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Thread: Words Denoting Pulse Crops and Their Diversity in Modern European Languages2308 days old

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    Default Words Denoting Pulse Crops and Their Diversity in Modern European Languages

    Origin of the Words Denoting Some of the Most Ancient Old World Pulse Crops and Their Diversity in Modern European Languages, Aleksandar Mikić

    Abstract
    This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words denoting the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- (‘a leguminous plant’), *bhabh- (‘field bean’), * (‘a kernel of leguminous plant’, ‘pea’), ghArs- (‘a leguminous plant’), *kek- (‘pea’) and *lent- (‘lentil’). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača (‘pea’), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV (‘pea’) and * (‘lentil’). The Proto-Caucasianx root * denoted pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) (‘bean’, ‘lentil’) and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r (‘pea’, ‘bean’, ‘vetch’) could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV (‘bean’) within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- (‘lentil’) and *pūl- (‘field bean’). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians.


    The Indo-European language family proved to be the richest in root-words originally relating to pulse crops.(...)
    The attested Proto-Indo-European root-words directly linked to pulse crops are further testimony that Proto-Indo-European society was well-acquainted with agriculture (47), and was not predominantly nomadic and pastoral, as initially thought by the proposers of the Kurgan hypothesis (48). As already noted, the Proto-Indo-European root-word denoting ‘field bean’ had a primarily descriptive character. Such cases are widely present in linguistic development (49), and there are several more Proto-Indo-European root-words that originally had no direct link to pulses, but began to denote them in their derivatives. It’s worth mention that the Latin legūmen, denoting ‘pod’, evolved from the Proto-Indo-European leg'-, meaning to gather; that the Latin pisum was derived from the Proto-Indo-European *pis-, meaning to thresh; and that the Latin vicia, through its verb vincīre, meaning to bind and obviously referring to vetches’ tendrils, originated from the Proto-indo-European *weik, meaning something pliable, perhaps pointing at their slender and climbing stems (50).




    The oldest date for Iberia is worth noting.






























    So does everybody agree that proto-Indo-Europeans were agriculturalists and not nomadic pastoralists?
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2013-01-23 at 09:30.

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    It surely does demonstrate how well the PIE people were acquainted with pulses, especially if we take into account the number of different words for them.

    But I would like to make one link between this passage from the work you referenced:

    Among the oldest finds of pulses are those of lentil and bitter vetch in Franchthi cave in Greece, dated to about 11,000 BC (4). Pulses are also considered one of the first domesticated plant species, and thus the first crops (5), with much archaeobotanical evidence, mainly from present-day Syria
    and a research on Neanderthal diet described at this link http://www.mnh.si.edu/highlight/neanderthal_diet/

    Neanderthal individuals had been consuming a wide variety of plants. They found evidence of grass seeds like wheat and barley, legumes, and even date palm fruit.
    I recommend to read the info at the link above as the statement about Neanderthal diet was backed by an objective analysis of fossilized tartar on the teeth of Neanderthals from several locations. The analysis even shows that barley, at least, was cooked by Neanderthals. If the crops were known to Neanderthals (that all died out well before 11,000 BC), it is only logical to conclude that those crops were also known to Cro-Magnons, especially bearing in mind the coexistence of Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons for long time. So, the idea that pulses were cultivated back then seems quite valid.

    That is unless pulses (legumes) grew everywhere just like wild berries to be easily picked! (and so known to any nomadic tribe)
    Last edited by TruthSeeker; 2013-01-23 at 11:28.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    So does everybody agree that proto-Indo-Europeans were agriculturalists and not nomadic pastoralists?
    Yes, no doubt about it, they knew farming and were rising pigs which are not herded animals.

    In „ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BARBARIAN WORLD” Tom I there is an article “Late Neolithic/Copper Age Central Europe” by Sarunas Milisauskas

    Page 373:
    By 3500–3000 B.C. plows, wagons, copper metallurgy, horse riding, wool production, and the milking of cows, goats, and sheep were present in central Europe.
    Page 375:
    Globular Amphora and Corded Ware burials often contain the remains of domesticated animals, such as cattle and pigs. Since pigs are not herded animals, the high frequency of their finds in the Globular Amphora burials suggests a nonpastoral economy, assuming such frequencies reasonably reflect their day-to-day subsistence significance.
    Also in Eastern Europe farming was practiced very early.

    In „ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BARBARIAN WORLD” Tom I there is an article “Late Neolithic/Copper Age Eastern Europe” by Malcolm Lillie

    Page 361
    It appears that the economy of the Sredny Stog culture was mixed, with a combination of stockbreeding, including sheep and goats, cattle, and pigs; agriculture; and hunting and fishing. Some processing of plant foods is implied by the presence of querns and grinders at Dereivka, although it should be remembered that the processing of wild plant remains took place from a very early time in this region
    .

    Page 362:
    Faunal species exploited by the Yamnaya culture groups include such domesticates as cattle, sheep and goats, horses, and pigs.
    Page 362
    The evidence recovered from such sites as Mikhailovka on the Dnieper indicates that this was a cattle-breeding steppe culture with a well-defined artifact inventory. Although faunal remains are sparse, it appears that cattle, sheep and goats, horses, pigs, and dogs, alongside hunting, made up the subsistence base of this culture.
    Words like ‘pork’ are present in Slavic ;’prosie/porsie’ and Indo-Iranian ‘*parsa’

    I also wrote about ‘cheese’ earlier:
    http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/sho...opean-homeland


    PIE were not full nomads but a mix of farmers and pastoralists. Depending on conditions and weather they easily switched from farming to pastoralism and from pastoralism to farming. Most of the time they were doing both.
    PIE probably resulted from mixing Eastern European Neolithic farmers like Lengyel, Tripolye with Eastern European hunter gatherers.
    "All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed, second it is violently opposed, and third, it is accepted as self-evident."
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