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Thread: The Yaqui and Mayo Peoples (Northwest Mexico)3109 days old

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    Default The Yaqui and Mayo Peoples (Northwest Mexico)

    Abstract from Wikipedia:

    The Yaqui People

    The Yaqui or Yoeme are a Native American tribe who originally lived in the valley of the Río Yaqui in the northern Mexican state of Sonora. Many Yaqui still live in their original homeland, but some live in Arizona as a result of wars between the Yaqui and the Mexican government. The Yaqui call themselves "Yoreme," the Yaqui word for person ("yoemem" or "yo'emem" meaning "people"). The Yaqui call their homeland "Hiakim," from which some say the name "Yaqui" is derived. They may also describe themselves as Hiaki Nation or Pascua Hiaki, meaning "The Easter People".

    Lifestyle of the Yaqui

    In the past, the Yaqui subsisted on agriculture, growing corn, beans, and squash (like many of the natives of the region). The Yaqui who lived in the Río Yaqui region and in coastal areas of Sonora and Sinaloa fished as well as farmed. The Yaqui also made cotton products. The Yaqui have always been skillful warriors. The Yaqui Indians have been known to be quite tall in stature.[1]

    Yaqui cosmology and religion

    The Yaqui conception of the world is considerably different from that of their Mexican and United States neighbors. For example, the world (in Yaqui, anía) is composed of five separate worlds: the desert wilderness world, the mystical world, the flower world, the dream world, and the night world. Much Yaqui ritual is centered upon perfecting these worlds and eliminating the harm that has been done to them, especially by people. There is a belief current among many Yaquis that the existence of the world depends on the yearly performance of the Lenten and Easter rituals.[2]

    The Yaqui religion, which is a syncretic religion of old Yaqui beliefs and practices and the teachings of Jesuit and later Franciscan missionaries, relies upon song, music, prayer, and dancing, all performed by designated members of the community. There are also other, Roman Catholic, practices that are woven into the old ways.[3]

    The Yaqui deer song (maso bwikam) accompanies the deer dance which is performed by a pascola [from the Spanish 'pascua', Easter] dancer (also known as a deer dancer). Pascolas will perform at religio-social functions many times of the year, but especially during Lent and Easter.[4]

    The Yaqui deer song ritual is in many ways similar to the deer song rituals of neighboring Uto-Aztecan people such as the Mayo. However, the Yaqui deer song is much more central to the cultus of its people and is greatly tied in to Roman Catholic beliefs and practices.

    Flowers are very important in the Yaqui culture. According to Yaqui teachings, flowers sprang up from the drops of blood that were shed at the Crucifixion. Flowers are viewed as the manifestation of souls, to the point that occasionally Yaqui men may greet a close male friend with the phrase "Haisa sewa?" ("How is the flower?) [5]

    History of the Yaqui

    The Yaqui were never conquered militarily by the Spanish, defeating successive expeditions of conquistadores in battle. However, they were successfully converted to Christianity by the Jesuits, who convinced them to settle into eight towns: Pótam, Vícam, Tórim, Bácum, Cócorit, Huirivis, Benem, and Rahum.

    For many years, the Yaqui lived peacefully in a relationship with the Jesuit missionaries. This resulted in considerable mutual advantage: the Yaqui were able to develop a very productive economy, and the missionaries were able to employ the wealth created to extend their missionary activities further north. In the 1730s the Spanish colonial government began to alter this relationship, and eventually ordered all Jesuits out of Sonora. This created considerable unrest amongst the Yaqui and led to several rebellions. Further, the Franciscan priests never arrived to be their religious leaders, leaving the Yaqui with no western religious ties.[6] Yaqui leader Juan Banderas (executed 1833) wished to unite the Mayo, Opata, and Pima tribes, together with the Yaqui, to form an alliance separate from Mexico in the 1820s, but the effort failed and the Yaqui remained within the scope of Mexican legal authority.[7]

    The nation suffered a succession of brutalities by the Mexican authorities, including a notable massacre in 1868 where 150 Yaqui were burned to death by the army inside a church.[8]

    Another prominent (and failed) effort to win independence was led by the Yaqui leader Cajemé in the 1880s. Following this war, the Yaqui were subjected to further brutality under the regime of Porfirio Díaz, who implemented a policy of ethnic transfer, in order to remove the Yaqui from Sonora so that he could encourage immigration from Europe and the United States. The government transferred tens of thousands of Yaqui from Sonora to the Yucatán peninsula, where some were sold as slaves and worked on plantations; many of these slaves died from the brutal working conditions. Many Yaqui fled to the United States to escape this persecution. Today, the Mexican municipality of Cajeme is named after the fallen Yaqui leader.[9]
    Original article.

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    Default The Mayo of Sonara and Sinaloa

    Wikipedia:

    The Mayo are a Mexican indigenous people living in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, originally living near the Mayo River in Sonora. In their own language they call themselves Yoreme.

    The Mayo language is an Uto-Aztecan language closely related to Yaqui and it is spoken by approximately 40,000 people (Ethnologue 1995 census).

    The Mayo sustain themselves mainly by agriculture and fishing, but also practice traditional artisanry.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayo_people

    Wikipedia on the Mayo language:
    Mayo is an Uto-Aztecan language. It is spoken by about 40,000 people, the Mexican Mayo or Yoreme Indians, who live in the South of the Mexican state of Sonora and in the North of the neighboring state of Sinaloa. Under the "Law of Linguistic Rights" it is recognized as a "national language" along with 62 other indigenous languages and Spanish which have the same validity in Mexico.

    The Mayo language is partially intelligible with the Yaqui language and the division between the two language is more politically founded in the historic division between Yaqui and Mayo peoples than it reflects linguistic relations.

    Programming in both Mayo and Yaqui is carried by the CDI's radio station XEETCH, broadcasting from Etchojoa, Sonora.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayo_language

    From Encyclopedia Britannica:

    Mayo, Indian people centred in southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa states on the west coast of Mexico. They speak a dialect of the Cahita language, which belongs to the Uto-Aztecan language family.

    The history of the Mayo people prior to the Spanish conquest of Mexico is obscure. In the early 17th century they readily allied themselves with the Spaniards against their northern neighbours, the Yaqui. But gradual Spanish encroachment on their land drove the Mayo to revolt in 1740 and subsequently before they were permanently pacified in the 1880s by Mexico’s central government.
    http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/371009/Mayo

    Distribution map:
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    Last edited by Tenochkatl; 2011-03-19 at 05:28.

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    to add to your thread tenoch..

    roy benevidez.half yaqui.all badass.

    http://www.psywarrior.com/benavidez.html

    As the medivac chopper landed the wounded were examined one by one. Staff Sergeant Benavidez could only hear what was going on around him. He had over thirty seven puncture wounds. His intestines were exposed. He could not see as his eyes were caked in blood and unable to open. Niether could he speak, his jaw broken, clubbed by a north vietnamese rifle. But he knew what was happening, and it was the scariest moment of his life, even more so than the events earlier in the day. he lay in a body bag, bathed in his own blood. jerry cottingham, a friend screamed "thats benavidez, get a doc". When the doctor arrived he placed his hand on Roy's chest to feel for a heartbeat. He pronounced him dead. the physician shook his head "theres nothing i can do for him" as he bent over to zip up the body bag. Roy Benavidez did the only thing he could think of to let the doctor know he was still alive, he spit in the doctors face. The suprised doctor reversed his condition from dead to " he wont make it, but we'll try"

    my dad used to tell me about this dude when i was younger,his story differs a bit. the way he told it was that the doctors mistook him for a vietcong and told them to bag him up when Roy spit a mouthfull of blood in the docs face and thats when he realised it was one of their own.

    regardless,dudes one of my heros.a must read for anyone.
    one step closer to world domination.

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    Some of them look african, of course there is no pure amerindians in the world anymore, except within the brazilian jungles.

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    I am pure amerindian, in spirit

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    While the impoverished people gravitate toward the so called native culture but the poverty created by capitalist class exploitation has nothing to do with their original culture which has been dead since the conquest. However cruel their original cultures may have been, the social aparthy among modern latinamerica was nonexistent during the ancient times. There is neither pure indians left nor their culture today. The most original culture southamerica has left is the way of brazilian jungle indians life in harmony with the nature, they are the true miracle of this new millanium.
    Last edited by Masahiroguren; 2011-03-19 at 07:04.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Masahiroguren View Post
    Some of them look african, of course there is no pure amerindians in the world anymore, except within the brazilian jungles.
    Are you high on MJ now again dude?
    "The man of the future will be of mixed race. Today's races and classes will gradually disappear owing to the vanishing of space, time, and prejudice. The Eurasian-Negroid race of the future, similar in its appearance to the Ancient Egyptians, will replace the diversity of peoples with a diversity of individuals."

    'Mixed-race people are the most visible sign of racial harmony'

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    Quote Originally Posted by Masahiroguren View Post
    Some of them look african, of course there is no pure amerindians in the world anymore, except within the brazilian jungles.
    And in some region of South, Central and North America.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Masahiroguren View Post
    Some of them look african, of course there is no pure amerindians in the world anymore, except within the brazilian jungles.
    Dienekes has done ADMIXTURE runs on the closely related neighboring Pima people and found no African in them, just some very minor Eurasian admixture. The Yaqui and Mayo are most likely not significantly different from them.

    Those "African" types occur frequently among the Pima as well, they are textbook Margids/Sonorids. Interestingly, anthropologist José Imbelloni described dolichocephalic Amerindian strains among such as these as Australiform, probably a remnant of the Australoid peoples who were the first settlers of the Americas according to other anthropologists.
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    Here's a performance of the famed Yaqui/Mayo "deer dance":

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_CK0aLVUqx0

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