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jibarodepr
2010-09-16, 12:21
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maipurean#Maipure_language (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2 Fwiki%2FMaipurean%23Maipure_language)



Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre, Arawakan, Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper) is a language family (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Language_family) that spans from the Caribbean (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Caribbean) and Central America (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Central_America) to every country in South America (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/South_America) excepting Uruguay (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Uruguay) and Chile (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Chile). Maipurean may be related to other language families in a hypothetical Arawakan (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Arawakan) stock.
The name Maipurean/Maipuran was named after the Maipure language (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Maipure_language) of Venezuela (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Venezuela) by Filippo S. Gilij (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Filippo_S._Gilij) in 1782.

Maipure language
Maipure, once spoken along the Ventuari (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Ventuari&action=edit&redlink=1), Sipapo (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Sipapo&action=edit&redlink=1), and Autana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Autana) rivers (Amazonas (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Amazon_River)) and, as a lingua franca (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Lingua_franca), in the Upper Orinoco (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Orinoco) region, became extinct around the end of the eighteenth century. It constitutes with Yavitero (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Yavitero_language) (or Parene), and Baniva (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Baniva&action=edit&redlink=1) (or Baniva/Baniwa of Guainía) a subgroup of the northern division of the Arawakan (called Maipure-Yavitero). Zamponi (2003) is a grammatical sketch of the language, furnished with a classified word list, based on all its extant available eighteenth century material (mainly from the Italian missionary Filippo S. Gilij (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Filippo_S._Gilij)).

Maipurean vs. Arawakan
In recent years, the term Maipurean refers to a core family of undoubtedly related languages while the term Arawakan refers to a larger and hypothetical phylum at a level above Maipurean. In this sense, Maipurean is a sub-grouping under a (macro-)Arawakan stock along with Guajiboan (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Guajiboan), Arauan (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Arauan), Candoshi (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Candoshi), Harákmbut (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Har%C3%A1kmbut&action=edit&redlink=1), and the extinct Puquina (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Puquina).
Another usage of the term Arawakan is synonymous with Maipurean where they both are used interchangeably to refer to this core family. In this sense, readers may find Arawakan referring to the larger grouping and Arawakan Proper referring to the (Maipurean) subgrouping.

Family division

The classification of Maipurean is difficult due to the large number of languages which are extinct (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Extinct) and poorly documented. The following (tentative) classification is from Kaufman (1994: 57-60). In addition to the family tree detailed below, there are a few languages that are "Non-Maipurean Arawakan languages or too scantily known to classify" (Kaufman 1994: 58), which include:

Shebaye (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Shebaye&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
Lapachu (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Lapachu&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
Morique (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Morique&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Morike) (†)
Another language is also mentioned as "Arawakan":

Salumã (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Salum%C3%A3) (a.k.a. Salumán, Enawené-Nawé)
Including these unclassified languages mentioned above, the Maipurean family has about 64 languages. Out of these, 29 languages are now extinct (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Extinct_language): Wainumáf, Mariaté, Anauyá, Amarizana, Jumana, Pasé, Cawishana, Garú, Marawá, Guinao, Yavitero (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Yavitero_language), Maipure, Manao, Kariaí, Waraikú, Yabaána, Wiriná, Aruán, Taíno, Kalhíphona, Marawán-Karipurá, Saraveca, Custenau, Paunaca, Inapari, Kanamaré, Shebaye, Lapachu, and Morique.





Gordon (2005) lists Aikaná (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Aikana_language) (a.k.a. Tubarão) and Irantxe (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Irantxe_language) (a.k.a. Irántxe) under Maipurean, but Campbell (1997) & Kaufman (1994) list these languages as a language isolates (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Language_isolate)/unclassified languages (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Unclassified_language). Gordon also lists the following extinct "unclassified Arawkan" languages which do not appear in Campbell or Kaufman:

Chané (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Chan%C3%A9)
Cumeral (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Cumeral&action=edit&redlink=1)
Omejes (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Omejes&action=edit&redlink=1)
Ponares (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Ponares&action=edit&redlink=1)
Tomedes (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Tomedes&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Tamudes)
Ponares may be related to Piapoco (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Piapoco&action=edit&redlink=1) or Achagua (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Achagua). Chané may be a dialect (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Dialect) of Terena (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Terena) although Gordon says that it is distinct from Terena (note also that Gordon considers Guana a separate language while Campbell and Kaufman consider this a dialect of Terena).

I. Northern Maipurean
A. Upper Amazon branch i. Western Nawiki a. Wainumá group (†)
1. Wainumá (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Wainum%C3%A1&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
2. Mariaté (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Mariat%C3%A9&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
3. Anauyá (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Anauy%C3%A1&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)b. Piapoko group
4. Achagua (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Achagua) (a.k.a. Achawa)
5. Piapoco (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Piapoco&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Piapoko)
6. Amarizana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Amarizana&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
7. Caviyari (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Caviyari&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Kaviyarí, Cabiyarí)c. Warekena group
8. Guarequena (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Guarequena&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Warekena)
9. Mandahuaca (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Mandahuaca&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Mandawaka)d. Río Negro group
10. Jumana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Jumana) (†)
11. Pasé (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Pas%C3%A9&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)12.
Cawishana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Cawishana&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Kawishana) (†)e. Yucuna group (a.k.a. Jukuna language area)
13. Yucuna (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Yucuna&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Jukuna)
14. Garú (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Gar%C3%BA&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)ii. Eastern Nawiki
15. Tariana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Tariana) (a.k.a. Tariano)a. Karu group
16. Ipeka (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Ipeka&action=edit&redlink=1)-Kurripako (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Kurripako&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Curripako, Ipeka-Tapuia-Curripako)
17. Karútiana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Kar%C3%BAtiana&action=edit&redlink=1)-Baniwa (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Baniwa) (a.k.a. Baniva, Carútana-Baniwa)
18. Katpolítani (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Katpol%C3%ADtani&action=edit&redlink=1)-Moriwene (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Moriwene&action=edit&redlink=1)-Mapanai (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Mapanai&action=edit&redlink=1) (dialect?)iii. Resígaro
19. Resígaro (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Res%C3%ADgaro&action=edit&redlink=1)iv. Central Upper Amazon a. Baré group
20. Marawá (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Maraw%C3%A1&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
21. Baré (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Bar%C3%A9_language&action=edit&redlink=1)
22. Guinao (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Guinao&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Ginao) (†)b. Yavitero group
23. Yavitero (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Yavitero_language) (†)
24. Baniva (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Baniva&action=edit&redlink=1)
25. Maipure (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Maipure) (†)v. Manao (†)
26. Manao (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Manao) (†)
27. Kariaí (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Karia%C3%AD&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)vi unclassified Upper Amazon languages
28. Waraikú (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Waraik%C3%BA&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
29. Yabaána (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Yaba%C3%A1na&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Yabaâna) (†)
30. Wiriná (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Wirin%C3%A1&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
31. Shiriana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Shiriana_language) (a.k.a. Xiriâna)B. Maritime branch i. Aruán
32. Aruán (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Aru%C3%A1n&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)ii. Wapishana
33. Wapixana (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Wapixana) (a.k.a. Wapishana) (dialects: Atorada (aka Atoraí), Mapidian (aka Maopidyán), Wapishana)iii. Ta-Maipurean
34. Taíno (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Ta%C3%ADno) (a.k.a. Taino) (dialects: Baicawa (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Baicawa), Cayaba (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Cayaba), Cubaba (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Cubaba), Eyeri (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Eyeri), Lucayo (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Lucayo))a. Guajiro group (a.k.a. Wahiro)
35. Wayuu (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Wayuu_language) (a.k.a. Wahiro, Guajiro)
36. Paraujano (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Paraujano&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Parauhano)
37. Arawak (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Arawak) (a.k.a. Arawák)b. Iñeri group (a.k.a. Inyeri language area)
38. Kalhíphona (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Kalh%C3%ADphona) (a.k.a. Island Carib (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Island_Carib)) (†)
39. Garífuna (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Garifuna_language) (a.k.a. Black Carib)iv. Palikur
40. Palikur (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Palikur) (a.k.a. Palikúr)
41. Marawán (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Maraw%C3%A1n&action=edit&redlink=1)-Karipúna (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Karip%C3%BAna) (†)

II. Southern Maipurean

A. Western branch
42. Amuesha (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Amuesha_language) (a.k.a. Amoesha, Yanesha’)
43. Chamicuro (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Chamicuro) (a.k.a. Chamikuro)B. Central branch i. Paresí group
44. Peresí (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Peres%C3%AD&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Perecís)
45. Saraveca (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Saraveca) (a.k.a. Sarave) (†)ii. Waurá group
46. Waurá (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Waur%C3%A1&action=edit&redlink=1)-Meinaku (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Meinaku&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Waurá-Mehináku)
47. Yawalpití (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Yawalpit%C3%AD&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Yawalapití)
48. Custenau (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Custenau&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Kustenau) (†)C. Southern Outlier branch i. Terena
49. Terêna (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Ter%C3%AAna_language) (dialects: Kinikinao, Terena, Guaná (aka Guana), Chané)ii. Moxos (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Moxos) group (a.k.a. Moho) a. Moxos language (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Moxos_language) area
50. Ignaciano (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Ignaciano&action=edit&redlink=1)
51. Trinitario (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Trinitario)
52. Baure (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Baure_language)
53. Paunaca (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Paunaca&action=edit&redlink=1) (a.k.a. Pauna-Paikone) (†)iii. Piro group
54. Yine (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Yine) (formerly known as Piro)
55. Inapari (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Inapari) (a.k.a. Iñapari) (†)
56. Kanamaré (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Kanamar%C3%A9&action=edit&redlink=1) (†)
57. Apuriña (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Apurin%C3%A3_language) (a.k.a. Apuriná)D. Campa branch (also known Pre-Andean)
58. Ashéninka (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Ash%C3%A9ninka&action=edit&redlink=1)
59. Asháninka (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Ash%C3%A1ninka_language)
60. Axininca (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Axininca)
61. Machiguenga (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Machiguenga) (a.k.a. Matsiguenga)
62. Caquinte (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/wiki/Caquinte_language)
63. Nomatsiguenga (https://www.forumbiodiversity.com/w/index.php?title=Nomatsiguenga_language&action=edit&redlink=1)