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Thread: Lundman's Races & Body Type Groups3554 days old

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    Default Lundman's Races & Body Type Groups

    Lundman's definitions of body type groups

    Translated into English from Bertil Lundman, Umriss der Rassenkunde des Menschen in geschichtlicher Zeit, 1952.

    - The in many respects archaic, protomorphic, phylogenetically primitive type is long- and low-skulled with broad, prognathous but not very large face. The forehead is narrow and low, the prominence of the browridge very marked. The nose is very broad, fleshy yet short but still large and the root is narrow. The eyes are close together. The mouth is very broad, the lips quite thick but not bulging. The chin lacks definition. All these are partly ape-like or Neanderthaloid characteristics but at the same time not wholly. The shortness of the face is neither ape-like nor Neanderthaloid. The depicted image is obviously reminiscent of the (southern-) Australian Aborigines but the type is also found more or less eminently among many others (still culturally) primitive races and tribes in India, even South America.

    - Another type again is ontogenetically primitive, infantile, paedomorphic. Small and stocky with round head, yet only weakly brachycephalic (skull height variable), high globular forehead and almost no considerable browridge. The face is short and rounded, quite broad with wide interorbital distance, a small snub-nose, a small cherry-mouth and a small rounded chin. Not seldom there is at least an indication of an epicanthic fold but no oblique eye-position. Occurs more or less among Congo- and Malakka pygmies, many Mongoloids (especially Palaungids) and Centralid Amerindians, moreover also among Lapps, Alpinids, etc.

    - Being almost acromegalic, the athletic or mature type is very tall, short-skulled with a high but still massive face, has a big somewhat crooked nose and a large coarse chin. Easiest to find among Armenids (from where the probably best name is derived, dinariomorphic) and many (especially steppe-) Amerindians.

    - Gracile often tall stature, narrow projecting nose, dolichocephalic, small well-defined chin: juvenile or eumorphic type. Almost exclusively typical of leptosomic Caucasoids.

    - The mesomorphic, robust or boreal type: strong, stocky people with broad but hardly child-like faces and medium noses. A numerous, undifferentiated group of people belongs to this type: Many Mongoloids, Central- and East-Europeans, also some sturdy Negroes.

    - An unusual combination which doesn't fit into these main types is typical of most Negroes, especially those of the steppe, an intermediate between infantile and juvenile. It's the face which is more or less infantile (notice especially the globular forehead), while the leptosomic body is juvenile, quasi hyperjuvenile ("eunuchoid"), besides the face also shows protomorphic tendencies (e.g. slight prognathy). The nasal shape is infantile-protomorphic.

    - The Bushmen of the Kalahari remind of 11-12 years old (European) lads: puerile type.

    If we now more closely examine the distribution of these types in the world, we will notice that the protomorphic type does not exceed the tropical belt and only culturally primitive tribes belong to it there. The infantile type again is flourishing in all natural zones, races and cultures, more or less but mostly in poor regions and lower social strata.

    The dinariomorphic type usually lives in hard but not directly poor circumstances.

    The juvenile type lives and lived especially "pure" among several currently or former warlike herders of Caucasoid racial type, like the Tuareg, Bedouins, Rajputs, Todas, also (through environment and class selection refined) among many European (especially English) nobilities, etc.

    [...]

    Only a single mutual effect is evident for more primitive levels of culture, the one between tribes of greater or lesser physical strength (especially martial strength) and the resulting extrusion of the latter into inhospitable regions (jungles, deserts, mountains), even more pauperization and defenselessness etc. a vicious circle, in which many former (at least to some extent) well-equipped tribes gradually perish. So for example Lapps against Nordic people, Veddas against Sinhalese, Malakka pygmies of various sorts against Malays, Congo pygmies against Negroes, Bushmen (in the past) against Hottentots, etc. (presumably the higher degree of physical degeneration is partly only reduction, just the selection creates a negative effect here by survival of the frugal - the others die or convert to the winner: v. Eickstedt).
    Last edited by Carnby; 2009-10-26 at 20:52.

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    Default Lundman's Systematic Overview of the Human Races

    From The Races and Peoples of Europe, 1977 and Umriss der Rassenkunde des Menschen in geschichtlicher Zeit, 1952, added notes of anthropologic traits described in other chapters of the book.

    EUROPID OR WHITE PRIMARY RACE:
    Thin to medium-thick, more or less light skin. Soft, smooth to wavy or curly hair and (most often) strong growth of beard, quite narrow nose. Types of body build: mostly juvenile (virile) and boreal, occasionally mature.

    A. Caspid southeastern high-skulled racial group.

    I. Boreal.
    a) Face robust or somewhat protomorphic.
    1. Eye sockets often somewhat slanted. More-or-less high in frequency of blood type B.
    + Volgid: dark pigmented, very short-statured, stocky, long- to medium-skulled,
    + + East-Baltid: very light pigmented, taller, however thickset, round-headed with flat occiput. Eyes often situated somewhat flat in the face. 2. Eyes direct, large upper iris: Pre-Pontid (extinct).b) Face almost infantile.
    1. Lappid: very short-statured, with very low face and round skull, rather dark pigmented. Low frequency of blood type B and very high frequency of blood type A. Also very unique in other serological traits.
    2. East-Alpinid: Similar, but less pronounced, traits. Much higher frequency of blood type B.

    II. Progressive eumorphic types. All extremely long-skulled:
    a) East-Mediterranid: dark pigmented, with many subtypes.
    1. The Pontid (in southern Russia).
    2. The Iranid: partly influenced by the Arabid with narrow rectangular face.
    3. The North-Indid: very tall, heavily bearded, large nose and a high frequency of blood type B.
    4. The Indid: small, very gracile, small cranial capacity, with thin, sparse beard and a high frequency of blood type B.
    5. The Nesiotid (in the South Seas) with somewhat convex nose.
    6. The Saharid or South-Mediterranid (in North Africa): rather tall and juvenile.
    7. The Aegyptid: very closely related to the Saharid, but with a high frequency of blood type B.
    b) The East-Nordid subrace (of the low-skulled, fair North Race): similar to the North race in anthropological traits (almost disappeared through crossing).

    III. Taurid: mature-boreal, with very high and round skull, very flat occiput and larger nose. At least two subtypes:
    1. The very tall Dinarid with short arms.
    2. The mature-boreal, medium-sized Anatolid or Armenid. + The somewhat less pronounced Mtebid in the Caucasus.

    B. Atlantid northwestern low-skulled racial group (always with low frequencies of blood type B).

    I. Long-skulled (dolichocephalic).
    a. Palaeo-Atlantid or Cromagnid: somewhat protomorphic, broad-nosed, very broad-faced, tall and robust, light-mixed in pigmentation. Low in the frequency of blood type A and high in blood type O.
    b. Nordid: virile, more progressive, lighter in pigmentation. Three subtypes:
    1. The broader-faced, more robust Faelish subtype.
    2. The narrow-faced, more gracile Scando-Nordid subtype, rather light-haired.
    3. The North-Atlantid subtype which is morphologically similar to the Scando-Nordid, more dark-haired but at the same time light-eyed, higher frequency of blood type O and a lower frequency of A than the other two subtypes.
    c. Southern, dark-pigmented, short-statured group:
    1. Berid: paedo-protomorph, with low frequencies of the blood types A and B.
    2. Juvenile.
    + West-Mediterranid: horizontal eye-orbits.- With a more virile Basquid subtype typical of the Basques. The ABO-allelic relationships, and also the Rh-system, are very unique in several ways in this subtype.
    + + Arabid subtype: slanted orbits and almond eyes. Differentiated from the preceding types in facial morphology and facial dynamics. Also a very narrow and sloping forehead, with a distinct rhombic face.- Syrid subtype: broad-formed, with a lower frequency of blood type O.

    II. Round-skulled (brachycephalic):
    - (West-) Alpinid: infantile-boreal, short-statured, brunet, round-faced, inflated temples.


    MONGOLID PRIMARY RACE:
    High subcutaneous fat, tense somewhat yellowish skin, stiff hair, weak beard growth, often moderately broad nose, pink portion of the lips moderately thick to thin.

    A. Mongolids of Asia: more pronounced traits, more yellowish skin and flat-nosed.

    I. Northern Mongolid group: very low-skulled and larger-faced.
    a) Long- (or medium-) skulled, somewhat more protomorphic:
    - Siberid, variform with in particular two subtypes: + Obid with broad noses.
    ++ North-Siberid (Korjakid) with narrower noses. b) Short-skulled; Mongol traits very pronounced:- Tungid. + A Kumid subtype with an even coarser and broader, somewhat larger face, often snub-nosed. II. Southeastern Mongolid group: significantly high-skulled.

    a) Medium-skulled (mesocephalic):
    1. Sinid: characteristic facial flatness, short legs and long but narrow trunk, feminized. A taller North-Sinid or Hoid subtype at the Yellow River with partly long faces.
    ++ A shorter Middle-Sinid or Kiangid subtype at the Yangtze River (and a half-Malaid South-Sinid race in Southern China). 2. Less pronounced facial flatness, i.e. with more projecting nose: Dayakid (many variants).b) Palaungid: somewhat short-skulled, very paedomorphic, almost midget-like in proportions.
    c) Malaid: high- and short-skulled with (alveolar-) prognathous broad face.

    B. Indianid racial group, with less pronounced Mongoloid traits, especially more or less large, somewhat convex nose and less yellowish skin (almost exclusively blood type O).

    I. Low-skulled:
    a) Fuegid: small nose with straight profile.
    b) Californid: moderately tall (many variants).
    (Apart from these two types, also others which are already to a greater degree extinct).

    II. High-skulled:
    a) Eskimid: face very Mongoloid, very high, extremely broad and especially large face, very long-skulled, narrow-nosed, short-statured, higher frequency of blood type A (which is not found among the Amerindians).

    b) Less pronounced Mongolid traits.
    1. (Long- and) Medium-skulled. + Lagid: moderately tall stature, individual protomorphic traits (short and broad nose, prominent browridge, etc.), narrow eye-slits. - In North America a similar but stockier Margid subtype ++ Silvid: very tall with progressive (dinariomorphic) traits.
    2. (Pronouncedly) Short-skulled:
    + Centralid: small and infantile, with round face, somewhat stocky build and quite atypical (for Amerindians) child nose etc.
    ++ Andid: Barely moderately tall but very robust with mighty thorax and large, dinariomorphic face.
    +++ Patagonid: Very tall and dinariomorph, also overweight.
    In addition others, not yet systematized Amerind groups.


    BLACK OR NEGRID PRIMARY RACE:
    Lax, coarsely porous, black-brown skin. Hair more or less woolly. Bulging lips. Long- (and medium-) skulled.

    A. Tall, dark skin.

    I. High-skulled, very long legged:
    - Sudanid. + Senegalid: gracile stature, very dark skin, small but prognathous face, very long-skulled, wide interorbital distance.
    ++ Nilid: extremely tall, also gracile, very long extremities - especially shanks, face and nose not narrower than Sudanid. II. Low-skulled:
    - Hyle-negrid (certainly many variants): quite tall (but not extremely long legged), somewhat narrower-faced, broader nose (also at the skull), narrower interorbital distance, blood type O predominates.

    B. Less dark-skinned midgets:
    I. Bambutid: on average 142 cm body height, (very) open eyes, broad mouth with thin lips, considerable protomorphic traits.

    II: Mongoliform eye-folds: also quite deviating as a whole:
    - Sanid: puerile, narrow eye-slits, often blood type O, never blood type B, with two subtypes: + A very short, stockier (almost extinct) one from the Karoo.
    ++ From the Kalahari: gracilized.

    INDO-OCEANIC ARCHAIC RACIAL GROUP:

    A. More or less short-statured, partly reduced (southern and southeastern Asiatic archaic racial group).

    I. More or less curly-haired, long-skulled.
    a) More or less light-skinned.
    1. Heavily bearded, coarse body build: Ainuid.
    2. Less bearded, paedo-protomorph (face, etc.), feeble body build, small cranial capacity: Veddid.b) Indomelanid: dark-skinned, straight-haired.

    II. Woolly-haired, (often) thick lips, more or less short-statured.
    a) Malid: very long-skulled.

    b) Negritid: (medium- and) short-skulled, multiple subtypes, especially the Andamanid, which is almost leptosomic (not as usual for Siberids infantile-built) and thin-lipped.

    B. More or less medium-tall (Australian-Oceanic archaic racial group).

    I. Curly-haired, very protomorphic: Australid.
    a) South-Australid: low-skulled, somewhat stocky.
    b) North-Australid: high-skulled, very leptosomic.

    II. Curly haired, very dark skin, almost entirely Negroid traits, high-skulled: Bukaid.


    Notice also the following hybrid types:

    Litorid: Armenid+West (and South-) Mediterranid.
    Turanid: Kumid (and other Mongoloids)+East-Mediterranid+Armenid.
    Tibetid: Sinid (+East-Mediterranid?).
    Cambodid: Malaid+Veddid.
    Polynesid: Nesiotid+Dayakid (+Indianid of unknown affinity?).
    Arizonid: Very short-skulled.
    Brazilid: Lagid+?
    Ethiopid: often Sudanid+Saharid (also Arabid and Cafrid).
    Koid: Khoisanid+Europids of unknown affinity.
    Hyle-Negrid: Pygmid+Sudanid (+Cafrid).
    Melanesid: North-Australid+Bukaid (+Nesiotid).

    Special types:
    The Jakunin or Yakonid type of Japan and the presumably only half-primitive, to another half only pathologically pseudo-primitive Kubuform type of Sumatra, Bali, Java etc.. It would be easy to establish many more "races" and especially (really existing) subtypes, specifically in America and Vietnam. Besides that the quite many Europid-looking broad-faced short-skulled people in Afghanistan etc. might be not all Mongolid-intermediates, also considering that the position of the so called Pamirid race isn't finally certain yet.

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    Default Etymology of Lundman's terms

    Etymology (explanation and origin) of some of the above more or less just introduced racial terms:
    Dinarid, after the Dinaric Alps in the Balkans;
    Berid, after the Berbers;
    Mtebid, after Georgian mtebi = mountain;
    Kumid, after Turkish kum = desert;
    Palaungid, after an ethnic group living in Indochina;
    Fuegid, after Tierra del Fuego ("Fire land");
    Campid, after Campos, a steppe-like plateau in Brazil;
    Lagid, after Lagoa Santa in Eastern Brazil;
    Istmid, after the Isthmus (of Panama);
    Silvid, race of the woods (Latin silva, "woodland");
    Columbid, after British Columbia;
    Pacifid, after Pacific Ocean;
    Kubuform, after the primitive tribe Kubu on Sumatra;
    Hyle-Negrid, after Greek hlē = forest;
    Bambutid, after BaMbuti, the plural form of Mbuti, a Pygmy group in Congo;
    Sanid, after san, Bushman;
    Indomelanid, "black Indian" (Greek mlas, "black");
    Malid, after Dravidian male, "mountain"
    Bukaid, after F. Speiser, referring to Buka, an island in the Salomons;
    Caspid, after R. Dixon, referring to the Caspian sea.
    Last edited by Carnby; 2009-10-26 at 20:52.

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