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Thread: The Hadza3773 days old

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    Default The Hadza









    According to one of the newest studies on sub saharan African populations they are distinct enough to form their own cluster, the Hadza cluster.




    From the Sarah Tischkoff's study on African diversity.
    http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/data/1172257/DC1/1

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    "Hadza is a language isolate spoken by fewer than a thousand Hadza people along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa. Despite the small number of speakers, language use is vigorous, with most children learning it. Hadza has traditionally been classified as a Khoisan language, along with its neighbor Sandawe, primarily because they both have clicks. However, Hadza has very few proposed cognates with either Sandawe or the other Khoisan languages, and many of the ones that have been proposed appear doubtful. The links with Sandawe, for example, appear to be Cushitic loan words, while the links with southern Africa are so few and short (usually single CV syllables) that they could easily be coincidence. There are also a few apparent cognates with the possibly spurious Oropom language. In 2003 the press widely reported suggestions by Alec Knight and Joanna Mountain of Stanford University that the original human language may have had clicks. The evidence for this is genetic: the Juǀʼhoan and the Hadza have the most divergent known mitochondrial DNA of any human populations, suggesting that they were the first, or at least among the first, surviving peoples to have split off the family tree. In other words, the three primary genetic divisions of humanity are the Hadzabe, the Juǀʼhoansi and relatives, and everyone else. Since two of the three groups speak languages with clicks, perhaps their common ancestral language, which by implication is the ancestral language for all humankind, had clicks as well. However, this conclusion rests on several unsupported assumptions:

    -Both groups have kept their languages intact, without language shift, since the origin of humanity;
    -Neither borrowed clicks as part of a Sprachbund, as the Xhosa, Zulu and Sotho did; and
    -Neither the ancestors of the Juǀʼhoansi nor those of the Hadzabe developed clicks independently.

    Alec Knight has also suggested a practical advantage to clicks: When hunting, the Juǀʼhoansi report that they do not use regular speech, which might spook their prey, but communicate solely by means of hand gestures and clicks. (The Hadzabe are currently mostly solitary hunters.) If Knight is correct, and clicks do provide an advantage to savanna hunters, then it is untenable to assume that they have not arisen independently, or at least not spread from one group to another, over the last several tens of thousands of years. However, the Hadza have almost no clicks in their specialized hunting vocabulary, such as the hunting names of animals".
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadza_language

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    From another Sarah Tischkoff's study

    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/re...24/10/2180.pdf

    This study, based on two highly informative and independently inherited genetic
    regions (the mtDNA and Y chromosome), indicates that any connections between
    African click-speaking populations, in the form of common ancestry and/or migration,
    were quite ancient: >15 kya for the Sandawe and Hadza, and between 35-55 kya for the
    Sandawe/Hadza and SAK (Southern African Khoisan). In addition, the Hadza and Sandawe are genetically more similar to their Nilotic-, Cushitic-, and Bantu-speaking neighbors than they are to the SAK-speaking population.
    However, they are also genetically more similar to the SAK speakers than are any of the other Tanzanian populations (Figures 6, 8).

    Despite genetic exchange with neighboring populations, the Hadza and Sandawe
    populations each have maintained not only their respective click languages, but also
    indigenous genetic lineages and, in the case of the Hadza, a hunting and gathering
    subsistence pattern. The Sandawe and Hadza are also fairly divergent from each other,
    especially in light of their geographic proximity. This genetic divergence is consistent
    with their deep linguistic divergence and may reflect greater geographic separation of the
    two populations in the more distant past
    .

    Here's some pictures of a Sandawe girl, the other click speaking people in Tanzania. Apparently only distantly related to the Hadza.






    These are all Hadza, taken from an excellent nat. geographic gallery.
    From a distance they look quite homogenous. But at closer look you can distinguish distinct facial features, mostly bantuid influenced, but also nilotid and palaenegrid imo.
    I can't see any khoisanid though, except maybe slightly for the last four.






































    Last edited by oditous; 2010-01-08 at 01:12.

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