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Thread: Origin of the Ancient Assyrians (split) //mod2820 days old

  1. #181
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    The Assyrians were bitter enemies of the Hebrews/Israelites.

    There seemed to be a closer connection with Indo-Aryan tribes and Armenians.

    "The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel refers to those tribes of ancient Israel that formed the Kingdom of Israel and which disappeared from Biblical and all other historical accounts after the kingdom was destroyed in about 720 BC by ancient Assyria"

    Sennacherib-Taylor prism account
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_prism



    Sennacherib's account

    Some of the Assyrian chronicles, such as the baked-clay Taylor prism now preserved in the British Museum, and the similar Sennacherib prism, preserved in the Oriental Institute, Chicago, date from very close to the time. (see also: Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire)[1] (The Taylor Prism itself bears the date "the month of Tammuz; eponym of Galihu, governor of Hatarikka" which is Tammuz in the year 689 BC, according to the Assyrian Eponym List). Assyrian accounts do not treat it as a disaster, but a great victory — they maintain that the siege was so successful that Hezekiah was forced to give a monetary tribute, and the Assyrians left victoriously, without losses of thousands of men, and without sacking Jerusalem. Part of this is indeed confirmed in the Biblical account, but it is still debated fiercely by historians. In the Taylor Prism, Sennacherib states that he had shut up Hezekiah the Judahite within Jerusalem, his own royal city, like a caged bird.

    "Egypt and Nubia then came to the aid of the stricken cities. Sennacherib defeated the Egyptians ..."

    “ Because Hezekiah, king of Judah, would not submit to my yoke, I came up against him, and by force of arms and by the might of my power I took 46 of his strong fenced cities; and of the smaller towns which were scattered about, I took and plundered a countless number. From these places I took and carried off 200,156 persons, old and young, male and female..."


    According to the bible;

    2 Kings 19:

    35. That night the angel of the Lord went out and put to death a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the Assyrian camp. When the people got up the next morning—there were all the dead bodies! 36 So Sennacherib king of Assyria broke camp and withdrew. He returned to Nineveh and stayed there.

    Sennacheribs son's when they encountered trouble, always fled in to the communities to the North.Why?

    "Esarhaddon"was the youngest son of Sennacherib.

    "Esarhaddon remained crown prince, but was forced into exile at an unknown place beyond Hanilgalbat (Mitanni)..."

    2 Kings 19:37

    37 "One day, while he was worshiping in the temple of his god Nisrok, his sons Adrammelek and Sharezer killed him with the sword, and they escaped to the land of Ararat. And Esarhaddon his son succeeded him as king."

    This does not refer to any specific mountain or peak, but rather a mountain range within the region of Ararat, which was the name of an ancient proto-Armenian kingdom also known as Urartu.
    Last edited by Silesian; 2012-05-12 at 21:25.

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  4. #182
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    Quote Originally Posted by Silesian View Post
    According to the bible;

    2 Kings 19:

    35. That night the angel of the Lord went out and put to death a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the Assyrian camp. When the people got up the next morning—there were all the dead bodies! 36 So Sennacherib king of Assyria broke camp and withdrew. He returned to Nineveh and stayed there.

    Sennacheribs son's when they encountered trouble, always fled in to the communities to the North.Why?

    "Esarhaddon"was the youngest son of Sennacherib.

    "Esarhaddon remained crown prince, but was forced into exile at an unknown place beyond Hanilgalbat (Mitanni)..."

    2 Kings 19:37

    37 "One day, while he was worshiping in the temple of his god Nisrok, his sons Adrammelek and Sharezer killed him with the sword, and they escaped to the land of Ararat. And Esarhaddon his son succeeded him as king."

    This does not refer to any specific mountain or peak, but rather a mountain range within the region of Ararat, which was the name of an ancient proto-Armenian kingdom also known as Urartu.
    Thanks for the post, Silesian.

    Further reading on Esarhaddon, if you are interested:The Trials of Esarhaddon: the Conspiracy of 670 BC. In P. Miglus and J.M. Cordoba (eds.), Assur und sein Umland. Isimu: Revista sobre Oriente Proximo y Egipto en la antiguedad 6 (2003) 165-184 [published 2007].
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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    Quote Originally Posted by Humanist View Post
    Thanks for the post, Silesian.

    Further reading on Esarhaddon, if you are interested:The Trials of Esarhaddon: the Conspiracy of 670 BC. In P. Miglus and J.M. Cordoba (eds.), Assur und sein Umland. Isimu: Revista sobre Oriente Proximo y Egipto en la antiguedad 6 (2003) 165-184 [published 2007].
    I see some Assyrians have ydna G1 and some have L584+, while others R2 and J1c3. Besides the quirky rh +/- alleles look what else is in that neck of the woods.

    "Haplogroup G1 has an extremely low frequency in almost all countries except Iran and the countries adjoining Iran on the west."

    R1b+G1+R2+J1c3=[F3]

    F3 (P96, M282) - In South Iran and South India. Armenia, and rare in Netherlands.

    F3* M89+ P96+ M282+
    164203 Melik-Grigoryan, Alashkert, Turkey
    164944 Manoog Baghdoyan, 1850-1917, Aintab, Turkey

    "Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H, F* and K) or the Middle East ,{maybe close to the Assyrians?}(haplogroups G and IJ)."

    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/...ction=yresults

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    Posted 2012-03-27, 19:17 | #113

    [A]s literacy dawns over the horizon of prehistory the first ethnic group whom we know to have inhabited the region [Arbil and its environs] are the Hurrians. This is not to say there were not other groups. There almost certainly were. Texts over these millennia relating to the eastern frontiers of Mesopotamia (for instance Ur III administrative documents and the Shemshara archives) contain a large number of personal names whose linguistic affiliation has not yet been established and it is, in my view, probable that parent languages will one be day be recognised and reconstructed for at least some of them. Be that as it may, the Hurrians are the earliest definable group for whose presence in the region we currently have evidence; followed closely by the Sumerians.
    Quote Originally Posted by Humanist View Post
    Akkadian and Sumerian Language Contact

    by Gábor Zólyomi

    forthcoming in Stefan Weninger, ed., Semitic Languages. An International Handbook (HSK 36). Berlin — New York, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 387–393

    Akkadian and Sumerian Language Contact

    by Gábor Zólyomi

    forthcoming in Stefan Weninger, ed., Semitic Languages. An International Handbook (HSK 36). Berlin — New York, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 387–393

    These developments started in about the 24th century B.C.E. and were completed by the first part of the 2nd millennium B.C.E. They therefore overlap in time with the period of assumed asymmetrical bilingualism. One is therefore tempted to assume that these phonological changes may in fact reflect the influence of a Sumerian speaking population gradually shifting to Akkadian. Hasselbach finds that contrary to expectations the orthography indicates the loss of gutturals and the phonemicization of /e/ in texts from the north first, but not from the south. She does, however, note the possibility that the Akkadian of the southern texts ‘might have been a learned literary language that was not native to this area’.
    If we do not concern ourselves with the question of Sumerian origins for a moment:

    "[I]t has become increasingly clear that at moments, people from Sumer moved into areas to the north and east."

    Exploring Sumer

    Geoff Emberling

    To appear in the catalogue of the exhibit Before the Flood (Barcelona and Madrid)
    ed. Pedro Azara (2012)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Quote Originally Posted by Silesian View Post
    I see some Assyrians have ydna G1 ...

    "Haplogroup G1 has an extremely low frequency in almost all countries except Iran and the countries adjoining Iran on the west."


    Men in my group (DYS494=8), include a fellow Assyrian, an Iranian, a Hemshin Armenian, more Armenians, a Welshman, an Anglo-American, and a Saudi man. Some Palestinian men may also be a part of my group. Apart from the Assyrian from Iraq, my nearest match, based on 67 GD, is the Welshman. At 111 markers, the GD between the Welshman and Humanist = 57.

    Three men in the G project, with 111 STRs tested, and within 80 GD of my haplotype:

    GD=57 Wales G1a4...DYS494=8
    GD=74 Saudi Arabia G1c1...DYS446 less than 13
    GD=80 Anglo-American? G2a3a1 - only predicted L14+

    Marko's G1 tree, from last year:

    Last edited by Humanist; 2012-05-13 at 14:46.
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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    G6PD deficiency is the most common known human enzyme deficiency, most frequently in areas with a high incidence of malaria, such as Africa, the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia. This is due to the fact that being a carrier for G6PD deficiency is thought to confer some resistance to malaria. Because the genetic mutations are sex-linked, most cases occur in males. Females who carry one mutation are generally not affected because the copy of the gene on the other X chromosome is functioning normally and compensates for the defect. Affected males can pass the mutation to a daughter, but it is unlikely that she would have symptoms, for this reason.
    http://www.jewishgenetics.org/?q=con...6pd-deficiency


    Assyrian
    Code:
    N	G6PD     %		
    63	6	9.5%	 Chaldean Catholic
    31	4	12.9%	"Nestorian"
    			
    94	10	10.6%	(Amin-Zaki et al.)

    A few other populations of significance:

    Non-Middle Eastern
    Armenian 3.1% (N=?) Akoglu et al.

    Middle East and Egypt
    Alawites 11.4% (N=105) Say et al.
    Lebanon 3.1% (N=549) Taleb et al.
    Saudi Arabia 15.0% (N=306) Gelpi et al.
    Kuwait 20.4% (N=255) Shaker et al.
    Egypt 26.4% (N=500) Ragab et al.
    Last edited by Humanist; 2012-05-14 at 00:57.
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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  12. #186
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    Bits from "The Assyrian Heartland" 2012

    Dr. Friedhelm Pedde
    Assur-Projekt, Berlin


    Because of its geographical position and favorable climate, with sufficient rainfall for rain-fed agriculture, large parts of Assyria consist of rich farmland. Other parts are covered with grass and offer good conditions for breeding livestock. In antiquity the hills were covered with trees. These favorable conditions explain why Assyria was settled from the Neolithic period onwards, as the evidence from Nineveh clearly shows.
    The Assyrian heartland was poor in mineral resources. Material and labor shortages in Assyria were the main motivations for the many military campaigns of the Assyrian kings in all directions.
    Traces of destruction are found not only in the capitals, but also at smaller sites in Assyria. However, in most cases there are signs of continuity over the subsequent few generations. The immediately post-Assyrian period is the subject of ongoing investigation.
    Assur

    An unusual find consisted of two rows with stela – an Assyrian calendar system – mentioning the names of the Assyrian kings and officials of the Assyrian state, beginning in the Middle Assyrian period with Eriba-Adad I (1390-1364 BC) and ending in the Neo-Assyrian period with the wife of Assurbanipal (668-627 BC). At least one king, Assur-bel-kala (1073-1056 BC), was buried in a tomb under the Old Palace. It is not known, however, where all the other kings from the earlier periods were entombed (Lundstrom 2009).
    Nineveh

    In the 7th century BC Nineveh was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian empire. Situated on the east bank of the Tigris across from Mosul.

    The first known Western visitor there was Benjamin of Tudela, who wrote an account of it in 1178, though this was not published until 1543 in Constantinople.
    Besides the Assyrian capitals and the other large, well-known Assyrian sites, there are many other settlements containing Middle and Neo-Assyrian material (Green 1999; Atlaweel 2008; Hausleiter 2010f). Most of these are small and excavations have been limited, so that only a few preliminary findings have been published.
    The year 1178. That is rather late in our history. The Church of the East was quickly approaching its date of effective demise in Assyria, when the first Western visitor may have appeared.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    "The Assyrians Abroad" 2012

    Dr. Bradley J. Parker
    Director: Upper Tigris Archaeological Research Project (UTARP), University of Utah

    [F]amilies were not split up when deported but, rather, family groups were allowed to stay together and settle in the same area. Second, provincial officials were obliged to provide provisions and equipment to deportees traveling through their area. Third, upon arriving at their destination, deportees were given land, which often consisted of fields and garden plots, a dwelling, and in some cases one or more animals. And fourth, provincial governors were responsible for protecting deportees resettled in their provinces.
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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    The Early Integration of the Eurasian Steppes with the Ancient Near East: Movements and Transformations in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Philip L. Kohl 2006

    [T]he advent of the well-known early bronze cultures of the caucasus – the maikop and novosvobodnaya cultural formations of the northern caucasus and the velikent and kura-araxes cultural formations of the north-eastern and southern caucasus – marked a radical change in the production and exchange of metals throughout the entire interconnected area. Chernykh’s circumpontic metallurgical province (cmp) emerged to replace the no longer functioning carpatho-balkan metallurgical province. Its emergence and the advent of these early bronze caucasian cultures must be related also to roughly simultaneous developments that occurred farther south involving the greater integration of the anatolian plateau and western iran into a larger mesopotamian world. Colonists and traders from southern mesopotamia moved north and east far beyond the southern mesopotamian alluvium, a movement now referred to as the uruk expansion (algaze 1993; stein et al. 1996; paléorient 1999; avilova, antipina and teneishvili 1999; rothman 2001; etc.), and greatly influenced the development of the early bronze cultures on the edge of the steppes.
    The high chronology favoured here is based on fairly extensive and consistent series of calibrated radiocarbon determinations (Rassamakin 1999, 163–4; Chernykh 2000, 74–5; Trifonov 2001, 76–7; also for Transcaucasia, cf. Kavtaradze 1983; 1999; and the partial uncalibrated list of Kushnareva 1997, 52, which, of course, must be corrected), as well as typological parallels linking Maikop materials, in particular, with the ‘Uruk’-related remains to the south.
    [T]he recent discovery of the grave of the ‘Signore di Arslantepe’ (Frangipane 1998; 2000) with its wealth of bronze weapons, bronze, silver and gold ornaments, and local Mesopotamian-related and ‘Transcaucasian’ (Kura- Araxes) vessels underscores the degree to which our knowledge of Kura- Araxes metallurgy and social differentiation is partial and distorted.

    The Maikop ‘culture’ clearly has multiple roots, a classic example of the hybrid nature of an archaeological culture. Many Russian archaeologists (for example, Munchaev 1994, 169) have documented striking ceramic parallels between early Maikop vessels and those found farther south in Syria and northern Mesopotamia (Amuq F and Gawra XII-IX), and it has been claimed that some of the spherical Maikop vessels may have been turned on a slow wheel, a technological development that may also reflect direct borrowing from the south. Perhaps most significantly, microlithic chipped stone tools were found in the great Maikop kurgan, and Munchaev (1994, 170, 189) relates their late presence there to the long-rooted Mesopotamian tradition of depositing such archaic artefacts beneath the floors of public buildings or temples (for example, in the earlier Yarim Tepe II and at Uruk itself); in other words, the fact that such a symbolic Mesopotamian practice is attested in the richest known ‘royal’ or chiefly Maikop burial must have significance not only for the earlier dating of the Maikop culture, but also for determining its cultural affiliation and formation.
    The Maikop culture clearly has multiple origins or is syncretic in character, with local roots that extend naturally north onto the steppes and with surprisingly close and novel connections with northern Mesopotamia.
    For example, Avilova, Antonova and Teneishvili (1999, 57–8) calculate that approximately 7400 gold and 1000 silver artefacts have been found in Maikop-related kurgans in the north-western Caucasus. Such precious artefacts practically disappear in the northern Caucasus towards the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, while at the same time the number of gold and silver artefacts in Anatolia and Transcaucasia (and, not incidentally, in Mesopotamia, such as at the Royal Cemetery at Ur) sharply rises (calculated at about 32000 objects). This shift not only reflects changes in the production and supply of precious metals, but also the movements of peoples with their leaders or chiefs south, across or around the Great Caucasus range.
    Whether it was the search for more arable land to support their burgeoning populations and/or their displacement with the arrival of new groups from the north with four-wheeled, oxen-driven wagons, the Kura-Araxes peoples moved over some extended period during the late 4th and the early 3rd millennium BC far to the south-west across the Anatolian plateau to the Amuq plain and beyond to today’s northern Israel and to the south-east into north-western Iran and along the Zagros mountains and onto the Iranian plateau as least as far as Kermanshah. This spread of ‘Early Transcaucasian’ settlements has long fascinated archaeologists (see, for example, the map in Roaf 1990, 80), many of them speculating on the ethnic/linguistic identity of these migrants and interpreting them as ancestral to Hurrians or Hittites or other later historically attested peoples...
    New relevant radiocarbon dates from the southern Levant suggest that Khirbet Kerak ware may first have appeared ca. 2800–2700 BC or almost simultaneous with its appearance farther north (Philip and Millard 2000, 284). The overall pattern seems reasonably clear: an initial spread across eastern Anatolia to the upper Euphrates basin at the very end of the 4th and beginning of the 3rd millennium followed by a relatively rapid diffusion (during the course of a century or so?) farther south-west ultimately to the eastern Mediterranean coast.
    Settlement pattern data for southern Central Asia, such as it is (cf. the calculations and caveats in Kohl 1984, 143–6, 151–4, 159–60; also now the more systematic work in the Murghab delta by Gubaev, Koshelenko and Tosi [1998]), supports the following conclusions:

    1. There is scant evidence for occupation of the lowland plains of Margiana prior to the Middle Bronze period or datable to the second half of the 3rd millennium and later periods (Salvatori 1998, 52).

    2. The total known occupied area for the plains of Margiana and northern and southern Bactria during Middle and Late Bronze Age times considerably exceeds the known occupied area for earlier Chalcolithic and Bronze Age remains from the piedmont strip of southern Turkmenistan or even also north-eastern Iran (excluding the Gorgan plain), a fact that essentially precludes the possibility of deriving the former exclusively from the latter, as has been postulated (by Biscione 1977, for example).

    3. The most notable disjunction in the settlement pattern data in terms of location, size and nature of settlements from southern Central Asia from Neolithic through Iron Age times or throughout later prehistory occurs precisely during this initial major occupation of the lowland plains of Bactria and Margiana beginning in the last centuries of the 3rd millennium BC.
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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    I am not suggesting that the two are necessarily connected. But, I did find it interesting.

    Wikipedia:

    Many Indo-European religious branches show evidence for horse sacrifice, and comparative mythology suggests that they derive from a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) ritual.

    In most instances, the horses are sacrificed in a funerary context, and interred with the deceased. There is evidence but no explicit myths from the three branches of Indo-Europeans of a major horse sacrifice ritual based on a mythical union of Indo-European kingship and the horse. The Indian Aśvamedha is the clearest evidence preserved, but vestiges from Latin and Celtic traditions allow the reconstruction of a few common attributes.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    A Neo-Assyrian Text Describing a Royal Funeral

    Dr. John MacGinnis, Cambridge

    [ ... ] The father my begetter in kingly oil I gently laid [in] that secret tomb. I sealed·the entrance to the sarcophagus, his resting-place with tough bronze and cast it for a potent spell. Objects of gold and silver, everything worthy of a tomb, the regalia that he used to love, I showed to Shamash [the sun god] and placed with my father in the tomb. I offered gifts to the princely Anunnaki and the spirits who dwell in the underworld.

    [ ... ] 9 times (?) [ ... ] to Gilgamesh unridden horses I slaughtered and put them in the tomb...

    Commentary

    Furthermore, it seems that Ur-Nammu [Sumerian king, Ur III] arrived in the underworld by means of a chariot and this cannot but remind us of the ED [Early Dynastic] burials from Ur, Kish, Abu Salabikh and elsewhere where skeletons of equids/bovids and/or the remains of chariots have been excavated.
    This discussion of the nature of the text naturally raises the question of its date. Even if some of the literary material is older, the lists of garments firmly date the text to the Neo-Assyrian period and the conclusion of von Soden that it was written in the reign of either Esarhaddon or Ashurbanipal [7th c. BCE] is still most likely.
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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    "The Importance of Metallurgical Data for the Formation of a Central Transcaucasian Chronology," and "The Beginnings of Metallurgy"

    Dr. Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze
    Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History & Ethnology

    The mainly sixth millennium chronology of the early farming culture of Shulaveri-Shomu Tepe in central Trans-Caucasia is based on calibrated radiocarbon evidence. These calibrated dates partially solve the discrepancy between the Near Eastern archaeological parallels of this culture, dated to the seventh-sixth millennia, and the uncalibrated radiocarbon dates of the Shulaveri-Shomu Tepe culture, which were largely {p. 541:} placed in the fifth millennium. We bear in mind the assumption about the special closeness of this culture in all stages of its existence with the Hassuna culture on the one hand and with the Umm Dabaghiah -Tell Sotto culture of the pre-Halafian period on the other.

    It seems that the decorations of the Umm-Dabaghiah pottery are not as analogous to the ornaments of the Arukhlo/Nakhiduri I,[4] when compared to the pottery of an earlier site, Imiris Gora.[5] Some Georgian archaeologists argue that similarities can also be observed between the small figurines of the upper levels of Khramis Didi Gora — a site which belongs to the final stage of the Shulaveri-Shomu Tepe culture — and similar figurines that were discovered in the layers of the Hassuna, Samara and Halaf cultures.[6] All of these Mesopotamian sites are dated mainly to the sixth millennium. The Shulaveri-Shomu Tepe culture, both from the perspective of typological and chronological data, can be compared with them; that all were at the same stage of development is not doubted.
    It should be possible to draw on the dates obtained for the Near Eastern strata in which Trans-Caucasian elements first appear and hence, to establish the relative chronology of Kura-Araxes culture of Trans-Caucasia. Put simply, the Kura-Araxes culture at its point of origin is logically earlier than its manifestations in the Near East. In the construction of a comparative chronology, the regional variants of the Kura-Araxes culture must be taken into account. The earliest Kura-Araxes material discovered in Level XI at Pulur (Sakyol), as stated above, seems contemporaneous with the middle layers of Amiranis Gora in south-western central Trans-Caucasia.[40] At the same time, Pulur (Sakyol) XI has close parallels with Arslantepe VI B especially in regard to the forms and incised decorations of pot stands.[41] {p. 547:}

    One could speculate that the infiltration of the Kura-Araxes population into the Near East stimulated Mesopotamian sea commerce in the Arabian Gulf of the Jamdat Nasr period. Their presence may have triggered political disruption in eastern Anatolia, northern Syria and western Iran. The desertion of the Uruk sites in these areas brought about economic changes especially in regard to distribution and trade in metal ores and other artifacts; probably increasing local control over these resources.[42]
    Not only the territories inhabited by Northeastern Caucasian languages speakers coincided with the Caucasian homeland of the Kura-Araxes culture, but also the Hurrians, living in upper Mesopotamia in the late-third millennium B.C., may have had their earliest homeland in eastern Anatolia, in one of the earliest centres of the same culture. C. Burney was the first to put forward the suggestion that the people of eastern Anatolia in the Early Bronze Age could be identified as Hurrians and that they were the main population component of the Early Trans-Caucasian or Kura-Araxes culture.[57] Over time, the material culture of the Hurrians became all but indistinguishable from other Near Eastern cultures where they settled.[58] Their characteristic painted ware was similar to other contemporary, Near Eastern painted pottery types.[59]
    The discovery of the south Transcaucasian obsidian in the southern Iran and of south Iranian or south [p. 87] Mesopotamian ornaments in Transcaucasia can be considered as the reflection of one and the same phenomenon - the existence of trade connections between southern Transcaucasia on the one hand and south-western Iran and southern Mesopotamia on the other which determines the coexistence of the late Karmirberd and early Sevan-Userlik cultures of southern Transcaucasia and of the final part of the Trialeti culture in the 18th Century B.C. (Kavtaradze 1992: 51f;cf. Kushnareva 1994: 117).
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    There is also this study, from the "Resources Vault" section of the forum, posted a few weeks back:
    "Migration from Transcaucasia to the southern Levant during the 3rd millennium BCE."
    Last edited by Humanist; 2012-05-15 at 12:22.
    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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    Ardi (2012-05-15)

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    Continuing the theme from above. Originally posted in the Dodecad thread, here.

    The "Caucasus" and "Gedrosia" components (left and right respectively) added for the following populations (map locations are rough):

    Abkhazians
    Armenians_D
    Assyrians_D
    Bulgarian_D
    Cypriots
    Druze
    Georgians
    Greek_D
    Iranian Jews
    Iraqi Jews
    Iraqi Mandaeans
    Romanians
    Samaritans
    S Italian Sicilian_D
    Turkish_D
    Yemen Jews

    Different colors are meant to reflect the different concentrations of the two components observed in the populations. Components rounded to nearest whole %.

    I [Nebuchadnezzar] made a trench searching for the old foundation deposits ( . . . ), and I found the foundation of Naram-Sin, the king of Babylon, a remote ancestor, and I did not remove his inscription, but put my own inscription together with his inscription.
    The Pious King: Royal Patronage of Temples
    By Caroline Waerzeggers

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