00110751-r-b-000.jpg
http://www.mehrnews.com/mehr_media/image/2010/05/533889_orig.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_daUb0TxWVeU/SbJkXYOa6hI/AAAAAAAAAVk/YT45Ht2xa8o/s400/A+Mandaean+woman+is+seen+as+they+attend+a+ritual+o n+the+banks+of+the+Tigris+River+in+Baghdad+on+Sept ember+21+2008.jpg
http://www.akhbaar.org/images/sabea_mendaien_2010008.jpg
http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6187/6137003808_c09163bc09.jpg
http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6166/6136521309_2320ac9585.jpg
http://www.mandaean.nl/images/manda~11_med.JPG
http://www.alanba.com.kw/absolutenmnew/articlefiles/nm/126534-newap34.jpg
http://www.akhbaar.org/images/mendain_soba_1803008.jpg
http://news.makcdn.com/image559143_630_700/630X700.jpg
http://www.cese-iq.net/images/web%20pic%20akh_arch%202010/cese-arch-26-04032010/reshama_abdala.jpg
http://www.iraqitorath.com/%D9%81%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%A 7%D8%BA%D8%A9%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%AF%D8% A7%D8%A6%D9%8A%D9%8A%D9%86_files/image006.jpg
http://www.iraqitorath.com/%D9%81%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%A 7%D8%BA%D8%A9%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%AF%D8% A7%D8%A6%D9%8A%D9%8A%D9%86_files/image002.jpg
http://up.arab-x.com/Oct10/hZX47400.png
http://up.nasiriyah.org/uploads/images/nasiriyah-11b9d0773c.JPG
http://www.minorityrights.org/image.php?id=512
http://www.mesopot.com/default/images/stories/book-lougaat/9m/image002.jpg
http://www.ain.jo/sites/default/files/image_db/preview/mandaeism03.jpg
http://www.shaaubmagazine.com/upload/images/739600366.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-qu9a_x65xhA/T2M490-F-eI/AAAAAAAAGYA/j0ehbjALkD4/s1600/100_5908.JPG
http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/02sSeAU6mI5kS/610x.jpg
http://www.marafea.org/sitepicture/2000000009429033.jpg
http://www.mesopot.com/old/adad9/52_bestanden/image002.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-d0pKaOXzYZQ/T2M4u-BExKI/AAAAAAAAGWI/hCaNRz2JuRE/s1600/100_5807.JPG
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-eW3kQYhQH2Q/T2M43fByWkI/AAAAAAAAGXI/aHEMmfLLkno/s1600/100_5843.JPG
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gmEh8CCmgwA/T2M44gzf_0I/AAAAAAAAGXM/lngGHYNsA5U/s1600/100_5847.JPG
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4Ymcpif1us4/T2M48cGXd8I/AAAAAAAAGXs/Gf1cbcYtZ3A/s1600/100_5889.JPG
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1IkwxLAkTc8/T2M5AntuipI/AAAAAAAAGYQ/dyT7ee578ss/s1600/100_5925.JPG
http://www.mandaeanunion.org/Thumbnails/Art/Mandaean-film.jpg
http://gdb.rferl.org/19F77096-EA95-4858-9947-578475C60806_mw1024_s.jpg
http://www.alraynews.com/images/news/201003/289475593844253740Thumb.jpg
http://www.alaalem.com/admin/upload/irq_724644876
http://www.iraqfineart.com/photo/27151005-803.jpg
http://www.shuf.com/AuthenticatedUsers/shufMembers/8/232483/Drive/sosan.jpg
http://iqpalmtree.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/22034_308765076253_628036253_3980906_551972_n1.jpg
http://www.sotakhr.com/2006/uploads/pics/sy6_01.jpg

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mandaean Videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tr5J6wDPbY0&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MdX4QXF6K40

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IAgxu1hPGw

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ean-WKnw_nU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k75NoWzT5lM&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UP1JORRcIao

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kv-5ynXS3UI&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05X_1ibL5O4&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4vbArJ3F3Y&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLtSmzDSNjA&feature=related

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-29, 15:57
Please follow me. first the facts:
1/the median empire language was median (as well as parthian wich was a very close dialect to media sth like US english and british english)
2/median and parthian were the first attested northwestern iranian language
3/by the time of median empire, median language did not yet split into the current northwestern languages wich are azari (now extinct but tati could be a surviving modern form of azari), kurdish, balooch, gilaki, mazandarani, tehrani (extinct but should know that all the languages of northern iran and azerbaidjan were northwestern iranian language like kurdish but have been replaced by the persian wich is a southwestern iranian language originally from southern iran and that's because it was the language of the ancient capital ispahan), taleshi, zazaki...
4/modern russian is not ancient slavonnic but we know and no one denies that russian descends from ancient slavonnic and the same logics is true for kurdish, kurdish is not the median language but it evolved out of the median language

And so:kurdish language as well as kurds have the right to claim the median empire and the median language as their own

please see the map of the tree or the iranian languages
If you want to claim that the Medes were Kurds then that is fine, perhaps there will be more substantial evidence someday (I'm not denying a connection, perhaps there is). However your claim that most Iraqis are "Iranian" is totally false. Semites have lived in the region much longer than any Iranian people, and any Indo-European people for that matter too. Your ideas on evolution are all over the place as well.

ashrf1979
2012-11-30, 09:08
Iraqi Sub-groups

Maʻdān (Marsh Arabs)


The Marsh Arabs (Arabic: عرب الأهوار‎ ʻArab al-Ahwār "Arabs of the Marshlands"), also known as the Maʻdān (Arabic: معدان‎), are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south and east of Iraq and along the Iranian border.
Comprising members of many different tribes and tribal confederations, such as the Āl Bū Muḥammad, Ferayghāt, Shaghanbah and Banī Lām, the Maʻdān had developed a unique culture centred around the marshes' natural resources. Many of the marshes' inhabitants were displaced when the wetlands were drained during and after the 1991 uprisings in Iraq.

Culture

Madan means "dweller in the plains (ʻadan)" and was used disparagingly by desert tribes to refer to those inhabiting the Iraqi river basins, and normally people will call them as MAIDA (Anu) by those who farmed in the river basins to refer to the population of the marshes.[2] There was a considerable historic prejudice against the Maʻdān, partly as they were considered to have Persian or other "mixed" origin and partly due to their practice of temporary marriage.[3]
The Maʻdān speak a local dialect of Iraqi Arabic and traditionally wore a variant of normal Arab dress: for males, a long shirt or thawb (in recent times, occasionally with a Western-style jacket over the top) and a keffiyeh headcloth worn twisted around the head in a turban as few could afford an ʻiqāl.

Agriculture

The society of the Marsh Arabs was divided into two main groups by occupation. One group bred and raised domestic buffalo while others cultivated crops such as rice, barley, wheat and pearl millet; they also kept some sheep and cattle. Rice cultivation was especially important; it was carried out in small plots cleared in April and sown in mid-May. Cultivation seasons were marked by the rising and setting of certain stars, such as the Pleiades and Sirius.[4]
Some branches of the Maʻdān were nomadic pastoralists, erecting temporary dwellings and moving buffalo around the marshes according to the season. Some fishing, especially of species of barbel (Barbus sp., notably the binni or bunni, Barbus sharpeyi), was practised using spears and datura poison, but large-scale fishing using nets was until recent times regarded as a dishonourable profession by the Maʻdān and was mostly carried out by a separate low-status tribe known as the Berbera.[5] By the early 1990s, however, up to 60% of the total amount of fish caught in Iraq's inland waters came from the marshes.[1]
In the later twentieth century a third main occupation entered Marsh Arab life; the weaving of reed mats on a commercial scale. Though they often earned far more than workers in agriculture, weavers were looked down upon by both Maʻdān and farmers alike: however, financial concerns meant that it gradually gained acceptance as a respectable profession.

Religion

The majority of Marsh Arabs are Shī‘ī Muslims, though in the marshes small communities of Aramaic speaking non Arab ethnic Mandeans (often working as boat builders and craftsmen) lived alongside them.[6] The inhabitants' long association with tribes within Persia may have influenced the spread of the Shī‘ī denomination within the marshes. Wilfred Thesiger commented that while he met few Marsh Arabs who had performed the Hajj, many of them had made the pilgrimage to Mashhad (thereby earning the title Zair);[7] a number of families also claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, adopting the title of sayyid and dyeing their keffiyeh green.
The Maʻdān carried out the majority of their devotions in private as there were no places of worship within the Marshes; some were known to visit Ezra's Tomb, one of the few religious sites of any kind in the area.[8]
In addition to their Islamic faith, and complementary to it, when contacted by Wilfred Thesiger the Ma'dan still held a number of pre-Islamic or extra-Islamic beliefs, from the existence of strange monsters in the marshes to that of bewitched isles such as the legendary Hufaidh, whose shores could not be broached without causing madness in the unwary boatman.

Society

As with most tribes of southern Iraq, the main authority was the tribal shaikh. To this day, the shaikh of a Marsh Arab group will collect a tribute from his tribe in order to maintain the mudhif, the tribal guesthouse which acts as the political, social, judicial and religious centre of Marsh Arabic life. The mudhif is used as a place to settle disputes, to carry out diplomacy with other tribes and as a gathering point for religious and other celebrations. It is also the place where visitors are offered hospitality. Although the tribal shaykh was the principal figure, each Maʻdān village (which may have contained members of several different tribes) would also follow the authority of the hereditary qalit "headman" of a tribe's particular section.
Blood feuds, which could only be settled by the qalit, were a feature of Marsh Arab life, in common with that of the Arab bedouin. Many of the Marsh Arabs' codes of behaviour were similar to those of the desert tribes.

Most Marsh Arabs lived in arched reed houses considerably smaller than a mudhif. The typical dwelling was usually a little more than 2 meters wide, about 6 meters long, and a little less than three meters high, and was either constructed at the waterside or on an artificial island of reeds called a kibasha; a more permanent island of layered reeds and mud was called a dibin.[9] Houses had entrances at both ends and a screen in the middle; one end was used as a dwelling and the other end (sometimes extended with a sitra, a long reed structure) was used to shelter animals in bad weather. A raba was a higher-status dwelling, distinguished by a north-facing entrance, which also served as a guesthouse where there was no mudhif.[10] Traditional boats (the mashoof and tarada) were used as transport: the Maʻdān would drive buffaloes through the reedbeds during the season of low water to create channels, which would then be kept open by constant use, for the boats.[11]
The marsh environment meant that certain diseases, such as bilharzia and malaria, were endemic;[12] Maʻdānī agriculture and homes were also vulnerable to periodic droughts and flooding.


Link to Sumerians and Akkadians

The origins of the Maʻdān are still a matter of some interest. British colonial ethnographers found it difficult to classify some of the Maʻdān's social customs and speculated that they might have originated in India.[13]
Many scholars have proposed historical and genetic links between the Marsh Arabs and the ancient Sumerians, based on shared agricultural practices and methods of house building. There is, however, no written record of the marsh tribes until the ninth century AD, and the Sumerians were absorbed by the Akkadians (Assyrians-Babylonians) by around 1800 BC, some 2,700 years before.[14]
Others, however, have noted that much of the culture of the Maʻdān is in fact shared with the desert bedouin who came to the area after the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, and that it is therefore likely that they are descended from this source, at least in part.[15]

Genetic Evidence

A 2011 Study showed that Marsh Arabs have a high concentration of Haplogroup J1 for males and Haplogroup J having the highest concentration in females with Haplogroup H, Haplogroup U and Haplogroup T having the highest concentrations.[16]

1991–2003

The marshes had for some time been considered a refuge for elements persecuted by the government of Saddam Hussein, as in past centuries they had been a refuge for escaped slaves and serfs, such as during the Zanj Rebellion. By the mid 1980s, a low-level insurgency against Ba'athist drainage and resettlement projects had developed in the area, led by Sheik Abdul Kerim Mahud al-Muhammadawi of the Al bu Muhammad under the nom de guerre Abu Hatim.[17]
During the 1970s, the expansion of irrigation projects had begun to disrupt the flow of water to the marshes. However, after the First Gulf War (1991), the Iraqi government aggressively revived a program to divert the flow of the Tigris River and the Euphrates River away from the marshes in retribution for a failed Shia uprising. This was done primarily to eliminate the food source(s) of the Marsh Arabs and to prevent any remaining militiamen from taking refuge in the marshes, the Badr Brigades and other militias having used them as cover. The plan, which was accompanied by a series of propaganda articles by the Iraqi regime directed against the Ma'dan,[18] systematically converted the wetlands into a desert, forcing the residents out of their settlements in the region. Villages in the marshes were attacked and burnt down and there were reports of the water being deliberately poisoned.[19]
The majority of the Maʻdān were displaced either to areas adjacent to the drained marshes, abandoning their traditional lifestyle in favour of conventional agriculture, to towns and camps in other areas of Iraq or to Iranian refugee camps. Only 1,600 of them were estimated to still be living on traditional dibins by 2003.[20] The western Hammar Marshes and the Qurnah or Central Marshes had become completely desiccated, while the eastern Hawizeh Marshes had dramatically shrunk.
The Marsh Arabs, who numbered about half a million in the 1950s, have dwindled to as few as 20,000 in Iraq, according to the United Nations. An estimated 80,000 to 120,000 have fled to refugee camps in Iran.[21]


Since 2003

With the breaching of dikes by local communities subsequent to the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq and the ending of a four year drought that same year, the process has been reversed and the marshes have experienced a substantial rate of recovery. The permanent wetlands now cover more than 50% of 1970s levels, with a remarkable regrowth of the Hammar and Hawizeh Marshes and some recovery of the Central Marshes.[22]
Efforts to restore the marshes have led to signs of their gradual revivification as water is restored to the former desert, but the whole ecosystem may take far longer to restore than it took to destroy. Only a few thousand of the nearly half million Marsh Arabs remain in the area. Most of the rest that can be accounted for are refugees living in other Shia areas in Iraq, or have emigrated to Iran, and many do not wish to return to their former home and lifestyle, which despite its independence was characterised by extreme poverty and hardship. A USAID report noted that while some Maʻdān had chosen to return to their traditional activities in the marshes, especially the Hammar Marshes, within a short time of reflooding, they were without clean drinking water, sanitation, health care or education facilities.[23] In addition, it is still uncertain if the marshes will completely recover, given increased levels of water extraction from the Tigris and Euphrates.
Many of the resettled Marsh Arabs have gained representation through the Iraqi Hizbullah organisation; others have become followers of Moqtada al-Sadr's movement, through which they gained political control of Maysan Governorate.[24] Political instability and local feuds, aggravated by the poverty of the dispossessed Marsh Arab population, remain a serious problem.[25]

Literature

Pietro della Valle (1586–1652) is cited in Gavin Young's Return to the Marshes as the earliest modern traveler to write about Mesopotamia and probably the first to introduce the word Madi, which he spelled "Maedi," to the Western world.[26]
Young also mentions George Keppel (1799–1891) as having spent time with the Madan in 1824 and reported in detail on the marsh inhabitants. Of the men Keppel wrote, "The Arab boatmen were as hardy and muscular-looking fellows as ever I saw. One loose brown shirt, of the coarseness of sack-cloth, was the only covering of the latter. This, when labour required it, was thrown aside, and discovered forms most admirably adapted to their laborious avocations; indeed, any of the boatmen would have made an excellent model for an Hercules; and one in particular, with uncombed hair and shaggy beard, struck us all with the resemblance he bore to statues of that deity." Of the women Keppel observed, "They came to our boat with the frankness of innocence and there was a freedom in their manners, bordering perhaps on the masculine; nevertheless their fine features and well-turned limbs produced a tout ensemble of beauty, not to be surpassed perhaps in the brilliant assemblies of civilized life."[27]
Another account of the Maʻdān in English was jointly published in 1927 by a British colonial administrator, Stuart Edwin Hedgecock, and his wife.[28][29] Gertrude Bell also visited the area.[30] T. E. Lawrence passed through in 1916, stopping at Basra and Ezra's Tomb (Al-Azair), and recorded that the Marsh Arabs were "wonderfully hard [...] but merry, and full of talk. They are in the water all their lives, and seem hardly to notice it."[31]
The way of life of the Marsh Arabs was later described by the explorer Sir Wilfred Thesiger in his classic The Marsh Arabs (1964). Thesiger lived with the Marsh Arabs for months at a time over a seven-year period (1951–1958), building excellent relationships with virtually all he met, and recording the details of day-to-day life in various regions of the marshes. Many of the areas that he visited have since been drained. Gavin Maxwell, the Scottish naturalist, travelled with Thesiger through the marshes in 1956 and published an account of their travels in his 1957 book A Reed Shaken by the Wind (later republished under the title People of the Reeds). The journalist and travel writer Gavin Young followed in Thesiger's footsteps, writing Return to the Marshes: Life with the Marsh Arabs of Iraq (1977; reissued 2009).
The first extensive scholarly ethnographic account of Marsh Arab life was Marsh Dwellers of the Euphrates Delta (1962), by Iraqi anthropologist S. M. Salim. An ethnoarchaeological study of the material culture of the Marsh Arabs has been published by Edward L. Ochsenschlager: Iraq's Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden (University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2004).
Rory Stewart described the Marsh Arabs and his experiences as deputy governor in the Maysan province (2003–2004) in his 2006 book, Prince of the Marshes(also published under the title Occupational Hazards).
In German, there is Sigrid Westphal-Hellbusch, Die Ma'dan: Kultur und Geschichte der Marschenbewohner im Süd-Iraq (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1962).




http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/img/covers/14549.jpg

http://www.alrashead.net/magazin/images_mag/681alrasheadnet.jpg
Abdel-Karim al-Mohammedawi

Abdel-Karim Mahoud al-Mohammedawi was a member of the Interim Iraq Governing Council created following the United States's 2003 invasion of Iraq. A Shia Muslim, al-Mohommedawi led the resistance against Saddam Hussein's government in the southern marsh regions of Iraq, where he gained the title "Prince of the Marshes." He was imprisoned for six years under the Hussein regime and currently leads the Iraqi political group Hezbollah in Amarah.


http://www.shatelarab.com/imgcache/5/24187_shatelarab.com.jpg
Jawad al-Bulani, former Interior Minister of Iraq (2006-2010)


http://www.laputanlogic.com/images/2004/01/27-Y99DUC5X00.jpeg

http://www.laputanlogic.com/images/2004/01/27-Y99DUTGB00.jpeg

http://www.laputanlogic.com/images/2004/01/27-Y99E14VT00.jpeg

http://s1.postimage.org/jg2zzc4nz/Marsh_Arabs7.jpg

http://i51.tinypic.com/21cfgbs.jpg

http://gorillasguides.com/images/IRAQGovernmentaidformarshlandchildren_8F14/20081205_marsh_arab_boy_hug_his_sheep_small.jpg

http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39032000/jpg/_39032901_marsharab_ap300.jpg

http://www.ianjonesphoto.co.uk/images/16-Ed-Lg-567.jpg

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3630/3462115042_4859b3bc23.jpg

http://s1.postimage.org/59nfq97st/Marsh_Arabs8.jpg

http://www.metalvortex.com/images/Iraq/slides/_DSC7350a.jpg

http://i54.tinypic.com/28taosp.jpg

http://www.toreigeland.com/marsharabscolour/content/bin/images/large/April_2007_9.jpg

http://www.toreigeland.com/marsharabscolour/content/bin/images/large/April_2007_2.jpg

http://www.toreigeland.com/marsharabscolour/content/bin/images/large/April_2007_13.jpg

http://up.foraten.net/uploads/a83c8f250f.jpg

http://s1.postimage.org/59mdow8fb/Marsh_Arabs.jpg

http://i55.tinypic.com/2z9fwh1.jpg

http://c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000gOfBvHXq8tE/s/500/500/MARSH-ARABS-SENIOR-WOMAN-TRIBAL-TATTOOS-FACE-SOUTHERN-IRAQ-1980s-001.jpg

http://www.corbisimages.com/images/42-16154321.jpg?size=67&uid={83881a97-331e-4da3-b5bb-6c292e069542}

http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7051/6979131647_861495688e_o.jpg

http://www.socaltrailriders.org/gallery/data/1622/medium/IF.jpg


http://s1.postimage.org/59mxjcecy/Marsh_Arabs6.jpg

http://www.toreigeland.com/marsharabscolour/content/bin/images/large/April_2007_19.jpg

http://www.southwalesargus.co.uk/resources/images/1492900/?type=display

http://gorillasguides.com/wp-content/uploads/20110402_mother_and_daughter_thumb.jpg

http://www.international.ucla.edu/media/images/girl-in-marshes-lrg.jpg

http://s2.postimage.org/nxnm9bqn7/Marsh_Arabs.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Marsh_Arab_girl.jpg

http://i51.tinypic.com/27wrv4.jpg

http://i53.tinypic.com/28jxtfk.jpg

http://i51.tinypic.com/b50401.jpg

http://i55.tinypic.com/ilefeu.jpg

http://i52.tinypic.com/5bcy8k.jpg

http://i55.tinypic.com/eq9sao.jpg

http://i56.tinypic.com/3088ayt.jpg

http://i51.tinypic.com/35240n5.jpg

http://i54.tinypic.com/28taosp.jpg

http://i54.tinypic.com/jkyckz.jpg

http://s1.postimage.org/59mp9nnxf/Marsh_Arabs4.jpg

http://s1.postimage.org/qjb5c6d3l/Marsh_Arabs9.jpg

http://s1.postimage.org/59pyotaz8/Marsh_Arabs10.jpg

http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000qhpHZgWtyZY/s/500/500/MARSH-ARABS-SOUTHERN-IRAQ-1980s-019.jpg

http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000Iq44P6me3vY/s/500/500/MARSH-ARABS-WOMEN-COLLECTING-WATER-RIVER-TIGRIS-EUPHRATES-MARSHLANDS-WETLANDSOUTHERN-IRAQ-1980s-035.jpg

http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000A9qTlIw7SN8/s/500/500/MARSH-ARABS-SOUTHERN-IRAQ-1980s-032.jpg

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-FT0oPndMscg/T4rnth44EJI/AAAAAAAADlg/PX9go11XIuo/s1600/Iraq+Oct+2011+Marsh+Arabs+%252825%2529+use.jpg

http://www.bluelyn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/5-Arab-Marsh-Now.jpg

http://www.bluelyn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/4-Nasiriyah.jpg

http://payload76.cargocollective.com/1/8/267942/3830923/1-7.jpg

http://payload76.cargocollective.com/1/8/267942/3830923/1-14.jpg

http://payload76.cargocollective.com/1/8/267942/3830923/3-9.jpg

http://payload76.cargocollective.com/1/8/267942/3830923/4-12.jpg

http://payload76.cargocollective.com/1/8/267942/3830923/6-6-1.jpg

http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000XPC.EiACSvQ/s/500/500/MARSH-ARABS-TEEN-GIRL-FLOCK-SHEEP-SOUTHERN-IRAQ-1980s-004.jpg

http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/12/22/53/2697960/6/628x471.jpg

http://www.corbisimages.com/images/Corbis-NW004621.jpg?size=67&uid=330088ef-e2a3-4dbc-b024-862a952c3e18

http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/12/16/72/2682496/8/628x471.jpg

http://i56.tinypic.com/2ibyxrb.jpg

http://www.corbisimages.com/images/42-16154321.jpg?size=67&uid=%7B83881a97-331e-4da3-b5bb-6c292e069542%7D

http://farm1.staticflickr.com/84/230932028_1aa2f66097.jpg

http://www.amarfoundation.org/heritage/img/110329-ADB-0419.jpg


http://farm1.staticflickr.com/130/396911251_cbe3522d3e.jpg

http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2626/3858759916_a3baa5fbca.jpg


http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3620/3433203447_fcf74bda8e.jpg

http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4023/4623787281_f8785900d8.jpg

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3376/4624398230_206f7a8d19.jpg

http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4007/4624371290_546b828720.jpg


http://www.iraqicivilsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/education-iraq.jpg


http://www.james-birt.com/gallery/10/marsh_arab_portrait.jpg

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_DyNq8is9uRQ/SfNkBiPT4BI/AAAAAAAABPc/lD0Ww0wDBsE/s1600/marsh+arab+family+unit+copy.jpg


http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_DyNq8is9uRQ/SfNkBdKl4II/AAAAAAAABPM/2TQVbAHjGwA/s1600/mother+and+child+copy.jpg

http://cache2.asset-cache.net/gc/93217098-iraqi-marsh-arabs-girls-peer-out-of-an-animal-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=X7WJLa88Cweo9HktRLaNXjkbbNi%2ft0a7JcHp2ocqkdp7ZW HwIcIRsNfvAZY939ve4Fu78mJieTjIG8Xwz57Uzw%3d%3d

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-sTtuwGRV32U/T4rogwI_4nI/AAAAAAAADo0/NqpeWPtBJR8/s1600/Iraq+Oct+2011+Marsh+Arabs+%2528130%2529use.jpg

http://www.aawsat.com/2009/04/08/images/travel1.514248.jpg

http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000lyU_.NjXTpI/s/500/500/MARSH-ARABS-WEALTHY-FAMILY-BAGHDAD-SOUTHERN-IRAQ-1980s-028.jpg

http://www.worldstories.org.uk/images/iraqi-girl_cropped.jpg

http://www.mercycorps.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/lightbox/photos/IraqiWomen.jpg

http://foreversquared.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Transition-Teams-Iraqis-Marines-OIF-Iraq-Patrol-Combat-War-18.jpg

http://foreversquared.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Iraqis-Marines-OIF-Iraq-Patrol-Combat-War-02.jpg

Thebrodie
2012-11-30, 09:18
What a bunch of ugly hicks ^. Also modern day iraqis, including iraqi arabs, have a minor "arab" input, they're mostly similar to iranians and other west-asian groups, they're largely undiluted and can't boast "Pure arab ancestry", however logically speaking it does seem to follow patterns, the more southern iraqis are, the more arab ancestry they have.Sorry to say this to all arabic semitophiles, but there is no way you can claim iraqis as some sort of desert semites similar to the saudis and gulf arabs. Say whatever you want, but the few autosmal interpertations show iraqi arab as scoring differently than gulf-arabs and more similarly to other west-asian groups including non-arab speaking ones. Alas it's a stupid myth alot of pan-arabists like to push, they want to claim pure arab lineage, when clearly the majority of their ancestors were arabized. Which isn't to say a rejection of their identity as arabs, only that it's stupid for them to deny their pre-islamic lineages. What i find even more stupid is how they pander to "pure arabs" when those cunts sponsor bombs in their towns and divisive ideologies.

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 10:03
What a bunch of ugly hicks ^. Also modern day iraqis, including iraqi arabs, have a minor "arab" input, they're mostly similar to iranians and other west-asian groups, they're largely undiluted and can't boast "Pure arab ancestry", however logically speaking it does seem to follow patterns, the more southern iraqis are, the more arab ancestry they have.Sorry to say this to all arabic semitophiles, but there is no way you can claim iraqis as some sort of desert semites similar to the saudis and gulf arabs. Say whatever you want, but the few autosmal interpertations show iraqi arab as scoring differently than gulf-arabs and more similarly to other west-asian groups including non-arab speaking ones. Alas it's a stupid myth alot of pan-arabists like to push, they want to claim pure arab lineage, when clearly the majority of their ancestors were arabized. Which isn't to say a rejection of their identity as arabs, only that it's stupid for them to deny their pre-islamic lineages. What i find even more stupid is how they pander to "pure arabs" when those cunts sponsor bombs in their towns and divisive ideologies.
Clearly no one is claiming that. In actual fact the majority of "Arabs" in the middle east also have minimal Arab input. That doesn't change the fact however that they are a Semitic people. Ozkan was trying to claim they were Iranians that had been Arabized, but that is false. They were already a Semitic people.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 10:53
Clearly no one is claiming that. In actual fact the majority of "Arabs" in the middle east also have minimal Arab input. That doesn't change the fact however that they are a Semitic people. Ozkan was trying to claim they were Iranians that had been Arabized, but that is false. They were already a Semitic people.

Actually there were many autochtonous iranians and other indo-europeans in Iraq such as mitannis, medians, and possibly also kassites and gutians and even the pre-sumerian folks may actually be indo-european, read this please http://www.science.org.ge/2-3/Gordon%20Whitteker.pdf

Thebrodie
2012-11-30, 11:24
Clearly no one is claiming that. In actual fact the majority of "Arabs" in the middle east also have minimal Arab input. That doesn't change the fact however that they are a Semitic people. Ozkan was trying to claim they were Iranians that had been Arabized, but that is false. They were already a Semitic people.

The iranian input is undeniably there... which is why iraqis are pulled towards. Iran, rather than lebanon/syria/palestine/assyria. Whether they were semites or not is irrelevant. Semite to me is a completely useless classification term outside of ethno-religious and linguistic terms. Semites are just a genetic composition of mediterranean, anatolo-caucasian and desert nomad south-west-asian ancestor groups. There is no such thing as a semitic race. Semitic-speakers, that is gulf-arabs, horners and west-asian "semites" are largely unrelated genetically.

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-11-30, 12:40
Iraqis look light for such a hot country (temperature reach 50 celsius for 6 months 40 celsius for 8 months and 30 celsius for 12 months) this proves that Iraqis came from caucasus mountains
But I think there should be a darkening trend amongst Iraqis because of adaptation and indeed I just googled iraqi children and came out a picture showing darkskinned iraqi boys with negroid flatening noses this proves that the adaptation driven negroidization process is in act and I think that in southern Arabia such as Oman and Yemen young people are already darker than old people
http://blogs.scripps.com/abil/citizens/iraqi_children.jpg

Keep in mind, most of the pictures here aren't of crowds. Asserting that Iraqis are "light", because of Caucasus admixture is absurd in the highest degree. You do understand, that where these ancestral components peak, doesn't necessarily suggest that they originated in those populations. The Caucasus/West Asian component could have very well arose outside of the Caucasus, probably in Anatolia or even Iraq.

Where a component is modal, is irrelevant to the progenitor source population that it started with. Also, your claim that environmental adaptation leads to "Negroidization" is just plain idiotic.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 13:13
Keep in mind, most of the pictures here aren't of crowds. Asserting that Iraqis are "light", because of Caucasus admixture is absurd in the highest degree. You do understand, that where these ancestral components peak, doesn't necessarily suggest that they originated in those populations. The Caucasus/West Asian component could have very well arose outside of the Caucasus, probably in Anatolia or even Iraq.

Where a component is modal, is irrelevant to the progenitor source population that it started with. Also, your claim that environmental adaptation leads to "Negroidization" is just plain idiotic.

Iranian peoples are lighter than Iraqis because they live in very pleasant mountainous areas without humidity but with much rain and snow and thick forests but Arabs live in a very arid desertic lands wich are very hot with vey high humidity all year around and without rain or snow or forests or mountains, but they are not as dark as they should be for ones living in such a hot and arid desert with all year round temperatures of 50 celsius

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 14:37
Actually there were many autochtonous iranians and other indo-europeans in Iraq such as mitannis, medians, and possibly also kassites and gutians and even the pre-sumerian folks may actually be indo-european, read this please http://www.science.org.ge/2-3/Gordon%20Whitteker.pdf
The Mitanni dwelt more in Anatolia than Iraq, neither of those groups have a presence as old as the Semites. Considering most believe the Indo-Europeans arrived in the region a little later than 2000BC that seems unlikely, however that was an interesting link. I doubt it though since there is much more evidence towards an eastern European homeland for the Indo-European people.
Your theory that Iraqis are semitised Iranians is quite wrong, surely you can see that?


The iranian input is undeniably there... which is why iraqis are pulled towards. Iran, rather than lebanon/syria/palestine/assyria. Whether they were semites or not is irrelevant. Semite to me is a completely useless classification term outside of ethno-religious and linguistic terms. Semites are just a genetic composition of mediterranean, anatolo-caucasian and desert nomad south-west-asian ancestor groups. There is no such thing as a semitic race. Semitic-speakers, that is gulf-arabs, horners and west-asian "semites" are largely unrelated genetically.
No doubt there is an Iranian input, just as there is a Semitic one in eastern Iran. Likewise "Iranian" is a fairly useless classification, since most Iranians are essentially west asians with Aryan input from Indo-European invasions. As far as I know most Iraqis cluster towards the west of the middle east, rather than somewhere like Iran.
That's not entirely true, all those groups you have mentioned have some genetic affinity. The problem is the family is widely spread out and has mixed with various groups at some point. East Africans have less affinity because they were a native population that was essentially semitised. I'm not sure about the gulf Arabs, but most west asian Semites do indeed cluster together.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 14:53
The Mitanni dwelt more in Anatolia than Iraq, neither of those groups have a presence as old as the Semites. Considering most believe the Indo-Europeans arrived in the region a little later than 2000BC that seems unlikely, however that was an interesting link. I doubt it though since there is much more evidence towards an eastern European homeland for the Indo-European people.
Your theory that Iraqis are semitised Iranians is quite wrong, surely you can see that?


No doubt there is an Iranian input, just as there is a Semitic one in eastern Iran. Likewise "Iranian" is a fairly useless classification, since most Iranians are essentially west asians with Aryan input from Indo-European invasions. As far as I know most Iraqis cluster towards the west of the middle east, rather than somewhere like Iran.
That's not entirely true, all those groups you have mentioned have some genetic affinity. The problem is the family is widely spread out and has mixed with various groups at some point. East Africans have less affinity because they were a native population that was essentially semitised. I'm not sure about the gulf Arabs, but most west asian Semites do indeed cluster together.

Iranians are indo-europeans with minor southwestern asian input, the westasian and northeuropean input in them is indo-european and is present amongst european indo-europeans

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:00
Iranians are indo-europeans with minor southwestern asian input, the westasian and northeuropean input in them is indo-european and is present amongst european indo-europeans
The west Asian is not Indo-European. Indo-Europeans came from eastern Europe, they imposed their language and culture on the indigenous population of Iran, left a few R1a markers and then ditched.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 15:04
The west Asian is not Indo-European. Indo-Europeans came from eastern Europe, they imposed their language and culture on the indigenous population of Iran, left a few R1a markers and then ditched.

How you explain Armenians are indo-europeans without northeuropean input?
how explain that all european indo-europeans have westasian input but non-indoeuropean europeans like basques and finns lack westasian input (though they have northeuropean input)
dont also forget that the closest ancestry to northeuropean is westasian one

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:08
How you explain Armenians are indo-europeans without northeuropean input?
how explain that all european indo-europeans have westasian input but non-indoeuropean europeans like basques and finns lack westasian input (though they have northeuropean input)
dont also forget that the closest ancestry to northeuropean is westasian one
I'm pretty sure Armenians have a north European component. Many have west Asian input because of farming expansion from the neolithic. If Iranians were the original "Aryans" why do they cluster fairly close to other middle eastern groups? Why are they overwhelmingly not R1a? It's quite clear they were just a bog standard west Asian group that became Indo-Europeanised.

nk191919
2012-11-30, 15:15
The west Asian is not Indo-European. Indo-Europeans came from eastern Europe, they imposed their language and culture on the indigenous population of Iran, left a few R1a markers and then ditched.

In addition, there is no evidence that it was a large Indo-European migration into the Iranian Plateau The language change in Iran was most likely through the process of "Elite Dominance". Of course this area is still in desperate need of much more study. But the people of Iran have lived in Iran before there was any Indo-European or Semitic or Turkish Languages (Iran is not entirely an Indo-European country, it has many groups) . Most of the migrations into the Iranian Plateau were not significant gentically.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 15:16
I'm pretty sure Armenians have a north European component. Many have west Asian input because of farming expansion from the neolithic. If Iranians were the original "Aryans" why do they cluster fairly close to other middle eastern groups? Why are they overwhelmingly not R1a? It's quite clear they were just a bog standard west Asian group that became Indo-Europeanised.

Armenians in dienekes dont have northeuropean and the lack of r1a is because of drift, r1a is not the only ie marker but many hg's native to the area from eastern europe to iran are IE markers
As for the iranians not clustering with easterneuropeans that's because long time passed since the indo-european dispersal so the IE ancestry splitted to west asian and north european and there was as well some minor mixings with non indoeuropeans

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:17
In addition, there is no evidence that it was a large Indo-European migration into the Iranian Plateau The language change in Iran was most likely through the process of "Elite Dominance". Of course this are is still in need of much more study. But the people of Iran have lived in Iran before there was any Indo-European or Semitic or Turkish Languages (Iran is not entirely an Indo-European country, it has many groups) . Most of the migrations into the Iranian Plateau were not significant gentically.
Exactly, some Iranians often run wild with the Aryan thing, but they never stop to realise they have essentially just converted to culture.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 15:18
In addition, there is no evidence that it was a large Indo-European migration into the Iranian Plateau The language change in Iran was most likely through the process of "Elite Dominance". Of course this are is still in need of much more study. But the people of Iran have lived in Iran before there was any Indo-European or Semitic or Turkish Languages (Iran is not entirely an Indo-European country, it has many groups) . Most of the migrations into the Iranian Plateau were not significant gentically.

I dont agree with you, iran and central asia were IE but simply we lack a written account of the languages spoken in Iran and BMAC in those remote times

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:26
Armenians in dienekes dont have northeuropean and the lack of r1a is because of drift, r1a is not the only ie marker but many hg's native to the area from eastern europe to iran are IE markers
As for the iranians not clustering with easterneuropeans that's because long time passed since the indo-european dispersal so the IE ancestry splitted to west asian and north european and there was as well some minor mixings with non indoeuropeans
The Aryan invasions are basically synonymous with r1a. That is completely apparent. West Asian and north European are much older terms than Indo-European. They aren't linked together...
Or perhaps the most logical explanation is Iranians took up an Indo-European culture, and language along with some minor genetic input, particularly evident in haplogroups.

nk191919
2012-11-30, 15:28
I dont agree with you, iran and central asia were IE but simply we lack a written account of the languages spoken in Iran and BMAC in those remote times

You are correct. Language wise, Iranian Languages covered a much larger area before the Turkic Migration. Most of the people in Central Asia and Iranian Plateau through the Process of "Elite Dominance" and various migrations did become Indo_Iranian Speaker. However, through the same process large number of them are Turkic Speaker today.

The Process of "Elite Dominance" must be taken into consideration more often than it is.

Even in Iraq both Kassites and Sumerian were not Semitic or Indo-Iranian. So the presence of both Semitic languages and Indo-Iranian languages might have been through Elite dominance.

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:32
You are correct. Language wise, Iranian Languages covered a much larger area before the Turkic Migration. Most of the people in Central Asia and Iranian Plateau through the Process of "Elite Dominance" and various migrations did become Indo_Iranian Speaker. However, through the same process large number of them are Turkic Speaker today.

The Process of "Elite Dominance" must be taken into consideration more often than it is.

Even in Iraq both Kassites and Sumerian were not Semitic or Indo-Iranian. So the presence of both Semitic languages and Indo-Iranian languages might have been through Elite dominance.
One thing to note though, is although Indo-European migration into Iran may have been minimal, Semitic migration into Iraq was not.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 15:36
You are correct. Language wise, Iranian Languages covered a much larger area before the Turkic Migration. Most of the people in Central Asia and Iranian Plateau through the Process of "Elite Dominance" and various migrations did become Indo_Iranian Speaker. However, through the same process large number of them are Turkic Speaker today.

The Process of "Elite Dominance" must be taken into consideration more often than it is.

Even in Iraq both Kassites and Sumerian were not Semitic or Indo-Iranian. So the presence of both Semitic languages and Indo-Iranian languages might have been through Elite dominance.

I dont agree, during paleolthic times central asia and iranian plateau was very sparsely populated and the first real colonizers of that area were indo-iranian , so there was not elite dominance but natural colonisation of an empty land by indo-iranians

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:38
I dont agree, during paleolthic times central asia and iranian plateau was very sparsely populated and the first real colonizers of that area were indo-iranian , so there was not elite dominance but natural colonisation of an empty land by indo-iranians
False. There are pre-Indo-European settlements all over Iran.

ozkan
2012-11-30, 15:40
One thing to note though, is although Indo-European migration into Iran may have been minimal, Semitic migration into Iraq was not.

If semitic=southwestern asian ancestry and indo-europan=westasian north european (both are very close ancestries) then it's actually the contrary
let's say that 35-45% of iraqis is semitic and 60-70% of iranians is indo-european

- - - Updated - - -


False. There are pre-Indo-European settlements all over Iran.

dont count elamite because it was limited to a small area, and aside it the paleolithic (thus pre indo-european) settlements in Iran are few and pointing to small number of occupiers

Zakar-Baal
2012-11-30, 15:43
If semitic=southwestern asian ancestry and indo-europan=westasian north european (both are very close ancestries) then it's actually the contrary
let's say that 35-45% of iraqis is semitic and 60-70% of iranians is indo-european
Why would you link Semitic with south west Asian though? Are you aware of where the Semitic homeland is based?

- - - Updated - - -



dont count elamite because it was limited to a small area, and aside it the paleolithic (thus pre indo-european) settlements in Iran are few and pointing to small number of occupiers
I'm not only counting Elamite.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Iran

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC

There are also dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau pointing to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC,[3] One of the earliest civilizations in Iranian plateau was the Jiroft Civilization in southeastern Iran, in the province of Kerman.

There are records of numerous other ancient civilizations on the Iranian plateau before the arrival of Iranian tribes from the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Early Iron Age.

nk191919
2012-11-30, 15:47
If semitic=southwestern asian ancestry and indo-europan=westasian north european (both are very close ancestries) then it's actually the contrary
let's say that 35-45% of iraqis is semitic and 60-70% of iranians is indo-european

- - - Updated - - -



dont count elamite because it was limited to a small area, and aside it the paleolithic (thus pre indo-european) settlements in Iran are few and pointing to small number of occupiers


There are studies that show Luris and Arab Khuzestanis are genetically very close.

Also Kurds and the Jews have a genetic link.

tauromenion
2012-11-30, 15:50
For how dark people say Iraqis are "supposed to" be.. a lot of these people look similar to Lebanese and Armenians. Arabized Assyrian ancestry maybe?

The first one that caught me off guard is that this man looks as stereotypically Sicilian as you can get, down to the style.

http://img.t555t.com/imgcache/91757.jpg


And then these people all look more Assyrian than anything else.
http://www.melody4arab.com/music/iraq/qasem_soltan/photo/melody4arab.com_Qasim_Sultan_15478.jpghttp://www.uiraqi.com/up/uploads/uiraqi_13429606091.jpghttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Rgdwjg0-T4g/Tt2PrP9Lz5I/AAAAAAAAAK8/chRSnMbMzFM/s1600/12942884301.jpghttp://img174.imageshack.us/img174/4914/715636699pi7.jpghttp://www.sumerfm.com/Upload/Staffs/StaffImage_090709071714_19.JPGhttp://msnbcmedia2.msn.com/j/ap/terrorism%20charges%20iraqis-1948720921_v2.grid-4x2.jpghttp://f1.alnaddycdn.com/music/files//299/images/1308125794.jpg

ozkan
2012-11-30, 15:50
There are studies that show Luris and Arab Khuzestanis are genetically very close.

Also Kurds and the Jews have a genetic link.

because luris do have semitic input and arab khuzestanis do have iranian put so the two are an amalgamation (to various %) of iranians and semites

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-11-30, 19:56
Iranian peoples are lighter than Iraqis because they live in very pleasant mountainous areas without humidity but with much rain and snow and thick forests but Arabs live in a very arid desertic lands wich are very hot with vey high humidity all year around and without rain or snow or forests or mountains, but they are not as dark as they should be for ones living in such a hot and arid desert with all year round temperatures of 50 celsius

Maybe Northern Iranians are, but Southern Iranians? Hell to the motherfucking no. Most Iranians, other than ones that reside in Northern Iran are quite dark. Certainly much darker than most other Middle Easterners, except maybe Gulf Arabs and Iraqi Arabs. Moreover, not all Arabs live in "desertic" lands with high humidity. Nor are all or even most Iranians exposed to mild, mountainous climates.

- - - Updated - - -


How you explain Armenians are indo-europeans without northeuropean input?
how explain that all european indo-europeans have westasian input but non-indoeuropean europeans like basques and finns lack westasian input (though they have northeuropean input)
dont also forget that the closest ancestry to northeuropean is westasian one

Connecting an ancestral component, and then claiming that it's associated with the spread of language family or people, is dubious at best. Unless you have some well-preserved ancient Indo-European skeletons, to verify that the Caucasus/West Asian component is an Indo-European one. Then everything that you've just said is false. The reason why Basques and Finns lack the West Asian component, is because they were less impacted by the Neolithic farmers from the Middle East, who introduced agriculture to Europe and consequently their genes as well. West Asian and North European are close, because they share alleles in common.

Can you take a guess as to where those alleles originated? The Middle East.

nk191919
2012-11-30, 20:34
Maybe Northern Iranians are, but Southern Iranians? Hell to the motherfucking no. Most Iranians, other than ones that reside in Northern Iran are quite dark. Certainly much darker than most other Middle Easterners, except maybe Gulf Arabs and Iraqi Arabs. Moreover, not all Arabs live in "desertic" lands with high humidity. Nor are all or even most Iranians exposed to mild, mountainous climates.

- - - Updated - - -



Connecting an ancestral component, and then claiming that it's associated with the spread of language family or people, is dubious at best. Unless you have some well-preserved ancient Indo-European skeletons, to verify that the Caucasus/West Asian component is an Indo-European one. Then everything that you've just said is false. The reason why Basques and Finns lack the West Asian component, is because they were less impacted by the Neolithic farmers from the Middle East, who introduced agriculture to Europe and consequently their genes as well. West Asian and North European are close, because they share alleles in common.

Can you take a guess as to where those alleles originated? The Middle East.


In the case of the Basque the Pyrenees mountain did offer them a wealth of defensive options. It is much easier to hide or fight an invader in forested mountains than in flat plains. Outside powers find penetrating these regions -- much less constructing the infrastructure or fielding a force required to dominate them too expensive and a gargantuan task. That is why they were never absorbed by the Spaniards or the French.

The language differences in the ME region has managed to create an almost 19th century racist ideas that is both sad and disturbing. This is not unique to one group, sadly the Pan Turks, the Pan Iranian and the Pan Arabs have become rather popular among all these nations.

ME (Turkic, Semitic and Indo-Iranian) people are genetically much closer, than we think. Science has proven it.

As to the climate differences in the ME region, The ME region itself has varied climate Zones; however, all three groups ( the Turkic, the Semites and the Indo-Iranians speakers) reside in what is known as Temperate Zone. Generally all of the ME regions have moderate to cold winters and Hot Summers and mild Springs and Falls.

One foot note to all these Pan Movements. History tells us that THEY ALWAYS FAIL.

ashrf1979
2012-11-30, 22:06
Iraqi Sub-groups

Aramean Christians (Assyrian-Syriac-Chaldean)


The Assyrian people,[25] most commonly known as Assyrians and other later names, such as: Ashuriyun, Atorayeh and Syriacs, (see names of Syriac Christians), are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia. They are Semitic people, who speak and write distinct dialects of Eastern Aramaic exclusive to Mesopotamia and its immediate surroundings.
Assyrians trace their ancestry back to the Sumero-Akkadian civilisation that emerged in Mesopotamia circa 4000–3500 BC, and in particular to the northern region of the Akkadian lands, which would become known as Assyria by the 24th century BC. The Assyrian nation existed as an independent state, and often a powerful empire, from the 24th century BC until the end of the 7th century BC. Assyria remained a Geo-political entity after its fall, and was ruled as an occupied province under the rule of various empires from the late 7th century BC until the mid 7th century AD when it was dissolved, and the Assyrian people have gradually become a minority in their homelands since that time.
Today that ancient territory is part of several nations; the north of Iraq, part of southeast Turkey and northeast Syria. They are indigenous to, and have traditionally lived all over what is now Iraq, northeast Syria, northwest Iran, and southeastern Turkey.[26] They are a Christian people, with most following various Eastern Rite Churches, although many are non-religious.
Although culturally similar, Assyrians are distinct linguistically, genetically and for the most part geographically from the Syriac Christians of Syria (except the northeast) and Lebanon.
Many have migrated to the Caucasus, North America, Australia and Europe during the past century or so. Diaspora and refugee communities are based in Europe (particularly Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, and France), North America, New Zealand, Lebanon, Armenia, Georgia,[27] southern Russia, Israel, Azerbaijan and Jordan.
Emigration was triggered by such events as the Assyrian Genocide by the Turkish Ottoman Empire during First World War, the Simele massacre in Iraq (1933), the Islamic revolution in Iran (1979), Arab Nationalist Baathist policies in Iraq and Syria, the Al-Anfal Campaign of Saddam Hussein,[28] and to some degree Kurdish nationalist policies in northern Iraq.
The major sub-ethnic division is religious, between the Eastern group ("Assyrian Church of the East", "Ancient Church of the East" and "Chaldean Catholic") indigenous to northern Iraq, northwest Iran, northeast Syria and southeast Turkey, and a Western one ("Syrian Orthodox", and Syrian Catholic") found mainly in south central Turkey and Syria, this latter group, being culturally and ethnically the same as the other Assyrian groups, often prefer an Aramean.
Most recently, the Iraq War has displaced the regional Assyrian community, as its people have faced ethnic and religious persecution at the hands of Islamic extremists and Arab and Kurdish nationalists. Of the one million or more Iraqis reported by the United Nations to have fled Iraq since the American occupation, nearly forty percent (40%) are Assyrian, although Assyrians comprised around 3% of the pre-war Iraqi population.[29][30][31]

Demographics

Homeland

The Assyrians are considered to be one of the indigenous people in the Middle East. Their homeland was thought to be located in the area around the Tigris and Euphrates. Assyrians are traditionally from Iraq, south eastern Turkey, north western Iran and north eastern Syria. There is a significant Assyrian population in Syria, where an estimated 877,000 Assyrians live.[66] Though it must be pointed out that Syriac Christians from western, central and southern Syria are not generally regarded as Assyrians but rather as Arameans. The true Assyrians of Syria reside mainly in northeastern and eastern Syria, particularly in the Al-Hasakah region. In Tur Abdin, known as a homeland for Assyrians, there are only 3,000 left,[67] and an estimated 25,000 in all of Turkey.[68] After the 1915 Assyrian genocide many Assyrians/Syriacs also fled into Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Iraq and into the Western world.
The Assyrian/Syriac people can be divided along geographic, linguistic, and denominational lines, the three main groups being:
the "Western" or "Jacobite" group of Syria, and central eastern Anatolia (Syriac Orthodox Church & Syriac Catholic Church);
the "Eastern" group of Iraq, northeast Syria south eastern Turkey, northwest Iran and Armenia (Assyrian Church of the East & Ancient Church of the East);
the "Chaldean Christian" or "Chaldean Catholic"/Chaldo-Assyrian group of northern and central Iraq, northern Iran, and eastern Anatolia (Chaldean Catholic Church); Assyrian followers of the Chaldean Catholic church make up the majority of Iraqi Christian population since the conversion to Catholicism from the Assyrian Church of the East in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Diaspora

Since the Assyrian Genocide, many Assyrians have fled their homelands for a more safe and comfortable life in the West. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Assyrian population in the Middle East has decreased dramatically. As of today there are more Assyrians in Europe, North America, and Australia than in their former homeland.
A total of 550,000 Assyrians live in Europe.[69] Large Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac diaspora communities can be found in Germany, Sweden, the USA, and Australia. The largest Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac diaspora communities are those of Södertälje, Chicago, and Detroit.

Identity


Assyrians are divided among several churches (see below). They speak, and many can read and write, dialects of Neo-Aramaic.[72]
In certain areas of the Assyrian homeland, identity within a community depends on a person's village of origin (see List of Assyrian villages) or Christian denomination rather than their ethnic commonality, for instance Chaldean Catholic.[73]
Today, Assyrians and other minority ethnic groups in the Middle East, feel pressure to identify as "Arabs",[74][75] "Turks" and "Kurds".[76] Those Assyrians in Syria, who live outside of the traditionally and historically Assyrian northeastern region of the country, are pressured to identify as Arabs, due to Arab Nationalist policies of the Baathist government.
Neo-Aramaic exhibits remarkably conservative features compared with Imperial Aramaic,[77] and the earliest European visitors to northern Mesopotamia in modern times encountered a people called "Assyrians", "Assouri" and "Ashuriyun", and people with ancient Assyrian names such as Sargon, Sennacherib, Ashur and Semiramis .[78][79][80] The Assyrians manifested a remarkable degree of linguistic, religious, and cultural continuity from the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire through to the time of the ancient Greeks, Persians, and Parthians through periods of medieval Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman rule.[81]
Assyrian nationalism emphatically connects Modern Assyrians to the population of ancient Mesopotamia and the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A historical basis of this sentiment was disputed by a few early historians,[82] but receives strong support from modern Assyriologists like H.W.F. Saggs, Robert D. Biggs, Giorgi Tsereteli and Simo Parpola,[83][84][85] and Iranologists like Richard Nelson Frye.[86][87] Nineteenth century orientalists such as Austen Henry Layard and Hormuzd Rassam also support this view. This controversy does not appear to exist in parts of the region however, as Armenian, Georgian, Russian, Persian and some Arab records have always referred to Assyrians as Assyrians.

Self-designation

The communities of indigenous pre-Arab Neo-Aramaic-speaking people of Iraq, Syria, Iran, Turkey and Lebanon and the surrounding areas advocate different terms for ethnic self-designation. It may be the case that the "Assyrian/Chaldo-Assyrian/Eastern Syriac" group and the "Aramean"/"Western Syriac" and "Phoenician" groups are merely closely related and not exactly the same people.
"Assyrians", after the ancient Assyria, advocated by followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, most followers of the Chaldean Catholic Church and Assyrian Protestants. ("Eastern Assyrians"),[88] and some communities of the Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic ("Western Assyrians"). Those identifying with Assyria, and with Mesopotamia in general, tend to be from Iraq, northeastern Syria; southeastern Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Georgia; southern Russia and Azerbaijan. It is likely that those from this region are indeed of Assyrian/Mesopotamian heritage as they are clearly of pre-Arab and pre-Islamic stock. Furthermore, there is no historical evidence or proof to suggest the indigenous Mesopotamians were wiped out; Assyria existed as a specifically named region until the second half of the 7th century AD. Most speak Mesopotamian dialects of neo Aramaic.
"Chaldo-Assyrians", is a term used by the Iraqi government to designate the indigenous Aramaic speaking Christians of Iraq. It intrinsically acknowledges that the terms Assyrian and Chaldean refer to the same ethnic group. Some Assyrians use this term to defuse arguments over naming along denominational lines.
"Chaldeans", after ancient Chaldea, advocated by a minority of followers of the Chaldean Catholic Church who are mainly based in the United States. This is mainly a denominational rather than ethnic term, though a few Chaldean Catholics espouse a distinct Chaldean ethnic identity. It is likely that these are exactly the same people as the Assyrians, both having the same culture and originating from the same lands.
"Syriacs", advocated by some followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Catholic Church and to a much lesser degree Maronite Church. Those self identifying as Syriacs tend to be from western, northwestern, southern and central Syria as well as south central Turkey. The term Syriac is the subject of some controversy, as it is generally accepted by most scholars that it is a Luwian and Greek corruption of Assyrian. The discovery of the Çineköy inscription seems to settle conclusively in favour of Assyria being the origin of the terms Syria and Syriac. For this reason, some Assyrians accept the term Syriac as well as Assyrian as it is taken to mean the same thing. It is likely that Syriacs from these regions are in fact Arameans rather than Assyrians, as geographically they are not from Mesopotamia or the immediate areas surrounding it. Only a minority of those identifying as Syriacs now speak Aramaic, and most are now Arabic speaking.
Other groups of "Syriac Christians" are geographically, linguistically and ethnically separate from the "Assyrian/Chaldo-Assyrian/Syriac" people. These include:
"Arameans" advocated by a number of indigenous Christians in western, northwestern, southern and central Syria as well as south central Turkey. They reject the term Syriac because of its probable Assyrian origin and because they are not geographically from Assyria or Mesopotamia in general, but rather are pre-Arab inhabitants of lands that encompass the traditional Aramean homeland, which is in effect most of modern Syria. Few of those identifying as Aramean now speak Aramaic, and most are now Arabic speaking.
"Phoenicians" Many Maronite identify with a Phoenician origin however and do not see themselves as Syriac or Aramean. These tend to be from Lebanon and the Mediterranean coast of Syria, an area roughly corresponding to ancient Phoenicia. They are of pre-Arab and pre-Islamic origin, and thus identify with the ancient pre-Arab and pre-Islamic population of that region.
In addition Western Media often makes no mention of any ethnic identity of the Christian people of the region and simply call them Christians or Iraqi Christians, Iranian Christians, Syrian Christians, Turkish Christians, etc. This label is rejected by Assyrian/Syriac Christians as well as Aramean, Phoenician and Coptic Christians, as it wrongly implies no difference other than theological with the Muslim Arabs, Kurds, Turks, Iranians and Azeris of the region.

Assyrian vs Syrian naming controversy

As early as the 8th century BC Luwian and Cilician subject rulers referred to their Assyrian overlords as Syrian, a western Indo-European bastardisation of the true term Assyrian. This corruption of the name took hold in the Hellenic lands to the west of the old Assyrian Empire, thus during Greek Seleucid rule from 323 BC the name Assyria was altered to Syria, and this term was also applied to Aramea to the west which had been an Assyrian colony. When the Seleucids lost control of Assyria to the Parthians they retained the corrupted term (Syria), applying it to ancient Aramea, while the Parthians called Assyria Assuristan, a Parthian form of the original name. It is from this period that the Syrian vs Assyrian controversy arises. Today it is accepted by the majority of scholars that the Medieval, Renaissance and Victorian term Syriac when used to describe the indigenous Christians of Mesopotamia and its immediate surrounds in effect means Assyrian.[89]
The modern terminological problem goes back to colonial times, but it became more acute in 1946, when with the independence of Syria, the adjective Syrian referred to an independent state. The controversy isn't restricted to exonyms like English "Assyrian" vs. "Aramaean", but also applies to self-designation in Neo-Aramaic, the minority "Aramaean" faction endorses both Sūryāyē ܣܘܪܝܝܐ and Ārāmayē ܐܪܡܝܐ, while the majority "Assyrian" faction insists on Āṯūrāyē ܐܬܘܪܝܐ but also accepts Sūryāyē.

The question of ethnic identity and self-designation is sometimes connected to the scholarly debate on the etymology of "Syria". The question has a long history of academic controversy, but majority mainstream opinion currently strongly favours that Syria is indeed ultimately derived from the Assyrian term 𒀸𒋗𒁺 𐎹 Aššūrāyu.[87][90][91] Meanwhile, some scholars has disclaimed the theory of Syrian being derived from Assyrian as "simply naive", and detracted its importance to the naming conflict.[92]
Rudolf Macuch points out that the Eastern Neo-Aramaic press initially used the term "Syrian" (suryêta) and only much later, with the rise of nationalism, switched to "Assyrian" (atorêta).[93] According to Tsereteli, however, a Georgian equivalent of "Assyrians" appears in ancient Georgian, Armenian and Russian documents.[94] This correlates with the theory of the nations to the East of Mesopotamia knew the group as Assyrians, while to the West, beginning with Greek influence, the group was known as Syrians. Syria being a Greek corruption of Assyria.
The debate appears to have been settled by the discovery of the Çineköy inscription in favour of Syria being derived from Assyria.
The Çineköy inscription is a Hieroglyphic Luwian-Phoenician bilingual, uncovered from Çineköy, Adana Province, Turkey (ancient Cilicia), dating to the 8th century BC. Originally published by Tekoglu and Lemaire (2000),[95] it was more recently the subject of a 2006 paper published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, in which the author, Robert Rollinger, lends support to the age-old debate of the name "Syria" being derived from "Assyria" (see Etymology of Syria).
The object on which the inscription is found is a monument belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Hiyawa (i.e. Cilicia), dating to the eighth century BC. In this monumental inscription, Urikki made reference to the relationship between his kingdom and his Assyrian overlords. The Luwian inscription reads "Sura/i" whereas the Phoenician translation reads ’ŠR or "Ashur" which, according to Rollinger (2006), "settles the problem once and for all".[96]

Culture

Assyrian culture is largely influenced by Christianity.[97] Main festivals occur during religious holidays such as Easter and Christmas. There are also secular holidays such as Kha b-Nisan (vernal equinox).[98]
People often greet and bid relatives farewell with a kiss on each cheek and by saying "ܫܠܡܐ ܥܠܝܟ" Shlama/Shlomo lokh, which means: "Peace be upon you." Others are greeted with a handshake with the right hand only; according to Middle Eastern customs, the left hand is associated with evil. Similarly, shoes may not be left facing up, one may not have their feet facing anyone directly, whistling at night is thought to waken evil spirits, etc.[99]
There are many Assyrian customs that are common in other Middle Eastern cultures. A parent will often place an eye pendant on their baby to prevent "an evil eye being cast upon it".[100] Spitting on anyone or their belongings is seen as a grave insult.

Language

The Neo-Aramaic languages are ultimately descended from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the later phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, displacing the East Semitic Assyrian dialect of Akkadian. Aramaic was the language of commerce, trade and communication and became the vernacular language of Assyria in classical antiquity.[101][102][103]
By the 1st century AD, Akkadian was extinct, although some loaned vocabulary still survives in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic to this day.[104][105]
Most Assyrians speak an Eastern Aramaic language whose dialects include Chaldean and Turoyo as well as Assyrian.[106] All are classified as Neo-Aramaic languages and are written using Syriac script, a derivative of the ancient Aramaic script. Assyrians also may speak one or more languages of their country of residence.
To the native speaker, "Syriac" is usually called Soureth or Suret. A wide variety of dialects exist, including Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, and Turoyo. Being stateless, Assyrians also learn the language or languages of their adopted country, usually Arabic, Armenian, Persian or Turkish. In northern Iraq and western Iran, Turkish and Kurdish is widely spoken.
Recent archaeological evidence includes a statue from Syria with Akkadian and Aramaic inscriptions.[107] It is the oldest known Aramaic text.

Religion

Assyrians were originally Pagans, who were followers of Ashurism, an Assyro-Babylonian religion, which is the Ancient Mesopotamian religion, and some adopted Judaism, Gnosticism and Manicheanism; however most now belong to various Christian denominations such as the Assyrian Church of the East, with an estimated 300,000–400,000 members,[108] the Chaldean Catholic Church, with about 900,000 members,[109] and the Syriac Orthodox Church (ʿIdto Suryoyto Triṣaṯ Šuḇḥo), which has between 1,000,000 and 4,000,000 members around the world (only some of whom are Assyrians),[110] the Ancient Church of the East and various Protestant churches. While Assyrians are predominantly Christians, a number are irreligious.
As of 2011 Mar Dinkha IV, resident in Chicago Illinois, was Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Addai II, with headquarters in Baghdad, was Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East, and Ignatius Zakka I Iwas was Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church, with headquarters in Damascus. Mar Emmanuel III Delly, the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, was the first Patriarch to be elevated to Cardinal, joining the college of cardinals in November 2007.
Many members of the following churches consider themselves Assyrian. Ethnic identities are often deeply intertwined with religion, a legacy of the Ottoman Millet system. The group is traditionally characterized as adhering to various churches of Syriac Christianity and speaking neo-Aramaic languages. It is subdivided into:
adherents of the East Syrian Rite, always called Assyrians but in the past sometimes erroneously called Nestorians
adherents of the Assyrian Church of the East & Ancient Church of the East, always called Assyrians.
adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church, usually called Assyrians or more rarely Chaldeans or Chaldo-Assyrians.
adherents of the West Syrian Rite, called Syriacs, and formerly also Jacobites.
adherents of the Syriac Orthodox Church, also called West Syrians or Assyrians-Syriacs
adherents of the Syriac Catholic Church, also called West Syrians or Syriacs
adherents of the Syriac Maronite Church, also called Maronites, Phoenicians or Syriac-Maronites
A small minority of Assyrians of the above denominations accepted the Protestant Reformation in the 20th century, possibly due to British influences, and is now organized in the Assyrian Evangelical Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church and other Protestant Assyrian groups. These are always called Assyrians
Baptism and First Communion are celebrated extensively, similar to a Bris or Bar Mitzvah in Jewish communities. After a death, a gathering is held three days after burial to celebrate the ascension to heaven of the dead person, as of Jesus; after seven days another gathering commemorates their death. A close family member wears only black clothes for forty days and nights, or sometimes a year, as a sign of mourning.

Genetics

Late 20th century DNA analysis conducted by Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza, "shows that Assyrians have a distinct genetic profile that distinguishes their population from any other population."[114] Genetic analysis of the Assyrians of Persia demonstrated that they were "closed" with little "intermixture" with the Muslim Persian population and that an individual Assyrian's genetic makeup is relatively close to that of the Assyrian population as a whole.[115] Cavalli-Sforza et al. state in addition, "[T]he Assyrians are a fairly homogeneous group of people, believed to originate from the land of old Assyria in northern Iraq", and "they are Christians and are possibly bona fide descendants of their namesakes."[116] "The genetic data are compatible with historical data that religion played a major role in maintaining the Assyrian population's separate identity during the Christian era".[114]
In a 2006 study of the Y chromosome DNA of six regional Armenian populations, including, for comparison, Assyrians and Syrians, researchers found that, "the Semitic populations (Assyrians and Syrians) are very distinct from each other according to both [comparative] axes. This difference supported also by other methods of comparison points out the weak genetic affinity between the two populations with different historical destinies." [117]
A 2008 study on the genetics of "old ethnic groups in Mesopotamia," including 340 subjects from seven ethnic communities ("Assyrian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian, Turkmen, the Arab peoples in Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait") found that Assyrians were homogeneous with respect to all other ethnic groups sampled in the study, regardless of religious affiliation.[118]
In 2008 Fox News in the United States ran a feature called "Know your Roots. As part of the feature, an Assyrian reporter, Nineveh Dinha was tested by Gene Tree.com. Her DNA profile was traced back to the region of Harran in south eastern Anatolia in 1400 BC, which was a part of ancient Assyria.[119]
In a 2011 study focusing on the genetics of Marsh Arabs of Iraq, researchers identified Y chromosome haplotypes shared by Marsh Arabs, Iraqis, and Assyrians, "supporting a common local background." [120]


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Alphonse_Mingana.jpg\
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Hormuzd.Rassam.reclined.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Hormuzd_Rassam.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Chaldeansoftheprovinceof_Mardin.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Abdisho-IV-Maron.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Eliya-Abulyonan.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Assyrian_Patriarch.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Raphael_I_Bidawid.jpg
http://www.altahreernews.com/inp/Upload/244106_ammanuel%20dali.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Ignatius_Zakka_I_Iwas.jpg
http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2008/03/14/svFARAJ_narrowweb__300x444,0.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/08/Mar-Eshai-Shimun-XXIII.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Ignatius_Afram_I_Barsoum.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WdSAiw86kMM/TjPVd36RAmI/AAAAAAAAQTs/rg5vf9_hHPY/s1600/4ce84433af.jpg
http://media.kenanaonline.com/photos/1238047/1238047713/1238047713.jpg?1305170290
http://www.egypty.com/component/photo/miscellaneous/20100711150551_miscellaneousphoto1.jpg
http://www.up.qatarw.com/get-9-2009-9vdgv2pd.jpg
http://www.net4u1.com/vb/up//uploads/images/up0a0f6ce6ef.jpg
http://www.ct-7ob.com/vb/storeimg/live_1313180235_891.jpg
http://www.sh5abe6.com/up/uploads/images/sh5abe6.com-f5e7c576c9.jpg
http://www.raedgeorge.com/images/big/img12.jpg
http://www.nineveh.no/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/1118.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Ashur_Bet_Sargis.gif
http://www.assyrianainnony.com/news/data/upimages/Dony_George_2011.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Toma_Tomas.jpeg
http://baghdede.com/vb/attachment.php?attachmentid=60&stc=1&d=1295986924
http://www.sportandpeace.org/progp/img/ipro/entrenadores/ammob.gif
http://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/c0.0.403.403/p403x403/18310_10151103219126302_1962854101_n.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Assyrianchildren.jpg
http://www.al-7up.com/vb/imgcache/2/55628love.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Maggi_George.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0a/Lady_Surrma.jpg
http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2345/3536112164_1cdb0c013c.jpg

http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/01xx3qGeFw871/610x.jpg
http://www.aina.org/images/fairfield090321.jpg
http://iosminaret.org/vol-3/issue13/images/assyrian_children.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/pictures/albums/Akitu09/AssyrianNewYear09104.jpg
http://www.zindamagazine.com/html/archives/2004/4.5.04/Graphics/Pix_ThisWeek/hosanna.jpg
http://www.bethsuryoyo.com/currentevents/6752HomelandCelebration/Pic1.jpg
http://www.zindamagazine.com/html/archives/2007/02.17.07/pix/telnasre2.JPG
http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/images/essentials/discovery/assyrians_today.jpg
http://www.humelibraries.vic.gov.au/files/c1671288-9d98-40ca-bcf5-9e3100ac2a2a/Storytimes.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/16.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2012/04/03/329a61250bc8e6b1a0c7e3d521704f35_resized.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/20.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2012/04/03/1eb2c8bec1633c691a3765f0ed5a31a7_resized.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/19.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2012/04/03/b6e4dec6c8fde7f991192502a324aa60_resized.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/18.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2012/04/03/19ab0fe95c0fb02e1ae9a6ce252ec131_resized.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/17.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/7.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2012/4/nisan/5.jpg
http://a4.ec-images.myspacecdn.com/images01/37/37a51c94f4280a9fd4ae73393ca6de53/l.jpg
http://a3.ec-images.myspacecdn.com/images01/58/15d3c1367203649a033b8826df1d6570/l.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2010/04/01/04ce1f8e09b94dc6921732dd8cef817b_resized.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2010/04/01/8622e2fa8be7472a26b35e6fc81f1890_resized.jpg
http://pub.tunecore.com/artwork/medium/12/42/47/124247.jpg?1345131358
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2010/04/01/cb62aeb5461cd744fadb5068b74ba6b2_resized.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2010/04/01/85e31889c72166b6da4b83eec4cf9c2b_resized.jpg
http://www.cnewa.ca/mag-images/magimages-35-3/35-3-17.jpg
http://christiansofiraq.com/newyearchildren.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2010/03/29/3c00f544fe23f1d8fae660bb7006dbcd_resized.JPG
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-UTnolXJzpLA/TaGUuS4VFSI/AAAAAAAAAHA/7EaScGoy4Fw/s1600/d.jpg
http://www.christiansofiraq.com/austragirls.jpg
http://www.assyriancivicclub.com/pix/newyear2006/arles_gallery/images/DSC04681.JPG
http://files.radio-abana.org/gallery/05112010/10.jpg
http://www.alarab.net/data/news/2010/11/27/alarab271110a9(3).jpg
http://www.lebanon.ms/vb/imagehosting/43504cd15efca38cd.jpg
http://www.alarab.net/data/news/2010/11/27/alarab271110a10(3).jpg
http://resources1.news.com.au/images/2010/11/01/1225946/302393-a-rescued-hostage-outside-the-sayidat-al-najat-church-in-baghdad.jpg
http://www.zahrira.net/web/files/File/2010/november/sahda1.jpg
http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lwol2xZJKq1qclkgjo1_1280.jpg
http://dc14.arabsh.com/i/03426/jibrf8pai9gs.jpg
http://www.majaless.com/up/get-10-2012-to7k9xzt.jpg
http://gdb.rferl.org/48E691AA-63A9-4158-BF05-C12962AC3423_w640_r1_s.jpg
http://www.baghdede.com/files/news/822148331.jpg
http://www.server1.assyrian4all.net/photo/yako%20in%20syria%20with%20linda%20george.jpg
http://www.lalishduhok.com/lalish/images/stories/042012/sport/43.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Turkey_04.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-uIYxC-bOzPU/Tfi0Y7CLq9I/AAAAAAAAAuk/w0_U3Wg_Vfw/s1600/01+Munir+Bachir.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Omar_bashir.jpg
http://assyrians.dk/images/lastActivities/josephinefest11.jpg
http://www.atour.com/media/images/government/europe/20080324-0404-AssyriaFoundation-Netherlands-Iraq/Iraq-FactFindingMission-2008-photo1b.jpg
http://images.whereilive.com.au/images/uploads/gallery/2010/04/01/8a972ba523f769795d1d369d2a911fb1_resized.jpg

http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/assyrian%20kids.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/assyrian%20kids%202.jpg
http://www.zindamagazine.com/html/archives/2007/12.05.07/pix/Amman3.JPG
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3070/2464049116_5b95808352.jpg
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7234/7159939645_3131d522e4_o.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/NINA%20K3%20kids.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/Assyrians_Paltalk1.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/Assyrians_Paltalk4.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/IMG_0563.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Assyrianclothes23.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/juli%20002.JPG
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/ZAYA%20sons.%20assyrian.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/qapaya_1%20soora%20.JPG
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/027.jpg
http://www.assyrianvoice.net/shrara/images/P1030817(2).JPG

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-11-30, 23:14
Are you sure these two are Assyrians? They look extremely atypical.

http://media.kenanaonline.com/photos/1238047/1238047713/1238047713.jpg?1305170290

ashrf1979
2012-11-30, 23:29
Are you sure these two are Assyrians? They look extremely atypical.

http://media.kenanaonline.com/photos/1238047/1238047713/1238047713.jpg?1305170290

little girl are Assyrian but her mother I think she is German The girl is the daughter of Najib Rihani

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WdSAiw86kMM/TjPVd36RAmI/AAAAAAAAQTs/rg5vf9_hHPY/s1600/4ce84433af.jpg
http://www.egypty.com/component/photo/miscellaneous/20100711150551_miscellaneousphoto1.jpg

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-11-30, 23:33
That probably explains her phenotype, because I'd have a difficult time believing she's 100% Assyrian. The mother definitely does not look Assyrian, neither does the daughter.

ashrf1979
2012-12-01, 17:07
Iraqi Sub-groups

Iraqi Jews


The history of the Jews in Iraq is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BCE. Iraqi Jews constitute one of the world's oldest and most historically significant Jewish communities.
The Jewish community of Babylon included Ezra the scribe, whose return to Judea in the late 6th century BCE is associated with significant changes in Jewish ritual observance and the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. The Talmud was compiled in Babylonia, identified with modern Iraq.[2]
From the Babylonian period to the rise of the Islamic caliphate, the Jewish community of Babylon throve as the center of Jewish learning. The Mongol invasion and Islamic discrimination in the Middle Ages led to its decline.[3] Under the Ottoman Empire, the Jews of Iraq fared better. The community established modern schools in the second-half of the 19th century.[4]
In the 20th century, Iraqi Jews played an important role in the early days of the Iraq's independence, but the Iraqi Jewish community, numbered at around 120,000 in 1948, almost entirely left the country due to persecution following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.[5] Most of them fled to the newly founded state of Israel, and today, fewer than 100 Jews remain.

Early Biblical history

In the Bible, Babylon and the country of Babylonia are not always clearly distinguished, in most cases the same word being used for both. In some passages the land of Babylonia is called Shinar, while in the post-exilic literature it is called Chaldea. In the Book of Genesis, Babylonia is described as the land in which are located Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh (Gen. x. 10), which are declared to have formed the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom. Here, the Tower of Babel was located (Gen. xi. 1-9); and it was also the seat of Amraphel's dominion (Gen. xiv. 1, 9).
In the historical books Babylonia is frequently referred to (there are no fewer than thirty-one allusions in the Books of Kings), though the lack of a clear distinction between the city and the country is sometimes puzzling. Allusions to it are confined to the points of contact between the Israelites and the various Babylonian kings, especially Merodach-baladan (Berodach-baladan of II Kings xx. 12; compare Isa. xxxix. 1) and Nebuchadnezzar. In Chron., Ez., and Neh. the interest is transferred to Cyrus (see, for example, Ez. v. 13), though the retrospect still deals with the conquests of Nebuchadnezzar, and Artaxerxes is mentioned once (Neh. xiii. 6).
In the poetical literature of Israel, Babylonia plays an insignificant part (see Ps. lxxxvii. 4, and especially Psalm 137), but it fills a very large place in the Prophets. The Book of Isaiah resounds with the "burden of Babylon" (xiii. 1), though at that time it still seemed a "far country" (xxxix. 3). In the number and importance of its references to Babylonian life and history, the Book of Jeremiah stands preeminent in the Hebrew literature. With numerous important allusions to events in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah has become a valuable source in reconstructing Babylonian history within recent times. The inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar are almost exclusively devoted to building operations; and but for the Book of Jeremiah, little would be known of his campaign against Jerusalem.

Late Biblical history and the Babylonian exile

Three times during the 6th century BCE, the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were exiled to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. These three separate occasions are mentioned (Jeremiah 52:28-30). The first was in the time of Jehoiachin in 597 BCE, when, in retaliation for a refusal to pay tribute, the temple of Jerusalem was partially despoiled and a number of the leading citizens removed (Daniel 5:1-5). After eleven years, in the reign of Zedekiah—who had been enthroned by Nebuchadnezzar, a fresh revolt of the Judaeans took place, perhaps encouraged by the close proximity of the Egyptian army. The city was razed to the ground, and a further deportation ensued.[6] Finally, five years later, Jeremiah records a third captivity. After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persians, Cyrus gave the Jews permission to return to their native land (537 BCE), and more than forty thousand are said to have availed themselves of the privilege. (See Jehoiakim; Ezra; Nehemiah.)
The earliest accounts of the Jews exiled to Babylonia are furnished only by scanty biblical details; certain sources seek to supply this deficiency from the realms of legend and tradition. Thus, the so-called "Small Chronicle" (Seder Olam Zutta) endeavors to preserve historic continuity by providing a genealogy of the exilarchs ("Reshe Galuta") back to King Jeconiah; indeed, Jeconiah himself is made an exilarch. The "Small Chronicle's" statement, that Zerubbabel returned to Judea in the Greek period, can of course not be regarded as historical. Certainly, the descendants of the Davidic house occupied an exalted position among their brethren in Babylonia, as they did at that period in Judea. During the Maccabean revolt, these Judean descendants of the royal house had emigrated to Babylonia.

Greek period

With Alexander the Great's campaign, accurate information concerning the Jews in the East reached the western world. Alexander's army contained numerous Jews who refused, from religious scruples, to take part in the reconstruction of the destroyed Belus temple in Babylon. The accession of Seleucus Nicator, 312 B.C., to whose extensive empire Babylonia belonged, was accepted by the Jews and Syrians for many centuries as the commencement of a new era for reckoning time, called "minyan sheṭarot," æra contractuum, or era of contracts, which was also officially adopted by the Parthians. This so-called Seleucid era survived in the Orient long after it had been abolished in the West (see Sherira's "Letter," ed. Neubauer, p. 28). Nicator's foundation of a city, Seleucia, on the Tigris is mentioned by the Rabbis (Midr. The. ix. 8); both the "Large" and the "Small Chronicle" contain references to him. The important victory which the Jews are said to have gained over the Galatians in Babylonia (II Macc. viii. 20) must have happened under Seleucus Callinicus or under Antiochus III. The last-named settled a large number of Babylonian Jews as colonists in his western dominions, with the view of checking certain revolutionary tendencies disturbing those lands. Mithridates (174-136) subjugated, about the year 160, the province of Babylonia, and thus the Jews for four centuries came under Parthian domination.

Parthian period

Jewish sources contain no mention of Parthian influence; the very name "Parthian" does not occur, unless indeed "Parthian" is meant by "Persian," which occurs now and then. The Armenian prince Sanatroces, of the royal house of the Arsacides, is mentioned in the "Small Chronicle" as one of the successors (diadochoi) of Alexander. Among other Asiatic princes, the Roman rescript in favor of the Jews reached Arsaces as well (I Macc. xv. 22); it is not, however, specified which Arsaces. Not long after this, the Partho-Babylonian country was trodden by the army of a Jewish prince; the Syrian king, Antiochus Sidetes, marched, in company with Hyrcanus I., against the Parthians; and when the allied armies defeated the Parthians (129 B.C.) at the Great Zab (Lycus), the king ordered a halt of two days on account of the Jewish Sabbath and Feast of Weeks. In 40 B.C. the Jewish puppet-king, Hyrcanus II., fell into the hands of the Parthians, who, according to their custom, cut off his ears in order to render him unfit for rulership. The Jews of Babylonia, it seems, had the intention of founding a high-priesthood for the exiled Hyrcanus, which they would have made quite independent of Judea. But the reverse was to come about: the Judeans received a Babylonian, Ananel by name, as their high priest which indicates the importance enjoyed by the Jews of Babylonia. Still in religious matters the Babylonians, as indeed the whole diaspora, were in many regards dependent upon Judea. They went on pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the festivals.
How free a hand the Parthians permitted the Jews is perhaps best illustrated by the rise of the little Jewish robber-state in Nehardea (see Anilai and Asinai). Still more remarkable is the conversion of the king of Adiabene to Judaism. These instances show not only the tolerance, but the weakness of the Parthian kings. The Babylonian Jews wanted to fight in common cause with their Judean brethren against Vespasian; but it was not until the Romans waged war under Trajan against Parthia that they made their hatred felt; so that it was in a great measure owing to the revolt of the Babylonian Jews that the Romans did not become masters of Babylonia too. Philo speaks of the large number of Jews resident in that country, a population which was no doubt considerably swelled by new immigrants after the destruction of Jerusalem. Accustomed in Jerusalem from early times to look to the east for help, and aware, as the Roman procurator Petronius was, that the Jews of Babylon could render effectual assistance, Babylonia became with the fall of Jerusalem the very bulwark of Judaism. The collapse of the Bar Kochba revolt no doubt added to the number of Jewish refugees in Babylon.
In the continuous Roman–Persian Wars, the Jews had every reason to hate the Romans, the destroyers of their sanctuary, and to side with the Parthians, their protectors. Possibly it was recognition of services thus rendered by the Jews of Babylonia, and by the Davidic house especially, that induced the Parthian kings to elevate the princes of the Exile, who till then had been little more than mere collectors of revenue, to the dignity of real princes, called Resh Galuta. Thus, then, the numerous Jewish subjects were provided with a central authority which assured an undisturbed development of their own internal affairs.

Babylonia as the center of Judaism

After the fall of Jerusalem, Babylon would become the focus of Judaism for more than a thousand years. The rabbi Abba Arika, afterward called simply Rab, was a key figure in maintaining Judaism after the destruction of Jerusalem. Rab left Palestine to return to his Babylonian home, the year of which has been accurately recorded (530 of the Seleucidan, or 219 of the common era), marks the beginning of a new movement in Babylonian Judaism—namely, the initiation of the dominant rôle which the Babylonian Academies played for several centuries. Leaving an existing Babylonian academy at Nehardea to his friend Samuel, Rab founded the Sura Academy, where he held property. Thus, there existed in Babylonia two contemporary academies, so far removed from each other, however, as not to interfere with each other's operations. Since Rab and Samuel were acknowledged peers in position and learning, their academies likewise were accounted of equal rank and influence. Thus both Babylonian rabbinical schools opened their lectures brilliantly, and the ensuing discussions in their classes furnished the earliest stratum of the scholarly material deposited in the Babylonian Talmud. The coexistence for many decades of these two colleges of equal rank even after the school at Nehardea was moved to Pumbedita (now Fallujah) produced the remarkable phenomenon of a dual leadership of the Babylonian Academies which, with some slight interruptions, became a permanent institution and a weighty factor in the development of Babylonian Judaism.
The key work of these academies was the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud, started by Rav Ashi and Ravina, two leaders of the Babylonian Jewish community, around the year 550. Editorial work by the Savoraim or Rabbanan Savoraei (post-Talmudic rabbis), continued on this text for the next 250 years; much of the text did not reach its final form until around 700. The Mishnah and Babylonian Gemara together form the Talmud Bavli (the "Babylonian Talmud").
The three centuries in the course of which the Babylonian Talmud was developed in the academies founded by Rab and Samuel were followed by five centuries during which it was zealously preserved, studied, expounded in the schools, and, through their influence, recognized by the whole diaspora. Sura and Pumbedita were considered the only important seats of learning: their heads and sages were the undisputed authorities, whose decisions were sought from all sides and were accepted wherever Jewish communal life existed. In the words of the haggadist, "God created these two academies in order that the promise might be fulfilled, that the word of God should never depart from Israel's mouth" (Isa. lix. 21). The periods of Jewish history immediately following the close of the Talmud are designated according to the titles of the teachers at Sura and Pumbedita; thus we have "the time of the Geonim and that of the Saboraim. The Saboraim were the scholars whose diligent hands completed the Talmud in the first third of the 6th century, adding manifold amplifications to its text. The two academies lasted until the middle of the 11th century, Pumbedita faded after its chief rabbi was murdered in 1038, and Sura faded soon after.

Sassanid period

The Persian people were now again to make their influence felt in the history of the world. Ardashir I destroyed the rule of the Arsacids in the winter of 226, and founded the illustrious dynasty of the Sassanids. Different from the Parthian rulers, who were northern Iranians following Mithraism and Zoroastrianism and speaking Pahlavi dialect, the Sassanids intensified nationalism and established a state-sponsored Zoroastrian church which often suppressed dissident factions and heterodox views. Under the Sassanids, Babylonia became the province of Asuristan, with its main city, Ctesiphon, becoming the capital of the Sassanid Empire.
Shapur I (Shvor Malka, which is the Aramaic form of the name) was a friend to the Jews. His friendship with Shmuel gained many advantages for the Jewish community.
Shapur II's mother was Jewish[citation needed], and this gave the Jewish community a relative freedom of religion and many advantages. Shapur was also the friend of a Babylonian rabbi in the Talmud called Raba, and Raba's friendship with Shapur II enabled him to secure a relaxation of the oppressive laws enacted against the Jews in the Persian Empire. In addition, Raba sometimes referred to his top student Abaye with the term Shvur Malka meaning "Shapur [the] King" because of his bright and quick intellect.
Christians, Manicheans, Buddhists and Jews at first seemed at a disadvantage, especially under Sassanian high-priest Kartir; but the Jews, dwelling in more compact masses in cities like Isfahan, were not exposed to such general discrimination as broke out against the more isolated Christians.

Islamic Arab period

The first legal expression of Islam toward the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians after the conquests of the 630s were the poll-tax ("jizyah"), the tax upon real estate ("kharaj") was instituted. The first caliph, Abu Bakr, sent the famous warrior Khalid bin Al-Waleed against Iraq; and a Jew, by name Ka'ab al-Aḥbar, is said to have fortified the general with prophecies of success.
The Jews may have favored the advance of the Arabs, from whom they could expect mild treatment. Some such services it must have been that secured for the exilarch Bostanai the favor of Umar I, who awarded to him for a wife the daughter of the conquered Sassanid Chosroes II as Theophanes and Abraham Zacuto narrate. Jewish records, as, for instance, "Seder ha-Dorot," contain a Bostanai legend which has many features in common with the account of the hero Mar Zuṭra II, already mentioned. The account, at all events, reveals that Bostanai, the founder of the succeeding exilarch dynasty, was a man of prominence, who received from the victorious Arab general certain high privileges, such as the right to wear a signet ring, a privilege otherwise limited to Muslims.
Omar and Othman were followed by Ali (656), with whom the Jews of Babylonia sided as against his rival Mu'awiyah. A Jewish preacher, Abdallah ibn Saba, of southern Arabia, who had embraced Islam, held forth in support of his new religion, expounded Mohammed's appearance in a Jewish sense. Ali made Kufa, in Iraq, his capital, and it was there that Jews expelled from the Arabian Peninsula went (about 641). It is perhaps owing to these immigrants that the Arabic language so rapidly gained ground among the Jews of Babylonia, although a greater portion of the population of Iraq were of Arab descent. The capture by Ali of Firuz Shabur, where 90,000 Jews are said to have dwelt, is mentioned by the Jewish chroniclers. Mar Isaac, chief of the Academy of Sura, paid homage to the caliph, and received privileges from him.
The proximity of the court lent to the Jews of Babylonia a species of central position, as compared with the whole caliphate; so that Babylonia still continued to be the focus of Jewish life. The time-honored institutions of the exilarchate and the gaonate—the heads of the academies attained great influence—constituted a kind of higher authority, voluntarily recognized by the whole Jewish diaspora. But unfortunately exilarchs and geonim only too soon began to rival each other. A certain Mar Yanḳa, closely allied to the exilarch, persecuted the rabbis of Pumbedita so bitterly that several of them were compelled to flee to Sura, not to return until after their persecutor's death (about 730). "The exilarchate was for sale in the Arab period" (Ibn Daud); and centuries later, Sherira boasts that he was not descended from Bostanai. In Arabic legend, the resh galuta (ras al-galut) remained a highly important personage; one of them could see spirits; another is said to have been put to death under the last Umayyad caliph, Merwan ibn Mohammed (745-750).
The Umayyad caliph, Umar II. (717-720), persecuted the Jews. He issued orders to his governors: "Tear down no church, synagogue, or fire-temple; but permit no new ones to be built". Isaac Iskawi II (about 800) received from Harun al-Rashid (786-809) confirmation of the right to carry a seal of office. At the court of the mighty Harun appeared an embassy from the emperor Charlemagne, in which a Jew, Isaac, took part. Charles (possibly Charles the Bald) is said to have asked the "king of Babel" to send him a man of royal lineage; and in response the calif dispatched Rabbi Machir to him; this was the first step toward establishing communication between the Jews of Babylonia and European communities. Although it is said that the law requiring Jews to wear a yellow badge upon their clothing originated with Harun, and although the laws of Islam were stringently enforced by him to the detriment of the Jews, the magnificent development which Arabian culture underwent in his time must have benefited the Jews also; so that a scientific tendency began to make itself noticeable among the Babylonian Jews under Harun and his successors, especially under Al-Ma'mun (813-833).
Like the Arabs, the Jews were zealous promoters of knowledge, and by translating Greek and Latin authors, mainly at the House of Wisdom in Bagdad, contributed essentially to their preservation. They took up religio-philosophical studies (the "kalam"), siding generally with the Mutazilites and maintaining the freedom of the human will ("chadr"). The government meanwhile accomplished all it could toward the complete humiliation of the Jews. All non-believers — Magi, Jews, and Christians — were compelled by Al-Mutawakkil to wear a badge; their places of worship were confiscated and turned into mosques; they were excluded from public offices, and compelled to pay to the caliph a tax of one-tenth of the value of their houses. The caliph Al-Mu'tadhel (892-902) ranked the Jews as "state servants."[7]

Mongol period

The Caliphate hastened to its end before the rising power of the Mongol Empire. As Bar Hebræus remarks, these Mongol tribes knew no distinction between heathens, Jews, and Christians; and their Great Khan Kublai Khan showed himself just toward the Jews who served in his army, as reported by Marco Polo. Hulagu, the destroyer of the Caliphate (1258) and the conqueror of Palestine (1260), was tolerant toward Muslims, Jews and Christians; but there can be no doubt that in those days of terrible warfare the Jews must have suffered much with others. Under the Mongolian rulers, the priests of all religions were exempt from the poll-tax. Hulagu's second son, Aḥmed, embraced Islam, but his successor, Arghun (1284–91), hated the Muslims and was friendly to Jews and Christians; his chief counselor was a Jew, Sa'ad al-Daulah, a physician of Baghdad. After the death of the great khan and the murder of his Jewish favorite, the Muslims fell upon the Jews, and Baghdad witnessed a regular battle between them. Gaykhatu also had a Jewish minister of finance, Reshid al-Daulah. The khan Ghazan also became a Muslim, and made the Jews second class citizens. The Egyptian sultan Naṣr, who also ruled over Iraq, reestablished the same law in 1330, and saddled it with new limitations. Mongolian fury once again devastated the localities inhabited by Jews, when, in 1393, Timur captured Baghdad, Wasit, Hilla, Basra, and Tikrit, after obstinate resistance. Many Jews fled to other areas during this time.
The cumulative effect of the Mongol incursions is that most of the pre-existing Jewish community either died or fled, and the later Jewish community consisted largely of immigrants from other places, principally Aleppo. For this reason the traditions of Iraqi Jewry cannot be regarded as continuous with the Babylonian tradition of Talmudic or Geonic times, but are a variant of those of Middle Eastern Jewry generally.[8]

Ottoman rule

After various changes of fortune, Mesopotamia and Iraq came into the hands of the Ottoman Turks, when Sultan Suleiman II in 1534 took Tabriz and Baghdad from the Persians, leading to an improvement in the life of the Jews. The Persian reconquest in 1623 led to a much worse situation, so that the re-conquest of Iraq by the Turks in 1638 included an army with a large population of Jews, some sources say they made up 10% of the army. The day of the reconquest was even given a holiday, "Yom Nes" (day of miracle).
In 1743 there was a plague in which many of the Jews of Baghdad, including all the rabbis, died. The remaining Baghdad community asked the community of Aleppo to send them a new Chief Rabbi, leading to the appointment of Rabbi Sadka Bekhor Hussein.[9] One effect of this was a further assimilation of Iraqi Judaism to the general Sephardic mode of observance.
Over time, the centralized Turkish control over the region deteriorated and the situation of the Jews worsened, but the population continued to grow. An example of this deterioration are the persecutions of Daud Pasha, which caused many members of the Jewish community, such as David Sassoon to flee. In 1884 there were 30,000 Jews in Baghdad and by 1900, 50,000, comprising over a quarter of the city's total population. The community also produced great rabbis, such as Joseph Hayyim ben Eliahu Mazal-Tov, known as the Ben Ish Chai (1834–1909)

Modern Iraq

Sociologist Philip Mendes asserts that before the anti-Jewish actions of the 1930s and 1940s, overall Iraqi Jews "viewed themselves as Arabs of the Jewish faith, rather than as a separate race or nationality".[10] Additionally, early Labor Zionism mostly concentrated on the Jews of Europe, skipping Iraqi Jews because of their lack of interest in agriculture. The result was that "Until World War II, Zionism made little headway because few Iraqi Jews were interested in the socialist ideal of manual labor in Palestine." (Simon, Reguer, and Laskier, p 364)
During the British Mandate from 1918, and in the early days after independence in 1932, well-educated Jews played an important role in civic life. Iraq's first minister of finance, Sir Sassoon Eskell, was a Jew, and Jews were important in developing the judicial and postal systems. Records from the Baghdad Chamber of Commerce show that 10 out of its 19 members in 1947 were Jews and the first musical band formed for Baghdad's nascent radio in the 1930s consisted mainly of Jews. Jews were represented in the Iraqi parliament, and many Jews held significant positions in the bureaucracy which in many cases led to resentment by the Iraqi population.
In the 1930s, the situation of the Jews in Iraq deteriorated. Previously, the growing Iraqi Arab nationalist sentiment included Iraqi Jews as fellow Arabs[citation needed], but these views changed with the introduction of Nazi propaganda and the ongoing conflict in the Palestinian Mandate. Despite protestations of their loyalty to Iraq, Iraqi Jews were increasingly subject to discrimination and harsh laws. On August 27, 1934 many Jews were dismissed from public service[citation needed], and quotas were set up in colleges and universities. Zionist activities were banned, as was the teaching of Jewish history and Hebrew in Jewish schools[citation needed]. Following the collapse of Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, the Farhud ("violent dispossession") pogrom of June 1 and 2, 1941, broke out in Baghdad in which approximately 200 Jews were murdered (some sources put the number higher[citation needed]), and up to 2,000 injured—damages to property were estimated at $3 million. There was also looting in many other cities at around the same time. Afterwards, Zionist emissaries from Palestine were sent to teach Iraqi Jews self-defense, which they were eager to learn. (Simon, Reguer, and Laskier, p 364)
According to Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Sa'id,”The Jews have always been a source of evil and harm to Iraq. They are spies. They have sold their property in Iraq, they have no land among us that they can cultivate. How therefore can they live? What will they do if they stay in Iraq? No, no my friend, it is better for us to be rid of them as long as we are able to do so.”. (A. al-Arif, p. 893) In 1948, the country was placed under martial law, and the penalties for Zionism were increased. Courts martial were used to intimidate wealthy Jews, Jews were again dismissed from civil service, quotas were placed on university positions, Jewish businesses were boycotted (E. Black, p. 347) and Shafiq Ades (one of the most important anti-Zionist Jewish businessmen in the country) was arrested and executed for allegedly selling goods to Israel, shocking the community (Tripp, 123). Additionally, like most Arab League states, Iraq forbade any legal emigration of its Jews on the grounds that they might go to Israel and could strengthen that state. At the same time, increasing government oppression of the Jews fueled by anti-Israeli sentiment together with public expressions of anti-semitism created an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty. 1948, the year of Israel's independence was a rough year for the Jews of Iraq:
In July 1948, the government passed a law making all Zionist activity punishable by execution, with a minimum sentence of seven years imprisonment,
By the summer, most of the wealthy Jews of Iraq were arrested as Zionists and their property confiscated,
On August 28, 1948, Jews were forbidden to engage in banking or foreign currency transactions,
In September 1948, Jews were dismissed from the railways, the post office, the telegraph department and the Finance Ministry on the ground that they were suspected of "sabotage and treason,"
On October 8, 1948, the issuance of export and import licenses to Jewish merchants was forbidden,
On October 19, 1948, the discharge of all Jewish officials and workers from all governmental departments was ordered,
In October, the Egyptian paper, El-Ahram, estimated that as a result of arrests, trials and sequestation of property, the Iraqi treasury collected some 20 million dinars or the equivalent of 80 million U.S. dollars,
On December 2, 1948, the Iraq government suggested to oil companies operating in Iraq, that no Jewish employees be accepted.[11]
"With very few exceptions, only Jews wore watches. On spotting one that looked expensive, a policeman had approached the owner as if to ask the hour. Once assured the man was Jewish, he relieved him of the timepiece and took him into custody. The watch, he told the judge, contained a tiny wireless; he'd caught the Jew, he claimed, sending military secrets to the Zionists in Palestine. Without examining the "evidence" or asking any questions, the judge pronounced his sentence. The "traitor" went to prison, the watch to the policeman as reward." (Haddad, p. 176).
By 1949, the Iraqi Zionist underground had become well-established (despite many arrests), and they were smuggling Iraqi Jews out of the country illegally at a rate of 1,000 a month (Simon, Reguer, and Laskier, p 365). Hoping to stem the flow of assets from the country, in March 1950 Iraq passed a law of one year duration allowing Jews to emigrate on condition of relinquishing their Iraqi citizenship. They were motivated, according to Ian Black, by "economic considerations, chief of which was that almost all the property of departing Jews reverted to the state treasury" and also that "Jews were seen as a restive and potentially troublesome minority that the country was best rid of." (p. 91) Israel was initially reluctant to absorb so many immigrants, (Hillel, 1987) but eventually mounted an airlift in March 1951 called "Operation Ezra and Nehemiah" to bring as many of the Iraqi Jews as possible to Israel, and sent agents to Iraq to urge the Jews to register for immigration as soon as possible. Between 1948 and 1951 121,633 Jews left the country, leaving 15,000 behind.[12]
From the start of the emigration law in March 1950 until the end of the year, 60,000 Jews registered to leave Iraq. In addition to continuing arrests and the dismissal of Jews from their jobs, this exodus was encouraged by a series of bombings starting in April 1950 that resulted in a number of injuries and a few deaths. Two months before the expiration of the law, by which time about 85,000 Jews had registered, another bomb at the Masuda Shemtov synagogue killed 3 or 5 Jews and injured many others. The law expired in March 1951 but was later extended after the Iraqi government froze the assets of departing Jews, including those who had already left. During the next few months, all but a few thousand of the remaining Jews registered for emigration, spurred on by a sequence of further bombings that caused few casualties but had great psychological impact. In Operation Ezra and Nehemiah, some 120,000 Jews were airlifted to Israel via Iran and Cyprus.
The true identity and objective of the masterminds behind the bombings has been the subject of controversy. A secret Israeli inquiry in 1960 found no evidence that they were ordered by Israel or any motive that would have explained the attack, though it did find out that most of the witnesses believed that Jews had been responsible for the bombings.[13][14] The issue remains unresolved: Iraqi activists still regularly charge that Israel used violence to engineer the exodus, while Israeli officials of the time vehemently deny it.[15] Historian Moshe Gat reports that "the belief that the bombs had been thrown by Zionist agents was shared by those Iraqi Jews who had just reached Israel".[16] Sociologist Phillip Mendes backs Gat's claims, and further attributes the allegations to have been influenced and distorted by feelings of discrimination.[17]
Journalist Naeim Giladi's position that the bombings were "perpetrated by Zionist agents in order to cause fear amongst the Jews, and so promote their exodus to Israel" is shared by a number of anti-Zionist authors, including the Israeli Black Panthers (1975), David Hirst (1977), Wilbur Crane Eveland (1980), Uri Avnery (1988), Ella Shohat (1986), Abbas Shiblak (1986), Marion Wolfsohn (1980), and Rafael Shapiro (1984). In his article, Giladi notes that this was also the conclusion of Wilbur Crane Eveland, a former senior officer in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) who outlined that allegation in his book "Ropes of Sand".
The affair has also been the subject of a libel lawsuit by Mordechai Ben Porat, which was settled in an out-of-court compromise with an apology of the journalist who described the charges as true.
Iraqi authorities eventually charged three members of the Zionist underground with perpetrating some of the explosions. Two of those charged, Shalom Salah Shalom and Yosef Ibrahim Basri, were subsequently found guilty and executed, whilst the third was sentenced to a lengthy jail term. Salah Shalom claimed in his trial that he was tortured into confessing, and Yosef Basri maintained his innocence throughout.
Gat reports that much of the previous literature "reflects the universal conviction that the bombings had a tremendous impact on the large-scale exodus of the Jews... To be more precise it is suggested that the Zionist emissaries committed these brutal acts in order to uproot the properous Iraqi Jewish community and bring it to Israel".[18] However, Gat argues that both claims are contrary to the evidence. As summarized by Mendes:
Historian Moshe Gat argues that there was little direct connection between the bombings and exodus. He demonstrates that the frantic and massive Jewish registration for denaturalisation and departure was driven by knowledge that the denaturalisation law was due to expire in March 1951. He also notes the influence of further pressures including the property-freezing law, and continued anti-Jewish disturbances which raised the fear of large-scale pogroms. In addition, it is highly unlikely the Israelis would have taken such measures to accelerate the Jewish evacuation given that they were already struggling to cope with the existing level of Jewish immigration. Gat also raises serious doubts about the guilt of the alleged Jewish bombthrowers. Firstly, a Christian officer in the Iraqi army known for his anti-Jewish views, was arrested, but apparently not charged, with the offences. A number of explosive devices similar to those used in the attack on the Jewish synagogue were found in his home. In addition, there was a long history of anti-Jewish bomb-throwing incidents in Iraq. Secondly, the prosecution was not able to produce even one eyewitness who had seen the bombs thrown. Thirdly, the Jewish defendant Shalom Salah indicated in court that he had been severely tortured in order to procure a confession. It therefore remains an open question as to who was responsible for the bombings, although Gat argues that the attacks, which he presumes were the work of Iraqis of extreme Arab nationalist persuasion, did not spur the exodus.[19] Certainly memories and interpretations of the events have further been influenced and distorted by the unfortunate discrimination which many Iraqi Jews experienced on their arrival in Israel.[20]
Many years later, the Zionist emissary Yehuda Tager stated that while the main bombings were carried out by the Muslim Brotherhood, later smaller attacks were staged by Yosef Beit-Halahmi, on his own initiative, in an attempt to make it seem as if the activists on trial were not the perpetrators.[21]
In 1952, emigration to Israel was again banned, and the Iraqi government publicly hanged two Jews who had been falsely charged with throwing a bomb at the Baghdad office of the U.S. Information Agency.[22]
Iraqi Jews left behind them extensive property, often located in the heart of Iraq's major cities. A relatively high number found themselves in refugee camps in Israel known as Ma'abarot before being given permanent housing. Most of the 10,000 Jews remaining after Operation Ezra and Nehemiah stayed through the Abdul Karim Qassim era when conditions improved, but Anti-Semitism increased during the rule of the Aref brothers.
With the rise of the Ba'ath Party to power in 1963, restrictions were placed on the remaining Iraqi Jews. Sale of property was banned, and Jews had to carry yellow identity cards. After the 1967 Six-Day War, Jewish property was expropriated, bank accounts were frozen, Jews were dismissed from public posts, their businesses were closed, trading permits owned by Jews were cancelled, they were not allowed to use telephones, were placed under house arrest for extended periods of time, and were under constant surveillance and restricted to the cities. In late 1968, scores of Jews were jailed on charges of spying for Israel, culminating in the 1969 public hanging of 14 men, 9 of them Jews, who were falsely accused of spying for Israel. Other suspected spies for Israel died under torture. After Baghdad Radio invited Iraqi citizens to "come and enjoy the feast", half a million people paraded and danced past the scaffolds where the men were hung, which resulted in international criticism. An Iraqi Jew who later left wrote that the stress of persecution caused ulcers, heart attacks, and breakdowns to become increasingly prevalent in the Jewish community. In the early 1970s, bowing to international pressure, the Iraqi government allowed most of the remaining Jews to emigrate.[22][23][24][25]
Immediately prior to the Gulf War, the U.S. State Department noted that while there was no recent evidence of overt persecution of Jews, but travel, particularly to Israel, was restricted, as was contact with Jewish groups abroad. In 1997, the Jerusalem Post reported that in the past five years, some 75 Jews had fled Iraq, of whom about 20 moved to Israel and the rest mostly went to the United Kingdom and Netherlands.[22] In the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Jewish Agency launched an effort to track down all of the remaining Iraqi Jews to present them with an opportunity to emigrate to Israel, and found a total of 34 Jews. Six chose to emigrate, among them Ezra Levy, the father of Emad Levy, Baghdad's last rabbi.[26]
After the defeat of the Ba'ath regime, the process of establishing a new democratic government began. Among the subjects for debate over the Iraqi constitution was whether Jews should be considered a minority group, or left out of the constitution altogether.[27]
In October 2006, Rabbi Emad Levy announced that he was leaving for Israel and compared his life to "living in a prison". He reported that most Iraqi Jews stay in their homes "out of fear of kidnapping or execution" due to sectarian violence.[28]
Present estimates of the Jewish population in Baghdad are seven[29] or eight.[30] Among the American forces stationed in Iraq, there were only three Jewish chaplains.[31]




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Sir_Sassoon_Eskell.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/93/Sassoon_Eskell_1920s_family_portrait.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Benishchai.jpg
http://www3.0zz0.com/2011/10/03/07/560057630.jpg
http://www.cese-iq.net/kitabat/Kitabat_M/Kitabat-M-2009/Image-Kitiabat-M-2009/Kitaba9.jpg


http://i.ytimg.com/vi/Emq94B17zXo/0.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Yitzhak_Mordechai.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Sasson_Somekh.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Yosef_Shiloach.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Tsvi_Bar.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/RABBI_MOALEM.jpg
http://userserve-ak.last.fm/serve/_/68626100/Ilana+Eliya.jpg
http://www.ynet.co.il/PicServer2/13062011/3405573/Dalia_Itzik.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/EliAmir.JPG
http://cdn.timesofisrael.com/uploads/2012/04/Web_F060518ff13-635x357.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Flickr_-_aktivioslo_-_Harel_Skaat_-_Israel_%282%29_cropped.jpg
http://mscwne.walla.co.il/w/f-466/809745-5.jpg
http://www.yabia-omer.co.il/userfiles/ovadia.jpg
http://artobserved.com/artimages/2010/07/article-1214209-0676A6A1000005DC-776_468x474.jpg
http://www.yearcourse.org/wp-content/uploads/Screen-shot-2011-11-06-at-9.37.15-AM.png
http://www.haaretz.com/polopoly_fs/1.420942.1332822075!/image/4114318482.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_640/4114318482.jpg
http://s3.amazonaws.com/flipswitchmedia/YairDalal_01_3216x2136.jpg
http://userserve-ak.last.fm/serve/_/62167147/Roni+Dalumi+245.jpg
http://www.haaretz.com/polopoly_fs/1.393706.1320401948!/image/2433205988.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_640/2433205988.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Mordechai_eliyahu.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Avram_Grant_2012.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Brian_George_CFC.jpg
http://www.sott.net/image/image/s6/120871/full/Web_F070116OF02_635x357.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Eli_Yatzpan.jpg
http://www.abbanibi.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/MoshePeretz-PhotoByEitanTal2.jpg
http://trialx.com/curetalk/wp-content/blogs.dir/7/files/2011/04/gcelebrities/Yigal_Naor-2.jpg
http://www.knesset.gov.il/mk/images/members/benporat_mordechai.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Aryeh_Bibi.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Ran_Cohen.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Shlomo_Eliyahu.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Carmela_Menashe.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Moshe_Shahal.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Sason_Gabai.jpg

================================================== ================

Iraqi Muslims Descendants of Jewish origin
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/424646_294811223907172_759161381_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/644004_419974081390885_207854218_n.jpg
Dr. Ahmed Soussa

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-12-01, 20:50
Damn ^, some of those Iraqi Jews look exactly like Assyrians.

newtoboard
2012-12-02, 14:55
In addition, there is no evidence that it was a large Indo-European migration into the Iranian Plateau The language change in Iran was most likely through the process of "Elite Dominance". Of course this area is still in desperate need of much more study. But the people of Iran have lived in Iran before there was any Indo-European or Semitic or Turkish Languages (Iran is not entirely an Indo-European country, it has many groups) . Most of the migrations into the Iranian Plateau were not significant gentically.

Iran was either densley populated in the areas distant from C.Asia and sparsley populated in the areas closest so there is not much ancestry from their linguistic ancestor compared to Afghanistan/Tajikistan and to a lesser extent Pakistan/NW India.

It is possible that R1*/R1a/mtdna T pre proto Indo-Europeans expanded from the South Caspian to the Urals to become the Indo-Europeans. I think that is what happened.

- - - Updated - - -


You are correct. Language wise, Iranian Languages covered a much larger area before the Turkic Migration. Most of the people in Central Asia and Iranian Plateau through the Process of "Elite Dominance" and various migrations did become Indo_Iranian Speaker. However, through the same process large number of them are Turkic Speaker today.

The Process of "Elite Dominance" must be taken into consideration more often than it is.

Even in Iraq both Kassites and Sumerian were not Semitic or Indo-Iranian. So the presence of both Semitic languages and Indo-Iranian languages might have been through Elite dominance.

It wasn't elite dominance for Central Asia. Likely they had even more IE ancestry per Persian empires.

ashrf1979
2012-12-02, 15:32
Damn ^, some of those Iraqi Jews look exactly like Assyrians.

Why are not like the Assyrians :D
the Assyrian & Chaldean soldiers who brought Jews from Palestine to Iraq are not monks or eunuchs:thumbsup:

World_citizen
2012-12-02, 16:08
Maybe Northern Iranians are, but Southern Iranians? Hell to the motherfucking no. Most Iranians, other than ones that reside in Northern Iran are quite dark. Certainly much darker than most other Middle Easterners, except maybe Gulf Arabs and Iraqi Arabs. Moreover, not all Arabs live in "desertic" lands with high humidity. Nor are all or even most Iranians exposed to mild, mountainous climates.

- - - Updated - - -



Connecting an ancestral component, and then claiming that it's associated with the spread of language family or people, is dubious at best. Unless you have some well-preserved ancient Indo-European skeletons, to verify that the Caucasus/West Asian component is an Indo-European one. Then everything that you've just said is false. The reason why Basques and Finns lack the West Asian component, is because they were less impacted by the Neolithic farmers from the Middle East, who introduced agriculture to Europe and consequently their genes as well. West Asian and North European are close, because they share alleles in common.

Can you take a guess as to where those alleles originated? The Middle East.

No way are Iranians much darker than other middle easterners as you claim, do you base this on the internet? Then how come a southern Iranian like myself is much lighter than you are?

I very much doubt you know much about Iranians seeing you're living on planet X. As far as pigmentation is concerned, Iranians are similar to other middle eastern people, and that is naturally because of similar climates. But one thing that does set us apart are facial features, there are tons of Assyrians living in Holland, aswell as Iraqi' Arabs, Kurds, Turks, Arabs from Levant etc etc. Holland is quite a popular place for Western Asians. And you will find darker and lighter people among all those nationalities in similar fashion, however it's easy for me to distinguish by appearance as generally the facial characteristics between the mentioned differ. Iraqi Arabs, or Arabs in general have facial features which sets them apart from us Iranians, or Turks, North Africans etc and vice versa. That's why i have never been mistaken by Arabs or Assyrians for one of their own, and why i would never mistake you or Arabs/Assyrians in general for Iranian. The only thing we have in common is the dark complexion, and to say that Iranians are much darker than other Middle Easterners based on my own experience is absurd.

ozkan
2012-12-02, 17:29
Maybe Northern Iranians are, but Southern Iranians? Hell to the motherfucking no. Most Iranians, other than ones that reside in Northern Iran are quite dark. Certainly much darker than most other Middle Easterners, except maybe Gulf Arabs and Iraqi Arabs. Moreover, not all Arabs live in "desertic" lands with high humidity. Nor are all or even most Iranians exposed to mild, mountainous climates.

I will say that northern iranian have the same complexion as anatolians and south iranians have same complexions as levantines
you should know that most iranian peoples live in mountainous areas over 1500-2500 meters and those lands are very cool and most importantly have very very low dew points because they are way far from the coast and the existing winds makes a foehn effect that drops dew point into up to minus 10 so the felt temperature would be around 20 celsius even if the real temperature is around 30 celsius
on the other side on coastal golf lands temperature is 40 and dew point is up to 25-30 and the felt temperature is near 70-80 celsius while in the arabian desert the temperature is 50 and dew point up to minus 10 and the felt temperature is around 40 celsius
but you're right there are highland areas in yemen and oman and central and western arabia wich are a bit cooler
Iran has also the rainiest place in middle east (rainier even than north turkey) in the caspian coast where coastal cities receive up to 2000 mm of rain and farther inland in the first foothills up to 2500 mm of rain


Connecting an ancestral component, and then claiming that it's associated with the spread of language family or people, is dubious at best. Unless you have some well-preserved ancient Indo-European skeletons, to verify that the Caucasus/West Asian component is an Indo-European one. Then everything that you've just said is false. The reason why Basques and Finns lack the West Asian component, is because they were less impacted by the Neolithic farmers from the Middle East, who introduced agriculture to Europe and consequently their genes as well. West Asian and North European are close, because they share alleles in common.


west asian and northeuropean is present in all indo-europeans from iceland to india so those 2 must be proto indo-european's
how you explain that basques and finns lack westasian but the indoeuropeans living next to them and even further west and more isolated than them (like in northern norway isolated valleys and western iberian isolated valleys) have the westasian input

ashrf1979
2012-12-03, 15:54
Iraqi Jews

http://i49.tinypic.com/rv8uhs.jpg
http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/512xn/p00zplpf.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0,,16190113_303,00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190144_303%2c00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190123_303%2c00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190126_303%2c00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190137_303%2c00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190116_303%2c00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190142_303%2c00.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0%2c%2c16190130_303%2c00.jpg
http://timesonline.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/maurice_saatchi_1.jpg
http://washingtonlife.smugmug.com/2009-photos/Ambassadors-DIrectory/i-cRW6fvK/0/L/Bahrain_Houda%20Nonoo-L.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Chris_Kattan_at_the_2008_Tribeca_Film_Festival.JPG
http://i47.tinypic.com/qs8vpi.jpg
http://i39.tinypic.com/2cxgj9e.jpg

Iraqi Muslims Descendants of Jewish origin
http://www.iraqieconomist.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/walid-305x459.jpg
http://webserv.qu.edu.qa/home/publications/harem/issue11/pic/8/2.Jpg

nk191919
2012-12-03, 17:43
No way are Iranians much darker than other middle easterners as you claim, do you base this on the internet? Then how come a southern Iranian like myself is much lighter than you are?

I very much doubt you know much about Iranians seeing you're living on planet X. As far as pigmentation is concerned, Iranians are similar to other middle eastern people, and that is naturally because of similar climates. But one thing that does set us apart are facial features, there are tons of Assyrians living in Holland, aswell as Iraqi' Arabs, Kurds, Turks, Arabs from Levant etc etc. Holland is quite a popular place for Western Asians. And you will find darker and lighter people among all those nationalities in similar fashion, however it's easy for me to distinguish by appearance as generally the facial characteristics between the mentioned differ. Iraqi Arabs, or Arabs in general have facial features which sets them apart from us Iranians, or Turks, North Africans etc and vice versa. That's why i have never been mistaken by Arabs or Assyrians for one of their own, and why i would never mistake you or Arabs/Assyrians in general for Iranian. The only thing we have in common is the dark complexion, and to say that Iranians are much darker than other Middle Easterners based on my own experience is absurd.



I am sure user ZephyrousMandaru was exaggerating, perhaps Ozkan irritated him, but still an exaggeration, to say Iranians are much darker than Levant region is incorrect. I have lived and have had long visits to 3 countries in ME region. Iran ( where I was born), Turkey and Israel ( where there is a large Palestinian (Levant community). From my observation there are plenty of Dark skinned and light Skinned people in the 3 communities. Of course, I am not sure if ones Skin color is a sign of Privilege or it is a sign that a person is better or pretties, may be I am different.

The Turks from the Western Turkey, Edirne, Istanbul area were the lightest, but even there I saw a lot of people from other regions in Turkey who tend to be darker pigmented and even some local people are dark. Iranians are display huge color differences. True in the North and North West people tend to be lighter, but not all the South Iranians are dark. He is from SW Iran and he is an Iranian Politician.

http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ-y84IaQ7ZvC0_MTSEYElqTovwO-At2OVVJZFGB9eNEoRuoE0ACxYZK6Hg0g


Same is true of Palestinians and some are dark like dark Iranians and Some are lighter.

http://electronicintifada.net/sites/electronicintifada.net/files/artman2/2/080724-irin-women-1.jpg

Her features are not that uncommon among the Palestinians, many of the people I saw looked like her, and I think she is Lebanese. IMO, She kind of looks like darker Iranians.

IMHO,Actually to me ME people are very Good looking people dark or light. ME, on the average, are one of the most good looking people on this planet, with chiseled features. The goal would be for everyone to pass as ME.

nk191919
2012-12-03, 21:02
Chemda Khalili Israeli Singer (Jewish Iraqi Mother / Jewish Iranian Father)



http://www.vivapatshiva.com/images/ChemdaFire.gif

http://www.blogworldexpo.com/2012-nyc/files/2012/03/Chemda-Khalili-e1333040806300.jpg

http://www.musicaldiscoveries.com/images/chemda.jpg


Shaul Bakhash Iranian-American Historian (He was born in Iran of Iraqi Jewish Parents)

http://gazette.gmu.edu/images/sbakhash2.jpg


Paulus Khofri (Syriac: ܦܘܠܘܣ ܟܦܪܝ) was an Assyrian composer, lyricist and painter. He was born August 7, 1923 in Baghdad, Iraq and died in Tehran, Iran in May 2000 at the age of 77


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/88/Rabi_polus-_khofri_154.jpg

http://www.auaf.us/Who%20is%20who/Composers/Khofri.jpg

- - - Updated - - -

http://timesonline.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/maurice_saatchi_1.jpg

The Saatchi Brothers are Half Iraqi Jews and half English ( that is why he looks like Michael Caine the Actor)

ashrf1979
2012-12-04, 22:16
Iraqi Sub-groups

Iraqi Arabs

http://archaeotype.dalton.org/library/oldsite/images/713b.jpg
http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Assyrian_reliefs/Arabs_2.jpg
http://www.realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Common/Egypt/Arab_closeup.jpg
http://www.realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Common/CLOSEUP_ARAB_CAMELMAN.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/%D0%A1%D0%B2%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%90%D0%B1% D0%BE_%D0%A2%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%D 0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9.jpg
http://alsaadoon.com/info/albumsm/141.jpg
http://www.newsabah.com/get_img?NrImage=1&NrArticle=76739
http://www.bnitamem.com/uploadcenter/photos/4115.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-WZ6zxue3MZg/Tnuw_mNofEI/AAAAAAAAADg/RTGte2uh9z8/s400/news_image_file_343.jpg
http://shafaghna.com/arabic/media/k2/items/cache/d52db21c8b73dfa7443cd2f08e42db28_XL.jpg
http://alfaris.net/up/51/alfaris_net_1265554591.jpg
http://n4hr.com/up/uploads/6de53d3bfc.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/317269_293758234063656_2010766911_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/546785_289515394487940_1370577961_n.jpg
http://www.newsabah.com/get_img?NrImage=1&NrArticle=3528
http://www.alabasianews.com/UpLoadImages/%D8%B9%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A7%D 9%85%20%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%81%20%D8%B5%D9%88%D8% B1%D8%A9%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%B1.jp g
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Ghazi_al_Jawar.jpg
http://www.alsumaria.tv/newsimages/NB-11143-634629928633766594.JPG
http://www.altawafoq.com/media/images/08238/10_.jpg
http://imn.iq/upload/2012/08/07/17887014184.jpg
http://www.majalisna.com/gallery/3127/3127_189953_1244228864.jpg
http://www.kdp.info/grafik/uploaded/2012/mayson-aliraqia__2012_06_02_h18m31s14__MB.jpg
http://www.rnw.nl/data/files/imagecache/must_carry/images/lead/ayad.jpg
http://www.albawwaba.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/mahdi-ahmad-al-somaidaie-03012012.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Usama_al-Nujayfi_at_US_Department_of_State.jpg
http://www.jihadandconstruction.com/n/dsc01705.jpg
http://www.alsumarianews.com/Upload//Image/2012-06/Resample/img_FileName_120604130027_1997123049_26606.png
http://www.alsamrraie.com/ar/uploads/_DSC3539.JPG
http://www.alshahid-almustakil.net/photos/11092012115202.jpg
http://www.albawwaba.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/ahmad-al-karbouli-05102011.jpg
http://www.alrashead.net/images_news/2931alrasheadnet.jpg
http://alalemya.com/alalemya_news/0_2011_5_/11_/11-12_1/4-12/ahmad_chalabi2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Ayad_alawi_high_res.JPEG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Sadun_Dulaymi_at_the_Pentagon_May_22%2C_2012.jpght tp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Nora_Foss_Al-Jabri_2009_04_19_C.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Armand_nassery_photo.png
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/KenzaBraiga8r.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/HNA042704.jpg
http://news.rice.edu/images/media/2009RiceNews/0509_zainab_salbi.jpg
http://i50.tinypic.com/8x8so1.jpg
http://i46.tinypic.com/2hrg954.jpg
http://i49.tinypic.com/2z56jgj.jpg
http://i49.tinypic.com/2db1m49.jpg
http://www.6rb.com/uploads/photos/04570dda_resized.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/ADIL_ABD_AL-MAHDI_iq.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Army_mil-2007-05-11-085013.jpg
http://www.almutlag.com/imagenews/555555555_2_2.jpg
http://www.al-jaffaary.net/admin/upload/irq_1208361586.jpg
http://i34.tinypic.com/29q1jq8.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Aiham_Alsammarae_IMG_7960_pp.jpg
http://www.danakw.com/axcmsweblive/archive/2011/march/news/articlefiles/1562-safeer%20ee.jpg
http://www.alnoor.se/images/gallery/gallari_2/news/news_27/32.jpg
http://kashefalghtaa.com/site/images/gallery/1279698943.jpg
http://www.aawsat.com/2010/02/16/images/news1.557425.jpg
http://c.shia4up.net/uploads/13218090321.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-7S-34_XaMc8/UFy49XvsIzI/AAAAAAAAA28/KUbiS5gLLJw/s1600/%D8%A3%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%AF+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%A8% D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%8A+-+%D8%A8%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%AC+%D8%AE%D9%8A %D8%B1+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85+-+%D8%B3%D9%85%D8%B9%D9%86%D9%8A.jpg
http://abither.com/home/uploader/pics/1251294256.jpg

http://iraqibeacon.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/1227623209.jpg
http://www.alhakeem-iraq.net/pic/mohsin%20hakim%20(4).jpg
http://www.abc.net.au/news/image/1481240-3x2-940x627.jpg
http://www.zindamagazine.com/html/archives/2002/9.30.02/albertYelda.jpg
http://i35.tinypic.com/2n0mzhz.jpg
http://www.danakw.com/axcmsweblive/archive/2011/march/news/articlefiles/1562-kids%20aa.jpg
http://www.nypost.com/rw/nypost/2010/03/09/news/photos_stories/cropped/voter--300x300.jpg
http://i37.tinypic.com/2my5c2t.jpg
http://i38.tinypic.com/107rztt.jpg
http://i36.tinypic.com/a0uyky.jpg
http://i37.tinypic.com/1z1bx3r.jpg
http://i38.tinypic.com/2lw7ndt.jpg
http://i34.tinypic.com/2w6bakx.jpg
http://i33.tinypic.com/ekkv20.jpg
http://www.ndi.org/files/images/Iraqi-woman-382px.jpg
http://i36.tinypic.com/29eszh1.jpg
http://a.images.blip.tv/Aliveinbaghdad-HowDoYoungIraqisSpendTheirFreeTime812.jpg
http://i34.tinypic.com/2vkda94.jpg
http://iraqslogger.powweb.com/images_full_column/224768239O847038733.jpg
http://i35.tinypic.com/nygtux.jpg
http://static4.demotix.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/a_scale_large/500-7/photos/1294614917-christian-iraqis-in-lebanon_553147.jpg
http://i33.tinypic.com/v58lzm.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Iraqi_boys_giving_peace_sign.jpg/800px-Iraqi_boys_giving_peace_sign.jpg
http://i38.tinypic.com/26275w1.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Personal_Picture_1.jpg
http://isaacschrodinger.typepad.com/isaacschrodinger/images/iraqi_kids_smiling.jpg
http://i38.tinypic.com/1zlryab.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Abboud_Qanbar.jpg
http://n4hr.com/up/uploads/a861cfad3d.jpg
http://www.aliraqi.org/forums/attachment.php?attachmentid=4672&d=1187758025
http://www.corbisimages.com/images/DWF15-950124.jpg?size=67&uid={2d699868-68ec-4fe1-be97-1949df636bae}
http://i38.tinypic.com/ivi9m9.jpghttp://www.newsabah.com/get_img?NrImage=1&NrArticle=78042
http://www.gmrup.com/d4/up13321470299.jpg
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/07/26/world/26iraq-600.jpg
http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2005/10/16/iraq_wideweb__430x285.jpg
http://s.alriyadh.com/2006/06/01/img/016684.jpg
http://www2.pictures.zimbio.com/gi/Iraqis+Protest+Government+Corruption+Poor+j8cIv7hf gw_l.jpghttp://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Images/2011/12/19/2011121910222265734_20.jpg
http://zaman-alwsl.net/uploads/e92e4755b861b2344928f003.jpg
http://www.financialmirror.com/userfiles/iraqi(1).jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0,,15798857_401,00.jpg
http://msnbcmedia1.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photo_StoryLevel/080713/080713-daughters-bcol2-10a.grid-6x2.jpg
http://www.mintpress.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Iraqi-women.jpg

ashrf1979
2012-12-05, 16:49
More iraqi arabs pics

http://www.iraqipresidency.net/wp-content/themes/iraqipresidency/timthumb.php?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iraqipresidency. net%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2012%2F09%2FVP-Kudhair-Alkuzaie-1.jpg&q=90&w=630&h=420&zc=1
http://dc01.arabsh.com/i/00075/plrp3rcv7xn3.jpg
http://www.salatna.org/news/photos/medium/12123209110.jpg
http://www.jabha-wqs.net/images/news/17333.jpg
http://www.alfnonaljamela.com/uploads/120110621035208.gif
http://aljadidah.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/1.12.10.jpg
http://img.mawaly.com/images/news/zxy/64011-1344322324.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Bg0iDxno4E4/T1yPWQ6gKsI/AAAAAAAAAII/jFT4DmVKPP4/s1600/DSC00625.JPG
http://www.alqabas.com.kw/sites/default/files/article/original/2006/11/18/123276.jpg
http://www.alaalem.com/admin/upload/irq_1360453139
http://www.elcinema.com/photolist/30/afbe47e933ab59140f4cf81977252fb5_123603051_147.jpg
http://alaalem.com/admin/upload/irq_802827511
http://sphotos-a.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-snc7/c113.0.403.403/p403x403/399042_451801301530587_70265800_n.jpg
http://img42.imageshack.us/img42/9113/78067597.jpg
http://www.akhbaar.org/images/sami_qaftan_13102010.gif
http://www.alkhaleej.ae/uploads/gallery/2011/01/18/137417.jpg
http://up9.up-images.com/up/uploads/images/photos-472b00cf24.jpg
http://www.elcinema.com/photolist/31/9f57c8876809f09f5916d7384d3cc424_123610594_147.jpg
http://www.alhodacenter.com/photo/2007/drahmed/1.jpg
http://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/299997_288222461187765_1065571141_n.jpg
http://news.makcdn.com/image720370_630_700/630X700.jpg
http://gdb.rferl.org/F48634C0-0411-44C4-9A12-C8D153515AAF_mw1024_s.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8309/8015406225_eb9ee5f805_b.jpg
http://www.yanabeealiraq.com/article/jm/jasim_almtair.jpg
http://up.2sw2r.com/upfiles/kG022087.jpg
http://www.albawwaba.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/hussain-al-asadi-01042012.jpg
http://www.angelfire.com/nf/lafitat/log1.JPG
http://esyria.sy/sites/images/damascus/activities/112766_2010_02_16_19_24_04.image1.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/224454_1459189895692_6625732_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/407380_1870227811383_576525124_n.jpg
http://i38.tinypic.com/1232m4z.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/604067_447376781965287_930064282_n.jpg
http://static.dot.jo/uploads/repository/64717.jpg
http://i34.tinypic.com/11gr5fc.jpg
http://i35.tinypic.com/2aiowec.jpg
http://www.elcinema.com/photolist/30/4f2907b1f7584bd8a55c87915a8e2298_123603060_147.jpg
http://n4hr.com/up/uploads/0f859dc207.jpg
http://upload.arabia4serv.com/images/74616776982468437068.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Iraqi_Children.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/US_Navy_060329-N-5438H-046_A_Iraqi_girl_smiles_after_she_received_a_piece _of_candy_from_a_U.S._Army_soldier_during_a_patrol _in_the_Western_desert.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/A_grey_eyed_Iraki%2C_Granite_faced.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Iraqi_schoolgirls.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/US_Navy_030408-N-5362A-006_Iraqi_children_show_humanitarian_food_rations_ distributed_by_citizens_of_Kuwait_and_U.S._Army_so ldiers_during_an_effort_to_distribute_food_and_wat er_to_Iraqi_citizens_in_need.jpg
http://i37.tinypic.com/zl5dmv.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/US_Navy_051127-N-9885M-162_Iraqi_children_watch_as_U.S._Army_Soldiers_ass igned_to_Tiger_Squadron%2C_King_Battery_Troop%2C_3 rd_Armored_Cavalry_Regiment_%28ACR%29%2C_conduct_a _security_patrol.jpg
http://i33.tinypic.com/158b390.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0,,15895692_401,00.jpg
http://www.3raq-online.com/up/uploads/13271387044.jpg
http://i35.tinypic.com/166llz8.jpg
http://www.dw.de/image/0,,15895673_401,00.jpg

userwithoutname
2012-12-05, 17:06
What lol? Such adaptation that you are talking about takes thousands of years to occur, one would hardly see a difference between a single generation. The youth of south Arabia are most likely darker because they are out in the sun working, while the older people can no longer stick the heat. Surely that is obvious? There is no "negroidization", the people that you see living in Iraq have lived there for roughly 5000 years. If there are any Negroid traits in any of these populations it's due to mixture with slaves.

I'd to like see tangible evidence of a population that has darkened due to adaptation in the past 10000 years.

I think light skinned Iraqis have about the same chance of "darkening" as white Australians. Unless it's due to race mixing, I don't see it happening. With a modern lifestyle and diets, the deleterious consequences of having less melanin in high UV environments is lessened. Light skinned people will still reach reproductive age and have their light babies. Unless there's some sexual selection going on, it seems unlikely that a population would get darker based on environmental adaptation alone. If we go back far enough in time when it really had an impact on how children reaching reproductive age, then I could see a population darkening due to the selective pressure, but otherwise, it seems unlikely. I could be wrong, this is just my speculative opinion as I haven't done the homework on the subject. If someone knows better with referenced sources, please correct me.

Zakar-Baal
2012-12-05, 17:12
I'd to like see tangible evidence of a population that has darkened due to adaptation in the past 10000 years.

I think light skinned Iraqis have about the same chance of "darkening" as white Australians. Unless it's due to race mixing, I don't see it happening. With a modern lifestyle and diets, the deleterious consequences of having less melanin in high UV environments is lessened. Light skinned people will still reach reproductive age and have their light babies. Unless there's some sexual selection going on, it seems unlikely that a population would get darker based on environmental adaptation alone. If we go back far enough in time when it really had an impact on how children reaching reproductive age, then I could see a population darkening due to the selective pressure, but otherwise.
I mean first and foremost the idea that environment has a direct effect on genes is very sketchy at best, to claim it's happening within a single generation is downright absurd, and as you said such a thing would take > 10,000 years. The idea of environment having an impact on genes is known as soft-inheritance I think: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_inheritance
As far as I know any environmental adaptation is almost totally down to random mutations and then sexual selection, just like virtually all evolutionary changes.
I have no idea what ozkan was talking about, but he was incredibly wrong.

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-12-05, 22:07
I'd to like see tangible evidence of a population that has darkened due to adaptation in the past 10000 years.

I think light skinned Iraqis have about the same chance of "darkening" as white Australians. Unless it's due to race mixing, I don't see it happening. With a modern lifestyle and diets, the deleterious consequences of having less melanin in high UV environments is lessened. Light skinned people will still reach reproductive age and have their light babies. Unless there's some sexual selection going on, it seems unlikely that a population would get darker based on environmental adaptation alone. If we go back far enough in time when it really had an impact on how children reaching reproductive age, then I could see a population darkening due to the selective pressure, but otherwise, it seems unlikely. I could be wrong, this is just my speculative opinion as I haven't done the homework on the subject. If someone knows better with referenced sources, please correct me.

I believe this paper details such evidence.

http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/chem/faculty/leontis/chem447/PDF_files/Jablonski_skin_color_2000.pdf

It may seem counterintuitive, because we cannot directly observe it changing in real time. But I believe it is highly adaptive with a genetic component. As for light-skinned Iraqis having the same probability of darkening as White Australians. I don't know about that, as both terms are not only subjectively understood.

But I don't think light Iraqis are as light as White Australians, who are mostly Western European. My friend is half-Irish, half-English. I'm darker than him, but compared to Assyrians (and other Middle Eastern people) I'm lighter skinned.

ashrf1979
2012-12-06, 18:29
Iraqi Sub-groups

Shabak people


Shabak people are a minority ethnoreligious group who live mainly in the villages of Ali Rash, Khazna, Yangidja, and Tallara in Sinjar district in the province of Ninawa in northern Iraq. Their language, Shabaki, is a Northwestern Iranian language very close to Gorani Kurdish.[3] Their population was estimated at around 15,000 in the 1970s[4] but it is believed to be more like 60,000 today. Shabaks consist of three different ta'ifs or sects: the Bajalan, Dawoody and Zengana (two Kurdish tribal confederations that also encompass some Shabak communities) and the Shabak proper.[5] Shabaks follow an independent religion, related to but distinct from orthodox Islam and Christianity. It is also claimed that they are descendants of Qizilbash from the army of Shah Ismail.[6]

Name

The origin of the word shabak is not clear. One view maintains that shabak is an Arabic word شبك meaning intertwine, reflecting their diverse society. The name of Shabekan is available among the Kurdish tribes in Tunceli, Turkey and as Shabakanlu in Khorasan northern east of Iran.

Arabization and Anfal Campaign

The geographical spread of Shabak people has been largely changed due to the massive deportations in the notorious Al-Anfal Campaign in 1988 and the refugee crisis in 1991. Many Shabaks along with Zengana (Kurdish group) and Hawrami (Kurdish group) were relocated and deported to concentration camps (mujamma'at in Arabic) far away from their original homeland. Despite all these actions, Iraqi government efforts at forced assimilation and Arabization, as well as religious persecution of Shabaks has put them under increasing pressure. As one Shabak informant to a researcher put it:[7]
The government said we are Arabs, not Kurds; but if we are, why did they deport us from our homes?

Religious beliefs

Shabak religious beliefs contain elements from Islam and Christianity. There is a close affinity between the Shabak and the Yazidis; for example, Shabaks perform pilgrimage to Yazidi shrines.[3] The Shabaks have a sacred book called the Buyruk written in Azerbaijani language.
Shabaks combine elements of Sufism with their own interpretation of divine reality, which according to them, is more advanced than the literal interpretation of Qur'an known as Sharia. Shabak spiritual guides are known as pir, who are individuals well versed in the prayers and rituals of the sect. Pirs themselves are under the leadership of the Supreme Head or Baba. Pirs act as mediators between Divine power and ordinary Shabaks. Their beliefs form a syncretic system with such features as private and public confession and allowing consumption of alcoholic beverages. This last feature makes them distinct from the neighboring Muslim populations. The beliefs of the Yarsan closely resemble those of the Shabak people.[8]

Shabaks after the 2003 war

Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Kurds have opened KDP offices and raised the flag of Kurdistan in Shabak villages. It is alleged that Iraqi Kurdistan wants to annex Shabak villages and the eastern side of Mosul (Nineveh Plains) into its territory. Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, in the Mosul area alone, 1,000 Shabaks have been killed, many by way of beheading, mostly by Sunni Terrorists. A further 4,000 Shabaks in Mosul have been driven from their homes.
The Shabaks have representatives in the mainly Assyrian Christian-dominated Bakhdida, Bartella, Karemlesh and Bashiqa towns of the Ninawa Governorate and are offered protection from the Assyrian militias which guard Assyrian towns and villages. On January 16, 2012 eleven Shabak refugees were killed and six others injured in a car bomb explosion at the Al Ghadir camp for displaced persons in Bartella. Police reportedly found a second car bomb at the scene and closed the area for several hours to defuse it.
On October 27, 2012, several Shabak were killed in Mosul when gunmen invaded their homes[9] as part of a series of attacks during the Eid al-Adha holiday.



History

16th Century:Probable immigration of the Shabak from Persia into the Nineveh plain of Mesopotamia.

1952:The Shabak people are recognized as a distinct ethnic group.

1980's:Saddams Regime tries to remove the ethnic group of Shabak by removing 22 villages, 3000 families which are then dislocated to the north of Iraq. The First genocide on the Shabak begins.

2003: Kurdish troops move into Shabak areas, and come to define them as "Kurd Shabaks" trying to steal their true identity and the Shabak People are under a new genocide threat.

2005: Shabaks demonstrate for being not recognised as an independent ethnic group in Iraq. Gunmen from the KDP (Kurdistan Democratic Party) shoot at the crowd, injuring several.

2006:The Shabak people are under a planned plot from the Kurdish parties to take over their culture , language and ethnic rights.

Religion

The Shabak people are Muslims divided 65% Shiite and 35% Sunni. The most famous shiite shrine in the Shabak region is Zeen Al-Abedeen Shrine in ALi Rash village.

Population

The estimated number of Shabak people in the Ninevah province is around 400-500 thousand .

Language

The Shabak people have their own distinct language (Shabaki). Its different from any Kurdish language or dialect as many Kurd Parties try to distinguish the Shabaki language as a dialect from the Kurdish language.

Dress & Culture

The Shabak have their own special dress style. It is completely different to the Kurdish dress style or the Arabic dress or any other ethnic group dress style. They also have their own distinct foods and customs.



Shabaki language

Shabaki is an Indo-Iranian language of the Zaza–Gorani group spoken by the Shabak people and ethnic Kurds[1][2] in Mosul, Iraq. The number of speakers of Shabaki was estimated in 1989 to be between 10,000 and 20,000.[3][4]

Similarities with other languages

As Shabaki belongs the Zaza–Gorani group it is most similar to languages such as Gorani (Hewrami) dialects and Zazaki. As Zaza–Gorani belongs to the Northwestern Iranian branch, it also shares specific Sorani Kurdish features:

Shabaki:cham, Zazaki:çım, Sorani Kurdish:caw, Hewrami:cem, English:eye

Shabaki:ziwan, Zazaki:zıwan, Sorani Kurdish:ziman, Hewrami:ziwan, English:tongue


http://www.alshabak.net/image/home/dr.hunain.jpg
http://www.alshabak.net/image/photos/aid2009/1.JPG
http://www5.picturepush.com/photo/a/11490703/img/Anonymous/302850-467091033331968-227988473-n.jpg
http://www2.picturepush.com/photo/a/11490705/img/Anonymous/283250-467090473332024-1739291020-n.jpg
http://www1.picturepush.com/photo/a/11490759/img/Anonymous/480582-467089866665418-1009714312-n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/149162_367967399961718_631523042_n.jpg
http://www.shabakvoices.net/news3/filemanager.php?action=image&id=878
http://www.shabakvoices.net/news3/filemanager.php?action=image&id=834
http://www.shabakvoices.net/news3/filemanager.php?action=image&id=826
http://gdb.alhurra.eu/DA53922D-1A8D-4C9B-AC90-AA344D20E95D_w640_r1_s.jpg
http://www.alshabak.net/image/home/nur-alqado.jpg
http://sphotos-a.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/c0.26.851.315/p851x315/202256_343051609107591_323136613_o.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/559827_373381489421722_478172743_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/409221_375635815849170_1195141914_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/575249_324464400966312_141009867_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/305668_286980121381407_1402561192_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/379083_228065080606245_168752845_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/378113_228059947273425_1011678222_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/406450_228055753940511_174044893_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/385898_228049780607775_1590633991_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/402290_228032787276141_341596776_n.jpg
http://cdn.timesofisrael.com/uploads/2012/10/APTOPIX-Mideast-Iraq-_Horo-195x110.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/313989_346038368808915_739328398_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/390284_228014483944638_944242127_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/399546_228014080611345_705707258_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/381656_225030617576358_582385955_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/401011_225007024245384_920020850_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/387656_225005207578899_1398869489_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/378042_225003740912379_1162179618_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/401679_224979134248173_441039222_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/402930_224993067580113_1982683257_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/295999_158012850952933_100590198_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/405078_459352150781936_853451672_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/480708_420507311333087_1203847179_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/406895_233265833471121_946973875_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/179343_233976600066711_724521804_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/548499_273181556117509_1764724509_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/547049_279836525452012_1914430792_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/224108_280581472044184_673498238_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/541298_115925985209179_1825950768_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/582181_115923578542753_227963576_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/601579_139217702890875_1053704525_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/2894_144281189051193_1894069510_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/253382_125619657531241_7315986_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/295050_302560873163927_209707650_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/526538_4198860846739_1934264513_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/380320_3934121548422_1114382269_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/162928_1753758800716_2921866_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/542860_295095050607732_1845041851_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/550974_217443951706176_1510760555_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/525824_201423533308218_211223816_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/402364_141295209321051_583906489_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/377957_182464095174475_904454682_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/72107_127610834063229_2047279425_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/578756_428857440499880_1993282732_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/380637_421054407946850_636256372_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/185568_433111786741112_1154105622_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/295831_259092760809683_1375484562_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/35514_386903988028559_1547319079_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/603400_328728617211314_1889311867_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/560747_265598490190994_405909637_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/282053_138362392914605_3037108_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/263419_132135826870595_5567779_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/386989_332988733455343_1983221763_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/480708_420507311333087_1203847179_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/396239_207430286015431_401548757_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/29402_376216709125612_100147028_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/59421_369725329781683_1115085853_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/12814_369725173115032_1451861173_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/555537_323164187771131_220600289_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/486538_332997593454457_18543452_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/575976_333006093453607_143901813_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/578933_332997960121087_200423895_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/562730_333018880118995_1096604913_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/182703_188933564480815_8270775_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/271147_222427414464763_143910_n.jpg

ZephyrousMandaru
2012-12-06, 22:51
Well you learn something everyday. I didn't know there was an ethnic group known as the Shabak. I'd like to see some genetic data from them. Some of their phenotypes aren't too different from what I've seen in Middle Eastern minority groups, including Assyrians.

ashrf1979
2012-12-07, 19:56
Iraqi Sub-groups

Feylis


Fayli, "Feili", or Feyli Kurds' (Kurdish: فه یلی /Feylî/Pehlî) are largely a Kurdish Shi'a community living in Baghdad and the Diyala Province of Iraq around Khanaqin and Mandali, and across the Iranian border, in the provinces of Ilam, Kermanshah and Luristan. They number an estimated 6.000.000. people. The Fayli Kurds are an important community within the wider Kurdish people. Faylee (Faylee, Faili, or Feli) are, according to some, part of the Kurdish population in Iraq and an integral part of the Kurdish nation, though others believe they are much more related to Lurs and Persians. This misunderstanding has an historical origin. Pushtkuh (or old name of ilam province) in Iran was under the control of Lur ruler. Their second name was faili or faylee, so because of their injustice and tyranny some of the old ilam inhabitants migrated to Iraq and some were exiled. This is in spite of the fact that ilam residents are not and were not lur and only their homeland was captured by lurs and the lur ruler many centuries controlled this region in their hands, although some of the tourist and writers in the past said that pushtkuh people are lur but this is not true it seems they didn't know that this region is a kurdish region under the control of a lur ruler called wali, they were kurds people with lur ruler. Unfortunately, when faylee kurds entered Iraq were enforced to introduce themselves as faili kurds its mean is the kurds under the control of lur ruler. When we saw a website as a western luristan which is belonged to faili kurds it is surprising because Iranian lur are different from kurds and disagree to be named as kurds and it seems by this site faili kurds try to say that we are from pushtkuh (old name of ilam)or it seems some faili kurds parties try to make a new identity for faili kurds in order to win the election in future because if they use same the word kurdistan instead luristan they can not be winner in election.so,it can be said that they try to show a different root for faili kurd to gain more poll in spite of the facts that there is in Iran about lurs and kurds. It is interesting to know that in ilam people say we are kurd not lur and in lurestan lurs say we are lur not kurd. Anyway, it should be reminded to faili kurds of Iraq that lur are different from kurds and if in a time lur has been classified as kurds it is because of ilam province which their language is kurdish but during a time was under the control of lur rulers. Faylee have themselves shown, over the years, and still show this fact and reality by words and deeds. They speak Feyli, a dialect that belongs to the kurdish language, which some argue is a dialect of middle Persian. Feyli is spoken particularly on both sides of the border areas between Iraq and Iran .[1]
Feyli speak Gorani, a dialect of the Kurdish language. The roots of the Feyli go back to the Aryan immigrants of the first millennium BC, and more specifically, the Parthian/Pahlawi/Pahlawanid settlements of the 2nd century BC. They embraced Islam in the early stages of the Islamic conquest and colonisation of Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Iran, although archaeological evidence from the Ilam Province in Iran indicates that some proportions of Fayli might have been Nestorian Christians until the 18th Century. The conversion to Shia form of Islam seem to have begun under the Safavid dynasty (1507–1721) of Persia/Iran, Faylis today are primarily Imami Shias like the Persians, Lurs and the Azeris, as well as the majority of the Iraqi Arabs.
In modern times the Feylis have been subject to state persecutions.[2][3] They are considered as a stateless people, with both Iran and Iraq claiming they are citizens of the other country.[4] In the mid 1970s, Iraq expelled around 40,000 Feyli's who had lived for generations near Baghdad and Khanaqin, alleging that they were Iranian nationals.[5]

Etymology of the name

The origins and linguistic history of the Feyli have been investigated by several notable western scholars, such as Sir John Malcolm, Brown, Laurie, Hassle and Henry Field. Several imaginative, if apocryphal, etymologies for the word "Feyli" have been espoused. In the 13th century, Yaqout al-Hamawi mentions in his book The lexicon of countries (Ar. معجم البلدان Mujam al-Buldan) that the Feylis are those who reside the mountains separating Iran and Iraq. He attributes their name to their size, claiming that they are as huge as "elephants"; the word fil (فيل) means "elephant" in Arabic. Others have claimed that the name goes back to an ancient ruler of the territory. Feyli's have a large population within Baghdad due to disruption among the area. The numbers go from 500,000 to 1,300,000 people. Many people believe that this gives the Kurds the right to press claims on Baghdad and divide the city with Shias and Sunnis if a 3 states solution is created and therefore there have been attempts from KRG to "Kurdize" the Feyli.
However, more likely is the explanation given by M. R. Izady.[6] He claims that the Arabic Feyli is a corruption of Pahla, meaning Parthia, a kingdom based in modern day Iran, contemporaneous with the Roman Empire. The change occurred because Arabic alphabet lacks the letter p, rendering it as an "f" instead (this sound change can also be seen in Palestine/Philistin فلسطين and Persian/فارسي), but sometimes also as a "b". Early Arabic texts recorded the name as Fahla or Bahla, the former of which became the more common, corrupting eventually to Faila, of which the adjective is Faili or Feyli.

Feyli homeland

Since ancient times, the Feylis have lived in the border area between Iraq and Iran, which consists of the Zagros Mountains and cliffs. They live on the two sides of this mountain in Iran and Iraq and they call it Kabir Kuh, "the great mountain".
The areas on the Iraqi side from north to south are the following: Khanaqin, Shahraban (now called Al-Meqdadia), Mandali, Badrah, Zorbateyah, Jassan, Al–Kut and Al-Azizyah. They also reside in a number of cities in the area of Shaikh Sa’ad, Ali Sharqi, Ali Gharbi and Al–Kofah, which is 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad.
However, as early as the first decade of the 20th century, many Feylis moved to Baghdad and lived in its center. Consequently, there are some areas which are named after them, such as the Kurdish quarter, the Kurdish alley, and the Kurdish Street.
On the Iranian side, the Feylis live in the following areas, from north to south: Qasre Shirin, Kermanshah, Karand, Islam Abad e Gharb (former Shah Abad), Sarpol-i Zohab, Gilan e Gharb, Ilam, chavar, Saleh Abad, Badreh, Dehloran, abdanan, darehshahr, eyvan, shirvan va chardavol, malekshahi, meymeh,ilam, zarin abad or pahleh. The word of pahleh can be related with feyli.
The basic activities of the people of the border area are agriculture and sheep herding. They plant corn, barley, wheat, and summer vegetables as well as fruits on the mountains or on the flats. There are also some natural resources in the area such as oil (petroleum) at Naft Khanah (Iraq), Naft-Shahr, Dehluran (Ilam province, Iran) and natural gas at Tange Bidjar (Ilam province, Iran).
In the northern area, people use the Alvand River, which flows out of the Harunabad & Gelan regions (Iran) towards Khanaqin before joining the Diyala River, which pours into the Tigris River. There are also a few channels, wells, and springs that help with irrigation and domestic water use.
As for the weather, it is dry in summer but the mountains are usually covered with lays of snow, which melts in summer to irrigate the lands. In summer, many people move with their sheep to the tops of the mountains because there are wide areas of grass; when the winter comes, they go back to their villages. Some Kurds work in trade and goods exchange and other free works (urban professions).
The Feyli people have proved to be so persistent and civilized as they studied hard to join the universities of the main cities and got good jobs. In his book "Ameroir of Baghdad" issued by Al-Rais publishing house, Cyprus 1993 the ex minister Mosa Al-Shabandar describes the life of the Feylis. It is very difficult to give an accurate estimate of the Failis' population, as many of them in Iraq have been deported and ethnically cleansed; however, some estimate that about 2.5 millions lived in Iraq and 3 million in Iran. The Iraqi Minorities Council and Minority Rights Group International estimate that prior to the current war there were 1,000,000 Feylis in Iraq[7]

Tribes and clans

Feylis consist of many tribes and clans. Their names are sometimes based on the name of their tribal leader or where they live but sometimes they take vocational names. Here are listed some of them: Ali Sherwan (he was from the tribe of Sanjabi and established Beyrey tribe) tribe and his four sons Cheragh, Safar, Heydar or Hiar, and Dara — each one of these four established a tribe in his name like Cheragh Wandi, Safar Wandi, Hiar Wandi, and Dara Wandi) Malek Shahi tribe Jamal Vandi tribe Ansari tribe Kalhur tribe Zouri or Zhohairi clan Qaitoli clan Khezell or Khaza`al clan Shuhan clan Mousi clan
Ali Sherwan is the name of a prominent Feyli tribe inhabiting mainly Ilam in Iran. Members of the tribe believe themselves to be descendants of Ali Sherwan. Feyli are composed of several clans. Their names can tell about where they are from, what clan they belong and where they live. According to Najm Suleiman Mahdi in his book "The Faily Kurds, Who are they," is the most important Feyli clans following;
Laki, Luri, Kordali, Ali Sherwan consisting of (his four sons/clans Cheragh Wandi, Safar Wandi, Herwandi, Darawandi), Malek Shahi, Jaberi, Ansari, kalhor, Zouri or Zhohairi, Qaitoli, Khezell, Showhan, Mousie, Warkoz, Kalawai, Bolia, Maliman, Zangana, Bakhtiari, Zand, Soria-Mori, Mamsani, Jgangi, Papi, Bojarahmad, Kahlgilija, Mishkhas, Hasanwandi, Pirawandi, Kakwandi, Dinawandi, Dohsan, Zouri, Bawe, Larti, Heni-meni, Qazi, Qalawlaws, Aljoi, Mafi, Warizwand, Amreri, Panchseton, Wazrgoush, Tolabi, Siljurzi, Shola, Qaderhama, and Kaka

The Feylis in the Iraqi society

The existence of the Feyli's in Iraq has never been marginal. On the contrary, they have participated in all political, social, cultural, and economical activities.

Economical role

The Feylis have had a great economical and commercial weight, especially in Baghdad. They owned and operated merchant, logistics, construction business. Also after the Baghdad Jews left during the fifties, some Jews sold their business (mostly in trading) to feylies. The wealth pushed Saddam to confiscate their capitals and properties and expel them to Iran, claiming that they are not genuine Iraqis but instead that they're Iranians. The injustice that happened to the Feylis is similar as what happened to the Jew during the II World War in Europe.

Political role

The Feyli's suffered severe oppression under Saddam Hussein and his Baathist government. They joined others in opposing the dictatorial government in Iraq and fighting alongside other Iraqis and also joined national Iraqi parties such as the Iraqi Communist Party, the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP), the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), and the National Kurdish Association.
Many Feyli's became active cadres in organizations like the Al-Da’awa Islamic Party, the Islamic Action Organisation, and other Islamic and secular parties. Others were involved in the ruling Baath party, though most of those were subsequently removed by Saddam Hussein.

Social role

The Feyli's have had a very effective role in social life as they have established social centers, clubs, and youth and women associations. That has been made possible due to the presence of many famous Feyli in different fields. They have also taken part in the establishment of many religious institutions and in the spread of religious awareness. Feyli have also shown great interest in studying religion and science.

Deportation from Iraq during the Saddam era

During the 70s and 80s a large segment of the Feyli population in Baghdad were forcibly deported to the Iranian border by Iraqi police and intelligence units on the order of the authorities. Their properties seized as well as being stripped of their legal documents and citizenship, the Feyli's were effectively rendered into right-less foreigners. Most of the targeted families were of significant influence on a large spectrum of Iraqi society. Having a high level of education, commercial success and ranking positions in the military. The Baathist regime fearing potential dissidence and opposition, implemented deportation policies against Feyli's. The official claim was that Feylis were Iranian nationals.
Adult males between the ages of 18-55 were detained and sent to various prison complexes in the country, with no legal procedures such as trails being taken before incarceration. It is estimated that between 13.000-30.000 Feyli's died under the conditions of captivity and systematical murder by the Baathist intelligence apparatus. These human right violations were only recognized after the fall of the regime, when access to documents and testimonies of former inmates and personnel became available. The underlying pretext for this act, was that Shiite Feylis would become potential recruits for the Iranian government, post-deportation.

Trial of Baathists involved in crimes against Feylis

On Monday 29 November 2010, an Iraqi court found Saddam Hussein's longtime foreign minister Tariq Aziz guilty of terrorizing Feyli Kurds during the Iran-Iraq war, sentencing him to 10 years in prison. Mohammed Abdul Saheb, a spokesman for Iraq's high criminal court, said: "Today a judge found Tariq Aziz guilty and sentenced him to 10 years in prison. The evidence was enough to convict him of displacing and killing Feyli Kurds. Aziz was a member of the revolutionary command council which cancelled the Iraqi nationality for the Feyli Kurds."[8] The spokesman also said Aziz was spared a death sentence for the crimes against humanity because he had a lesser involvement than some of his co-defendants in the atrocities against the Feyli Kurds.[9] Of the other 15 defendants in the Iraqi High Tribunal case, three Saddam loyalists were found guilty and sentenced to death. Two, including Aziz, were sentenced to 10 years in prison. The remaining 10 were acquitted, including Saddam's two half brothers, Watban Ibrahim al-Hassan and Sabawi Ibrahim al-Hassan. The Feyli Kurd minority comes mainly from an area in northeastern Iraq that straddles the Iraq-Iran border. Saddams regime killed, detained and deported tens of thousands of Feyli Kurds early in his 1980-1988 war with Iran, denouncing them as alien Persians and spies for the Iranians.[10]

2011 Feyli Conference in Baghdad

On Saturday the first of October 2011, the National Conference for Feyli Kurds held a conference in the Iraqi capital Baghdad which was attended by the Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. Al-Maliki said in a speech "the Feyli Kurds have been targets for harming, similar to other Iraqi communities". He also called "for the unity of Feyli Kurds under a common tent, uniting them and organizing their activities, together with other Iraqi communities". He ended his speech by saying "we shall support the rights of the depressed Feyli Kurds, beginning with the restoration of their official documents and their presence in their homeland and ending with the paying back the funds that were confiscated from them (during the former regime)". The Iraqi Prime Minister also recognized "that over 22,000 Feyli Kurds had been deported from Iraq by the former regime, calling for the restoration of their rights".[11]


http://dc09.arabsh.com/i/02464/v4gncr2vlfaf.gif
http://www.albawwaba.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/faily-kurtd-women-08042012.gif
http://static.aknews.com/images/cms-image-000043399.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/308656_204119109668241_338854274_n.jpg
http://www.azadibokurdistane.com/a230.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/487368_112249862246197_1112452271_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/547919_112249592246224_1886861983_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/521465_112249672246216_120546742_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/246476_112249615579555_507952425_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/538837_112249492246234_931548102_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/314127_112249455579571_317668898_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/318216_112249385579578_1886814604_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/551232_112249362246247_1647217298_n.jpg
http://www.iraaqi.com/upload/28723238.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/563940_138329712960071_858813514_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/61153_416951775026843_943244565_n.jpg
http://www4.picturepush.com/photo/a/11408672/640/11408672.jpg
http://www1.picturepush.com/photo/a/11408679/640/11408679.jpg
http://static.aknews.com/images/cms-image-000091314.jpg
http://cdn1.beeffco.com/files/poll-images/normal/iraqi-national-congress_7981.jpg
http://maakom.com/site/photo/5178
http://maakom.com/site/photo/5170
http://faily.iq/default/images/stories/2012/3/40.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/268311_136636976416455_892765_n.jpg
http://hakaek.net/filemanager.php?action=image&id=15918
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/430076_372881656125318_948367563_n.jpg
http://i52.tinypic.com/sb3448.jpg
http://faily.iq/default/images/stories/2012/9/01%202.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/224415_373113066102177_1469019097_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/389770_327675233965796_146338153_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/402823_147815205358326_1671629993_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/425854_373114549435362_8903320_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/148117_431147203617177_1670251288_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/252572_284598368320057_365030693_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/3042_372726672807483_1593495336_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/20198_177558505717329_2038746386_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/603437_458759927478114_1202951493_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/563918_372721132808037_64843091_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/480390_100963843406107_1507409925_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/484415_457012114319562_1560055091_n.jpg

http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/483195_131226367017210_1093385455_n.jpg

userwithoutname
2012-12-07, 21:25
I believe this paper details such evidence.

http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/chem/faculty/leontis/chem447/PDF_files/Jablonski_skin_color_2000.pdf

It may seem counterintuitive, because we cannot directly observe it changing in real time. But I believe it is highly adaptive with a genetic component. As for light-skinned Iraqis having the same probability of darkening as White Australians. I don't know about that, as both terms are not only subjectively understood.

But I don't think light Iraqis are as light as White Australians, who are mostly Western European. My friend is half-Irish, half-English. I'm darker than him, but compared to Assyrians (and other Middle Eastern people) I'm lighter skinned.

I've seen this report before and I don't remember reading anything that in any way answered my question. I'll have to take some and read it more closely. There is no doubt that skin colour has a genetic component, but the question is whether a population descended from whites retains the genetic potential (without random mutations occurring) to darken just due to living in a higher UV environment, especially when in a modern era when the "stress" of lighter skin in a high UV environment is not the same as when humans first came on the scene. What is the time frame required.

So far the story of human skin colour evolution is something like this:

"1. From ~1.2 million years ago to less than 100,000 years ago, the ancestors of all people alive were dark-skinned Africans.
2. As populations began to migrate, the evolutionary constraint keeping skin dark decreased proportionally to the distance north a population migrated, resulting in a range of skin tones within northern populations.
3. At some point, northern populations experienced positive selection for lighter skin due to the increased production of vitamin D from sunlight and the genes for darker skin disappeared from these populations."


Where is the evidence of any of these northern populations migrating back into higher UV environments and darkening, without mixing with darker natives? Is there any example of it?

Perhaps there are. Some North Indian whitey lovers love to proclaim how they believe their ancestors from the near east or somewhere were whites/near-whites and turned "brown" due to environmental adaptation and not due to mixing with aboriginal native dark skinned population that inhabited north India. I just find that hard to believe.

ashrf1979
2012-12-07, 22:42
Feylis from Mandali

http://www.the-south-asian.com/january2006/Hammasa_Kohistani___206146g.jpg
http://hamaraforums.com/uploads/post-1583-1126454872.jpg
http://www.altahreernews.com/inp/Upload/289225_fakrikarim2.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_pmo7VQzLTL8/THVRbQsnTJI/AAAAAAAABak/NulGSxiS_LI/s1600/cms-image-000059511.jpg
http://kirkuknow.com/arabic/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D8%B7%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D9%85%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8%D8%A9-%D9%83%D8%B1%D9%83%D9%88%D9%83-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%AE-%D8%B2%D9%83%D9%8A-%D9%85%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%AF-%D8%B2%D9%86%D9%83%D9%86%D8%A9...jpg
http://www.indybay.org/uploads/2007/08/03/haifa_zangana311.jpg
http://cic-najaf.com/uploads/mokawama_896.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/253088_411356565587595_1578810375_n.jpg
http://up.7ail.net/index.php?action=getfile&id=62438
http://up.7ail.net/index.php?action=getfile&id=62439
http://up.7ail.net/index.php?action=getfile&id=62440
http://up.7ail.net/index.php?action=getfile&id=62441
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/524130_104100556394155_1358432834_n.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9mOhfy5mVQ/TGCau_2nxlI/AAAAAAAAAAc/Amx2mPmoSwU/s1600/20090725635.jpg
http://iraqeana.com/3raqe/uploads/372012-110803AM-1.jpg
http://gdb.rferl.org/30C49C49-6EF8-4EAD-A6BE-62E3E79B1869_mw1024_s.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/422218_2936431604545_577715593_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/307093_2143861830796_1995571038_n.jpg
http://www.iraker.dk/maqalat25/jalil_mandelawi.jpg
http://static.aknews.com/images/cms-image-000106532.jpg
http://i.ytimg.com/vi/K1-IYh1_JV4/0.jpg
http://www.pic1.iran-forum.ir/images/up2/01607960156734312920.jpg

ashrf1979
2012-12-10, 20:49
Iraqi Sub-groups

Yazidis




Yazidi


The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: ئ?زيدي or Ezidî) are a Kurdish ethnoreligious group with Indo-Iranian roots. They currently live primarily in the Nineveh Province of northern Iraq. Additional communities in Transcaucasia, Armenia, Turkey, and Syria have been in decline since the 1990s, their members having emigrated to Europe, especially to Germany.[13] Their religion, Yazidism, is a branch of Yazdânism, and is seen as a highly syncretic complex of local Kurdish beliefs that contains Zoroastrian elements and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to the area by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century.[14] The Yazidi believe in God as creator of the world, which he placed under the care of seven holy beings or angels, the chief of whom is Melek Taus, the Peacock Angel.

Demographics

Historically, the Yazidi lived primarily in communities in what are now Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, and also had significant numbers in Armenia and Georgia. However, events since the 20th century have resulted in considerable demographic shift in these areas as well as mass emigration.[6] As a result population estimates are unclear in many regions, and estimates of the size of the total population vary.[1]
The bulk of the Yazidi population lives in Iraq, where they make up an important Iraqi minority community.[1] Estimates of the size of these communities vary significantly, between 70,000 and 500,000. They are particularly concentrated in northern Iraq in the Nineveh Province. The two biggest communities are in Shekhan, northeast of Mosul, and in Sinjar, at the Syrian border 80 kilometers west of Mosul. In Shekhan is the shrine of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir at Lalish. During the 20th century the Shekhan community struggled for dominance with the more conservative Sinjar community.[1] The demographic profile is likely to have changed considerably since the start of the Iraq War in 2003 and the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime.[1]
Yazidi in Syria live primarily in two communities, one in the Al-Jazira area and the other in the Kurd-Dagh.[1] Population numbers for the Syrian Yazidi community are unclear. In 1963 the community was estimated at about 10,000, according to the national census, but numbers for 1987 were unavailable.[15] There may be between about 12,000 and 15,000 Yazidi in Syria today,[1][10] though more than half of the community may have emigrated from Syria since the 1980s.[6] Estimates are further complicated by the arrival of as many as 50,000 Yazidi refugees from Iraq during the Iraq War.[6]
The Turkish Yazidi community declined precipitously during the 20th century. By 1982 it had decreased to about 30,000, and in 2009 there were fewer than 500. Most Turkish Yazidi have emigrated to Europe, particularly Germany; those who remain reside primarily in their former heartland of Tur Abdin.[1] Population estimates for the communities in Georgia and Armenia vary, but they too have declined severely. In Georgia the community fell from around 30,000 people to fewer than 5,000 during the 1990s.[6] The numbers in Armenia may have been somewhat more stable; there may be around 40,000 Yazidi still in Armenia.[16] Most Georgian and Armenian Yazidi have relocated to Russia,[6] which recorded a population of 31,273 Yazidis in the 2002 census.[8]
This mass emigration has resulted in the establishment of large diaspora communities abroad. The most significant of these is in Germany, which now has a Yazidi community of over 40,000. Most are from Turkey and more recently Iraq, and live in the western states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony.[1] Since 2008 Sweden has seen sizable growth in its Yazidi emigrant community, which had grown to around 4,000 by 2010,[6] and a smaller community exists in the Netherlands.[1] Other diaspora groups live in Belgium, Denmark, France, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia; these have a total population of probably less than 5,000.[1]

Origins

The Yazidi are a Kurdish -speaking people who adhere to a branch of Yazdanism that blends elements of Mithraism, pre-Islamic Mesopotamian religious traditions, Christianity and Islam. Their principal holy site is in Lalish, northeast of Mosul. The Yazidis' own name for themselves is Ezidî or Ezîdî or, in some areas, Dasinî (the latter, strictly speaking, is a tribal name). Some scholars have derived the name Yazidi from Old Iranic yazata (divine being), but most say it is a derivation from Umayyad Caliph Yazid I (Yazid bin Muawiyah), revered by the Yazidis as an incarnation of the divine figure Sultan Ezi[17]. Yazidis, themselves, believe that their name is derived from the word Yezdan or Ezid "God". The Yazidis' cultural practices are observably Kurdish, and almost all speak Kurmanjî (Northern Kurdish), with the exception of the villages of Bashiqa and Bahazane, where Arabic is spoken. Kurmanjî is the language of almost all the orally transmitted religious traditions of the Yazidis. Thus, religious origins are somewhat complex.
The religion of the Yazidis is a highly syncretic one: Sufi influence and imagery can be seen in their religious vocabulary, especially in the terminology of their esoteric literature, but much of the mythology is non-Islamic. Their cosmogonies apparently have many points in common with those of ancient Persian religions. Early writers attempted to describe Yazidi origins, broadly speaking, in terms of Islam, or Persian, or sometimes even pagan religions; however, publications since the 1990s have shown such an approach to be overly simplistic.[1]
The origin of the Yazidi religion is now usually seen by scholars as a complex process of syncretism, whereby the belief system and practices of a local faith had a profound influence on the religiosity of adherents of the ?Adawiyya Sufi order living in the Kurdish mountains, and caused it to deviate from Islamic norms relatively soon after the death of its founder, Shaykh ?Ad? ibn Musafir (Kurdish ?êx Adî), who is said to be of Umayyad descent. He settled in the valley of Lali? (some thirty-six miles north-east of Mosul) in the early 12th century. ?êx Adî himself, a figure of undoubted orthodoxy, enjoyed widespread influence. He died in 1162, and his tomb at Lali? is a focal point of Yazidi pilgrimage.
During the fourteenth century, important Kurdish tribes whose sphere of influence stretched well into what is now Turkey (including, for a period, the rulers of the principality of Jazira) are cited in historical sources as Yazidi.
According to Mo?ammed A?-?ahrastani, “The Yezidis are the followers of Yezîd bn Unaisa, who [said that he] kept friendship with the first Muhakkama before the Azari?a”[18] “It is clear, then, that A?-?ahrastani finds the religious origin of this interesting people in the person of Yezîd bn Unaisa. ... We are to understand, therefore, that to the knowledge of the writer, bn Unaisa is the founder of the Yezidi sect, which took its name from him.”[19] “Now, the first Muhakkamah is an appellative applied to the Muslim schismatics called Al-?awarij ... . ... According to this it might be inferred that the Yezidis were originally a ?arijite sub-sect.”[20] “Yezid moreover, is said to have been in sympathy with Al-Aba?iyah, a sect founded by ‘Abd-Allah Ibn Iba?.”;[20] and the Iba?i sect is another ?arijite sub-sect.

Religious beliefs

In the Yazidi belief system, God created the world and it is now in the care of a Heptad of seven Holy Beings, often known as Angels or heft sirr (the Seven Mysteries). Preeminent among these is Tawûsê Melek (frequently known as "Melek Taus" in English publications), the Peacock Angel. According to the Encyclopedia of the Orient,
The reason for the Yazidis reputation of being devil worshipers is connected to the other name of Melek Taus, Shaytan, the same name the Koran has for Satan.[21]
Furthermore, the Yazidi story regarding Tawûsê Melek's rise to favor with God is almost identical to the story of the jinn Iblis in Islam, except that Yazidis revere Tawûsê Melek for refusing to submit to Adam, while Muslims believe that Iblis' refusal to submit caused him to fall out of Grace with God, and to later become Satan himself.[22]
Tawûsê Melek is often identified by Muslims and Christians with Shaitan (Satan). Yazidis, however, believe Tawûsê Melek is not a source of evil or wickedness. They consider him to be the leader of the archangels, not a fallen angel. They are forbidden from speaking the name Shaitan. They also hold that the source of evil is in the heart and spirit of humans themselves, not in Tawûsê Melek. The active forces in their religion are Tawûsê Melek and Sheik Adî.
The Kitêba Cilwe "Book of Illumination", which claims to be the words of Tawûsê Melek, and which presumably represents Yazidi belief, states that he allocates responsibilities, blessings and misfortunes as he sees fit and that it is not for the race of Adam to question him. Sheikh Adî believed that the spirit of Tawûsê Melek was the same as his own, perhaps as a reincarnation. He is reported to have said:
I was present when Adam was living in Paradise, and also when Nemrud threw Abraham in fire. I was present when God said to me: 'You are the ruler and Lord on the Earth'. God, the compassionate, gave me seven earths and throne of the heaven.
Yazidi accounts of creation differ from that of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. They believe that God first created Tawûsê Melek from his own illumination (Ronahî) and the other six archangels were created later. God ordered Tawûsê Melek not to bow to other beings. Then God created the other archangels and ordered them to bring him dust (Ax) from the Earth (Erd) and build the body of Adam. Then God gave life to Adam from his own breath and instructed all archangels to bow to Adam. The archangels obeyed except for Tawûsê Melek. In answer to God, Tawûsê Melek replied, "How can I submit to another being! I am from your illumination while Adam is made of dust." Then God praised him and made him the leader of all angels and his deputy on the Earth. (This likely furthers what some see as a connection to the Islamic Shaytan, as according to the Quran he too refused to bow to Adam at God's command, though in this case it is seen as being a sign of Shaytan's sinful pride.) Hence the Yazidis believe that Tawûsê Melek is the representative of God on the face of the Earth, and comes down to the Earth on the first Wednesday of Nisan (April). Yazidis hold that God created Tawûsê Melek on this day, and celebrate it as New Year's Day. Yazidis argue that the order to bow to Adam was only a test for Tawûsê Melek, since if God commands anything then it must happen. (Bibe, dibe). In other words, God could have made him submit to Adam, but gave Tawûsê Melek the choice as a test. They believe that their respect and praise for Tawûsê Melek is a way to acknowledge his majestic and sublime nature. This idea is called "Knowledge of the Sublime" (Zanista Ciwaniyê). ?êx Adî has observed the story of Tawûsê Melek and believed in him.[23]
One of the key creation beliefs of Yazidism is that all Yazidis are descendants of Adam rather than Eve.[21] Yazidis believe that good and evil both exist in the mind and spirit of human beings. It depends on the humans, themselves, as to which they choose. In this process, their devotion to Tawûsê Melek is essential, since it was he who was given the same choice between good and evil by God, and chose the good.
Yazidis, who have much in common with the followers of Ahl-e Haqq (in western Iran), state that the world created by God was at first a pearl. It remained in this very small and enclosed state for some time (often a magic number such as forty or forty thousand years) before being remade in its current state. During this period the Heptad were called into existence, God made a covenant with them and entrusted the world to them. Besides Tawûsê Melek, members of the Heptad (the Seven), who were called into existence by God at the beginning of all things, include ?êx Adî, his companion ?êx Hasan and a group known as the Four Mysteries: Shamsadin, Fakhradin, Sajadin and Naserdin.
The Yazidi holy books are claimed to be the Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Revelation) and the Mishefa Re? (Black Book). However, scholars generally agree that the manuscripts of both books published in 1911 and 1913 were forgeries written by non-Yazidis in response to Western travelers’ and scholars’ interest in the Yazidi religion; the material in them is consistent with authentic Yezidi traditions, however.[17] True texts of those names may have existed, but remain obscure. The real core texts of the religion that exist today are the hymns known as qawls; they have also been orally transmitted during most of their history, but are now being collected with the assent of the community, effectively transforming Yazidism into a scriptural religion.[17] The qawls are full of cryptic allusions and usually need to be accompanied by ?ir?ks or ‘stories’ that explain their context.[17]
Two key and interrelated features of Yazidism are: a) a preoccupation with religious purity and b) a belief in metempsychosis. The first of these is expressed in the system of caste, the food laws, the traditional preferences for living in Yazidi communities, and the variety of taboos governing many aspects of life. The second is crucial; Yazidis traditionally believe that the Seven Holy Beings are periodically reincarnated in human form, called a koasasa.
A belief in the reincarnation of lesser Yazidi souls also exists. Like the Ahl-e Haqq, the Yazidis use the metaphor of a change of garment to describe the process, which they call kiras guhorîn in Kurdish (changing the garment). Alongside this, Yazidi mythology also includes descriptions of heaven and hell, with hell extinguished, and other traditions incorporating these ideas into a belief system that includes reincarnation.[21]

Organization

Yazidi society is hierarchical. The secular leader is a hereditary emir or prince, whereas a chief sheikh heads the religious hierarchy. The Yazidi are strictly endogamous; members of the three Yazidi castes, the murids, sheikhs and pirs, married only within their group.


Religious practices


Prayers

Yazidis have five daily prayers:[24]
Nivêja berîspêdê (the Dawn Prayer), Nivêja rojhilatinê (the Sunrise Prayer), Nivêja nîvro (the Noon Prayer), Nivêja êvarî (the Afternoon Prayer), Nivêja rojavabûnê (the Sunset Prayer). However, most Yezidis observe only two of these, the sunrise and sunset prayers.
Worshipers should turn their face toward the sun, and for the noon prayer, they should face toward Lali?. Such prayer should be accompanied by certain gestures, including kissing the rounded neck (gerîvan) of the sacred shirt (kiras). The daily prayer services must not be performed in the presence of outsiders, and are always performed in the direction of the sun. Wednesday is the holy day but Saturday is the day of rest.[24][25] There is also a three-day fast in December.[21][24]

Festivals

The Yazidi New Year falls in Spring (somewhat later than the Equinox). There is some lamentation by women in the cemeteries, to the accompaniment of the music of the Qewals, but the festival is generally characterized by joyous events: the music of dehol (drum) and zorna (shawm), communal dancing and meals, the decorating of eggs.
Similarly, the village Tawaf, a festival held in the spring in honor of the patron of the local shrine, has secular music, dance and meals in addition to the performance of sacred music.
Another important festival is the Tawûsgeran (circulation of the peacock) where Qewals and other religious dignitaries visit Yazidi villages, bringing the senjaq, sacred images of a peacock made from brass symbolising Tawûsê Melek. These are venerated, taxes are collected from the pious, sermons are preached and holy water distributed.
The greatest festival of the year for ordinary Yazidis is the Cejna Cemaiya "Feast of the Assembly" at Lalish, a seven-day occasion. A focus of widespread pilgrimage, this is an important time for social contact and affirmation of identity. The religious center of the event is the belief in an annual gathering of the Heptad in the holy place at this time. Rituals practiced include the sacrifice of a bull at the shrine of ?êx Shams and the practice of sema.

Pilgrimage

The most important ritual is the annual seven-day pilgrimage to the tomb of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir (?êx Adî) in Lalish, north of Mosul, Iraq.[24][26] A sacred microcosm of the world, as it were, it contains not only many shrines dedicated to the koasasa, but a number of other landmarks corresponding to other sites or symbols of significance in other faiths, including Pirra selat "Serat Bridge" and a mountain called Mt. Arafat. The two sacred springs are called Zamzam and Kaniya Sipî "The White Spring".
If possible, Yazidis make at least one pilgrimage to Lali? during their lifetime, and those living in the region try to attend at least once a year for the autumn Feast of the Assembly which is celebrated from 23 Ayl?l (September) to 1 Tashr?n (October). During the celebration, Yazidi bathe in the river, wash figures of Tawûsê Melek and light hundreds of lamps in the tombs of ?êx Adî and other saints. They also sacrifice an ox, which is one reason they have been connected to Mithraism, in addition to the presence of the dog and serpent in their iconography. The sacrifice of the ox is meant to declare the arrival of fall and to ask for precipitation during winter in order to bring back life to the Earth in the next Spring. Moreover, in astrology, the ox is the symbol of Tashr?n.

Purity and taboos

The Yazidis' concern with religious purity, and their reluctance to mix elements perceived to be incompatible, is shown not only in their caste system, but also in various taboos affecting everyday life. Some of these, such as those on exogamy or on insulting or offending men of religion, are widely respected. Others are often ignored when men of religion are not present. Others still are less widely known and may be localized.
The purity of the four elements Earth, Air, Fire and Water is protected by a number of taboos, e.g. against spitting on earth, water or fire. Some discourage spitting or pouring hot water on the ground because they believe that spirits or souls that may be present would be harmed or offended by such actions if they happen to be hit by the discarded liquid. These may also reflect ancient Iranian preoccupations, as apparently do taboos concerning bodily waste, hair, and menstrual blood.
Too much contact with non-Yazidis is also considered polluting. In the past, Yazidis avoided military service which would have led them to live among Muslims, and were forbidden to share such items as cups or razors with outsiders. A resemblance to the external ear may lie behind the taboo against eating head lettuce, whose name koas resembles Kurdish pronunciations of koasasa. Additionally, lettuce grown near Mosul is thought by some Yazidi to be fertilized with human waste, which may contribute to the idea that it is unsuitable for consumption. However, in a BBC interview in April 2010, a senior Yazidi authority stated that ordinary Yazidis may eat what they want, but holy men refrain from certain vegetables (including cabbage) because "they cause gases".[27]
Yazidis refrain from wearing the color blue (or possibly green as stated in Soldier Poet and Rebel by Miles Hudson). The origins of this prohibition are unknown, but may either be because blue represents Noah's flood, or it was possibly the color worn by a conquering king sometime in the past. Alternatively, the prohibition may arise from their veneration of the Peacock Angel and an unwillingness to usurp His color.

Customs

Children are baptized at birth and circumcision is common but not required. Dead are buried in conical tombs immediately after death and buried with hands crossed.
Yazidi are dominantly monogamous but chiefs may be polygamous, having more than one wife. Yazidi are exclusively endogamous; clans do not intermarry even with other Kurds and accept no converts. They claim they are descended only from Adam and not from Eve.
A severe punishment is expulsion, which is also effectively excommunication because the soul of the exiled is forfeit.
In 2007, an incidence of honour killing—the stoning of Du'a Khalil Aswad—made world headlines.[28]

The belief

The tale of the Yazidis' origin found in the Black Book gives them a distinctive ancestry and expresses their feeling of difference from other races. Before the roles of the sexes were determined, Adam and Eve quarreled about which of them provided the creative element in the begetting of children. Each stored their seed in a jar which was then sealed. When Eve's was opened it was full of insects and other unpleasant creatures, but inside Adam's jar was a beautiful boychild. This lovely child, known as son of Jar grew up to marry a houri and became the ancestor of the Yazidis. Therefore, the Yazidi are regarded as descending from Adam alone, while other humans are descendants of both Adam and Eve.[29]

In other cultures


Muslim antipathy

As a demiurge figure, Tawûsê Melek is often identified by orthodox Muslims as a Shaitan (Satan), a Muslim term denoting a devil or demon who deceives true believers. The Islamic tradition regarding the fall of "Shaitan" from Grace is in fact very similar to the Yazidi story of Malek Taus – that is, the Jinn who refused to submit to Adam is celebrated as Tawûsê Melek by Yazidis, but the Islamic version of the same story curses the same Jinn who refused to submit as becoming Satan.[22] Thus, the Yazidi have been accused of devil worship. Because of this and due to their pre-Islamic beliefs, they have been oppressed by their Muslim neighbors. Treatment of Yazidis was exceptionally harsh during the rule of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and the first half of 19th century and their numbers dwindled under Ottoman rule both in Syria and Iraq. Massacres at the hand of Ottoman Turks and Muslim Kurdish princes almost wiped out their community in the 19th century.[30][31] Several punitive expeditions were organized against the Yazidis by the Turkish governors (W?li) of Diyarbakir, Mosul and Baghdad. These operations were legitimized by fat?wa from Islamic clerics.[32] The objective of these persecutions was the forced conversion of Yazidis to the Sunni Hanafi Islam of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.[33]

Recent controversies

In 2007, a group of around 200 Yazidis beat and stoned to death a 17-year-old Yazidi girl named Du’a Khalil Aswad for falling in love with a Muslim boy. On April 23, 2007 masked gunmen abducted and shot 23 Yazidis near Mosul; this was speculated to be a reprisal attack for Aswad's death.
On August 14, 2007, some 500 Yazidis were killed in a coordinated series of bombings that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq War began.
On August 13, 2009, at least 20 people were killed and 30 wounded in a double suicide bombing in northern Iraq, an Iraqi Interior Ministry official said. Two suicide bombers with explosive vests carried out the attack at a cafe in Sinjar, a town west of Mosul. In Sinjar, many townspeople are members of the Yazidi minority.[34]

In Europe

Feleknas Uca, a Kurdish Member of the European Parliament for Germany's Party of Democratic Socialism, was the world's only Yazidi parliamentarian until the Iraqi legislature was elected in 2005. European Yazidis have contributed to the academic community, such as Khalil Rashow in Germany and Jalile Jalil in Austria.
In May 2012, five members of a Yazidi family living in Detmold, Germany, were convicted for having murdered their sister in a so-called "honor killing" and sentenced to prison terms ranging from five and a half year to life in prison. The victim was 18 year old Arzu ?zmen (also spelled Ozmen outside Germany), who fell in love with a German journeymen baker and ran away from her family, violating the exogamy taboo. In November 2011, her siblings abducted her and brother Osman killed her with two shots in the head.[35]

In Western theological references

As the Yazidi hold religious beliefs that are mostly unfamiliar to outsiders, many non-Yazidi people have written about them and ascribed facts to their beliefs that have dubious historical validity. For example, horror writer H. P. Lovecraft made a reference to the Yezidi as the "last survivors of the Persian devil-worshippers" in his short story The Horror at Red Hook.[36]
The Yazidis, perhaps because of their secrecy, also have a place in modern occultism. G. I. Gurdjieff wrote about his encounters with the Yazidis several times in his book Meetings with Remarkable Men, mentioning that they are considered to be "devil worshippers" by other ethnicities in the region.[citation needed]
The Theosophical Society, in its electronic version of the Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary states:
Yezidis (Arabic) [possibly from Persian yazdan god; or the 2nd Umayyad Caliph, Yazid (r. 680 - 683); or Persian city Yezd] A sect dwelling principally in Kurdistan, Armenia, and the Caucasus, who call themselves Dasni. Their religious beliefs take on the characteristics of their surrounding peoples, inasmuch as, openly or publicly, they regard Mohammed as a prophet, and Jesus Christ as an angel in human form. Points of resemblance are found with ancient Zoroastrian and Assyrian religion. The principal feature of their worship, however, is Satan under the name of Muluk-Taus. However, it is not the Christian Satan, nor the devil in any form; their Muluk-Taus is the hundred- or thousand-eyed cosmic wisdom, pictured as a bird (the peacock).[37]

Idries Shah, writing under the pen-name Arkon Daraul, in the 1961 book Secret Societies Yesterday and Today, describes discovering a Yazidi-influenced secret society in the London suburbs called the "Order of the Peacock Angel." Idries Shah claimed that Tawûsê Melek could be understood, from the Sufi viewpoint, as an allegory of the higher powers in humanity.[38]

In Western literature

In H.P. Lovecraft's story "The Horror at Red Hook", some of the murderous foreigners are identified as belonging to "the Yezidi clan of devil-worshippers". It should be noted that the story is highly concerned with racism, and characterizations like that are by no means the worst in the story.
In her memoir of her service with an intelligence unit of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division in Iraq during 2003 and 2004, Kayla Williams (2005) records being stationed in northern Iraq near the Syrian border in an area inhabited by "Yezidis". The Yezidis were Kurdish-speaking, but did not consider themselves Kurds, and expressed to Williams a fondness for America and Israel. She was able to learn only a little about the nature of their religion: she thought it very ancient, and concerned with angels. She describes a mountain-top Yezidi shrine as "a small rock building with objects dangling from the ceiling", and alcoves for the placement of offerings. She reports that local Muslims considered the Yezidis to be devil worshippers.[citation needed]
In an October 2006 article in The New Republic, Lawrence F. Kaplan echoes Williams's sentiments about the enthusiasm of the Yazidis for the American occupation of Iraq, in part because the Americans protect them from oppression by militant Muslims and the nearby Kurds. Kaplan notes that the peace and calm of Sinjar is virtually unique in Iraq: "Parents and children line the streets when U.S. patrols pass by, while Yazidi clerics pray for the welfare of U.S. forces."[39]
A fictional Yazidi character of note is the super-powered police officer King Peacock of the Top 10 series (and related comics).[40] He is portrayed as a kind, peaceful character with a broad knowledge of religion and mythology. He is depicted as conservative, ethical, and highly principled in family life. An incredibly powerful martial artist, he is able to destroy matter, a power that he claims is derived from communicating with Malek Ta’us.
Tony Lagouranis comments on a Yazidi prisoner in his book Fear Up Harsh: An Army Interrogator's Dark Journey through Iraq:
There's a lot of mystery surrounding the Yazidi, and a lot of contradictory information. But I was drawn to this aspect of their beliefs: Yazidi don't have a Satan. Malak Ta'us, an archangel, God's favorite, was not thrown out of heaven the way Satan was. Instead, he descended, saw the suffering and pain of the world, and cried. His tears, thousands of years' worth, fell on the fires of hell, extinguishing them. If there is evil in the world, it does not come from a fallen angel or from the fires of hell. The evil in this world is man-made. Nevertheless, humans can, like Malak Ta'us, live in this world but still be good


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Melek_taus.png


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Yezidi_Man-2.png
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Yezidi_Man.png
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Yezidi_Woman-2.png
http://www.mideastimage.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Yezidis-Two-boys.jpg

http://www.araratnews.net/pictures/1340661307.jpg
http://farm7.staticflickr.com/6111/6291291898_1c2636eec8_o.jpg
http://preemptivelove.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/DSC_7784.jpg
http://rt.com/s/obj/staticpages/no-place-for-tourists-iraqis/09.jpg
http://rt.com/s/obj/staticpages/no-place-for-tourists-iraqis/02.jpg
http://rt.com/s/obj/staticpages/no-place-for-tourists-iraqis/14.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_8528.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_7106.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_1574.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_5628.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_5533.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_7066.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_2793.jpg
http://blog.swiatoslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IMG_5674.jpg
http://www.brianbacon.net/iraqslideshow/images/yezidis%20boys.jpg
http://rt.com/s/obj/staticpages/no-place-for-tourists-iraqis/23.jpg
http://varlamov.me/img/iraqezidi/25.jpg
http://rt.com/s/obj/staticpages/no-place-for-tourists-iraqis/28.jpg
http://www.azhdahak.com/img/Ethnos/Yazidi_05.jpg
http://www.elenadiego.com/images/20090525145803_0:yazidi-grounds2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/Yezidi_woman_in_a_village_near_the_Sinjar_Mountain _Range.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Feleknas_Uca_03.jpg
http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lmiqunnUhR1qjouroo1_500.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-qdG4nrNn3Us/UA6eeoJIYuI/AAAAAAAABPw/B4N5j4Cb1e8/s1600/389076_442091732478421_1744214718_n.jpg
http://i29.tinypic.com/x6bz91.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8144/7574260846_76fa1da6e4_k.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8154/7567744518_b151b88af2_k.jpg
http://static1.demotix.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/a_scale_large/500-5/photos/1295047779-lalish-and-the-iraqi-yezidis_545405.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8022/7486288308_808d0c9f67_k.jpg
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7116/7522199584_6b7e64d708_k.jpg
http://static0.demotix.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/a_scale_large/500-4/photos/1295047778-lalish-and-the-iraqi-yezidis_545404.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8028/7538517988_de9a06752d_k.jpg
http://static3.demotix.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/a_scale_large/500-1/photos/1295047769-lalish-and-the-iraqi-yezidis_545401.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8010/7561675066_1ec82864e5_k.jpg
http://osaarchivum.org/files/mmcol/4/S/12-01.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8009/7298572950_d0649e170a_k.jpg
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7235/7303848204_5a21d3845f_k.jpg
http://static2.demotix.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/a_scale_large/500-0/photos/1295047764-lalish-and-the-iraqi-yezidis_545410.jpg
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7244/7175750549_2ba003da05_k.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4137/4850043773_bdea818e2b_b.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-E5D8QGDL5DE/TnfrP-0QpUI/AAAAAAAABZQ/NE99bFNGFDM/s1600/IRQ_5.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4082/4853410366_205c26c0da_b.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4136/4852799393_35be98c93d_b.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-_Al_anYwJVU/Tnfr3_tcwbI/AAAAAAAABZo/r8N9S4lYzj0/s1600/IRQ_2.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4138/4852804019_f5d654a366_b.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4121/4853471254_0120cecfc3_b.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-DGb8OdIAYpQ/TnfrrXCvTPI/AAAAAAAABZg/_uLlvJQhgUg/s1600/IRQ_3.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4136/4853492516_068c62a18b_b.jpg
http://www.kurdistan-photos.com/cache/lalesh/enfants-yezidis_604.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4093/4852882799_fd52f0f148_b.jpg
http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3051/2975112206_64d05c1990_o.jpg
http://osaarchivum.org/files/mmcol/4/S/06-03.jpg
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7028/6626706997_eb66b1d20b_o.jpg
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7084/7227682690_d4e466ff93_k.jpg
http://osaarchivum.org/files/mmcol/4/S/20-03.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4138/4853496806_ab5ef4fd89_b.jpg
http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/specials/images/167_yezidis/3163156_...yez02.jpg
http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4098/4852756303_83ef031d36_b.jpg
http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2732/4075640141_9448e6d5b0_b.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_R0UeEsacFx0/RsgYSr1MDEI/AAAAAAAAAN0/LD92tnG8cno/s1600/yezidi+women.JPG
http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1342/535225615_9cb5ff1f50_b.jpg
http://www.zindamagazine.com/html/archives/2002/5.13.02/num/5christine-bird.jpg
http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1283/675465699_0d7359bbcf_b.jpg


Yazidi Videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdNoWVVAE5A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v--a0s2MbTM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRGXHoSSrCA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lO_vf5Hv3QM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yehp9u19xI8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6noBWRG-3k

ashrf1979
2012-12-11, 22:13
Iraqi Sub-groups

Iraqi Persians



Persians

There are very few Persians in Iraq, though they once constituted a sizeable number. For much of the period between the late 6th century BCE and mid 7th century AD, parts or all of Iraq were ruled by various Persian Empires. Many were expelled since the 1960s and even more so during the Iran–Iraq War. Many Iraqi Persians returned to Iraq after Iraq war in 2003. Those that remained during the Saddam Hussein era were those that were opposed to the Islamic Revolution in Iran, or members of religious minorities such as Zoroastrians, Christians or Baha'i. Those remaining have come under pressure from Shia Arab extremists who see them as collaborators with the Baathists. The Persian language belongs to the Indo-European language family.

persian speakers in iraq
Population 227,000 in Iraq (1993).
Alternate names Persian
Comments Muslim.

http://www.iraq-businessnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Iraq-Iran-Flag.gif?d9c344

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Mani.jpg
Mani (c. 216–276 AD) was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was once widespread but is now extinct. Mani was born in or near Seleucia-Ctesiphon in Parthian Babylonia (Iraq)

http://www.al-raeed.net/news/images_news/thumbnails/untitled_270_350x0.JPG
Abd Al-Rahman Al-Gillani, 1st Prime Minister of Iraq

http://www.alqabas.com.kw/sites/default/files/article/original/2012/02/16/33572.gif
http://www.bills-bunker.privat.t-online.de/media/DIR_69301/Raschid$20Ali$20mit$20Der$20F$C3$BChrer$2019.07.42 .JPG
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, 13th, 21st and 23rd Prime Minister of Iraq

http://iraqiartist.com/iraqiartist/Archive/Faisel_Aleiby/Faisel25.jpg
Jamil Sidqi al-Zahawi (1863–1936) prominent Iraqi poet and philosopher.

http://www.ankawa4all.com/up/images/77mohamd_algawahire.jpg
http://i50.tinypic.com/erk6l3.jpg
Muhammad Mahdi Al-Jawahiri , Iraqi poet

http://cdn1.albayan.ae/polopoly_fs/1.1438451.1305397499!/image/755533994.jpg
Hussain al-Shahristani , current Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister for Energy.

http://aljadidah.com/wp-content/uploads/files-iot-org/jawahiri_in_50th_506946270.jpg
http://www.babil-nl.org/amalzah.JPG
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/_N4Yzj_0Eg_A/TWgdW4pEuWI/AAAAAAAAFRg/47vMZcKPmJs/3-www.ward2u.com-alzhawy.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-G2Gd-SkB9Tk/T-WORB5hJJI/AAAAAAAADPo/0XwKGNM_gXQ/s1600/%D8%A7%D8%A7%D8%A7%D8%A7.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_9OFCuWQu74c/SxLuCHXYF4I/AAAAAAAAATo/2ZkAkeCZCdw/s1600/agha.jpg
http://iraq4all.dk/archive/images/20/3/kal9eee13.jpg
http://www.madeena.net/friday/imam/19-2-2010/DSC_0005.jpg
http://www.madeena.net/friday/shaikh%20jawad/SH_Jawad%20Alkhaesi_9.JPG
http://www.aljalali.net/images/aljalali4.JPG
http://up3.up-images.com/up//uploads3/images/images-17d7316e16.jpg
http://www.almodarresi.com/news/images/002.jpg
http://www.ryhana.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/%D8%AE%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A92.jpg
http://ridhadent.arabblogs.com/%D8%AF.%D8%B1%D8%B6%D8%A7%20%D9%86%D8%B9%D9%8A%D9% 85%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%B2%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%86%D9 %8A.JPG
http://www.ahlulbaitonline.com/karbala/New/html/id/images/founderi.jpg
http://www.ahlulbaitonline.com/karbala/images/news/2006-2007/3-4/shohada/mohmmad.jpg
http://www.daraloloum.com/admin/authors/images/2012041382316778.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ar/b/bb/Jawdat.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/309074_207419905984118_1697990_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/578151_371197409605024_1313700794_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/182185_388142091245085_1882022209_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/196907_153312604728036_3380930_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/298398_218913134842638_743249736_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/254725_106142326143314_6862340_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/14690_10151275477123433_69762530_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/p206x206/301818_235582959890184_2017438068_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/282780_141821409288559_1781497490_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/p206x206/564906_100229163474360_1399195938_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/547528_317753638304157_1520991981_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/644358_108820069271096_2048783095_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/66001_4649838319003_897114005_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/521663_161944420618641_58245022_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/29359_297814397001938_938832_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/15101_295329617250416_385350540_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/533330_204341273009401_215340286_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/389502_302768586400208_573866681_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/312903_101814149929696_1612025718_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/316035_222243897847559_514277748_n.jpg
http://www.aldaronline.com/dar/UploadAlDar/Article%20Pictures/2009%5C1%5C9%5C183711647-p6-04.jpg
http://www.iraqni.com/up/uploads/13533460321.jpg
http://www.iraaqna.com/upload/uploads/13532542152.jpg
http://www.mediafire.com/imgbnc.php/411fdb8764856e96042a86351fdfd4b01def5f556656314fba 6d59cccd76c59f5g.jpg
http://img201.imageshack.us/img201/4104/22506579jd0.jpg
http://www.chatal3nabi.com/vb/imgcache/2/19818chatal3nabi.jpg
http://gdb.rferl.org/412A949F-3724-4D49-8014-9ABE582F51E4_mw1024_s.jpg
http://www.shafaqna.com/arabic/media/k2/items/cache/8e7d507d4623ae30b8360c5039e6a1d0_XL.jpg

ashrf1979
2012-12-12, 19:40
more Iraqi Persians pics

http://farm9.static.flickr.com/8340/8209152790_597275e06e.jpg
Jim Al-Khalili (Jameel Sadik Al-Khalili), Iraqi-born British theoretical physicist, author and broadcaster , he is a son of Iraqi persian father and English mother.

http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/533474_250727171708353_419490225_n.jpg
Feisal al-Istrabadi, Deputy Permanent Representative of Iraq.

http://www.shaaubmagazine.com/upload/images/1351614948.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/196175_10150117849492530_5987984_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/183233_10150102984642530_5486852_n.jpg
http://www.alhikmeh.net/userfiles/image/alnajaf%20magazine/15.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/188720_195326777168015_8341154_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/196534_195326300501396_5183174_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/484582_3888079155294_1488766164_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/430256_4588427713240_207482796_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/73035_4375879309993_1146058012_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/282953_167346373396249_1320044361_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/431223_105787662884893_1101467124_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/168003_103357699739789_1508911_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/550141_10151183887392530_681861176_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/205214_10151276605469589_97466878_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/315765_4507518799459_344338103_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/432195_545765018786886_1196814216_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/318384_102426796540679_1818529826_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/487002_476446572370748_50193764_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/402929_405326702864477_149533677_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/189141_4418261689526_601149823_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/307092_10150325198275009_1947804395_n.jpg

ashrf1979
2012-12-14, 23:24
Iraqi Sub-groups

Iraqi kurds



The Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group, descendants of Medes, whose origins are in the Middle East.[1] They are the largest ethnic group in the world that do not have a state of their own.[2] The region of Kurdistan, the original geographic region of the Kurdish people and the home to the majority of Kurds today, covers contemporary Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. This geo-cultural region means "Land of the Kurds". Iraqi Kurdistan is an autonomous region in northern Iraq, covering 40,643 square kilometres (15,692 sq mi) and has a population of approximately 4 million people. Kurdish populations occupy the territory in and around the Zagros mountains. These arid unwelcoming mountains have been a geographic buffer to cultural and political dominance from neighboring empires.[3] Persians, Arabs, and Ottomans were kept away, and a space was carved out to develop Kurdish culture, language, and identity.[4]
The Kurdish people within Iraq have grappled with various political statuses over their history. Once assumed to receive full independence via the Treaty of Sevres, Iraqi Kurds have experienced betrayal, oppression, and genocide throughout recent history.[5] After the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003, Iraqi Kurds, now governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), face a crossroads in the political trajectory of Iraqi Kurdistan.[6] Factors that play into their future include Kurdish diversity and factions, Kurdish relationships with the United States, Iraq's central government, and neighboring countries, previous political agreements, disputed territories, and Kurdish ethnonationalism.

Background

Pre-1991

The Kurds were have thought to have settled as many as 4,000 years ago.[7] Arabs applied the name "Kurds" to the people of the mountains after they had conquered and Islamicized the region.[8] In the 1500s most Kurds fell under Ottoman Rule. Iraqi Kurds developed as a subgroup of the Kurdish peoples when Great Britain created the state of Iraq out of the Sykes-Picot Agreement of World War I.[9] The Kurdish people were expecting to soon gain independence from what they were promised in the Treaty of Sevres in 1920, but this was quickly overturned in 1923, when the Treaty of Lausanne established the Republic of Turkey over Kurdistan's borders.[10]
The Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) was founded in 1946 by Mulla Mustafa Barzani and pushed for Kurdish autonomy under the Iraqi government, head at the time by Ibrahim Ahmed and Jalal Talabani.[11] In 1975, another political party emerged in Iraqi Kurdistan, led by Talabani- the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK).[12] Since the PUK was established, it lacked cooperation and engaged in violent conflict with the KDP over differing philosophies, demographics, and goals.[13]

1991–present

After the Gulf War and unsuccessful Kurdish uprising in 1991, Kurds fled to back the mountains to seek refugee from the Hussein regime (gunter 14).[14] The United State set up established a safe-haven and no fly zone initiative in Northern Iraq for the Kurds in order for them to develop an asylum away from the Hussein regime (14).[15] United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 in 1991 condemned and forbid "the repression of the Iraqi civilian population... in Kurdish populated areas" (14).[16] After many bloody encounters, an uneasy balance of power was reached between the Iraqi forces and Kurdish troops, ultimately allowing Iraqi Kurdistan to function independently.[17] The region continued to be ruled by the KDP and PUK and began to establish a stable economy and national identity. Iraqi Kurdistan built a socioeconomic infrastructure from scratch, completely independent from the centralized framework for the Baath regime.[18] Though civil war broke out in the north between Barzani's Kurdistan Democratic Party and Talabani's Patrioutic Union of Kurdistan from 1994 to 1998, Kurds were still able to maintain a democratic and prosperous foundation for their region.[19]
When the US invaded to oust the Hussein regime in 2003, the northern Kurdish border with Iraqi central state was moved considerably southward.[20] This gave Kurds more access to water and oil resources, therefore increasing priorities within the region to establish steady relations with the Kurds.[21] This new access also encouraged more investment within the region, softening political tensions and polarization.[22]

Culture and diversity

Religion

Before the spread of Abrahamic religions, many Kurds were followers of Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, or local pagan beliefs. Kurds were assimilating these religious practices into their cultural domain as early as 800 BCE. Arab conquests, however, began in the seventh century AD, eventually overpowering Kurdish resistance.[23] Over time, Sunni Islam became the dominant religion of the Kurdish people, following the Shafi school. There is a minority Shia population, the Fayli Kurds, who live in central and south eastern Iraq.[24] Though Islam is thought to be a religion of governance as well as spirituality, Kurds made sure to keep spiritual identity separate from national identity.[25] Today, many Muslim Kurds do not consider themselves particularly religious when it comes to adhering to the call to prayer five times a day, but secondary practices of Islam have a stronghold in Kurdish culture.[26] Following Islamic food restrictions, refraining for alcohol consumption, circumcising male newborns, and wearing a veil are all very popular customs to follow.[27]
A minority of Kurds, primarily in the Nineveh Province of Iraq, follow the Yazidism.[28] Yazidism combines complex Kurdish cultural beliefs with Zoroastrianism and Islamic Sufi doctrine.[29] It applies traditions of the Abrahamic religions such as the story of Adam and Eve, the importance of pilgrimage, and daily prayer ritual, to more mystical elements, focusing on the importance of ancestry and the four elements on the Earth.[30] The religion is practiced in the Kurdish dialect of northern Iraqi Kurdistan, Kirmaji.[31] Most Yazidi traditions are transmitted orally rather than through written text, making it difficult to source many Yazidi origins.[32]

Language

Language has been foundational to the building of a national identity in Iraqi Kurdistan, for the vast majority of Kurdish peoples speak Kurdish. Modern scholars believe that Kurdish belongs to the Iranian language group and is rooted in the Indo-European family of languages.[33] Sorani and Kirmanji are the only two Kurdish dialects, so internal language factions are not common.[34] Kirmanji was the favored dialect up until the World Wars, but by the 1960s Sorani became the dominant dialect among Iranian and Iraqi Kurds.[35] A problem among Kurdish people is that they do not have a unified script for their language. Iranian and Iraqi Kurds have modified the Perso-Arabic alphabet, and Turkish Kurds use a Latinized alphabet.[36] This creates unity within modern political borders but strains relations and effective communications transnationally. This lack of unity in scripture parallels Kurdish cultural history, for isolated Kurdish mountain tribes were often nomadic and therefore had a very limited written tradition.[37]
Today, the vast majority of Kurds are bilingual, speaking both Kurdish and the language of their states' administrative language. After political changes in Iraq in the 1990s, however, Kurdish was increasingly used in the regional administration and education system, given their greater autonomy.[38]

Political parties

A major weakness of Kurdish national cohesiveness has been the strength of tribal and regional factions, often resulting in strong breaks between political parties.[39] The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), founded by Mas'ud Barzani, leans toward conservative nationalism and has a strong presesce in the north.[40] Given their geographic location, they have historically relied on Turkey for international leverage. Jalal Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) has aligned itself with Marxist ideals during their liberation struggle and has a stonghold in the southern Iraqi Kurdistan.[41] They have tended to seek support from Iran and Syria. Throughout the 1990s a continuous power struggle ensued over political represesntation in parliament and oil revenues, resulting in an armed conflict in 1994.[42] Fighting again broke out in 1996, when the KDP looked for assistance from the central Iraqi government and the PUK sought out support for the United States. This clash divided the two rival zones into "Barzanistan" and "Talabanistan", establishing two adminitrations, cabinets, parliaments, and state flags.[43] Political party inflighting ruined a chance for the Kurdish peoples to unify and establish an autonomous state, completely separate from the Iraqi central government.[44] Within a factionalized atmosphere, other groups established a presence, such as the Turkey-based Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), radical Islamist groups, and other Turkish political groups. The PPK has been a major radical party seeking state autonomy and cultural, lingustic, and ethnic rights in Turkey.[45]
Kurdish leaders in Iraq have pushed for the prosperity of divided local governments rather than an independent state. this is because leadership is derived from tribal legitimacy, rather than political institutions. Talabani and Barzani, for instance, did not come from the most populous Kurish tribe, but rather from well-organized tribes.[46] This could be an inhibitor to democracy in the region since those trying to preserve the status quo hold power but do not represent the majority.[47]
From 1986 to the present, Turkey has held different alliances with the KDP and PUK parties of Iraqi Kurdistan. Turkey has protected and armed the KDP from the PKK and PUK. They have also attacked these political parites, but held relations with the KDP, partially for access to cheap iraqi oil.[48] The KDP holds the representation of tribes along the Turkish border, so favorable relations with them ensures trading for Iraqi goods.[49] Turkey then shifted its relationships to favor the PUK party. Since this party sat in the southern region of northern Iraq, it had stronger relations with the central Iraqi government.[50]

National identity

Throughout the 1990s, when Kurds were given regional control after the Gulf War and a no-fly zone was established, a stronger Kurdish identity began to form.[51] This has stemmed from increased international support and the pull-out of the Iraqi central government from Iraqi Kurdistan.[52] The Kurdish language crossed over into the public sphere, taught and spoken in schools, universities, the adminitation, and the media. There has also been an influx of national symbols, including the Kurdish flag, a Kurdish hymn, and public recognition of the Kurdish people.[53]
Development of Kurdish instrastructure has also become an integral aspect of their successful autonomy.[54] Previously dependent on the socioeconomic instrastucure of Baghdad, Kurds were able to efficiently build up their region, physically and politically, from scratch.[55] They built a fully functioning independent government autonomous from the Baath regime. They were able to manage local governments, establish free and active Kurdish political parties, and institutionalze a Kurdish parliament.[56] With these developments, the de facto Kurdish government gained recognition for the first time in the international sphere. They have quasi-official representation in Turkey, Iran, France, Britain, and the United States.[57]
Though Kurdish people had success forming a national identity, there have been factors that have stunted its growth. Under the state of Iraq, Kurds were subjugated to the nationalism process for all Iraqis, given the arbitrary state lines.[58] Kurds were starting to think of themselves as Iraqis, rather than focus on their collective development as Kurds. Nationalism was also hindered by divisions of tribes, languages, and geography that prevented the kurdish people from identifying completely as one unit.[59] No leader has yet to rise above this tribal status and the infighting hurts those fighting for Kurdish autonomy because they are divided by other factions or political boundaries.[60] For example, during the Iran-Iraq War, from 1980 to 1988, Turkey supported one Iraqi Kurdish group over another in order to play the Iraqi Kurds off against Turkey's own rebellious Kurds.[61]
Technology and telecommunications have helped Kurds to establish an ethno-national group, or self-defined national identity. Though this has developed a sense of pride and definition across political boundaries, it reveals a less promising scenario of Kurdish statehood.[62] It has disclosed disparities across countries about which Kurdish populations are gaining international support and relief. For Iraqi Kurds, this international network was established after the Gulf War of 1991. They had new forms of financial and political support as well as the resources and the legal geographic space to advance their nationalist agenda. This access allowed Kurish language publications, texts, educational programs, and cultural organizations to flourish—benefits that Kurds only were experiencing within the state of Iraq and in European academic institutions.[63] Transnational social and cultural networks for Kurds were still tied to characteristics of certain states.[64]

Autonomy

With a Kurdish diaspora, legitimizing a Kurdish state is even more unlikely. Many Turkish Kurds have migrated outside of their historic homeland in the southeast of Turkey, westward for more prosperous lives.[65] Turkish kurds have also come to an agreement with the Turkish government. Since the capture of their leader Ocalan in 1999, Kurds have limited their activism to fighting for cultural, social and educational rights within the state of Turkey.[66] Due to Turkey's pending EU application, Turkey has been moving to grant these rights. With this improved relationship, Turkish Kurds have accepted their place within the Turkish state. This is just one instance of how Kurds are focusing on improving their livelihood within already established state lines rather than pushing for a restructuring of political borders in the Middle East. Though Iraqi Kurds have the greatest opportunity to push for autonomy because of the Iraqi state's government restructuring, Kurds in neighboring countries do not have the leverage to push for the independence that would threaten pre existing states.[67]
Even at a cross-roads for the political future of Iraqi Kurds, Barzani and Talabani have both opted for establishing a federalist system within post-Saddam Iraq in order to insure the future wellbeing of the Kurdish people (Kurds in Iraq pdf).[68]

Iraqi Kurds after the US-led Invasion of 2003


The US invaded Iraq in order to take down Saddam Hussein's regime and dissolve any threats of weapons of mass destruction. After the fall of the regime, the United State government, with the help of ethnic leaders had to confront three issues: the nature of the future Iraqi government, how Shia representation was to be achieved in the government, and how Sunni re-enfranchisement was to be managed.[69] Different opinions emerged on whether the Iraqi government should be centralized or not, how the US should respond to civil conflict between the Arabs and Kurds, and how previous promises to the Kurdish and Iraqi people would be achieved in a future state.[70]
Kurdish people have played an important role in Iraqi state building since the United States invaded in 2003. Many Kurds seek to build an autonomous federal state in the post-Huessein era, however, a soltion for Kurdish problems in Iraq was not even mentioned in the 2004 UN resolution that established Iraq's interim government.[71]

Article 140

Article 140 of the 2005 Iraqi constitution vowed to place disputed areas under the jurisdiction of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) by the end of 2007.[72] The three phases that were going to aid this process were normalization, census, and referendum. The normalization phase was supposed to undo the 'Arabization' policies Kurds faced from 1968 to 2003 that were designed to alter the demographic in the city of Kirkuk and other disputed areas to favor the Arab population.[73] These policies included deportation, displacement, house demolition, and property confiscation.[74] Institutionalized boundaries as a result of past gerrymandering were also to be reversed. After this normalization process, a census would talk place and the populous would choose to be governed by either the KRG or Baghdad.[75]
Article 140 was not implemented by 2007. At this time the Presidency Council also recommended to reattach all previously detached districts of Kirkuk.[76] The Chemchamal and Kalar districts that were allocated to Suleimaniya governate in 1976 were to be retrnutned to Kirkuk.[77] Kifri, annexed to Diyala governate in 1976 was to be rettached, although it has been under Kurdish control since 1991. Lastly, the Tuz district would be rettached from the Salah ad-Din district. In 2008, the 140 Committee announced inaction on these initiatives.[78]
In 2008, the Iraqi, Kurdish and US governments came to the consensus that these types to reparations to the Kurdish people would not be able to be carried out without further negotiations and political agreements on boundaries.[79]

Disputed territories

Disputed internal boundaries have been a core concern for Arabs and Kurds, especially since US invasion and political restructuring in 2003. Kurds gained territory to the south of Iraqi Kurdistan after the US-led invasion in 2003 to regain what land they considered historically theirs.[80]
One of the major problems in trying to implement Article 140 was a discrepancy in the definition of 'disputed area'.[81] The article only refers to regions that would go through this normalization process as "Kirkuk and other disputed area".[82] In 2003 Kursdish negotiator Mahmud Othman suggested that Kurdish majority areas below the Green line be attached to the KRG immediately, and 'mixed areas' should be questioned on a case-by-case basis.[83] Sunnis felt as if Kurds should gain no additional land as a result of the US invasion.[84] Reattaching Kirkuk districts to reflect the 1975 boundaries posed many problems to Iraqis and brought along unintended consequences.[85]

Additional political problems

The US government faced many problems trying to implement Article 140. This is was not an ideal form of reparation for many Kurds. After being displaced, many formerly Kurdished regions lacked in development and agricultural upkeep.[86] Educational and economic opportunities were often greater for Kurds outside of these disputed territories, so many people did not want to be forced to return.[87]



http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/15crusad/saladin.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Preziosi_-_Abdullah_-_Kurd_from_Bitlis_1852.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/KurdishNoble.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Mercier._Kurde_%28Asie%29._Auguste_Wahlen._Moeurs% 2C_usages_et_costumes_de_tous_les_peuples_du_monde ._1843.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Kurdish_women_from_Yozgat%2CPreveza%2CChios.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Koerdische_vrouwen_van_den_oever_der_Kaspische_Zee .jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/%C5%9Eeyh_Mahmut_Berzenci.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Mustafa_Yamulki.jpg
http://firnasaero.com/uploads/posts/2011-11/1320509460_j.madfaee.jpg
http://img04.arabsh.com/uploads/image/2012/06/09/0e33464f67fb02.bmp
http://s.alriyadh.com/2007/03/21/img/213181.jpg
http://www.akhbaar.org/images/taha_mohi_al_deen_maarouf_1008009_2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Jalaldabagh2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Hapsa_xani_naqib.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Antoin_Sevruguin_1_kurdish_woman.jpg
http://farm1.staticflickr.com/160/398124730_6c492a972e.jpg
http://www.saradistribution.com/foto3/barzani_klassic.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Talabani_Sept05.jpg
http://www.planetrulers.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/Iraq-first-lady-Hero-Ibrahim-Ahmed.jpeg
http://knowkurdistan.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/KRG_Rep_Talabani.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Nawshirwan_Mustafa.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Barham_Salih_conducts_a_press_conference_in_the_Pe ntagon_on_Sept._14%2C_2006.jpg
http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5031/5841422611_62689e1cf7.jpg
http://static.aknews.com/images/cms-image-000103782.jpg
http://external.ak.fbcdn.net/safe_image.php?d=AQCJIKc_EfGHpjkv&url=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-profile-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhprofile-ak-snc4%2F592063_161214157333447_525129653_n.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Mesud_Barzani.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Falak_dinn_kakaey.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/522053_184286885026174_1097944008_n.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Jalaldabagh.jpg
http://www.nato.int/pictures/2005/050621b/b050621g.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Hesen_Sil%C3%AAvan%C3%AE_2012.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Arjen_Ar%C3%AE_2012.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Layla_qasm.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Kurdish_Smugglers_Iraq.jpg
http://img573.imageshack.us/img573/9207/cans1.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Guard_at_Citadel_-_Erbil_-_Iraq.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Kebab_Sellers_-_Bazaar_-_Erbil_-_Iraq.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Fruit_and_Vegetable_Sellers_-_Bazaar_-_Erbil_-_Iraq.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Father_and_Daughter_-_Halabja_-_Kurdistan_-_Iraq.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Kurdish_Hawrami_Singer_Osman_Hawrami_with_His_Son. jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Halkawt_zaher_2.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Kurdish_mother_%26_child_Van_1973.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Sakina_teyna.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Kurdish_women_cooking.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/BerivanArin2010.jpg
http://www.eftekasat.net/pmg/pix_edadasastew/195/01.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/General_Babakir_Zebari.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Honandina_dox%C3%AEnan_Duhok_2012.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Kurdish_woman.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Kurdish_woman_daughters_.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Woman_making_flat_bread_in_a_Kurdish_village_near_ the_Turkish_border.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/KurdishWomanBaking.JPEG
http://www.historyguy.com/kurdish_refugees.jpg
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/10/19/world/19kurds.600.jpg
http://www.rudaw.net/english/thumbnail.php?file=kurdishfood2_256452490.jpg&size=article_medium
http://www.institutkurde.org/info/images/16_09_2007_kurds.jpg
http://cache3.asset-cache.net/gc/52604394-an-iraqi-kurdish-girl-holds-a-gun-and-a-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=OCUJ5gVf7YdJQI2Xhkc2QH85FDn9rCbMkKw3mz2ZDAsKTifm ohXVbiNA52ULmNqCLhiX%2FfWHtPG0NMpanKUKHA%3D%3D
http://carnegieendowment.org/images/article_images/89250354.jpg
http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000rlRH2VdQphs/s/750/750/BDENTON-MM4N6197.jpg
http://www.uod.ac/articles_images/articles_image2_20120516025358eoPd.jpg
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/files/irankurdsresized.jpg
http://cdn.ph.upi.com/sv/upi/UPI-95131291754292/2010/1/f3e4d395ca87d82c775802f522877bed/Iraqs-Kurds-build-up-their-own-army.jpg
http://womennewsnetwork.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Iraqi-Kurdish-Artist-Radio-Free-Europe-Radio-Liberty-Abdel-Khaleq-Sultan-RFE-RL.jpg
http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000i54e_U1oSgs/s/880/880/20100919WP-kurdistan-pkk-012.jpg
http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000WhhLVGDc9kY/s/720/700/Sebastian-Meyer-Newroz-11.jpg
http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/03/25/2110846/7/628x471.jpg
http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/myfiles/Images/2012/07/01/li05.jpg
http://www.rudaw.net/english/thumbnail.php?file=DSC02187_opt_185953647.jpg&size=article_medium
http://media.nowpublic.net/images//1f/4/1f4bc7542728d91a70efcbfeed47f385.jpg
http://www.nikolaus-brauns.de/assets/images/Komala_Peshmerga.jpg
http://img266.imageshack.us/img266/6049/pesh4.png
http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/images/Parade%20Peshmerga.jpg
http://img820.imageshack.us/img820/5364/19277010150137288598506.jpg
http://img571.imageshack.us/img571/9607/pesh2.jpg
http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000U3p1YWnzte0/s/720/700/Sebastian-Meyer-Voting-03.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8020/7224036412_5ae1c200ed_b.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Children_puppy_sulaimania.jpg
http://www.stopfgmkurdistan.org/img/pic_fgm.jpg
http://img717.imageshack.us/img717/6247/kurdj.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Iraqi_kurdish_boy%2C_Dohuk%2C_Iraqi_Kurdistan.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Bozo1.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Kevan%C3%AE.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Kecakurd.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/B%C3%AAr%C3%AEtan%C3%AE-2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Kurdish_girl_Ararat.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Zarok%C3%AAn_Bismil%C3%AE.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Ji_Cil%C3%AEn_zarokek.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/KOMAK_i_Ranya.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Du_%C5%9Firin.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/Keja_Daray%C3%AE.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0a/S%C3%AA_heval.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Zarokek_ji_hola.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Kurdish_schoolboy%2C_Dohuk%2C_Iraqi_Kurdistan.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/S%C3%AA_bira_ji_shut%C3%AA.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Zarokek_ji_%C5%9E%C3%BBt%C3%AA.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Zarok%C3%AAn_D%C3%AAr%C3%AE%C5%9F%C3%AE.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Zarok%C3%AAn_Ew%C3%AEn%C3%AE.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Zarok%C3%AAn_Xanoser%C3%AA.jpg
http://cache.virtualtourist.com/6/6078270-Facts_about_Iraqi_Kurdistan_and_Kurds_Muhafazat_Ar bil.jpg
http://images.travelpod.com/tw_slides/ta00/bb8/a48/mini-peshmerga-irbil.jpg

ashrf1979
2012-12-28, 00:09
Iraqi Sub-groups

Iraqi Azeris & Turkish





Iraqi Turkmens

The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Iraqi Turkmans), Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (Turkish: Irak Türkmenleri/Irak Türkleri) are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq who are the ethnic kin of the Turks.[10][11] They mainly reside in northern Iraq and share close cultural and linguistic ties with Turkey.[12]
The Iraqi Turkmens are the descendants of various waves of Turkic migration to Mesopotamia dating from the 7th century until Ottoman rule. The first wave of migration dates back to the 7th century when some 1,000 Turkmen soldiers were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad;[13][14] however, most of today's descendants of these first migrants have been assimilated into the local Arab population.[15] The second wave of migrants were the Turks of the Great Seljuq Empire;[16] finally, the third wave, and largest number of Turkmen migrants into Iraq arose during the Ottoman Empire.[16] With the conquest of Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Sultan Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, a large influx of Turks settled down in the region.[14][17] Thus, most of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[18][19][17][16]
Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded state.[20][21] However, due to the end of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen found themselves increasingly discriminated against by policies of successive regimes, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1959 and in 1979 when the Ba’th Party increasingly discriminated against the community.[20] Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq (alongside the Arabs and Kurds) in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.[20]
Claims of their population range between 500,000 to over 3 million, regardless of this uncertainty, it is generally accepted that the Iraqi Turks are the third-largest ethnic group in Iraq.[3][22][23][24] According to the 1957 census, which is recognized as the last reliable census, as later censuses were reflections of the Arabization policies of the Ba’ath regime,[25] Arabs formed the largest ethnicity followed by Kurds (13%) and Iraqi Turkmen (9%).[26]
The Iraqi Turkmens predominantly live in the north of Iraq, especially in Tal Afar, Mosul, Arbil, Altunkupri, Kirkuk, and Baghdad.[27]

History

The presence of Turkic peoples in Iraq first began in the seventh century when approximately 1,000 Oghuz Turks were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad.[15] However, it was the wider migration of the Oghuz Turks towards Anatolia which took place at the end of the ninth century that established a substantial Iraqi Turkmen presence.[13] Successive waves of immigration continued under the rule of the Seljuk Turks who assumed positions of military and administrative responsibilities in the Seljuk Empire. Furthermore, with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the conquest of Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Murad IV’s capture of Baghdad in 1638, resulted in the largest number of Turkish immigration into northern Iraq.[28][16]


Early settlement

The first wave of Turkmen in Iraq occurred in the seventh century when some 1,000 Turkmen soldiers who were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad.[13] During the subsequent Abbassid era, thousands more Turkmen warriors were brought into Iraq; however, the number of Turkmen who had settled in Iraq were not significant, as a result, the first wave of Turkmen became assimilated into the local Arab population.[15]

Seljuk era (1055-1194)

The second wave of Turkmen to descend on Iraq were the Turks of the Great Seljuq Empire.[16] Large scale migration of the Turkmen in Iraq occurred in 1055 with the invasion of Sultan Tuğrul Bey, the second ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, who intended to repair the holy road to Mecca. For the next 150 years, the Seljuk Turks placed large Turkmen communities along the most valuable routes of northern Iraq, especially Tel Afar, Arbil, Kirkuk, and Mandali, which is now identified by the modern community as Turkmeneli.[29]

Ottoman era (1534-1918)

The third wave, and largest number, of Turkmen migrants into Iraq arose during the Ottoman Empire.[16] By the first half of the sixteenth century the Ottomans had begun their expansion into Iraq.[30] In 1534, under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, Mosul was sufficiently secure within the Ottoman Empire and became the chief province (eyalet) responsible for all other administrative districts in the region.[31] The Ottomans encouraged migration from Anatolia and the settlement of immigrant Turkmen along northern Iraq, religious scholars were also brought in to preach Hanafi (Sunni) Islam.[31] With loyal Turkmen inhabiting the area, the Ottomans were able to maintain a safe route through to the southern provinces of Mesopotamia.[16] Following the conquest, Kirkuk came firmly under Turkish control and was referred to as "Gökyurt",[32] it is this period in history whereby modern Iraqi Turkmen claim association with Anatolia and the Turkish state.[32]
After defeating the Safavid dynasty on December 31, 1534, Suleiman entered Baghdad and set about reconstructing the physical infrastructure in the province and ordered the construction of a dam in Karbala and major water projects in and around the city’s countryside.[33] Once the new governor was appointed, the town was to be composed of 1,000 foot soldiers and another 1,000 cavalry.[34] However, war broke out after 89 years of peace and the city was besieged and finally conquered by Abbas I of Persia in 1624. The Persians ruled the city until 1638 when a massive Ottoman force, led by Sultan Murad IV, recaptured the city.[31] In 1639, the Treaty of Zuhab was signed that gave the Ottomans control over Iraq and ended the military conflict between the two empires.[35] Thus, more Turks arrived with the army of Sultan Murad IV in 1638 following the capture of Baghdad whilst others came even later with other notable Ottoman figures.[32][36]

Modern era (1918-Present)

Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded state;[20] this is because, under the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen enjoyed a relatively trouble-free existence as the administrative and business classes.[20] However, due to the demise of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen participated in elections for the Constituent Assembly; the purpose of these elections was to formalise the 1922 treaty with Britain and obtain support for the drafting of a constitution and the passing of the 1923 Electoral law.[37] The Iraqi Turkmen made their participation in the electoral process conditional that the preservation of the Turkish character in Kirkuk's administration and the recognition of Turkish as the liwa’s official language.[37] Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq, alongside the Arabs and Kurds, in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.[20]

Demography

Population

Official statistics

The Iraqi Turkmen are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq.[38][39] According to the 1957 Iraqi census there was 567,000 Turks out of a total population of 6.3 million, forming 9% of the total Iraqi population.[40] However, due to the undemocratic environment, their number has always been underestimated and has long been a point of controversy. For example, in the 1957 census, the Iraqi government first claimed that there was 136,800 Turks in Iraq. However, the revised figure of 567,000 was issued after the 1958 revolution when the Iraqi government admitted that the Iraqi Turkmens population was actually more than 400% from the previous year's total.[7] Subsequent censuses, in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1997, are all considered highly unreliable, due to suspicions of regime manipulation.[18] The 1997 census states that there was 600,000 Iraqi Turkmen[23] out of a total population of 22,017,983,[41] forming 2.72% of the total Iraqi population; however, this census only allowed its citizens to indicate belonging to one of two ethnicities, Arab or Kurd, this meant that many Iraqi Turkmens identified themselves as Arabs (the Kurds not being a desirable ethnic group in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq), thereby skewing the true number of Iraqi Turkmen.[18]

Estimated population

Today, the figure mostly referred to by Kurdish groups and Western scholars is that Iraqi Turkmen make up 2-3% of the Iraqi population, or approximately 500,000-800,000;[42] however, not all Western scholars accept this view, for example, in 2004 Scott Taylor suggested that the Iraqi Turkmen accounted for 2,080,000 of Iraq's 25 million inhabitants[7] whilst Patrick Clawson has stated that the Iraqi Turkmen make up about 9% of the total population.[39] Furthermore, international organizations such as the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization has stated that the Iraqi Turkmen community is 3 million or 13% of the Iraqi population.[43][44] Iraqi Turkmen claim that their total population is over 3 million.[45][2] They mainly live in an area called Turkmeneli, which stretches from the northwest to the east at the middle of Iraq. They consider their capital city to be Kirkuk.[38]


Areas of settlement

The Iraqi Turkmen community stretches from Talafar in the northwest to Badra and al-Aziziyya in the al-Kut province in mid-eastern Iraq.[44] Their strongest presence is in northern Iraq, near Kirkuk, Mosul and Arbil.[3] The 1957 census determined that those who declared their mother tongue as "Turkish" made up close to 40% of the population in the City of Kirkuk,[45][46] which made up the majority of the population. Hence, Kirkuk is regarded as the heart of the Iraqi Turkmen community.[45] The second-largest Iraqi Turkmen city is Tel Afar were they make up 95% of the inhabitants.[47] According to the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, at least 180,000 Iraqi Turkmen currently live in the city of Kirkuk; there is also at least 250,000 living in Arbil, 300,000 in Baghdad, 500,000 living in Mosul, and 227,000 in the Talafar district. The community also constitute a considerable part of the population of Badra in al-Kut province.[44] However, the once mainly Turkoman cities of the Diyala Province and Kifri have been heavily Kurdified and Arabified.[44]


Diaspora

Most Iraqi Turkmen migrate to Turkey followed by Germany, Denmark, and Sweden.[48] Smaller communities have been formed in Canada, the United States, Australia,[48] Greece,[49] and the United Kingdom.[50]

Culture

Language

The dialect spoken by most Iraqi Turkmens is considered either South Azeri[51][52] or intermediate between that and Anatolian Turkish,[6] and is close to the dialects of Diyarbakır and Urfa in south-eastern Turkey.[53] Many Iraqi Turkmens are bilingual or trilingual, Arabic is acquired through the mass media and through education at school whilst Kurdish is acquired in their neighbourhoods and through marriage.[6]
Anatolian Turkish has long been the prestige dialect among Iraqi Turkmen and has exerted a profound historical influence on their dialect, to the extent that Iraqi Turkmen grammar differs sharply from that of other varieties of Azeri.[53] Under the 1925 constitution, the use of Anatolian Turkish in schools, government offices and the media was allowed. Modern Turkish influence remained strong until the Arabic language became the new official language in the 1930s, and a degree of Turkmen–Turkish diglossia is still observable.[54] Restrictions on the Turkish language began in 1972 and intensified under Saddam Hussein's regime.[3][55] Currently, Anatolian Turkish is used as the formal written language. In 1997, the Iraqi Turkoman Congress adopted a Declaration of Principles, Article Three of which states the following:
The official written language of the Turkmans is Istanbul Turkish, and its alphabet is the new Latin alphabet.[56][57]

The Iraqi Turkmen dialect is often called "Turkoman",[58] "Turkmenelian"[38] or "Turkmen",[6] but should not be confused with the Turkmen language spoken in Turkmenistan.[59]

Religion

The majority of the Iraqi Turkmen community adhere to Islam and are divided into two sectors: Sunni (about 60%) and Shiite (about 40%).[17][42]

Discrimination

The position of the Iraqi Turkmens has changed from being administrative and business classes of the Ottoman Empire to an increasingly discriminated minority.[20] Since the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the Iraqi Turkmen have been victims of several massacres, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1959. Furthermore, under the Ba’th party, discrimination against the Iraqi Turkmens increased, with several leaders being executed in 1979[20] as well as the Iraqi Turkmen community being victims of Arabization policies by the state, and Kurdification by Kurds seeking to push them forcibly out of their homeland.[60] Thus, they have suffered from various degrees of suppression and assimilation that ranged from political persecution and exile to terror and ethnic cleansing. Despite being recognized in the 1925 constitution as a constitutive entity, the Iraqi Turkmens were later denied this status; hence, cultural rights were gradually taken away and activists were sent to exile.[20]

Massacres

Massacre of 4 May 1924

In 1924, the Iraqi Turkmen were seen as a disloyal remnant of the Ottoman Empire, with a neutral tie to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's new Turkish nationalist ideology emerging in the Republic of Turkey.[61] Therefore, the Iraqi Turkmens living in the region of Kirkuk posed a threat to the stability of Iraq, particularly as they did not support the ascendancy of King Faisal I to the throne.[61] The Iraqi Turkmens were targeted by the British in collaboration with other Iraqi elements, of these, the most willing to subjugate the Iraqi Turkmens were the Iraq Levies- troops recruited from the Assyrian community that had sought refuge in Iraq from the Hakkari region of Turkey.[61] The spark for the conflict had been a dispute between a Levi soldier and an Iraqi Turkmen shopkeeper, which was enough for the British to allow the Levies to attack the Iraqi Turkmens, resulting in the massacre of some 200 people.[61]

Kirkuk massacre of 1959

The Kirkuk massacre of 1959 came about due to the Iraqi government allowing the Iraqi Communist Party, which in Kirkuk was largely Kurdish, to target the Iraqi Turkmens.[20][62] With the appointment of Maarouf Barzinji, a Kurd, as the mayor of Kirkuk in July 1959, tensions rose following the 14 July revolution celebrations, with animosity in the city polarizing rapidly between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmens. On 14 July 1959, fights broke out between the Iraqi Turkmen and Kurds, leaving some 20 Iraqi Turkmens dead.[63] Furthermore, on 15 July 1959, Kurdish soldiers of the Fourth Brigade of the Iraqi army mortared Iraqi Turkmen residential areas, destroying 120 houses.[63][64] Order was restored on 17 July by military units from Baghdad. The Iraqi government referred to the incident as a "massacre"[65] and stated that between 31 and 79 Iraqi Turkmen were killed and some 130 injured.[63]

Assimilation Campaigns

Arabization

In 1980, Saddam Hussein’s government adopted a policy of assimilation of its minorities. Due to government relocation programs, thousands of Iraqi Turkmen were relocated from their traditional homelands in northern Iraq and replaced by Arabs, in an effort to Arabify the region.[66] Furthermore, Iraqi Turkmen villages and towns were destroyed to make way for Arab migrants, who were promised free land and financial incentives. For example, the Ba’th regime recognised that the city of Kirkuk was historically an Iraqi Turkmen city and remained firmly in its cultural orientation.[62] Thus, the first wave of Arabization saw Arab families move from the centre and south of Iraq into Kirkuk to work in the expanding oil industry. Although the Iraqi Turkmens were not actively forced out, new Arab quarters were established in the city and the overall demographic balance of the city changed as the Arab migrations continued.[62]
Several presidential decrees and directives from state security and intelligence organizations indicate that the Iraqi Turkmens were a particular focus of attention during the assimilation process during the Ba’th regime. For example, the Iraqi Military Intelligence issued directive 1559 on 6 May 1980 ordering the deportation of Iraqi Turkmen officials from Kirkuk, issuing the following instructions: "identify the places where Turkmen officials are working in governmental offices [in order] to deport them to other governorates in order to disperse them and prevent them from concentrating in this governorate [Kirkuk]".[67] In addition, on 30 October 1981, the Revolution’s Command Council issued decree 1391, which authorized the deportation of Iraqi Turkmens from Kiruk with paragraph 13 noting that "this directive is specially aimed at Turkmen and Kurdish officials and workers who are living in Kirkuk".[67]
As primary victims of these Arabization policies, the Iraqi Turkmen suffered from land expropriation and job discrimination, and therefore would register themselves as "Arabs" in order to avoid discrimination.[68] Thus, ethnic cleansing was an element of the Ba’thist policy aimed at reducing the influence of the Iraqi Turkmens in northern Iraq's Kirkuk.[69] Those Iraqi Turkmens who remained in cities such as Kirkuk were subject to continued assimilation policies;[69] school names, neighbourhoods, villages, streets, markets and even mosques with names of Turkic origin were changed to names that emanated from the Ba’th Party or from Arab heroes.[69] Moreover, many Iraqi Turkmen villages and neighbourhoods in Kirkuk were simply demolished, particularly in the 1990s.[69]

Kurdification

The formation of the Kurdistan Region in 1991 created high animosity between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmen, resulting in Iraqi Turkmens being victims of Kurdification. The Kurds claimed de facto sovereignty over land still believed by Iraqi Turkmens to be rightfully theirs. For the Iraqi Turkmen, their identity is deeply inculcated as the rightful inheritors of the region as a legacy as the Ottoman Empire.[70] Thus, the Kurdistan Region has constituted a threat to the survival of the Iraqi Turkmen through strategies aimed at eradicating or assimilating them.[70] The largest concentration of Iraqi Turkmens tended to be in the de facto capital of Erbil, a city which they had assumed prominent administrative and economic positions. Thus, they increasingly came into dispute and often conflict with the ruling powers of the city, which after 1996 was the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Massoud Barzani.[71]
In the 1990s, tension between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmens inflamed as the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan were institutionalized as the political hegemons of the region and, from the perspective of the Iraqi Turkmens, sought to marginalize them from the positions of authority and to subsume their culture with an all-pervading Kurdistani identity. With the support of Ankara, a new political front of Turkmen parties- the Iraqi Turkmen Front- was formed on 24 April 1995.[71] The relationship between the Iraqi Turkmen Front and the Kurdistan Democratic Party was tense and deteriorated as the decade went on. Iraqi Turkmens associated with the Iraqi Turkmen Front complained about harassment by Kurdish security forces.[71] In March 2000, the Human Rights Watch reported that the Kurdistan Democratic Party's security attacked the offices of the Iraqi Turkmen Front in Erbil, killing two guards, following a lengthy period of disputes between the two parties.[71] In 2002, the Kurdistan Democratic Party created an Iraqi Turkmen political organization, the Turkmen National Association, that supported the further institutionalization of the Kurdistan Region. This was viewed by pro-ITF Iraqi Turkmens as a deliberate attempt to "buy off" Iraqi Turkmen opposition and break their bonds with Ankara.[72] Promoted by the KDP as the "true voice" of the Iraqi Turkmens, the Turkmen National Association has a pro-Kurdistani stance and has effectively wakened the ITF as the sole representative voice of the Iraqi Turkmens.[72]

Present status

Although some have been able to preserve their language, the Iraqi Turkmen today are being rapidly assimilated into the general population and are no longer tribally organized[73]
Iraqi Turkmen have also emerged as a key political force in the controversy over the future status of northern Iraq and the Kurdish Autonomous Region. The government of Turkey has helped fund such political organizations as the Iraqi Turkmen Front, which opposes Iraqi federalism and in particular the proposed annexation of Kirkuk to the Kurdistan Regional Government.[74]
Tensions between the two groups over Kirkuk, however, have slowly died out and on January 30, 2006, the President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, said that the "Kurds are working on a plan to give Iraqi Turkmen autonomy in areas where they are a majority in the new constitution they're drafting for the Kurdistan Region of Iraq."[75] However, it never happened and the policies of Kurdification by KDP and PUK after 2003 (with non-Kurds being pressures to move) have prompted serious inter-ethnic problems.[76]
Between ten and twelve Turkmen individuals were elected to the transitional National Assembly of Iraq in January 2005, including five on the United Iraqi Alliance list, three from the Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF), and either two or four from the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan.[77][78]
In the December 2005 elections, between five and seven Turkmen candidates were elected to the Council of Representatives. This included one candidate from the ITF (its leader Sadettin Ergec), two or four from the United Iraqi Alliance, one from the Iraqi Accord Front and one from the Kurdistani Alliance.[78][79]



Iraqi Azeris

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Fuz%C3%BBl%C3%AE.jpg
Fuzûlî

http://r26.imgfast.net/users/2612/34/56/20/album/pr/001810_800x600.jpg
Sayyid Abul-Qassim al-Khoei

http://irq4all.com/photos/1509201221828.jpg
Abbas al-Bayati member of the Iraqi National Assembly(Islamic Union of Iraqi Turkoman)

http://www.al-raeed.net/news/images_news/thumbnails/003_1_350x0.jpg
Hamid al-Bayati current Iraqi ambassador to the United Nations

http://www.chakooch.com/filemanager.php?action=image&id=205
Sami al-Askari(he is a descendant of the Safavids) member of the Iraqi National Assembly.(Islamic Dawa Party)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Jasim_Mohammed_Jaafar_071230-A-8161S-003_0YK8I.jpg
Jasim Mohammed Jaafar Iraqi Minister for Youth & Sports in the government of Nouri al-Maliki.(Islamic Union of Iraqi Turkoman)

http://www.alrasheedmedia.com/site_media/image/eanas_vt.Sub.01.jpg
Fawzi Akram Tarzi member of the Iraqi National Assembly.(Sadrist Movement)

http://www.ahraraliraq.com/image.php?token=bf15af24c127a1c6e74d6294ebe7fce9&size=
Abd al-Wahhab Al-Bayati (December 19 1926–August 3 1999) was an Iraqi poet. He was a pioneer in his field and defied conventional form of poetry that had been common for centuries.

http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/196030_190858864286780_611777_n.jpg

http://www.iraqup.com/up/20110716/oqNPA-0a43_14761289.jpg

http://www.albawwaba.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/mohammad-mahdi-al-bayati-120520111.jpg

http://n4hr.com/up/uploads/b769265635.jpg

http://i3.makcdn.com/wp-content/blogs.dir//140652/files//2011/07/249254_152418798166019_100001936998206_318577_2269 212_n.jpg

http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/297099_187798944619867_5638077_n.jpg

http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/271023_110376905722710_7749225_n.jpg

http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/255673_107568889334924_700054_n.jpg

http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/251106_107637999328013_5593646_n.jpg

http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/227469_102297109862102_3068917_n.jpg

http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/527593_520129518014841_1899339964_n.jpg

http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/598847_429239963763240_1591606596_n.jpg

http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/404151_375438745810029_1436361015_n.jpg

http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/421185_481262071906760_442845104_n.jpg

http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/208811_202210893145214_5585384_n.jpg

http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/387044_373373902735800_765275004_n.jpg

http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/249964_186290218086616_6639625_n.jpg

http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/419988_314361125279524_124480163_n.jpg

http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/75103_419896301392672_2089156796_n.jpg

http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/226891_108002995953027_6658346_n.jpg

http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/408473_329073863856113_551437788_n.jpg

http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/546190_339763516087169_473467_n.jpg

http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/162945_127156427346811_3317589_n.jpg

http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/180844_107455595998432_374209_n.jpg

http://www.baghdad3.com//uploads/1349091606-a01e2.jpg

http://aljadidah.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/ameer-albayati03.01.png

http://www.albayaty.se/mahmoudt.fy.albayt.jpg

http://sphotos-a.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/576002_456892614343584_615469016_n.jpg

http://www.tuzkhurmato.com/archives/literatures/gomhur-1.jpg

http://kirkuknow.com/arabic/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Untitled-18.jpg

http://www.alittihad.ae/assets/images/World/2010/06/19/320x240/2a-na-9423.jpg

http://www.tuzkhurmato.com/images/asura_03.jpg

http://eskitisin.net/ahbar/dairatahbarturkman/dairatahbar%20rasim/dairatahbarturkmanasura2009b.jpg

http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/76126_108376612566323_2748930_n.jpg

http://img805.imageshack.us/img805/1826/saba.jpg

http://n4hr.com/up/uploads/e680239e39.bmp

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-p0m3b1Evl3U/TwCrqpOlDSI/AAAAAAAAAJo/ekORDJ_s1bY/s1600/%25D8%25AF.+%25D9%2581%25D8%25A7%25D8%25A6%25D8%25 B2%25D8%25A9.jpg

http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/253473_273149279463858_1582524530_n.jpg


http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/530646_291804090935385_1591318800_n.jpg

http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/582097_263798573735937_2106271449_n.jpg


http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/400218_341549585873687_1981719980_n.jpg

http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/534591_396533050420108_181035593_n.jpg

http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/388039_240260559361070_1027254944_n.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_iG-apKgmTiU/SbGlX9xGrKI/AAAAAAAAC08/dtBkmm2T2IY/s400/nevin+bayatli+canada.jpg
http://www.aldroobtv.com/contents/albumsm/61.jpg
http://up.radiosawaa.com/uploads/13345600902.jpg


================================================== =======================

Iraqi Turkish

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/dd/Princess_Fahrelnissa_Zeid.jpg
Princess Fahrelnissa Zeid ,Turkish artist whose work blended the elements of Islamic and Byzantine art from the East with abstract and other influences from the West. She worked in a variety of media such as large oil paintings, collages and stained glass panels.
She married into the Hashemite royal family of Iraq and is the mother of Prince Ra'ad, the present claimant to the Iraqi throne.

http://alalemya.com/itjahathurra/writers/Khalid_Al_Janabi/New%20folder/nuri.jpg
Nuri as-Said , 11th, 20th, 25th, 29th, 33rd, 36th, 42nd & 45th Prime Minister of Iraq.

http://www.almosul.org/History/AlFattal/Parliament&MedicalSchool/117.JPG
Yasin al-Hashimi , 4th & 17th Prime Minister of Iraq.

http://dc16.arabsh.com/i/02159/m1oi8yjy29hk.bmp
Hamdi al-Pachachi , 26th Prime Minister of Iraq.

http://dc10.arabsh.com/i/02073/kgg54nybkyri.bmp
Muzahim al-Pachachi , 32nd Prime Minister of Iraq.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Ahmad_Hassan_el_Bakr.jpg
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr , fourth President of Iraq.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%85.png
Saddam Hussein , fifth President of Iraq.

http://i52.tinypic.com/29bgg10.jpg
Professor İhsan Doğramacı (April 3, 1915 – February 25, 2010) was a Turkish paediatrician, entrepreneur, philanthropist, educationalist and college administrator.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Adnan_Pachachi_in_2010.jpg
Adnan Pachachi , Iraqi politician and diploma.

http://www.iraaqi.com/upload/5392933.jpg
Tariq al-Hashimi , former Vice President of Iraq.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Younis_Mahmoud_2011.jpg
Younis Mahmoud , Iraqi association football striker.

http://www.medyafaresi.com/v1/619_9f378.jpg
Reha Muhtar, Turkish anchorman, columnist and television reporte.

http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/311459_366320246793905_865289481_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-snc7/c100.0.403.403/p403x403/383741_4640050932398_650447724_n.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_w3fll59Ofx0/SitBC6FxtxI/AAAAAAAAAhA/DfXnog8PyfI/s400/c.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-q-VvS30TXSA/T7QOr1IAWTI/AAAAAAAAAXs/pYSgJ3Zxv80/s1600/ismet.bmp
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-C1FxGzC4B2Q/T7QQGH0NOnI/AAAAAAAAAYU/txH4vrzTi3U/s1600/issam.bmp
http://mi62.net/forum.php/vb/undefined/forum.php?action=image&file=forum&id=335
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/--zgL1fEEPKE/T6bX3pZ4LnI/AAAAAAAAAV4/S29y2-4Ct9U/s1600/Nouri+and+boys.bmp
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-vAOPnacRNIE/T6bXn3kZYrI/AAAAAAAAAVw/IwEoOia9eF8/s1600/untitled.bmp
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-URe4TChPZfA/T6bV7hjyMfI/AAAAAAAAAVA/_5FEypnTuQE/s1600/Nouri-1.jpg
http://alhashimi.org/images/08007/3_.jpg
http://www.azadibokurdistane.com/080901c4.jpg
http://merryabla64.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/iraqi-turkmen-martyrs-monument-3.jpg
http://merryabla64.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/iraqi-turkmen-martyrs-monument-4.jpg
http://www.bizturkmeniz.com/foto/normal/24364_1.jpg
http://merryabla64.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/kizilay.jpg
http://merryabla64.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/dr-hassan-aydinli-iraqi-turkmen-front-eu-representative.jpg
http://im21.gulfup.com/2012-07-05/1341479321823.jpg
http://img37.imageshack.us/img37/8431/85667941.jpg
http://www.indybay.org/olduploads/turkmen.jpg
http://img822.imageshack.us/img822/4017/001foq.jpg
http://www12.0zz0.com/2010/09/04/23/687949585.jpg
http://www.sotakhr.com/2006/uploads/pics/chapuk2.jpg
http://bp2.blogger.com/_iG-apKgmTiU/RtMzCnL_wpI/AAAAAAAAAaA/ky_vLYaQVPI/s1600/Demonstration+27+aug+2007+EU+Commission+018.jpg
http://bp1.blogger.com/_iG-apKgmTiU/RtMkKXL_wjI/AAAAAAAAAZQ/Cx-ASpaiCVU/s1600/Demonstration+27+aug+2007+EU+Commission+012.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/396638_115237458620467_395814939_n.jpg
http://www.alnoor.se/images/gallery/galleryin/news/news_6/15.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/p206x206/216061_101429969945530_1523156_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/p206x206/255356_102761393201244_1799854503_n.jpg
http://www.tarimcenter.org/imgalbum/83228ja2.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/225087_119291244817080_5737253_n.jpg

adsız
2012-12-28, 00:29
Just for record:

Too many mistakes in the texts because copied from Wiki .
I will not correct them in order not to sabotage the thread.

ashrf1979
2013-01-03, 22:56
Iraqi Sub-groups

Iraqi Armenians
http://news.am/pic/news/127961.jpg


The history of Armenians in Iraq is documented since late Babylonian times. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers both have their sources in the Armenian Highland,[2] hence, the land of Iraq and the land of Armenia have always been connected. Today it is estimated that there are up to 66,000 Armenians living in Iraq,[1] with communities in Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Kirkuk and Dohuk.[3]
Some sources refer to them as Iraqi Armenians or Armenian Iraqis.[4][5]

History

The history of Armenians in Iraq is documented since late Babylonian times. However, the general roots of the contemporary Armenian community in Iraq can be largely traced to Shah Abbas's forced relocation of the Armenians to Iran in 1604, some of whom subsequently moved on to settle in Iraq.[6] A further 25,000 Armenians arrived in Iraq during the early twentieth century as they fled the persecution of the Armenian Genocide.[6][7]
During the 1980s, the Armenians benefited from President Saddam Hussein's modernization efforts, as the community rebuilt its cultural institutions and even consecrated an imposing cathedral in Baghdad.[6] Saddam Hussein trusted Iraqi-Armenians very much .His nanny was Iraqi-Armenian along with one of his body guards and his housestaff. One of Saddam Hussein's mistresses was Juliet N Gurjian . Saddam Hussein trusted the Iraqi-Armenians because they benefited under the secularist rule of the Baath party which strongly suppressed the Islamist forces especially the Shite Iraqi elements who would later rise against him. The Iraqi Armenians also did not support anyone in the opposition so the Hussein Regime benefited from Iraqi Armenian loyalty and granted the Iraqi Armenians many rights. During Christmas, Saddam Hussein would order large amount of flowers to be taken to the Baghdad Armenian church.

Armenians and the political situation

After the launch of the second Iraqi campaign, more than 3,000 Armenians left the country, head of National Management of Armenians in Iraq Paruyr Hakopian stated. “Four years have passed since the launch of military campaign in Iraq by Coalition forces. And I confirm with certainty that the number of Armenians who have immigrated abroad does not exceed this mark,” he noted. Mr. Hakopian said four years ago there were 18,000 Armenians in Iraq and now only 15,000 of them live in the country. Generally during the past 4 years 1,500 Armenians immigrated to Syria, about 1,000 arrived in Armenia and about 500 departed for Jordan,” he stressed.[8]
During the Persian Gulf War, of the 1,500 Armenians living with the predominant Kurd population in the northern town of Zakho, three soldiers serving in Saddam Hussein's military were killed in coalition air strikes in Kuwait, Basra, and Mosul, respectively. A count of four Armenian babies were also among the several hundred reported dead in fighting near the Turkish border during the Gulf War.[9] A further 130 from the town had died fighting in the Iraqi Army during the Iran–Iraq War.

2003 invasion of Iraq

With the invasion of Iraq, the situation for Armenians in Iraq worsened considerably. Armenians have been subject to killings and kidnappings for ransom. Many Armenians have immigrated to other Middle Eastern countries (most notably Syria and Lebanon), Europe, the US, Canada, and Australia. Armenian churches have also been target of bombings by paramilitary groups.
In October 2007, two Armenian women in Iraq were killed by the Australian private security contractors, Unity Resources Group, in Almasbah district in Baghdad.[10][11]
The Armenian winner of the Miss Iraq competition has gone into hiding out of fear of being targeted by Islamic militants.[12]

Deployment of Armenian troops

Armenia took part in the efforts of the US-led Coalition by sending a group of 46 non-military personnel, including 30 truck drivers, 10 bomb detonation experts, three doctors and three officers. They served the under Polish command in the city of Karbala and the nearby town of Hillah.
In October 2008, Armenia ended its modest presence in Iraq, citing improved security and the ongoing withdrawal of a much larger Polish army contingent that has supervised Armenian troops deployed in the country.[13]

Religion

Armenians in Iraq are mostly members of the Armenian Apostolic Church (also known as Armenian Orthodox) or Armenian Catholic Church.
St. Gregory the Illuminator Armenian Apostolic Church (at Younis al Sabaawi Square, Baghdad) is the main church for the Armenians of Iraq. There is also the Saint Vartan Armenian Apostolic Church in Dohuk, northern Iraq.
The Armenian Catholic Archbishopric Church maintains a presence in Baghdad, as does the So does the Armenian Evangelical Church of Baghdad (at Sahat al-Tahriat in Hay al-Wahda (ner of Al-Awall Restoran).
Some Armenian churches were also targets of bombing and some Armenians have died as a result of sectarian fighting in Iraq.

Contributions to Iraqi culture

Armenians have played traditionally an important role in Iraqi culture, particularly in literature and music and in general all arts.
Yaacoub Sarkis was a famous author and researcher in Iraqi arts. He used to hold cultural gatherings in Baghdad's Murabba'a region on the Tigris river, where the Iraqi cultural elite would meet. He is also renowned for the two volume "Al Mabaheth al Iraqiyyah", a definitive guide of Iraqi history and society. He lived well into his eighties before dying in the 1950s.
The two founding members of the Western-style pop group Unknown to No One, Art Haroutunian and Shant Garabedian, are of Armenian heritage. During the rule of Saddam Hussein the band could only have its music aired once they sang a song celebrating the dictator's birthday. Unknown to No One has been given a large amount of publicity in the post-Saddam era.[15]

In Iraqi Kurdistan

There have always been pockets of Armenian populations in Iraqi Kurdistan. Their numbers have increased considerably with wave of new immigration coming from Baghdad and other Iraqi regions after the toppling of Saddam Hussein. Armenians attribute their leaving towards the north to safety concerns, with some Armenian institutions and churches having been targeted by bombings, and some Armenians subject of kidnapping and killings in Baghdad and central regions of Iraq. The Armenians consider the Kurdish-dominated parts of Iraq in general to be much safer areas to live in.
The Armenians in Iraqi Kurdistan have a representative in the parliament of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

Armenians in Avzrog

A small minority of Armenians live in Avzrog, a village in the Iraqi province of Dohuk. The village of Avzrog is split into two areas: one populated by Armenians and the other by Assyrians. The name of the village comes from the Kurdish language; av (water) and zrog (yellow).
It was built for the first time in 1932 when the Armenians of Zakho and its suburbs decided to establish the village and settle in it. The village was subject of destruction in 1975. The Armenian inhabitants of Avzrog don't speak Armenian, they speak Arabic and Kurdish. Despite this, Armenians in Avzrog maintain their Armenian social identity like folklore and names. Avzrog has a total population of about 300 people.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Nabucodonosor_IV.jpg
Nebuchadnezzar IV, also known as Arakha, was the last king of Babylon.
In 522 BC, with the disturbances that occurred after the death of Cambyses II and the proclamation of Bardiya as King, the Armenians revolted. Darius I of Persia sent an Armenian named Dâdarši to suffocate the revolt, later substituting him for the Persian Vaumisa who defeated the Armenians on May 20, 521 BC. Around the same time, another Armenian named Arakha ('Arakha' meaning 'crown prince' in Armenian), son of Haldita, claimed to be the son of the previous king of Babylon, Nabonidus, and renamed himself Nebuchadnezzar IV. His rebellion was short-lived and was suppressed by Intaphrenes, Darius's bow carrier.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Badr_al-Din_Lu%27lu%27.jpg
Badr al-Din Lu'lu' (died 1259) was successor to the Zangid rulers of Mosul, where he governed in variety of capacities for half a century.
Lu'lu' was an Armenian convert to Shi'a Islam, in the household of the Zangid ruler Nur al-Din Arslanshah I. Recognized for his abilities as an administrator, he rose to the rank of atabeg and, after 1211, served as regent until the death of the last Zengid, Nasir al-Din Mahmud in 1233. From this time on, he ruled independently, careful to preserve his sovereignty through a series of tactical submissions to larger neighboring powers.
son, Rukn al-Din Isma'il

http://www.catholic-ew.org.uk/var/storage/images/cbcew2/cbcew-media-library/cbcew-images/bishops-and-clergy/his-beatitude-torkom-manoogian-ii-armenian-patriarch-of-jerusalem/223965-1-eng-GB/His-Beatitude-Torkom-Manoogian-II-Armenian-Patriarch-of-Jerusalem.jpg
Torkom Manoogian

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Caloustegulbenkian.jpg
Calouste Gulbenkian

http://blog.farusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/kevorkhovnanian.jpg?w=204
Kevork Hovnanian

http://armeniansecretarmy.webs.com/photos/asala/Hagop%20Hagopian.jpg
Hagop Hagopian

http://www.saintsahag.com/images/Beatrice%20Ohanessian_216.jpg
Beatrice Ohanessian

http://www.alowaisnet.org/_data/global/images/adbaamaser/aaafifah22.jpg
Afifah Iskandar

http://a3.ec-images.myspacecdn.com/images02/140/98db080c152d4836bd80f04c143599e6/l.jpg
Seta Hagopian

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/7/7c/Daron-Malakian-Gibson.jpg
Daron Malakian

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Andy_Serkis_Comic-Con_2011.jpg
Andy Serkis

http://www.almadapaper.net/MediaStorage/NewsImages/3398.jpg?width=400
Jacob Sarkis

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Esabelle_Dingizian_portr%C3%A4tt_%282008%29.jpg
Esabelle Dingizian

http://www.elcinema.com/photolist/31/c16445e88da8f53d825d2d19f43c1079_123608833_147.jpg
azadhye Samuel

http://www.studio14.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Murad-Artin_03.jpg
Murad Artin

http://www.azg.am/image.php?imgBig=300-200718705.jpg
Grigor Gurzadyan

http://www.hkmisc.org.hk/newsletter/2006Q2/photo-sir-ara-darzi-2.jpg
Ara Darzi

http://msnbcmedia1.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/060412/060412_miss_iraq_vmed_4p.grid-4x2.jpg
Silva Shahakian, Miss Iraq 2006

http://a1.ec-images.myspacecdn.com/images02/38/0716874f55e4487abe2466db983d2518/l.jpg
Nova Emad, she Is daughter of an Iraqi Arab father & Iraqi Armenian mother.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Karo_Murat_2008-09.jpg
Karo Murat

http://gulfnews.com/polopoly_fs/1.215421!/image/2906698763._gen/derivatives/box_475/2906698763.
Gulizar Jonian

http://www.azad-hye.net/media/i1/iraqi-armenians-05.jpg
http://aljadidah.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/afifa-skandar.jpg
http://aztagarabic.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D9%85%D9%86-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82.jpg
http://www.elcinema.com/photolist/34/ff633bd75e36958dee423bf96b655c78_123624125_147.jpg
http://www.mesopot.com/default/images/stories/book-lougaat/10/image025.jpg
http://www.azad-hye.org/uploads/images/k_1/zakho-armenians-01.jpg
http://www.rferl.org/video/a5399a8c-84d7-45a7-8ce5-cc1fef6917a6.jpgx
http://www.ankawa.com/sabah/arman/5.jpg
http://arabic.rt.com/media/pics/2012.10/512/b6fe7002b62974bbe9bd7c061f682ae5.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Afifa-Iskandar.jpg
http://images.alarabiya.net/29/95/436x328_94358_245434.jpg
http://www.armenianow.com/sites/default/files/img/imagecache/600x400/darbnik.jpg
http://en.hayernaysor.am/images/dXaEZxUJjFn89CzK1UZTYCZnFA.jpg

http://www.azad-hye.net/photos/photoalbumimgs/iraqi-armenians-04.jpg
http://iraqslogger.powweb.com/images_full_column/77248304_10.jpg
http://iraqslogger.powweb.com/images_full_column/77248030_10.jpg
http://iraqslogger.powweb.com/images_full_column/77248089_10.jpg
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/10/11/world/11iraq.600.jpg

ashrf1979
2013-01-16, 18:45
Iraqi Fashions

http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/564775_343776239050695_718043058_n.jpg
http://sphotos-h.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/168490_494834786273_2342320_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/165590_493218826273_4888301_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/551616_379396162155369_890204605_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163631_493212751273_7194072_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/150175_343774432384209_510844359_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/167892_494838486273_8174019_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163636_493214696273_6196258_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/59665_353679751393677_1632669654_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163636_493214681273_1545920_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/168490_494834796273_6943369_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/168490_494834781273_415630_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/165660_493217146273_3683663_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/168600_493219196273_5770918_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/163631_493212761273_1135491_n.jpg
http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163636_493214691273_5509596_n.jpg
http://sphotos-e.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163631_493212736273_194697_n.jpg
http://sphotos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/166668_493216146273_2908734_n.jpg
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163631_493212756273_2240901_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/167885_493217876273_7434131_n.jpg
http://sphotos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/163636_493214686273_622688_n.jpg
http://sphotos-b.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/424413_10150614569546274_1161345915_n.jpg
http://sphotos-c.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/163631_493212741273_2518081_n.jpg