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Thread: Polish Inventions & Discoveries1381 days old

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    Default Polish Inventions & Discoveries

    Kazimierz Proszyński, first cinematic camera

    Kazimierz Prószyński (pronounce: Casimir Prooshinsky) (4 April 1875 - 13 March 1945) was a Polish inventor active in the field of cinema. He patented his first film camera, called Pleograph (in Polish spelling: Pleograf), before the Lumière brothers, and later went on to improve the cinema projector for the Gaumont company, as well as invent the widely used hand-held Aeroscope camera

    Patented in England in 1910 by the Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński,[1] Aeroscope was the first successful hand-held operated film camera. It has been powered by compressed air pumped before filming into the camera with a simple hand pump, similar to the one we still use to pump bicycle tires. Filming with Aeroscope, a cameraman did not have to turn the crank to advance the film after taking a picture, as in all cameras of that time

    Pleograph (Polish: Pleograf) was an early type of movie camera constructed in 1894, before those made by the Lumière brothers, by Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński. Prószyński later constructed the first hand held camera called an Aeroscope.

    Similarly to the Lumière brothers cinematograph, Prószyński's pleograph has been also a projector. The apparatus used a rectangle of celluloid with perforation between several parallel rows of images.

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    Albert Brudzewski, also Albert Blar (of Brudzewo), Albert of Brudzewo or Wojciech Brudzewski (in Latin, Albertus de Brudzewo; ca. 1445, Brudzewo, near Kalisz – ca. 1497, Vilnius) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and diplomat.

    He was the first to state that the Moon moves in an ellipse and always shows its same side to the Earth.
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    Michał Sędziwój (Michael Sendivogius, Sędzimir) (1566–1636) of Ostoja coat of arms was a Polish alchemist, philosopher, and medical doctor

    He discovered that air is not a single substance and contains a life-giving substance-later called oxygen-170 years before Scheele and Priestley. He correctly identified this 'food of life' with the gas (also oxygen) given off by heating nitre (saltpetre). This substance, the 'central nitre', had a central position in Sędziwój's schema of the universe.
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    Aleksander Wolszczan [alɛkˈsandɛr ˈvɔlʂt​͡ʂan] ( listen) (born April 29, 1946 in Szczecinek, Poland) is a Polish astronomer. He is the co-discoverer of the first extrasolar planets and pulsar planets.


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    Georges Charpak (born August 1, 1924) is a Polish-French physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate.
    Charpak was born in the village of Dąbrowica in Poland


    He was made a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1985. In 1992, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". This is the last time a single person has won the physics prize.

    In France, Charpak is a very strong advocate for nuclear power.

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    Jan Czekanowski (October 8, 1882–July 20, 1965) was a Polish anthropologist, statistician and linguist. Czekanowski is known for having played an important role in saving the Polish-Lithuanian branch of the Karaim people from Holocaust extermination. In 1942 he managed to convince a German "race scientists" that the Karaim were of Turkic origin although professing Judaism and using Hebrew as a liturgical language. This helped the Karaim people escape the tragic destiny of other European Jews and the Romas.

    Czekanowski classified Europe into four pure races. The four pure races were the Nordic, Ibero-Insular, Lapponoid and Armenoid. The Lapponoid included the central and eastern Europeans along Europe longitudely as well as the Sami people of Northern Europe.

    Czekanowski classified six subraces in Europe which were mixed types of the pure races. The six mixed racial subraces were: the Northwestern (Nordic and Ibero-Insular), the Subnordic (Nordic and Lapponoid), Alpine (Lapponoid and Armenoid), the Littoral (Ibero-Insular and Armenoid), Pile Dwelling (Ibero-Insular and Lapponoid) and the Dinaric (Nordic and Armenoid). The Pile Dwelling subrace lived around the Swiss lakes

    Czekanowski introduced numerical taxonomy into comparative linguistics, thus founding the discipline of computational linguistics. He developed (1913) a still much-used index of similarity between two samples. He applied it to phonemes and words in text corpora of different languages. It was later introduced in analysis of ecological communities.

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    Stefan Bryła (b. August 17, 1886 in Kraków - December 3, 1943 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish construction engineer and welding pioneer.[

    In 1927 he designed the first welded road bridge in the world. The bridge was later built across the river Słudwia Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland in 1929. It was still in use in 1977 but plans were to replace it with a wider structure.

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    Henryk Władysław Magnuski (1909-1978) was a Polish telecommunications engineer who worked for Motorola in Chicago. He was the inventor of one of the first Walkie-Talkies and one of the authors of his company success in the fields of radio communication.
    In 1940 he started working for the Galvin company in Chicago (the company changed the name in 1947 to Motorola). He is credited with three patents related to the design of Motorola's SCR-300 FM "Walkie-Talkie" radio, a hugely popular unit with American forces in Europe, and he received a U. S. Navy Certificate of Commendation for Outstanding Service for development of the AN/CPN-6 Radar Beacon, a microwave device which aided carrier pilots to find their ship during low visibility conditions.

    After the war he did not return to the communist People's Republic of Poland and stayed in the USA. He helped in the development of VHF cavity resonators that allowed adjacent channel operation, was a key designer for the Motorola Sensicon receiver which used a selective filter in front of the IF amplifier, and created microwave relay equipment for use in transmitting multi-channel telephone, data and TV. In Motorola's Government Electronics Division he developed the SSB Radio Central Concept AN/USC-3, Motorola’s RADEM system (RADAS), the Deltaplex I digital troposcatter system and lightweight tropo equipment AN/TRC-105.


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    Kazimierz Żegleń (Casimir Zeglen), born in 1869 near Ternopil, invented the first bulletproof vest
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    Hilary Koprowski (born December 5, 1916, in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish virologist and immunologist, and inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine
    His field of research for several years was finding a live-virus vaccine against yellow fever.
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    Jan SzczepanikJan Szczepanik (born June 13, 1872 in Rudniki (near Mostyska), Austria-Hungary (Austrian partition of Poland) - April 18, died 1926 in Tarnów, Poland) was a Polish inventor.

    Szczepanik held several hundred patents and made over 50 discoveries, many of which are still used today, especially in the motion picture industry, photography, and television.

    Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik patented a color television system in 1897, using a selenium photoelectric cell at the transmitter and an electromagnet

    Szczepanik was granted awards by royal courts. Spanish ruler Alfonso XIII awarded him an order for creating a bullet-proof fabric, whereas Emperor Franz Josef I relieved him from mandatory military service, and, fascinated with a photosculptor (apparatus for copying sculptures), gave him a pair of pistols as a souvenir.

    Before World War I, Szczepanik carried out experiments with photography and image projection, as well as with small format color film. He holds patents for a new weaving method, a system of obtaining tri-color photography rasters, and equipment for sound recording and playback.

    Following the discoverer's idea, Agfa corporation produced its Agfacolor reversible paper; color films were also made for the first time, projecting 24 frames per second. Szczepanik's more significant discoveries also include the colorimeter (a color control tool), an electric rifle, and a color image weaving method, together with the automation of their production.

    Szczepanik also worked on a moving wing aircraft, a duplex rotor helicopter, a dirigible, and a submarine.

    The automatic loom with patents of Jan Szczepanik (Polish inventor

    Mark Twain met Szczepanik and described him in two of his articles: "The Austrian Edison keeping school again" (1898) and "From the London Times of 1904" (1898).
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    Jędrzej Śniadecki (archaic English: Andrew Sniadecki; November 30, 1768 – May 12, 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist.

    Śniadecki may have been the original discoverer of the element ruthenium in 1807, thirty-seven years before Karl Klaus.

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    Jan Czochralski (pronounced cho-HRAL-skee) (born October 23, 1885 in Kcynia - April 22, 1953 in Poznań) was a Polish chemist who invented the Czochralski process, which is used to grow single crystals and is used in the production of semiconductor wafers
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    Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822 - 1882) was a Polish pharmacist and petroleum industry pioneer, who in 1856 built the first oil refinery in the world.[1] Among his other achievements were the discovery of how to distil kerosene from seep oil, the invention of the modern kerosene lamp (1853), the introduction of the first modern street lamp in Europe (1853), and the construction of the first oil well in Poland (1854

    In 1856 in Ulaszowice near Jasło he opened an "oil distillery", that is the first industrial oil refinery in the world. As the demand for kerosene was still low, the plant initially produced mostly artificial asphalt, machine oil and lubricants. The refinery was destroyed in a fire in 1859, but was rebuilt in Polanka near Krosno the following year.

    Because of his support for the economical development of the region, a popular saying was coined attributing all paved roads to his guldens.

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    Marian Albertovich Kowalski (Russian: Мариан Альбертович Ковальский) (August 15, 1821 or October 15, 1821 – May 28, 1884 or July 9, 1884) was a Polish-Russian astronomer.

    His most important work was on the analysis of the proper motion of 3,136 stars from James Bradley's catalog, which was the first usable method to deduce the rotation of the Milky Way galaxy. Based on this work, he disproved that a single massive central body in the center of our galaxy was responsible for the motion of the stars.

    In celestial mechanics, he found improved methods to deduce a planetary orbit from observations, and analysed the mathematics of perturbations in planetary motions. In particular, he made a more accurate determination of Neptune's orbit. He also found an improved method of determining the orbits of binary stars.
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    Johann Dzierzon (in Polish Jan Dzierżon [ˈjan ˈd​͡ʑɛrʐɔn] or Dzierżoń [ˈd​͡ʑɛrʐɔɲ]) (16 January 1811 – 26 October 1906) was a pioneering apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis among bees, and designed the first successful movable-frame beehive.

    Dzierzon came from a Polish family native to Silesia,


    Johann Dzierzon is considered the father of modern apiology and apiculture.Most modern beehives are derived from his design.

    In his apiary, Dzierzon studied the social life of honeybees and constructed several experimental beehives. In 1838, he devised the first practical movable-comb beehive, which allowed manipulation of individual honeycombs without destroying the structure of the hive. The correct distance between combs had been described as 1 and ½ inches from the center of one top bar to the center of next one. In 1848 Dzierzon introduced grooves into the hive’s side walls replacing the strips of wood for moving top bars. The grooves had been 8 × 8 mm—exact average between ¼ and ⅜ of an inch, which is range recently called bee space. His design quickly gained popularity in Europe and North America. On the basis of the aforementioned measurements, August von Berlepsch (May 1852) in Thuringia and L. L. Langstroth (October 1852) in the United States designed their frame-movable hives.


    Stack of Dzierzon hives in Nordisk familjebokIn 1835, Dzierzon discovered that the drones are produced from unfertilized eggs. The discovery was published in 1845. The publication proposed that while queen bees and female worker bees were the result of fertilization, drones were not, and that the diets of immature bees contributed to their subsequent roles. His results caused a revolution in bee crossbreeding and may have influenced Gregor Mendel's pioneering genetic research.
    The theory remained controversial until 1906, the year of his death, when it was finally accepted by scholars on a congress in Marburg. In 1853, he acquired a colony of Italian bees to use as genetic markers in his research, and sent their progeny "...to all the countries of Europe, and even to America."In 1854, he discovered the mechanism of the secretion of royal jelly and its role in the development of queen bees.

    With his discoveries and innovations, Dzierzon became world-famous during his lifetime.[
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    Napoleon Cybulski (September 13, 1854 - April 26, 1919) was a Polish physiologist and one of pioneers of endocrinology and electroencephalography. The discoverer of adrenaline, he was the first to isolate and identify the substance in 1895.
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    Ignacy Mościcki (Polish pronunciation: [iɡˈnat͡sɨ mɔˈɕt͡ɕit͡skʲi]; 1 December 1867 – 2 October 1946) was a Polish chemist, politician, and President of Poland (1926-39). He was the longest-serving President of Poland (13 years).[

    There he patented a method for cheap industrial production of nitric acid.
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    Wojciech Swiętosławski (1881 – 1968) was a Polish chemist and physicist.

    Father of modern thermochemistry. Swiętosławski was nominated twice for the Nobel Prize. He developed a static method of cryometric measurement and a new method of testing coal. Świętosławski was Vice-Chairman of the

    An ebulliometer is designed to accurately measure the boiling point of liquids by measuring the temperature of the vapor-liquid equilibrium either isobarically or isothermally.

    The primary components in a Swietoslawski ebulliometer, which operates isobarically, are: the boiler, the Cottrell pumps, the thermowell, and the condenser. Such an ebulliometer can be used for extremely accurate measurements of boiling temperature, molecular weights, mutual solubilities, and solvent purities by using a resistance temperature device (RTD) to measure the near-equilibrium conditions of the thermowell.

    The ebulliometer is frequently used for measuring the alcohol content of dry wines. See also Sweetness of wine and Oechsle scale.
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    Stanisław Kostanecki (born 1860 in Myszków, Poland – 1910) was a Polish organic chemist who pioneered in vegetable dye chemistry.

    In 1896, he developed the theory of dyes and studied the natural vegetable dyes. Among his many students were famous scientists Kazimierz Funk and W. Lampe.
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    Walery Jaworski (March 20, 1849 – July 17, 1924), was one of the pioneers of gastroenterology in Poland

    In 1899 he described bacteria living in the human stomach that he named "Vibrio rugula". He speculated that they were responsible for stomach ulcers, gastric cancer and achylia. It was one of the first observations of Helicobacter pylori. He published those findings in 1899 in a book titled "Podręcznik chorób żołądka" ("Handbook of Gastric Diseases") but it was available only in Polish and went unnoticed
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    Józef Zawadzki (July 14, 1886 in Warsaw – February 22, 1951 in Zalesie, near Warsaw) was a Polish physical chemist and technologist

    His main field of research was physicochemical fundamentals of chemical technology. He was researching contact oxidation of ammonia, naphthalene and anthracene, mechanism of ammonia oxidation on platinum at low temperatures, reduction of iron dioxide by a methane, methods of obtaining aluminium oxide from Polish kaolinite and aluminosilicate, use of Polish anhydrite and gypsum deposit to production sulfuric acid and cementum, kinematics of thermal dissociation.

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    Josef Casimir Hofmann (originally Józef Kazimierz Hofmann; January 20, 1876 – February 16, 1957) was a Polish-American virtuoso pianist, composer, music teacher, and inventor.

    As an inventor, Hofmann had over 70 patents, and his invention of pneumatic shock absorbers for cars and airplanes was commercially successful from 1905 to 1928. Other inventions included a windscreen wiper, a furnace that burned crude oil, a house that revolved with the sun, a device to record dynamics (: U.S. patent number 1614984) in reproducing piano rolls that he perfected just as the roll companies went out of business, and piano action improvements adopted by the Steinway Company (: U.S. patent number 2263088

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    Kazimierz Fajans (Kasimir Fajans in many American publications; 1887–1975) was an American physical chemist of Polish origin and a pioneer in the science of radioactivity

    In 1909 he was awarded a PhD degree for his research into the stereoselective synthesis of chiral compounds. In 1910 he undertook a job at the laboratory of Ernest Rutherford in Manchester, where the nucleus was discovered.

    He discovered the phenomenon of the electrochemical branching of the radioactive rows. Afterwards Fajans was working on the electrochemical properties of elements as a result of the radioactive changes, and he formulated the law of the radioactive moves which was later named the Soddy-Fajans Method (Frederick Soddy received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1921 for his isotopic research). In 1913, together with Otto Göhring, he discovered the radionuclide of a new element, which was later called protactinium. Fajans and Otto Hahn were the discoverers of the formula that defined the conditions of the precipitation and absorption of radioactive substances. It is very significant in the context of radiochemical methods of separating and cleaning radioactive substances found in the smallest number. In 1919, Fajans started researching the structure of particle and crystal by the thermochemical and refractometrical methods. The co-relation of Born, Fajans and Haber is one of the basic thermochemical rule. On the basis of his research data Fajans formulated the essential conclusions concerning chemical bonding strength and deformation of ions and particles, such as heat of ion hydration, refraction measurements and the heat of sublimation.

    In the States he researched nuclear reactions using a cyclotron and discovered the radioactive lead isotope with Voigt, and a new rhenium isotope with Sullivan. He developed the quanticule theory which explained the rule of chemical bondings through electrostatic impacts between quanticules and nuclear cores. He was a member of the Polish Institute Of Arts and Sciences in America and of many societies and academies.

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    Sylwester Porowski (born April 7, 1938 in Bierzyn), a Polish physicist specializing in solid-state and high pressure physics.

    In 2001 Professor Porowski's team built the blue semiconductor laser, a pioneering feat in the study of optoelectronics.
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    Wiktor Kemula (born November 6, 1902 in Izmail - October 17, 1985 in Warsaw) was a famous Polish chemist, electrochemist, and polarographist. He greatly contributed to the development of electroanalytical chemistry, particularly polarography. He developed a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE).
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    Mieczysław Gregory Bekker (1905 – 1989) was a Polish engineer and scientist.
    Bekker
    He was assistant professor at the University of Michigan and worked in the Army Vehicle Laboratory in Detroit. In 1961 he joined General Motors to work on the lunar vehicle project.
    authored the general idea and contributed significantly to the design and construction of the Lunar Roving Vehicle used by missions Apollo 15, Apollo 16, and Apollo 17 on the Moon. He was the author of several patented inventions in the area of off-the-road vehicles, including those for extraterrestrial use.

    He wrote many papers and articles, and the book "Theory of Land Loco

    He was a leading specialist in theory and design of military and off-the-road locomotion vehicles, and an originator of a new engineering discipline called "terramechanics

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    Tadeusz Estreicher (19 December 1871 - 8 April 1952) was an Austrian-born Polish chemist
    n 1899, Estreicher successfully liquefied hydrogen in 1901 before he was promoted to Privatdozent in 1904.

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    Józef Stanisław Kosacki (1909–1990) was a Polish engineer, inventor, and an officer in the Polish Army during World War II. He is best known as the inventor of the Polish mine detector, the first man-portable mine detector, whose basic design has been in use with various armies for over 50 years
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    Igor Sikorsky (25 May [O.S. 13 May] 1889 – 26 October 1972),[1] born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky

    Sikorsky's father, Ivan, was of Russian-Polish descent; the Sikorsky family came from Polish nobility (Polish: szlachta

    He designed and flew the world's first multi-engine fixed-wing aircraft, the Russky Vityaz in 1913, and the first airliner, Ilya Muromets, in 1914. After immigrating to the United States in 1919, Sikorsky founded the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation in 1923,and developed the first of Pan American Airways' ocean-conquering flying boats in the 1930s. In 1939, he designed and flew the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300, the first viable American helicopter, which pioneered the rotor configuration used by most helicopters today. Sikorsky would modify the design into the Sikorsky R-4, which became the world's first mass-produced helicopter in 1942.

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    Zygmunt Puławski (October 24, 1901 - March 21, 1931) was a Polish aircraft designer and pilot. He invented a gull-wing aircraft design, also known as "Puławski wing" and constructed a series of Polish PZL fighters
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    Rudlicki Jerzy (1893-1977) was a Polish aerospace engineer who invented the V-tail configuration for aircraft combining the ailerons and elevators in one system
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    Zbigniew 'Bobo' Kabata, CM (born 17 March 1924) is a highly respected parasitologist, veteran of the Polish Armia Krajowa during World War II, poet, fisherman, translator and scientific administrator.

    was in this time that Kabata developed the notion that separate populations of fish can be identified by study of the prevalence of various parasites and diseases. The identification of populations is an integral part of fisheries science

    It was during this time that he began work on his main work, The Parasitic Copepoda of British Fishes, published in 1979 by the Ray Society, ISBN 0-903874-05-9. A seminal work in taxonomy, this book features over 2,000 original hand-drawn illustrations of the complex morphology of copepod parasites.

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    Tadeusz Sendzimir (originally Sędzimir, July 15, 1894, Lwów – September 1, 1989, Jupiter, Florida) of Ostoja coat of arms was a Polish engineer and inventor of international renown with 120 patents in mining and metallurgy, 73 of which were awarded to him in the United States

    Ninety percent of the world's stainless steel production went through the Sendzimir process by the early 1980s.

    In 1922 Sendzimir married Barbara Alferieff. His first son Michael was born two years later. Designing and making his own machines, Sendzimir began experimenting with a new way to galvanize steel. Despite galvanization, the products still had a tendency to oxidize. Sendzimir discovered that the problem was due to the zinc bonding to a thin layer of iron hydroxide on its surface, rather than to the iron.

    In 1975 Sendzimir received the honorary degree of doctor honoris causa from the AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków. Sendzimir's successful methods for galvanizing steel eventually were implemented in the first Z-mill rolling silicon steel, making it pliable enough for use in air defense radar. Between 1953 and 1989 he introduced the first productive Z-mill to Great Britain, and to Japan and Canada in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1974 Sendzimir invented a spiral steel looper used in both the United States and Japan.

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    Frank Piasecki (PEE-ah-SEK-ee) (October 24, 1919 – February 11, 2008) was an American engineer and helicopter aviation pioneer. Piasecki pioneered tandem rotor helicopter designs and created the compound helicopter concept of vectored thrust using a ducted propeller.

    He built a single-person, single-rotor helicopter designated the PV-2 and flew it on April 11, 1943. This helicopter impressed the United States Navy sufficiently to win Piasecki a development contract.

    The name PV Engineering was changed to Piasecki Helicopter Corporation in 1946. After a boardroom dispute, Piasecki left Piasecki Helicopter in 1955 and formed the Piasecki Aircraft Company.

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    Conception of this wing and its name had been suggested in the 17th century by the Polish-Lithuanian military engineer Kazimierz Siemienowicz

    For over two centuries this work was used in Europe as a basic artillery manual. The book provided the standard designs for creating rockets, fireballs, and other pyrotechnic devices. It discussed for the first time the idea of applying a reactive technique to artillery. It contains a large chapter on caliber, construction, production and properties of rockets (for both military and civil purposes), including multistage rockets, batteries of rockets, and rockets with delta wing stabilizers (instead of the common guiding rods).
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    Mieczysław Wolfke (1883 – 1947) was a Polish physicist.

    Wolfke is known for his discovery of two types of liquid helium, of which He II is still the only known superfluid liquid. He did ground-breaking work in holography, an area of optics dealing with the creation and recording of three-dimensional images: in 1920 he divided the process of creating such images into two distinct phases by using two beams of light, each having a different wavelength.

    Dennis Gabor, the 1971 Nobel laureate in physics, named Mieczysław Wolfke as one of his precursors in the development of holography.

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    Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 in Broniszów Tarnowski (now Broniszów) – 24 March 1915 in Kraków, Galicia) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.

    In 1883, Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski were the first in the world to liquefy oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a stable state (not, as had been the case up to then, in a dynamic state in the transitional form as vapor).

    In 1884, in his Kraków laboratory, Olszewski was the first to liquify hydrogen in a dynamic state, achieving a record low temperature of -225 °C (48 K). In 1895 he liquified argon. He did not succeed, only, in liquifying newly-discovered helium.[2]

    In 1896, on hearing of Roentgen's work with x-rays, within a few days in early February Olszewski replicated it, thus initiating the university's department of radiology
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    pronunciation: [ˈmarjan smɔluˈxɔfski]; 28 May 1872 in Vorderbrühl near Vienna - 5 September 1917 in Kraków) was a Polish scientist, pioneer of statistical physics and a mountaineer.

    His scientific output included fundamental work on the kinetic theory of matter. In 1904 he was the first who noted the existence of density fluctuations in the gas phase and in 1908 he became the first physicist to ascribe the phenomenon of critical opalescence to large density fluctuations. His investigations also concerned the blue colour of the sky as a consequence of light dispersion on fluctuations in the atmosphere, as well as explanation of Brownian motion of particles. At that time Smoluchowski proposed formulae which presently carry his name.

    In 1906, independently of Albert Einstein, he described Brownian motion.[1] Smoluchowski presented an equation which became an important basis of the theory of stochastic processes
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    Kazimierz Leski, nom de guerre Bradl (June 21, 1912–May 27, 2000), was a Polish engineer, co-designer of Polish submarines ORP Sęp and ORP Orzeł, a fighter pilot, and an officer of the World War II Home Army's intelligence and counter-intelligence. He is credited, during World War II, with at least 25 journeys across German-held Europe, usually in the uniform of a Wehrmacht Major General.

    After he patented a new mounting for the ballast tank funnels, he was promoted and became an independent specialist. Soon afterwards Leski became the head designer for the Orzeł class submarines: the future ORP Orzeł and ORP Sęp, as well as the deputy to the lead constructor Niemeier.
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    Eduard Adolf Strasburger (1 February 1844, Warsaw – 19 May 1912 Bonn)

    Strasburger was a founder of the famous Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen (Textbook of Botany), which first appeared in 1894. He was the first to provide an accurate description of the embryonic sac in gymnosperms (such as conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants), along with demonstrating double-fertilization in angiosperms. He came up with one of the modern laws of plant cytology: "New cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other nuclei." and originated the terms cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.
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    Jack William Szostak (born November 9, 1952)[1] is a Polish British biologist and Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School
    Szostak was born in London, England, and grew up in Montreal and Ottawa. Although Szostak does not speak Polish, he stated in an interview with Wprost weekly that he remembers his Polish roots

    Szostak has made contributions to the field of genetics. He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to map the location of genes in mammals and to develop techniques for manipulating genes. His achievements in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project.

    His discoveries have helped to clarify the events that lead to chromosomal recombination—the reshuffling of genes that occurs during meiosis—and the function of telomeres, the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes.

    Today, his lab focuses on the challenges of understanding the origin of life on Earth, and the construction of artificial cellular life in the laboratory.

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    Jerzy Konorski (December 1, 1903 in Łódź, Poland – November 14, 1973 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish neurophysiologist who further developed the work of Ivan Pavlov by discovering secondary conditioned reflexes and also operant conditioning. He also proposed the concepts of grandmother cell and similar ideas to Donald Hebb upon neural plasticity
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    Frank Wilczek, Polish-American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics in 2004 Frank Wilczek
    In 1973 Wilczek, a graduate student working with David Gross at Princeton University, discovered asymptotic freedom, which holds that the closer quarks are to each other, the less the strong interaction (or color charge) between them; when quarks are in extreme proximity, the nuclear force between them is so weak that they behave almost as free particles. The theory, which was independently discovered by H. David Politzer, was important for the development of quantum chromodynamics.

    Wilczek has helped to reveal and develop axions, anyons, asymptotic freedom, the color superconducting phases of quark matter, and other aspects of quantum field theory. He has worked on an unusually wide range of topics, ranging across condensed matter physics, astrophysics, and particle physics.

    Current research
    "Pure" particle physics: connections between theoretical ideas and observable phenomena;
    Behavior of matter: phase structure of quark matter at ultra-high temperature and density; color superconductivity;
    Application of particle physics to cosmology;
    Application of field theory techniques to condensed matter physics;
    Quantum theory of black holes.

    ________
    Polish notation, also known as prefix notation, is a form of notation for logic, arithmetic, and algebra. Its distinguishing feature is that it places operators to the left of their operands. If the arity of the operators is fixed, the result is a syntax lacking parentheses or other brackets, that can still be parsed without ambiguity. The Polish logician Jan Łukasiewicz invented this notation around 1920 in order to simplify sentential logic. When Polish notation is used as a syntax for mathematical expressions by interpreters of programming languages, it is readily parsed into abstract syntax trees and can, in fact, define a one-to-one representation for the same. Because of this, Lisp (see below) and related programming languages define their entire syntax in terms of prefix or postfix expressions.

    Here is a quotation from a paper by Jan Łukasiewicz, Remarks on Nicod's Axiom and on "Generalizing Deduction", page 180.

    "I came upon the idea of a parenthesis-free notation in 1924. I used that notation for the first time in my article Łukasiewicz(1), p. 610, footnote."

    ___________

    Edmund Louis Gray Zalinski, (December 13, 1849 – March 11, 1909) was a Polish-born American soldier, military engineer and inventor. He is best known for the development of the pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun.
    H
    is name became widely known in connection with the invention and development of items of military technology, particularly the pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun. He also invented the electrical fuse and other devices for the practical application of the weapon, and devised a method for the exact sight allowance to be made for deviation due to wind in the use of rifled artillery and small arms. Other inventions included a modified entrenching tool, a ramrod-bayonet, and a telescopic sight for artillery.

    Zalinski also helped John Philip Holland raise money for the development of one of his submarines, which was armed with one of Zalinski's pneumatic guns.The two men having formed the “Nautilus Submarine Boat Company”, started working on a new submarine in 1884. The so-called "Zalinsky boat" was constructed in Hendrick's Reef (former Fort Lafayette), Bay Ridge in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. "The new, cigar-shaped submarine was 50 feet long with a maximum beam of eight feet. To save money, the hull was largely of wood, framed with iron hoops, and again, a Brayton-cycle engine provided motive power." The project was plagued by a "shoestring budget" and Zalinski mostly rejecting Holland's ideas on improvements
    _____
    Stefan Drzewiecki (July 26, 1844 in Kunka, Podolia, Russian Empire (today Ukraine) – April 23, 1938 in Paris) was a Polish scientist, journalist, engineer, constructor and inventor, working in Russia and France.

    Drzewiecki distinguished himself mainly in aviation and ship building. Beginning in 1877, during the Russo-Turkish War, he developed several models of propeller-driven submarines that evolved from single-person vessels to a four-man model. He developed the theory of gliding flight, developed a method for the manufacture of ship and plane propellers (1892), and presented a general theory for screw-propeller thrust (1920). He also developed several models of early submarines for the Russian Navy.

    . With a knack for creativity and invention, he invented such useful tools as the kilometric counter for cabs. At the specific request of Grand Duke Konstantin, Drzewiecki moved to St. Petersburg in 1873. While in Russia, he constructed an instrument that drew the precise routes of ships onto a map.

    ___________
    Professor Rudolf Stefan Weigl (September 2, 1883 - August 11, 1957, Zakopane) was a famous Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine against epidemic typhus. Weigl founded the Weigl Institute in Lwów, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine),
    _________

    Antoni Norbert Patek (French: Antoine Norbert de Patek) (June 14, 1811 – March 1, 1877), Polish pioneer in watchmaking and a creator of Patek Philippe & Co. one of the most famous watchmaker companies.

    Increasing disagreement between Patek and Czapek obliged the latter to withdraw. In 1851 Czapek established Czapek & Co. where he produced watches until 1869. On May 15, 1845 the place vacanted by Czapek was filled by 30 year old French Adrien Philippe, who in 1842 invented the key-less winding mechanism.[
    ________

    Robert Remak (26 July 1815 – 29 August 1865) was a Polish/German embryologist, physiologist, and neurologist, born in Posen, Prussia.
    Berlin in 1838 specializing in neurology.[1] He is best known for reducing Karl Ernst von Baer's four germ layers to three: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. He also discovered unmyelinated nerve fibres and the nerve cells in the heart sometimes called Remak's ganglia. He studied under Johannes Muller at the University of Berlin.


    Remak discovered that the origin of cells was by the division of pre-existing cells
    __________

    Wojciech Hubert Zurek (born 1951) is a well-known physicist and a Laboratory Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He is a leading authority on quantum theory, especially decoherence. His work also has a lot of potential benefit to the emerging field of quantum computing.

    . He was the leader of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group at Los Alamos from 1991 until he was made a Laboratory Fellow in the Theory Division in 1996. Zurek is currently a foreign associate of the Cosmology Program of the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research. He served as a member of the external faculty of the Santa Fe Institute, and has been a visiting professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Zurek co-organized the Quantum Coherence and Decoherence as well as the Quantum Computing and Chaos Programs at UCSB's Institute for Theoretical Physics.

    He researches decoherence, physics of quantum and classical information, foundations of statistical and of quantum physics, and astrophysics. He is also the co-author, along with William Wootters and Dennis Dieks, of a proof stating that a single quantum cannot be cloned (see the no cloning theorem). He also coined the term einselection.
    _____________
    Adolf Froelich (December 24, 1887 – November 1943) was a Polish inventor, dentist and participant of the Polish-Soviet War.

    In 1932 he invented the double propeller
    __________
    Romuald Adam Cebertowicz (February 7, 1897 in Głowno - January 14, 1981 in Łódź, Poland) was a Polish hydrotechnician. Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN).

    Cebertowicz is the creator of electro-injection method of soil solidification.
    __________
    Andrzej Krzysztof Tarkowski (born 1933) is a Polish embryologist and a professor at Warsaw University. In 2002 Tarkowski with Anne McLaren won the Japan Prize for their discoveries concerning the early development of mammalian embryos
    ________
    Louis Mékarski (in Polish Ludwik Mękarski) (1843-1923) was a French engineer and inventor of Polish origin. In 1870's he invented so-called Mekarski system of compressed-air powered trams which was used in several cities of France and USA as alternative to horse-powered and steam-powered trams.
    __________

    Władysław J. Świątecki (1895-1944) was a Polish inventor and airman.

    Świątecki invented the slip bomb device, which he patented in 1926.The device was planned for the Karas light bomber but not used, though the device was handed over to the Polish Air Force before the war and used by other European air forces
    _______
    Józef Jerzy Boguski (1853–1933) was a Polish chemist and a professor at the Warsaw Polytechnic.

    He carried out pioneering studies in chemical kinetics and formulated "Boguski's rule" concerning the speed of dissolution of solids in liquids.
    _________
    Jan Kazimierz Danysz (1884 - 1914) was a Polish Physicist.

    Danysz was an assistant of Maria Skłodowska-Curie and creator of the first spectrometer beta.

    ____________

    Stephanie Louise Kwolek (born July 31, 1923) is an Polish-American chemist who invented poly-paraphenylene terephtalamide—better known as Kevlar. She was born in the Pittsburgh suburb of New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Kwolek has won numerous awards for her work in polymer chemistry.

    During her 40 years as a research scientist, she filed and received either 17 or 28 patents.
    ________
    Piotr Wilniewczyc (1887-1960) was a Polish engineer and arms designer. Among his most successful designs were the Vis-35 pistol, commonly known as the Radom for the arsenal in which it was produced, and the Mors submachine gun.
    ______
    He was a pioneer in balneology, and a professor of Jagiellonian University, elected as its rector in 1861. Dietl described the kidney ailment known as "Dietl’s Crisis" as well as its treatment
    _____
    Wiktor Dega (1896-1995) was a revolutionary Polish surgeon. He was an orthopedist who was well known for his work on polio. He served as an expert for the World Health Organization. He created new apparatus and devices to help accident victims and survivors of polio, as well as new therapies and operations for congenital dislocations of the hip.
    ______
    Tadeusz Banachiewicz (13 February 1882, Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – 17 November 1954, Kraków) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and geodesis
    ___________

    Rudolf Gundlach (1894-1957) was a Polish engineer, inventor and tank designer. He headed the design division of the Armored Weapons Development Office (Biuro Badań Technicznych Broni Pancernych).

    He was the chief designer of the Ursus wz. 29 armored car and supervised design work for the 7TP light tank and the 10TP fast tank prototype.

    7TP was the first tank in the world with diesel engine and 360-degree Gundlach periscope

    He is famous for his invention of the Gundlach Rotary Periscope (Polish: Peryskop obrotowy Gundlacha), patented in 1936, which made possible 360° vision. The periscope enabled an observer (e.g., the tank commander) to look forward (upper panel of the picture) or backward (lower panel) without moving his seat. Since it greatly increased the comfort of observer and widened the field of view, the new periscope design was used in virtually every tank built after 1940

    _________

    Walter Golaski (1913 in Torrington, Connecticut –1996) was an American Mechanical-Bio-Medical Engineer best known for developing Dense Knit Dacron Vascular Prostheses, which were the first practical artificial blood vessel replacements. Golaski died near Philadelphia in 1996 at the age of 83.

    In 1940, Golaski developed a process for rebuilding hosiery machines to enable the knitting industry to make the switch from silk to nylon. In 1945 he opened the Bearing Products Company and with the profits later in 1956 bought and reorganized the Overbrook Knitting Corporation in order to convert existing machinery to produce full fashioned knitted sweaters. He was granted 10 American, 1 British and 2 Canadian patents.

    Golaski is best known for the product he developed next, the densely knit Dacron arteries, which he sold through his company Golaski Laboratories. Until this invention, the available replacement blood vessels were stiff, woven, and not sufficiently porous. The Golaski graft offered patients longer life expectancy than any other on the market.

    Golaski's business flourished after his invention, but he never forgot his ancestral heritage (he was born and raised in Connecticut but his parents immigrated to the US from Poland). He served as Chairman of the Kosciuszko Foundation. In "which [he] encouraged the exchange of students and scholars between the United States and Poland
    ______
    Moor-Jankowski eventually moved to the United States, where he worked mainly at a New York University primate lab. It was there that he used chimpanzees for medical research, including work on
    the discovery of the first Hepatitis B vaccine and the development of techniques to freeze blood for storage.

    Jan Moor-Jankowski (February 5, 1924 - August 27, 2005) was a Polish-born American primatologist and a fighter for Polish independence against Nazi Germany. Dr. Moor-Jankowski was Director of the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) which he founded in 1965, the Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Hematology of Primate Apes, and the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Medical Primatology.

    Moor-Jankowski was the author and editor of many books, monographs and periodicals, and more than 200 papers on human genetics, hemophilia, blood groups, immunology and primate medical experimentation.

    __________

    Leon Paweł Marchlewski (December 15, 1869 in Włocławek – January 16, 1946 in Kraków, Poland) was a Polish chemist.

    He was one of the founders in the field of chlorophyll chemistry.
    ________
    In 1919, Polish mathematician Theodor Kaluza proposed that the existence of a fourth spatial dimension might allow the linking of general relativity and electromagnetic theory. The idea, later refined by the Swedish mathematician Oskar Klein, was that space consisted of both extended and curled-up dimensions. The extended dimensions are the three spatial dimensions that we're familiar with, and the curled-up dimension is found deep within the extended dimensions and can be thought of as a circle. Experiments later showed that Kaluza and Klein's curled-up dimension did not unite general relativity and electromagnetic theory as originally hoped, but decades later, string theorists found the idea useful, even necessary.

    The mathematics used in superstring theory requires at least 10 dimensions. That is, for the equations that describe superstring theory to begin to work out—for the equations to connect general relativity to quantum mechanics, to explain the nature of particles, to unify forces, and so on—they need to make use of additional dimensions. These dimensions, string theorists believe, are wrapped up in the curled-up space first described by Kaluza and Klein.

    To extend the curled-up space to include these added dimensions, imagine that spheres replace the Kaluza-Klein circles. Instead of one added dimension we have two if we consider only the spheres' surfaces and three if we take into account the space within the sphere. That's a total of six dimensions so far.
    ____________
    Fluorescence microscopy has become an important tool in cellular biology. The Polish physicist Alexander Jablonski (1898-1980) at the University of Warsaw was a pioneer in fluorescence spectroscopy
    _________
    Gustav Kirchhoff (born in 1824) was an energetic Polish physicist who barely stood five feet in height.
    who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. He coined the term "black body" radiation in 1862, and two sets of independent concepts in both circuit theory and thermal emission are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him. The Bunsen-Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after him and his colleague, Robert Bunsen

    Kirchhoff formulated his circuit laws, which are now ubiquitous in electrical engineering, in 1845, while still a student. He completed this study as a seminar exercise; it later became his doctoral dissertation. He proposed his law of thermal radiation in 1859, and gave a proof in 1861. He was called to the University of Heidelberg in 1854,


    Bruno Abdank-Abakanowicz (October 6, 1852 – August 29, 1900) was a mathematician, inventor and electrical engineer.

    Earlier he invented the integraph, a form of the integrator, which was patented in 1880, and was henceforth produced by the Swiss firm Coradi[4]. Among his other patents were the parabolagraph, the spirograph, the electric bell used in trains, and an electric arc lamp of his own design
    _________

    He authored approximately 180 research papers and modified the method of determining parabolic orbits. In 1925, he invented a theory of "cracovians" — a special kind of matrix algebra — which brought him international recognition. This theory solved several astronomical, geodesic, mechanical and mathematical problems
    Banachiewicz invented a chronocinematograph. The lunar crater Banachiewicz is named after him. He wrote over 230 scientific works
    _________
    What is certain is that Virchow was cognizant of the fact that he was of Slavic descent. The family name of "Virchow" has Slavic origins and Virchow himself referred to his ancestral polish heritage in a letter to his father on February 22, 1842. Back

    Virchow first began studying the skull and skull development while researching cretinism during the early 1850’s. In his later years, he devoted increasing time more exclusively to anthropological studies of the skull and races. Ackerknecht expressed his opinion for the underlying reason of Virchow’s interest in anthropology and races as stemming from the coexistence of his polish ethnicity and within the German culture

    Referred to as "the father of modern pathology," he is considered one of the founders of social medicine.

    Virchow is credited with multiple important discoveries. Virchow's most widely known scientific contribution is his cell theory, which built on the work of Theodor Schwann. He is cited as the first to recognize leukemia cells. He was one of the first to accept the work of Robert Remak who showed that the origins of cells was the division of preexisting cells.[1]. (Though he did not initially accept the evidence for cell division, believing that it only occurs in certain types of cells. When it dawned on him that Remak might be right, in 1855 he published Remak's work as his own which caused a falling out between the two)[2]. This Virchow encapsulated in the epigram Omnis cellula e cellula ("every cell originates from another existing cell like it.") which he published in 1858. (The epigram was actually coined by François-Vincent Raspail but popularized by Virchow).[3] It is a rejection of the concept of spontaneous generation, which held that organisms could arise from non-living matter. It was believed, for example, that maggots could spontaneously appear in decaying meat; Francesco Redi carried out experiments which disproved this. Redi's work gave rise to the maxim Omne vivum ex ovo ("every living thing comes from a living thing" [literally, "from an egg"]), Virchow (and his predecessors) extended this to state that the only source for a living cell was another living cell.

    Another significant credit relates to the discovery, made approximately simultaneously by Virchow and Charles Emile Troisier, that an enlarged left supra-clavicular node is one of the earliest signs of gastrointestinal malignancy, commonly of the stomach, or less commonly, lung cancer. This has become known as Virchow's node and simultaneously Troisier's sign.

    Virchow is also famous for elucidating the mechanism of pulmonary thromboembolism, coining the term embolism. He noted that blood clots in the pulmonary artery originate first from venous thrombi, stating: "The detachment of larger or smaller fragments from the end of the softening thrombus which are carried along by the current of blood and driven into remote vessels. This gives rise to the very frequent process on which I have bestowed the name of Embolia." Related to this research, Virchow described the factors contributing to venous thrombosis, Virchow's triad.

    Furthermore, Virchow founded the medical fields of cellular pathology and comparative pathology (comparison of diseases common to humans and animals). His very innovative work may be viewed as sitting between that of Morgagni whose work Virchow studied, and that of Paul Ehrlich, who studied at the Charité while Virchow was developing microscopic pathology there.


    Rudolf Virchow, by Hugo VogelIn 1869 he founded the Society for anthropology, ethnology and prehistory (Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte) which was very influential in coordinating and intensifying German archaeological research. In 1885 he launched a study of craniometry, which gave surprising results according to contemporary scientific racist theories on the "Aryan race", leading him to denounce the "Nordic mysticism" in the 1885 Anthropology Congress in Karlsruhe. Josef Kollmann , a collaborator of Virchow, stated in the same congress that the people of Europe, be them German, Italian, English or French, belonged to a "mixture of various races," furthermore declaring that the "results of craniology" led to "struggle against any theory concerning the superiority of this or that European race" on others .[4]

    In 1861, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1892 he was awarded the Copley Medal. Among his most famous students was anthropologist Franz Boas, who became a professor at Columbia University.

    _________
    Georges (Jerzy) Nomarski (January 6, 1919 - 1997) was a Polish physicist and optics theoretician. Creator of Nomarski Interference Contrast (NIC) or differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), the method is widely used to study live biological specimens and unstained tissues.
    _________

    Paul Nipkow was indeed of Polish Kaszubian origin
    Paul Nipkow proposed and patented the world's first mechanical television system in 1884. Paul Nipkow devised the notion of dissecting the image and transmitting it sequentially. To do this he designed the first television scanning device. Paul Nipkow was the first person to discover television's scanning principle, in which the light intensities of small portions of an image are successively analyzed and transmitted.
    In 1873, the photoconductive properties of the element selenium were discovered, the fact that selenium's electrical conduction varied with the amount of illumination it received. Paul Nipkow created a rotating scanning disk camera called the Nipkow disk, a device for picture analyzation that consisted of a rapidly rotating disk placed between a scene and a light sensitive selenium element. The image had only 18 lines of resoution.

    The first regular television network was introduced by Paul Nipkow on march 22 1935
    ________
    Maria Elizabeth Zakrzewska (6 September 1829 – 12 May 1902) was a German-born physician of Polish descent who made her name as a pioneering female doctor in the United States.

    she established the New York infirmary, which she superintended two years, as resident physician and manager. In 1862, Zakrzewska founded the New England Hospital for Women and Children, the first hospital in Boston, the first with a school for nurses[2] and the second hospital in America to be run by women physicians and surgeons.

    She also broke barriers that hindered women in practicing medicine in the United States, founded hospitals for women, and pioneered the movement that opened the nursing profession to black women with the first black nurse in America graduating from the school in 1879
    ___________
    Bohdan Paczyński or Bohdan Paczynski (8 February 1940 - 19 April 2007) was a Polish astronomer, a leading scientist in theory of the evolution of stars, accretion discs and gamma ray bursts.

    Paczyński was born February 8, 1940, in Vilnius, Lithuania to a family of a lawyer and a teacher of Polish literature. In 1945 his family chose to leave for Poland and settled in Kraków, and then in 1949 in Warsaw. Already at the age of 18 Paczyński published his first scientific article in Acta Astronomica. Between 1959 and 1962 he studied astronomy at the University of Warsaw. Two years later he received a doctorate under tutelage of Stefan Piotrowski and Włodzimierz Zonn.

    In 1962 Paczyński became a member of the Centre of Astronomy of the Polish Academy of Sciences, where he continued to work for nearly 20 years. In 1974 he received habilitation and in 1979 became a professor. Thanks to his works on theoretical astronomy, at the age of 36 he became the youngest member of the Polish Academy of Sciences[1]

    In 1981 Paczyński visited United States, where he gave a series of lectures at Caltech to former interns at his Warsaw-based institute. After the introduction of the Martial Law in Poland he decided to stay abroad. He was The Lyman Spitzer Jr. Professor of Astrophysics at Princeton University.

    Paczyński was the initiator of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE, led by Andrzej Udalski of Warsaw University Observatory) and All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS, created together with Grzegorz Pojmański).

    His new methods of discovering cosmic objects and measuring their mass by using gravitational lenses gained him international recognition, and he is acknowledged for coining the term microlensing. He was also an early proponent of the idea that gamma-ray bursts are at cosmological distances.

    His research concentrated on stellar evolution, gravitational lensing and gravitational microlensing, variable stars, gamma-ray bursts, and galactic structure.

    In 1999, he became the first astronomer to receive all three major awards of the Royal Astronomical Society, by winning the Gold Medal, having won the Eddington Medal in 1987 and the George Darwin Lectureship in 1995.[2]

    He was honoured with the title of doctor honoris causa by Wrocław University in Poland (on June 29, 2005) and Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń in Poland (on September 22, 2006).

    In January 2006 he was awarded Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society, "for his highly original contributions to a wide variety of fields including advanced stellar evolution, the nature of gamma ray bursts, accretion in binary systems, gravitational lensing, and cosmology. His research has been distinguished by its creativity and breadth, as well as the stimulus it has provided to highly productive observational investigations".

    _____
    ____Julian Leopold Ochorowicz ("Yool-yahn Oh-hor-oh-veech"; outside Poland, also known as Julien Ochorowitz; Radzymin, February 23, 1850 – May 1, 1917, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, psychologist, inventor (precursor of radio and television[]), poet, publicist and leading exponent of Polish Positivism.

    __In 1877 he elaborated theory of monochromatic television as screen built with use of bulbs to convert emited images as groups of light points. In 1885 he improve telephone and his patent was used to connect French Ministry of Post and Telegraph with Paris Opera on distance 4 kilometers. In this year he also set telephone line between Antwerp and Brussel during World Fair on distance 45 km and Petersburg with Bołgoje on distance 320 km in Russia.

    Ochorowicz was a pioneer of empirical research in psychology, and conducted studies into occultism, Spiritualism, hypnosis and telepathy. His most popular works included Wstęp i pogląd ogólny na filozofię pozytywną (An Introduction to and Overview of Positive Philosophy, 1872) and Jak należy badać duszę? (How Should One Study the Soul?, 1869).

    ________

    He was born in Izhevskoye (now in Spassky District, Ryazan Oblast), in the Russian Empire, to a middle-class family. His father, Edward Tsiolkovsky (in Polish: Ciołkowski), was Polish;
    His father was a Polish patriot deported to Russia as a result of his revolutionary political activities

    the late 19th and early 20th century, Tsiolkovsky delved into theories of heavier-than-air flying machines, independently working through many of the same calculations that the Wright brothers were doing at the same time.[citation needed] However, he never built any practical models, and his interest shifted to more ambitious topics. But Hermann Oberth could had to know some about Tsiolkovsky's ideas, but Tsiolkovsky's ideas were little known outside Imperial Russia, so it is fact as Oberth could not independently made the same calculations decades later.

    In 1923, German physicist Hermann Oberth published his thesis By Rocket into Planetary Space, which triggered wide-scale interest and scientific research on the topic of space flight. It also reminded Friedrich Zander about once having read an article on the subject. After contacting the author, he became active in promoting and further developing Tsiolkovsky's work.[citation needed] In 1924 Zander established the first astronautics society in the Soviet Union, the Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel, and later researched and built liquid-fuelled rockets named OR-1 (1930) and OR-2 (1933).

    In 1924, a writer for the Russian newspaper Izvestiia reported on A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, a groundbreaking work on the rocketry experiments being done by Robert Goddard, which had been published in 1919 but was not noticed in the Soviet Union until Hermann Oberth referenced it in his later work. When news of the article reached Tsiolkovsky, he decided to republish his early works along with a flurry of new articles about space.[5]


    1 ruble, 1987Only late in his lifetime was Tsiolkovsky honoured for his pioneering work. On 23 August 1924 he was elected as a first professor of the Zhukovsky Airforce Academy named after N. E. Zhukovsky (Russian: Военно-воздушная академия им. Н. Е. Жуковского).[citation needed]

    His most important work, published in 1903, was The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices (Russian: Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами),[6] arguably the first academic treatise on rocketry.[citation needed] Tsiolkovsky calculated that the horizontal speed required for a minimal orbit around the Earth is 8,000 m/s (5 miles per second) and that this could be achieved by means of a multistage rocket fueled by liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.


    Monument to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in MoscowDuring his lifetime he published over 500 works on space travel and related subjects, including science fiction novels. Among his works are designs for rockets with steering thrusters, multi-stage boosters, space stations, airlocks for exiting a spaceship into the vacuum of space, and closed cycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies.

    Tsiolkovsky had been developing the idea of the air cushion since 1921, publishing fundamental paper on it in 1927, entitled "Air Resistance and the Express Train" (Russian: Сопротивление воздуха и скорый поезд).[7][8] In 1929 Tsiolkovsky proposed the construction of multistage rockets in his book Space Rocket Trains (Russian: Космические ракетные поезда).

    Tsiolkovsky's work influenced later rocketeers throughout Europe, like Wernher von Braun[citation needed], and was also studied by the Americans in the 1950s and 1960s as they sought to understand the Soviet Union's successes in space flight.[citation needed]
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    Princess Hélène Elizabeth Louise Amélie Paula Dolores Poniatowska Amor. Journalist and author. She has published several works of fiction, testimonial literature, as well as book compilations of her interviews with writers, artists, and politicians. In recent years her prominence as a public intellectual and political figure has increased, supporting the Left-Democratic-Communist Party of the country. She's won over 18 awards.
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    Quote Originally Posted by carlos View Post
    Princess Hélène Elizabeth Louise Amélie Paula Dolores Poniatowska Amor. Journalist and author. She has published several works of fiction, testimonial literature, as well as book compilations of her interviews with writers, artists, and politicians. In recent years her prominence as a public intellectual and political figure has increased, supporting the Left-Democratic-Communist Party of the country. She's won over 18 awards.


    Jerzy Rzedowski Rotter (born December 27, 1926) is a Mexican botanist. He was born in Lwów, Poland (now in Ukraine).

    He worked at different companies and institutions such as Syntex, Smith, Kline & French, Colegio de Postgraduados, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi and Instituto Politecnico Nacional. He did not just work in the herbarium. He explored a lot of places surveying the local plant life. He collected more than 50000 specimens that can be found in many herbaria.

    At the time that he started to work on Mexican floristics very few studies were published in that field, so he became a pioneer in it. Afterwards, he became the most respected botanist in Mexico.

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    Quote Originally Posted by PolskiMoc View Post
    Jerzy Rzedowski Rotter (born December 27, 1926) is a Mexican botanist. He was born in Lwów, Poland (now in Ukraine).

    He worked at different companies and institutions such as Syntex, Smith, Kline & French, Colegio de Postgraduados, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi and Instituto Politecnico Nacional. He did not just work in the herbarium. He explored a lot of places surveying the local plant life. He collected more than 50000 specimens that can be found in many herbaria.

    At the time that he started to work on Mexican floristics very few studies were published in that field, so he became a pioneer in it. Afterwards, he became the most respected botanist in Mexico.
    Poniatowska is admired and respected because of the book she wrote telling the history of the Tlatelolco massacre, a facist government massacre of liberal student and civilian protesters (she was among them) that took place during the afternoon of October 2, 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco, Mexico City
    It's not that I hate you, but let's say that if I had two bullets and Hitler was next to you, I would rather shoot you...twice

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