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Thread: Epigravettian culture1159 days old

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    Default Epigravettian culture

    Recently Y-chromosome R1b1 haplogroup was found in the Epigravettian Culture context in Italy.

    This made me look for information on this archeological culture, but what I was finding was usually rather laconic:

    Epigravettian
    SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Epi-Gravettian
    CATEGORY: culture
    DEFINITION: The late glacial industries of Italy from 20,000-8000 bp, which evolved into the Mesolithic. It is divided into early (20,000-16,000 bp), evolved (16,000-14,000 bp), and final (14,000-8,000 bp) phases. Epigravettian was followed by the Sauveterrian and Castelnovian in the 7th millennium BC. Epigravettian cultures developed contemporaneously in various parts of Europe, notably the Creswellian in Britain.
    There are few maps some limiting Epigravettian to Italy:



    ... and some not (pink - Epigravettian, brown - Solutrean):




    I would like to gather available information of the Epigravettian Culture in this thread. If you happen to posses such, please share.

    Speculations on what R1b1 was doing 14000 years ago in Epigravettian Culture are also encuraged.
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2016-05-19 at 11:58.

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    Satsurblia and I think Bichon are also Epigravettians, and together with Villabruna they all have markers for blue eyes.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Polako View Post
    Satsurblia and I think Bichon are also Epigravettians, and together with Villabruna they all have markers for blue eyes.
    Indeed Satsurblia (Y-chromosome J2, mtdna K3) was also classified as Epigravettian.

    Bichon (Y-chromosome I2, mtDNA U5b1h) was in Qiaomei Fu et al. labeled as Azzilian. Villabruna had mtDNA hg U5b2b.

    EDIT.

    Quote Originally Posted by Maju
    As for Epigravettian, this is a very generic term and we should at least consider two groups: the Italo-Adriatic one (including the only known Epigravettian site in France, which is right near Italy) and the Eastern European one (including the Low Danube regions).
    EDIT2:

    Quote Originally Posted by WIKIPEDIA
    Epigravettian archaeological sites, similar to Eastern Gravettian sites, are common in the southwest, central, and southern regions of the East European Plain c. 17,000-10,000 years BP, and are also present in the Crimea and Northern Caucasus. The time of the Epigravettian also reveals evidence for tailored clothing production, a tradition persisting from preceding Upper Paleolithic archaeological horizons.
    EDIT3: Another map:



    EDIT4: "First Epigravettian Ceramic Figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia)", Rebecca Farbstein et al.

    Abstract

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500–15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000–27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic.
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2016-05-19 at 12:58.

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    Fu 2016 only got a handful of samples with quality coverage. Plus, we have literally nothing from Eastern Europe and Siberia between 30,000 and 8,000 years ago. There's big holes in data. Until we fill those holes it'll be hard to know where WHG/Villabruna is from and how R1b1(a?) got to Italy 14,000 years ago.

    D-stats reject the idea of ANE admixture in Villabruna. Treemix done by Polako though gives Villabruna ANE admixture(see here). This doesn't go along with the RQ=ANE idea, but whatever. I think we'll be surprised by how widespread mtDNA/Y DNA lineages were early on and the diverse array of lineages Paleo populations already had, when we get more ancient DNA.

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    Abstract

    The open-air site of Kalavan 1 is located in the Aregunyats mountain chain (at 1640 m above sea level) on the northern bank of Lake Sevan. It is the first Upper Palaeolithic site excavated in Armenia. Led by an Armenian-French team, several excavations (2005-2009) have revealed a well preserved palaeosoil, dated to around 14,000 BP (years before present), containing fauna, lithic artefacts, as well as several hearths and activity areas that structure the settlement. The initial studies enable placement of the site in its environment and justify palaeoethnological analysis of the Epigravettian human groups of the Lesser Caucasus.
    "The Upper Palaeolithic site of Kalavan 1 (Armenia): an Epigravettian settlement in the Lesser Caucasus.", Montoya C. et al.

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    This might be interesting:

    The analysis of the ceramics of Khvalynsk culture shows that it definitely does
    not belong to the Corded Ware areal, and can be referred as belonging to the cultures
    of comb-and-stroked pottery.





    "On Localization of Ancient Bearers of Y-DNA R1a Haplotype
    in Eastern Europe Neolithic Cultures", Alexander S. Semenov, Vladimir V. Bulat
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2016-05-19 at 14:31.

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    Archaeological cultures of Upper Paleolithic of the "epigravettian way of development“ are widely spread on the territory of Ukraine. There are cultures of Central-European Epigravettian and cultures, distinguished as "Eastern Epigravettian“. Cultures of "Eastern Epigravettian“ are of Eastern-European and Caucasian origin. They are concentrated in the left-bank Ukraine. Eastern-European "Eastern Epigravettian“ is presented by Mizyns’ka and Desnyans’ka cultures. In Ukraine Desnyans’ka culture is represented with such sites as: Chulatove I, II, Bugorok, Vedmezhyi Yar, Minivskyi Yar. "Eastern Epigravettian“ of the Caucasian origin is represented in Ukraine with several cultures. Among these cultures are Pivnichnopriazovs’ka and Verkhnyosurens’ka. Pivnichnopriazovs’ka culture is represented with such sites as: Fedorivka (both layers), Kapustyana balka, Kashtaeva balka, Somova balka, Kaystrova balka VI, Solone Ozero I "a“, IX, IX "a“, Velivalska balka, Lysa gora. Verkhnyosurens’ka culture is represented with sites — Syuren I (upper layer) and Agi-Koba (upper layer) in Crimea. Mezhiritska culture has more complicated "Eastern Epigravettian“ origin. This culture is represented with the sites Gintsi, Dobranichivka, Semenivka I, II, III, Mezhirichi, Fastiv and Shushvalivka I, V.
    Mykola OLENKOVSKYI. ON DISTINGUISHING ARCHAELOGICAL CULTURES OF EASTERN EPIGRAVETTIAN ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE."
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2016-05-19 at 17:24.

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    A study of problems of «Eastern Gravettian», understanding its essence and ways of development is very complicated and equivocal in nature. During the last decades the researchers of the Palaeolithic focused upon its various aspects. Thus, after A.N. Rogachev’s discoveries, a rather significant retreat of many Soviet experts from the earlier predominant stage theory was marked in 1950s. Already by 70s, this process had enabled understanding specific nature of Eastern Gravettian Late Palaeolithic not only compared to the West European but also Central European sites. The only exception was Kostenki-Avdeev culture. The nineties saw a retreat from some dogmas of Soviet Palaeolithic study among some Ukrainian and Moldavian archaeologists. Particularly, the works of N.P. Olenkowski, I.A. Borziak, D.Yu. Nuzhnyi focused especially upon definition of the sense and meaning of such concepts as «Gravettian way of development», «Eastern Gravettian», «Epi-Gravettian». These phenomena are regarded both in technical and technological perspective (D.Yu. Nuzhnyi) and historical and cultural (N.P. Olenkowski), which, in its turn, raises a question of criteria for distinguishing «archaeological cultures». The analysis of stone items has classified, so far, as Ukrainian Epi-Gravettian the following cultures: Dniester-Wolyn (5-4 layers of Kormani IV, 5-4 layers of Molodova V, Dolishni Ivachiv I, 5-4 layers at Lipa VI, layer 4 at Vladimirovka), Anetovka (Anetovka II), Akkarzha (Bolshaya Akkarzha), Lower Dniester (Kamenka, Usatovo), Lower Dnieper (Dmitrovka, Lyubimovka III, Solone Ozero VI, Pidporijnyi II, layer 5 at Osokorovka I, layer I at Vorona III), Desna (Chulatovo I and II, Minievski Yar, Bugorok), North Azov (Fedorovka, Cashtaeva Balka, Caystrova Balka VI, Capustyana Balka, Lysaia Gora), Upper Siureni (upper layers of Siureni I grotto, Late Palaeolithic layer of Adji-Koba I cave), Mezhirich (Gontsy, Dobravnichevka, Semionovka I-III, Mejirichi, Fastov, Gorbulev).
    N. P. Olenkowski (Cherson, Ukraine), Central European Epi-Gravettian and Eastern Gravettian Cultures of the Ukraine

    - - - Updated - - -

    During the LGM, Europe starts being split in two main large cultural entities: the Epigravettian complex and the Western Europe sequence.
    Between Atlantic and Mediterranean, environmental changes and socio-economic transformations during the end of the Upper Paleolithic (23000-10500 cal. BP.), Nicolas Naudinot
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2016-05-19 at 17:27.

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    Several papers on Epigravettian art: PLEISTOCENE PORTABLE ART

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