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Thread: Sumerian, Akkadian, and Aramaic910 days old

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    Default Sumerian, Akkadian, and Aramaic

    Instead of posting in the Dodecad thread, I thought I would create a new thread, to discuss topics related to a comparative analysis of Sumerian, Akkadian, and extant Aramaic vernaculars.

    Here are a few lexical items. I will add the rest of the previously posted entries at another time. Diacritical marks are included, save for where noted. The sources are provided at bottom. I am no linguist, so, please bear that in mind. Thought it would be an interesting exercise.

    1.
    Sumerian
    lalla: shortage, deficiency (reduplicated lal/lá, 'light, deficient').

    lil: fool, moron (lallation word = unintelligible baby talk; or lal/lá, 'deficiency', + íla, 'to carry').

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    lillu: a fool , a moron , an idiot , a boob , a booby , a dunce , a dummy

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    lala: dumb, destitute of the power of speech , unable to utter articulate sounds , mute , silent

    2.
    Sumerian
    ne-ha: rest, repose

    Note: “h is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch.”

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    nēḫu: peaceful , calm , quiet , gentle , retired

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    nixa: slow; inactive; extinct, obliterated; deceased

    The Sumerian note above equally applies to the “x” in nixa. The “ni” is pronounced the same way one would say the first three letters of the English word, “need.”

    3.
    Sumerian
    (giš)nu-úr-ma: pomegranate (tree)

    Note: “g is pronounced like ng in rang.”

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    alappānu : sweet pomegranate ; bittersweet beer
    armannu : apricot tree (?) , apricot , kind of pomegranate , "mountain apple" ; : branch used as a drug , kernel used as perfume ;
    nurmû : a pomegranate

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    armunta: a pomegranate

    4.
    Sumerian
    gub: to stand; to set, erect, install (singular); to set down in writing; to stand by, to serve (with -da-); to do service (with -ši-); to stand aside (with -ta-) (to be long and throat-like in open container).

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    qurbu : neighbouring , in the vicinity , in the neighbourhood 1) (time) near , nigh : [ana ūmē qurbūtim] : within a short time , before long 2) (space) near , nigh , not far , in the neighborhood , in the vicinity : close 3) : a follower , a retainer , a disciple (?) , a servant , a relative , a kin 4) : (commodity) available , on hand , at one's disposal

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    qurba: 1) near / nigh , at / within a little distance / by , close ; 2) -adjective- : intimate , familiar , nigh , nearby , inner (?) , private (?)

    Also --> guda: wall

    5.
    Sumerian
    ud : n., sun; light; day; time; weather; storm (demon)
    u-da: today ('day' + 'with, near, present').

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ūmu anniu : today
    ūmu : day ; pl. : days (period of time, lifetime)

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    idium: today , this day , the present day , on this day
    iddiu: today
    ium: day
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Sumerian Lexikon
    Akkadian Online Dictionary
    Sureth Online Dictionary
    The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar
    Last edited by Humanist; 2012-01-31 at 11:40.

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    6.
    Sumerian
    kiri, kir, giri: nose; muzzle (of an animal); hyena (cf., kir) (ki, 'place', + ir, 'smell').

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    naḫīru : a nostril

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    naxira : nose

    Note: See the previous post, for the proper pronunciation of “x.”

    Although not necessarily related, the nearest I could find, to the Sureth word for nose, and the Akkadian word for nostril (from “Wiktionary”):

    NOSE

    Bengali: nak
    Hindi: nāk
    Urdu: nāk
    Romani: nakh
    Sanskrit: nāsikā

    Maltese: mnieħer
    Egyptian Arabic: manaxīr

    Sotho: nko

    Aguaruna: nuhi

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    The first one requires a bit of further reading. Of course, this all remains nothing but an amateur exercise.

    7.
    Sumerian
    gíg, gíg, gi, ge, gi, ne, mi, mé, ku; gi n., night (sounds represent the throat chamber or the mouth as an enclosed dark chamber)

    v., to be black or dark (ku: reduplication class).
    adj., black, dark (cf., kúkku).

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    *uskāru : moon crescent, first quarter ; crescent-shaped object ; segment of a circle
    duʾʾumu : very dark
    ekeltu * : darkness
    ekēlu : G. to become dark Gt. to become permanently dark D. to darken Dt. to be darkened

    *See:“The Darkness of the First Crescent Moon

    In essence this makes the so called visible crescent moon nothing more than another dark concealed moon, or moon phase.
    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    ḥšqa: dark
    kuma: black

    8.
    Sumerian
    (giš) al-la-an: oak tree (Akk. loanword from allaanum, 'oak', cf., Orel & Stolbova #31 *'alan-/*'alun-
    'tree').

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    ilana : tree

    9.
    Sumerian
    giš, geš: n., tree; wood; wooden implement; scepter; tool; organ; plow; natural phenomenon

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    1.iṣu: tree, wood
    2.qissu: wood , forest

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    qésa: wood

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    To tie in with the subject of my post in the Near Eastern music thread.

    Aino Kume (Her Dark/Black Eyes). According to a knowledgeable friend, this is traditional Assyrian šexani music. Sung by Frederick Varda.
    Also: An Assyrian folk dance group

    It is said that Assyrians would dance to similar music before going on a hunt, or departing for battle. How about a "rain dance?" After all, most of our ancestors were presumably farmers. Indeed, several loanwords from the most ancient (identified) stratum of our vernacular, are associated with agriculture. Again, this is not meant to be taken all that seriously.

    10.
    Sumerian
    šeg, še: rain; to rain (šu, 'to pour' + to mete out).

    šeg, še: to heat, cook, bake, boil; to be hot; to dry a field (redup. class) (ša, 'to dry up' + to mete out).

    an: n., sky, heaven; the [Sumero-Akkadian] god An; grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') [AN archaic frequency: 806].

    v., to be high.
    adj., high.
    prep., in front.

    saga, sag, sig [KIN]: to cut, break, harvest.

    sag, šag, sig, sa, ša: n., good fortune; (divine) grace, favor.

    kíñ, kin: n., message, order; task, work (to build + to mete out to) [KIN archaic frequency: 9].

    v., to seek, fetch (with locative-terminative -ni-); to send; to order (reduplication class).

    Note: “h is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch.” And in some words, “g is pronounced like ng in rang.”

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    šaḫnu * : warm

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    šaxina: hot, warm
    šexani: traditional Assyrian dance

    The Sumerian note above for "h" equally applies to the “x” in the two Sureth words.


    Other cultures:

    Native American: "Pow-Wow"

    Africa: "Ethiopia - Amhara Rain Dance"
    Last edited by Humanist; 2012-02-09 at 07:34.

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    Jews used Aramaic(as well as Hebrew) as Liturgical language for the past two thousand years.
    Many Aramaic words and phrases(Atchalta De'Geulah for example) slipped into modern Hebrew as a result.

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    Quote Originally Posted by tasa2 View Post
    Jews used Aramaic(as well as Hebrew) as Liturgical language for the past two thousand years.
    Many Aramaic words and phrases(Atchalta De'Geulah for example) slipped into modern Hebrew as a result.
    Hi. Thanks, yes. Also, I was unaware of this fact, until not too long ago. From Wiki:

    Ashuri alphabet (Hebrew: alef-bet ashuri) means Assyrian alphabet and also refers to the Assyrian script (Hebrew: k'tav ashuri) which is a traditional name for the Hebrew alphabet and a term that was first used in the Mishnah to refer to either the Aramaic alphabet or the formal script used in certain Jewish ceremonial items, including Sefer Torah, Mezuzah, Tefillin also abbreviated as STA"M [1] (Hebrew: סת"ם). It is also referred to as the “square” script.
    This is a sample of the Ashuri alphabet written according to the Ashkenaz scribal custom on parchment (klaf)

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    11.
    Sumerian
    akkil: lamentation, ritual wailing.

    bi, bé: v., to diminish, lessen; to speak, say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. sing. neuter + e 'to speak'); to murmer, chirp, twitter, buzz, hum, howl, cry; mention (cf., biz; bi[z]) [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261; concatenates 4 sign variants] .

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    killu: 1) noise , scream , clamour , uproar ; 2) cry , wailing , lamentation ; 3) : (prisoner) an enclosure , confinement

    labû: to howl , to whine , to squeak , to cry out , to creak

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    Eastern phonetic: bḥa:
    English : to weep , to cry , to bewail , to shed tears , to lament , to mourn ;

    Eastern phonetic : bi ḥia:
    English : weeping , crying , shedding tears

    The ḥ is pronounced similar to “ch in German Buch.”

    12.
    Sumerian
    me-lám/li9(-m), me-lim5[LAM]: terrifying glance; splendor, radiance; halo, aura, light (myth.) ('divine power' + 'awe-inspiring quality; to shine').

    me-li-e-a: 'woe is me'.

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    melemmu [ME.LÁM] (n.): fearsome radiance, aura ; melemma našû to wear an aura

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    melá: upset, angered. ← My definition. Could not find in sources.

    13.
    Sumerian
    me-na-àm: when? ('to be' + èn, 'time; until' + enclitic copula).

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    inum: when

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    Eastern phonetic : iman
    English : when , at what time or place at , during or after the time that

    14.
    Sumerian
    danna, dana: road-length measure, double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2].

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    dannu: strong, powerful ; stable

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    dana: time; point in time; period of time

    15.
    Sumerian
    kalag, kala, kal: v., to repair, mend (kal, 'excellent', + aka/ag, 'to make').
    adj., strong; swift [GURUŠ+2-N14 (wagon pictogram) archaic frequency: 7; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

    Á-KAL: strength; plow extension ('arm' + 'strong').

    kaš-kal: strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong; excellent').

    ti-na: adv., strongly ('to live; healthy' + subordination suffix /-a/).

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    dannu: strong, powerful ; stable

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    ḥaila: 1) strength , power , force , might , ability to do or bear , power to resist ; 2) the army

    ḥailana: strong, mighty, huge

    The ḥ is pronounced similar to “ch in German Buch.”

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    16.

    Sumerian
    ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108; concatenates 2 sign variants] .

    gu, kú: n., food, sustenance; fodder; angle [GU7 archaic frequency: 236].
    v., to eat, swallow, consume, use; to eat up, finish off; to feed, nurse, benefit (with -ni-) (throat + ú, 'food').

    kuš, kus[SU]: skin, hide, leather (ku, 'to cut', + ús, 'to be joined, next to'/šè, terminative suffix/ šú, 'to
    cover').

    zú, su[KA]: tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    pû [KA] (st. constr. pī): mouth

    kakku: 1) (rarely) : a stick ; 2) a weapon

    šinnu: tooth , fang ; dual

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    kaka (pl. kake): tooth (teeth)

    pumma: mouth (of body or vessel)

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    17.
    Sumerian
    gír...DÙ: to cut off (?) ('knife' + 'to erect').
    gír-zal: scalpel ('knife' + 'to shine').

    Note: The above “g is pronounced like ng in rang.”

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ??

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    gr: to shave

    18.
    Sumerian
    sa: to name; to call by name.
    mu: n., name; word; year; line on a tablet, entry; oath

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    šumu : name ; word for sth. ; good name, repute, fame

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    šəmma: name

    19.
    Sumerian
    gada: flax; linen (clothing) (gu, 'flax, thread', + da, 'to protect') [GADA archaic frequency: 96; concatenation of 2 sign variants] .

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    qû [GU] (Sumerian origin): 1) flax, thread , string

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    gədda: string; thread

    20.
    Sumerian
    ki-zàh: a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide').

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    qašdu :1) holy , sacred , saintly , sanctimonious , untouchable , sacrosanct ; 2) -noun- : a holy man , a saint

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    qaddiša: saint
    qaša: priest

    21.
    Sumerian
    gala: cantor, ritual singer, lamentation priest; transvestite (throat + la, 'youthful freshness and beauty').

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    killu: 1) noise , scream , clamour , uproar ; 2) cry , wailing , lamentation ; 3) : (prisoner) an enclosure , confinement

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    qala: voice; utterance; song; sound

    22.
    Sumerian
    zah: n., secrecy. v., to flee; to hide; to abandon; to be lost; to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control)

    “h is pronounced like ch in German Buch”

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ina aḫītēšu: secretly, on the sly , in secrecy

    “h is pronounced like ch in German Buch”

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    tšy: to hide

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    23.
    Sumerian
    eša, eše: emmer wheat flour.
    eššu: ear of barley or other grain.

    silañ, sila: to knead (dough or clay); to slay.

    kum: an adjective describing flour [that would be ground in a mortar, kum] and bread.

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    līšu: dough (bread, cake)

    saḫālu: to pierce, to prick.

    qēmu: flour

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    leša: dough , moisted but not baked flour

    slḥ: (saleḥ, sliḥle, slaḥa) to tear apart. Used many times in the sense of grievous bodily harm inflicted upon another. Also, there is the related vulgar term in our lexikon (not in the sources), "salinookh."

    qamḥa: flour
    qum: rise (command/request)
    ----------------------------------------------
    Proto-Semitic : qamḥ
    Arabic : qamḥ قَمْح «wheat»
    Hebrew : qemaḥ

    The Semitic tongues are also similar when it comes to "dough."
    -----------------------------------------------

    24.
    Sumerian
    šaḫ: domestic pig

    “h is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch, and š is pronounced like sh in dash.”

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ḫuzīru : a pig , a hog , a swine

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    xzura : pig

    See the note above, for Sumerian “h,” for an explanation of the proper pronunciation of the letter “x,” in Sureth "xzura."
    ----------------------------------------------

    From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication
    PNAS June 16, 2009 vol. 106 no. Supplement 1 9971-9978
    Carlos A. Driscoll, David W. Macdonald, and Stephen J. O'Brienb

    Spoiler: 

    -----------------------------------------------

    25.
    Sumerian
    šib, šip: exorcism

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ašāpu: to exorcise , to cast / drive away demons ; G : (not attested) ; D : to cure (by exorcism)

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    šyp I (šay6p, šiple, šyapa) to rub, to erase, to delete

    Hittite
    suppi-, suppiyant- ‘(ritually) pure’, with vbl. abstract suppiyatar, factitive suppiyahh- (> Arm. šphem ‘rub, cleanse’, Schultheiss, KZ 77 [1961]: 222); "origin unknown".
    ---------------------------------------------------
    Hittite source: Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck’s Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages.

    "A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Indo-European Studies"

    by David Michael Weeks
    --------------------------------------------------

    26.
    Sumerian
    gùr, ga: to bear, carry; to be full, loaded, laden (Umma reading for íla sign, cf., mir) (circular
    container + er, 'to bring'; cf., gur, kùr, 'basket').

    gur(4), kur, gir8: v., to be or feel big; to be endowed with; to turn, roll over; to run; to gallop; to grind (reduplication class) (circle + flowing motion).

    adj., thick, coarse; fattened, plump; bright, preeminent; very strong; great (cf., gud, guðx, 'bull').

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ????

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    goṛa adj.: big; great; old. (1) big (in size)

    27.
    Sumerian
    šur, sur: to rain; to produce a liquid; to flow, drip; to extract seed oil; to process wine and juices; to press (out); to spray out; to brew (beer); to submerge; to flash, gleam (šu, 'to pour' + to flow; cf., šeñ,7).

    zar, zur, sur: to tap, pour; to spout, flow; to exude; to spin (a cocoon) (cf. the graphically similar sign, sug) (repetitive motion + to flow) [? ZAR archaic frequency: 15; concatenates 4 sign variants] .

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    sābû : to draw (water) , to tap (water) (?)

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    šršr: to splash (sound made by flowing water)
    šr: faucet <-- could not find in sources

    28.
    Sumerian
    zú, su[KA]: tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

    šen[SU×A]: n., a copper pan, pail, vessel; mirror (?) (liquid + stone) [ŠEN archaic frequency: 66; concatenates 4 sign variants] .adj., clear, pure; polished, shiny.

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ša tāmarti : looking glass
    ša-tāmarti : mirror , looking glass , lens -optical- (?) ;
    zakūkītu * : glass , glaze

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    šuša: glass; bottle
    -----------------------------------------

    Note: Searching the Akkadian lexikon is a particularly tedious task. So, please keep that in mind. So, in all likelihood, some relevant words are not listed in the comparison. And, that goes for Sureth and Sumerian as well. Also, for some of these words, apart from the Hittite word noted above, there are similarities with other IE languages. For example, Iranian and Kurdish.
    ------------------------------------------

    29.
    Sumerian
    ur-maḫ: lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty').

    “h is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch"

    Akkadian (Old/Standard Babylonian)
    ūmu : [Religion] storm ; storm-demon ; mythical lion
    urmaḫḫu : [Art] lion (statue)

    Sureth (Assyrian-Aramaic vernacular)
    arya, "erya: lion

    Hebrew: ’aryā’
    Old Armenian: aṙiwc

  17. The Following User Says Thank You to Humanist For This Useful Post:

    Ardi (2012-03-20)

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