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Thread: Bronze Age Human migrations in the southern region of the West Siberian Plain2501 days old

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    Default Bronze Age Human migrations in the southern region of the West Siberian Plain

    Via Dienekes blog from Population Dynamics in Prehistory and Early History (2012)
    Ed. by Kaiser, Elke / Burger, Joachim / Schier, Wolfram
    the paper Human migrations in the southern region of the West Siberian Plain during the Bronze Age: Archaeological, palaeogenetic and anthropological data



    Excerpts:

    The earliest group from the Bronze Age in the Baraba region is represented by the Ust-Tartas population (Molodin, 2001). Several Ust-Tartas burial grounds with more than 150 graves have been excavated to date (Fig. 4), some of which revealed the presence of bronze adornments. The results of archaeo-logical and radiocarbon dating allow us to date this culture to between the 4th millennium BC and the first half of the 3rd millennium BC.

    Another cultural group in the Baraba region existed contemporaneously with the Ust-Tartas culture, the “Comb-pit Ware culture”. Unlike the Ust-Tartas, the materials from the Comb-pit Ware culture are associated predominantly with settlements. In addition, several burials have been investigated, making it possible to reconstruct the burial practices of this culture (Molodin, 1985, 2001).
    (...)
    We have analyzed 18 mtDNA samples from the Ust-Tartas population to date (Fig. 3). The results
    obtained thus far allow us to draw several preliminary conclusions about the genetic background in the region in the beginning of the Bronze Age. By the Early Metal Period the mtDNA pool structure was already mixed and consisted of both Western and Eastern Eurasian haplogroups in nearly equal proportions. The eastern Eurasian mtDNA cluster was represented by Haplogroups A, C, Z, D, which are most typical of modern and perhaps ancient populations located in the east of the region studied. Haplogroups C and D were predominantly represented by widely distributed root haplotypes. A lineage of Haplogroup A that was detected in two Ust-Tartas samples represents a subcluster that is apparently characteristic of West Siberia and the Volga-Ural Region. The observed presence of Haplogroup Z lineages with a high frequency in the Ust-Tartas group was unexpected, since these lineages are nearly absent in the gene pool of modern indigenous West Siberian populations. It is worth noting that the Western Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Ust-Tartas series were represented only by Haplogroup U lineages, and specifically by the three subgroups – U2e, U4, U5a1. These results are in agreement with previous data indicating that Haplogroup U lineages (particularly Subgroups U5 and U4) predominated in Eastern, Central and Northern European hunter-gatherer groups from 14000 to 4000 years ago (Bramanti et al., 2009; Malmstrom et al., 2009), and possibly in earlier periods (Krause et al., 2010). The geographic area within which this genetic feature is observed appears
    to be broad (Fig. 5). Apparently, Baraba was near the eastern periphery of this area.




    The Early and the beginning of Middle Bronze Age populations: an autochthonous evolution


    The local evolution of the cultural groups described above led to the emergence of a new group in the Baraba region in the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. This group, referred to as Odinovo culture, differed in terms of their grave goods and funerary practices (Fig. 6) (Molodin, 2008). The study of Odinovo culture settlements and several burial grounds with characteristic funerary practices showed that its carriers had well-developed bronze casting and weapons of the Seima-Turbino type (Molodin, 2008). The material culture of this group combined features of the preceding Comb-pit ware and Ust-Tartas archaeological cultures. It is possible that both these substrates were involved in the formation of the Odinovo culture. Anthropological evidence confirms the autochthonous development of the culture. An anthropological affinity of the group to the Ust-Tartas and the Neolithic craniological series from the Baraba forest steppe has been established (Chikisheva, 2010).

    At the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, a striking and original culture existed in
    the West Siberian forest steppe zone. The culture, known as Krotovo, obviously developed autochthonally
    (Molodin, 1985). Undoubtedly, one of its ancestral components was the preceding Odinovo group.
    (...)
    The genetic analysis of the Odinovo and Krotovo groups (10 and 6 samples, respectively) (Fig. 3) did not reveal any differences between them and the previous Ust-Tartas group, such as the presence of new mtDNA haplogroups. The mtDNA pool structure was still mixed. The East Eurasian haplogroups were represented by the D, C, Z (in both the Odinovo and Krotovo groups) and A (in the Krotovo group) haplogroups. The East Eurasian lineages identified were phylogenetically close (lineages of haplogroups A, C, Z) or even identical (D haplogroup, 16223–16362 lineages) to the samples from the Ust-Tartas group. The West Eurasian part of the samples were represented by the U5a1 (Odinovo group) and U2e (Krotovo
    group) haplogroup lineages. Although only a small series of samples have been investigated thus far, the data obtained reveal continuity between the Odinovo and Krotovo populations and the earlier Ust-Tartas group. These findings are consistent with the autochthonous development of the Baraba populations during the Early and the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, as well as with the anthropological evidence.


    The Middle and Late Bronze Age: significance of the Andronovo (Fedorovo) population
    migration wave


    The Krotovo culture continued to develop indigenously for several centuries. At the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, the migration of the Andronovo culture population to the south of the West Siberian Plain started, probably originating in the territory of present-day Central Kazakhstan. Apparently, this migration wave, which spread from its epicenter to the west, north and east (Kuz’mina, 1994), was a highly significant phenomenon in Asia.
    (...)
    To investigate the putative impact of Andronovo migrants on the mtDNA pool structure of the
    indigenous populations in Baraba, mtDNA samples from the Late Krotovo (n=20) and Andronovo
    (n=20) groups in this region were analyzed (Fig. 3) and compared to recently published data (n=10) (Keyser et al., 2009) and our own unpublished data (n=6) on mtDNA lineages from West Siberian Andronovo populations located outside the Baraba forest steppe. The genetic influence of migrants can be detected by the appearance of a new mtDNA haplogroup that was absent in the populations preceding the migration wave. This new mtDNA haplogroup, a West Eurasian T haplogroup, was detected in the Late Krotovo population. The T haplogroup appears simultaneously (with a 15 % frequency) in the Krotovo and Andronovo groups, but was completely absent in all preceding Baraba populations. We therefore consider the appearance of the Haplogroup T-lineage as the most likely genetic marker of the Andronovo migration wave to the region. This assumption is confirmed by mtDNA studies of Andronovo groups from other West Siberian areas. Haplogroup T lineages were found, with a frequency of 25 %, in the samples (n=16) taken from two Andronovo groups from the Krasnoyarsk and upper Ob River areas.

    (...)

    A small but informative series of mtDNA samples from the Baraba Late Bronze Age culture population (n=5) was analyzed (Fig. 3), revealing the presence of MtDNA lineages (East Eurasian A and C lineages) that mark the genetic continuity with aboriginal Baraba groups. At the same time, the series includes the Haplogroup-T lineage, which we believe marks the Andronovo migration wave to West

    The transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age: a southern influence

    Thus, a complex ethno-cultural structure developed in the end of the Bronze Age in the West Siberian forest steppe region, becoming even more complex during the transition from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age (9th–8th century BC). The abrupt cooling of the climate of Western Siberia (at its strongest in the Holocene [Levina, Orlova, 1993]) led to the deterioration of ecological conditions in the taiga zone. In consequence, intense migration of taiga populations to the forest steppe zone in the south occurred in the territory that extends from the Urals in the west to the Yenisei River in the east.
    (...)
    The analysis of mtDNA samples from the Chicha-1 population revealed some interesting patterns.
    Crucial changes in the composition of mtDNA haplogroups in the gene pool were observed as compared to the earlier Baraba groups studied (Fig. 3). Dominance of Western Eurasian haplogroups and the near absence of East Eurasian were observed. Additionally, several new West Eurasian haplogroups appeared in the region, including Haplogroups U1a, U3, U5b, K, H, J and W. The phylogeographic analysis suggests that the distribution and diversification centres of several of these mtDNA haplogroups and specific lineages are located on the west and south west of the Baraba forest steppe region, on the territory corresponding to modern-day Kazakhstan and Western Central Asia (Fig. 10). Apparently, the migration wave from the south strongly influenced the gene pool of the Baraba population in the transitional period from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age. The impact of the northern human groups was probably less evident in the south of the Baraba forest steppe, at least at the mtDNA level. The frequencies of the new haplogroups mentioned above in the mtDNA pools of modern West Siberian populations show a different pattern however. The haplogroup lineages U1a and U3 are found only sporadically in the modern populations. Conversely, Haplogroup H is one of the most frequent West Eurasian haplogroups in the modern indigenous populations of the region. Unexpectedly, the H-haplogroup lineages appear in the region only during the transition from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age.
    Subsequently, in the Scythian-Sarmatian period, a large cultural group, called the Sargat culture,
    developed in the region. Its representatives were widespread across the region, from the Ob River to the Urals. Their development represented one of the most significant cultural events in North Asia.




    Conclusions:

    According to the archaeological and anthropological evidence, the continuity between ethno-cultural groups from different periods and the inheritance of new cultural and genetic components as a result of several migration waves markedly affected the genesis of the populations in the West Siberian forest steppe zone during the Bronze Age.

    Ancient mtDNA analyses have confirmed the key role played by autochthonous genetic components in composing the gene pool of the populations, especially during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. These components were represented by the Eastern Eurasian haplogroups A, C and Z, and the Western Eurasian haplogroup U5a.

    On the other hand, the results also reveal some changes in the mtDNA pool structure throughout the Bronze Age. Some of these changes, which point to migration waves to the West Siberian forest steppe zone, are in agreement with the archaeological and anthropological evidence. The most relevant migration waves occurred during the Middle Bronze Age (represented by the migration of the Andronovo culture, probably marked by Haplogroup-T lineages) and the transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age (represented by the migration from the south, marked by the U1a, U3 and H haplogroup lineages). These preliminary results indicate the usefulness of ancient DNA analysis as an additional tool for the reconstruction of migratory and ethnogenic processes in the Western Siberian region. To improve the efficacy of genetic methods it will be necessary to analyze other genetic markers in addition to mitochondrial DNA.


    So Early Bronze Age: A, C, Z, U2e, U4, U5a1.

    Andronovo: T

    Iron Age: U1a, U3 and H



    Any comments?




    EDIT:

    Modern populations with the most U2e+U4+U5a1:

    Code:
    Kls	 50,0 
    Sdh	 21,6 
    Ltv	 19,4 
    Pth	 18,2 
    Hnz	 18,2 
    Guj	 17,6 
    Haz	 17,4 
    Esn	 17,0 
    Aze	 16,7 
    Shg	 15,8 
    Slo	 14,4 
    Prs	 13,6 
    Aus	 13,1 
    Bos	 12,5 
    Swe	 12,0 
    Rom	 11,7 
    Rus	 11,6 
    Pks	 11,0 
    Cze	 10,8 
    Bul	 10,6 
    Mac	 10,5 
    Slk	 10,1 
    Per	 9,6 
    Pol	 9,4 
    Nor	 9,4 
    Fra	 9,3 
    Swi	 9,2 
    Mkr	 9,0
    Anybody knows anything about the A, C, Z combo?

    Populations with the most of T:

    Code:
     Tkm 	 18,8 
     Aze 	 16,7 
     Lem 	 16,7 
     Glk 	 16,2 
     Azj 	 15,0 
     Mzd 	 14,3 
     Rho 	 14,3 
     Cre 	 13,9 
     PorN 	 13,8 
     Rom 	 13,8 
     Mar 	 13,8 
     Geo 	 13,7 
     Cze 	 13,3 
     Pal 	 12,8 
     Rus 	 12,3 
     Swi 	 12,3 
     Lom 	 11,9 
     Syr 	 11,6 
     Arm 	 11,5 
     Prs 	 11,3 
     Tus 	 11,2 
     Fra 	 11,1 
     Lat 	 10,9 
     Sar 	 10,8 
     Sco 	 10,5 
     Leb 	 10,2 
     Aus 	 10,1 
     Bul 	 9,9 
     Pol 	 9,8 
     Mac 	 9,5 
     Per 	 9,5

    Populations with the most U1+U3:

    Code:
     Lur 	 23,50 
     Jor 	 15,79 
     Rho 	 11,90 
     Syr 	 11,89 
     Azj 	 10,00 
     Cre 	 9,90 
     Sag 	 9,43 
     Arm 	 9,42 
     Tur 	 9,12 
     Hnz 	 9,10 
     Geo 	 8,60 
     Leb 	 8,52 
     Ant 	 8,00 
     Cyp 	 7,69 
     Kur 	 7,32 
     Irq 	 6,90 
     NGr 	 5,64 
     Irn 	 5,50 
     Cam 	 5,43 
     Glk 	 5,40 
     Lat 	 5,07 
     Pol 	 4,98 
     Per 	 4,80 
     SpaNW 	 4,63 
     Prs 	 4,50 
     ApCa 	 4,42 
     Haz 	 4,30 
     Bul 	 4,26
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2012-07-13 at 23:45.

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    very interesting, have to read the study in detail

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    Any comments?
    Yes. mtDNA T pride worldwide.
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    T2b, or not T2b, that is the question.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hweinlant View Post
    very interesting, have to read the study in detail
    Just download the "Full Text PDF" here.

    So it seems that the aboriginal hybrid Kalash/Mongoloid population got conquered during Bronze Age by Andronowo Turmens/Azeris which in turn were invaded by Iron Age Lurs.
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2012-07-13 at 23:44.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    Anybody knows anything about the A, C, Z combo?
    I have found Jakuts and Oroqen people to posses the most of A+C+Z haplogroups (36-40%).

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    Dienekes summary of the paper:

    Quote Originally Posted by Dienekes
    All in all, this is commendable research which allows us to intuit a sequence of events:

    An early mixture zone between Caucasoids and Mongoloids

    The Bronze Age arrival of mtDNA-T bearing Andronovo groups, the first pastoralists entering the zone of U+East Eurasian boreal hunter-gatherers; these Caucasoid peoples admixed with the natives of the mixture zone.

    The early Iron Age arrival of a full-blown set of Caucasoid mtDNA lineages from the south paving the way for the Iranian Scytho-Sarmatian period.




    How do these finds relate to the different theories of the IE origins?
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2012-07-14 at 21:49.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    How do these finds relate to the different theories of the IE origins?
    My first impression is that this is the final proof that till the Bronze Age the vast region from Hungary to Altai was inhabited by the mixed Caucasoid (hg U of Mesolithic origin) and Mongoloid population. It seem that this mixed population has been replaced by fully Caucasoid population at the end of the Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age. IMHO it doesn't bode well for the Kurgan theory of the IE origins.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    My first impression is that this is the final proof that till the Bronze Age the vast region from Hungary to Altai was inhabited by the mixed Caucasoid (hg U of Mesolithic origin) and Mongoloid population. It seem that this mixed population has been replaced by fully Caucasoid population at the end of the Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age. IMHO it doesn't bode well for the Kurgan theory of the IE origins.
    How come ? Modern Turks vs. ancient Turkics sort of elite dominance model works just fine.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Hweinlant View Post
    How come ? Modern Turks vs. ancient Turkics sort of elite dominance model works just fine.
    Could you elaborate on this?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    it doesn't bode well for the Kurgan theory of the IE origins.
    Yes, I had the same feeling.

    In other papers they consider multiple horse and pig domestications. Probably those in Globular Amphora or somewhere in Western Ukraine around Triopolye were proper IE horse domestications. Those in Botai or Dereivka were not IE. I think all those around Dnieper river and east domestications are irrelevant, the oldest known horse domestication west of Dnieper would be GAC 3200 BC Kujawy, Central Poland and the oldest ritual burial of a horse in Europe is therefore in Potyry in Masovia, also GAC.
    http://www.lce.lublin.pl/archeo/neolit/neolit_3.html

    The horse, the wheel, the language, the genes were in the right place (Oder-Vistula) at the right time and therefore Central-Eastern Europe is the most likely PIE urheimat IMO:
    http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/sho...11&postcount=5
    Last edited by EastPole; 2012-07-14 at 23:28.
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