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Thread: Who killed Ötzi?2260 days old

  1. #71
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    Let’s now review what has happened to the planet and people at the lows of the Bray cycle during the Holocene. These have taken place around the following dates (kyr BP. indicates thousands of years before 1950):

    B1. 0.4 kyr BP. Little Ice Age (LIA)
    B2. 2.8 kyr BP. Sub-Boreal/Sub-Atlantic Minimum
    B3. 5.2 kyr BP. Mid-Holocene Transition. Ötzi buried in ice. Start of Neoglacial period
    B4. 7.7 kyr BP. Boreal/Atlantic transition and precipitation change
    B5. 10.3 kyr BP. Early Holocene Boreal Oscillation
    B6. 12.8 kyr BP. Younger Dryas cooling onset


    Figure 2. Holocene climate reconstruction. Major palinological subdivisions of the Holocene (names on top) match a 2450-yr regular spacing (grey arches on top). (a) The global temperature reconstruction (black curve; Marcott et al., 2013 by the differencing method with proxy published dates) has been rescaled in temperature anomaly to match biological, glaciological, and marine sedimentary evidence, resulting in the Holocene Climate Optimum being about 1.2°K warmer than LIA (See Appendix). (b) The general temperature trend of the Holocene follows the Earth’s axis obliquity (purple), and significant downside deviations generally match the lows of the ~ 2400-year Bray cycle of solar activity (grey bands labelled B-1 to B-5). (c) Significant negative climate deviations manifest also in global glacier advances (blue bars; Mayewski et al., 2004) and (d) strong increases in iceberg detrital discharges (red curve, inverted; Bond et al., 2001) that generally agree well with the lows in the ~ 2400-year Bray cycle and ~ 1000-year Eddy cycle (not shown) of solar activity.
    The difficult climatic conditions through the 5.2 kyr event constituted an authentic disaster for Neolithic farmers in Central Europe. There is a widespread record of settlement abandonment at the Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic-Early Bronze transition, as attested by lake dwellings at France and Switzerland (Arbogast et al., 2006; figure 10b), and the almost complete absence of radiocarbon dates for a period of four centuries in Bulgaria (Weninger et al., 2009; figure 10c). At the same time and with an eerie similarity to the solar activity record, the population of West/Central Europe crashed, revealing the true extent of one of the most difficult periods for humankind (Shennan et al., 2013; figure 10e). The population fell so hard that it is believed that diseases must have played an important role in bringing down the debilitated Neolithic farmers. About this time, at 5800 BP the pneumonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is believed to have emerged for the first time between the Kurgan nomadic herders of the Pontic steppe.


    Figure 10. The effect of 6th millennium BP climate changes on human societies of Central Europe. From top to bottom: (a) Solar activity reconstruction by Steinhilber et al., 2012 (in black) shows the cluster of Sumerian 1-3 grand solar minima. (b) Number of Neolithic lake villages (in red) in an area comprising East France and West Switzerland by Arbogast et al., 2006. (c) Cultural shift in Northern Greek area (Bulgaria) from Chalcolithic (Copper Age) to Early Bronze based on radiocarbon data (black boxes) from Weninger et al., 2009. The calibrated 14C-age distribution (radiocarbon periodization, in blue) supports a hiatus during the 5.2 kyr event. (d) The burial dating of Ötzi, the Tyrolean iceman (orange box). (e) Shennan et al., 2013 analysis of Central/West Europe population (in purple) reveals a catastrophic decline coincident with the climatic deterioration, with no recovery until the following millennia. (f) The population decline was accompanied by a shift in mtDNA frequencies (Brandt et al., 2013) that supports a recovery of the descendents of the Paleolithic hunter-gatherer population. (g) Turquoise box corresponds to the Globular Amphora Culture, the first Indo-European culture in Central Europe. Blue columns correspond to the same periods of climatic deterioration as in figure 9.
    The decline of the Neolithic farmers of Central Europe allowed a return of the Western European hunter-gatherers as attested by the re-appearance of their genetic signature in areas where they had previously disappeared (Brandt et al., 2013; figure 10f). It was the prelude to the second major invasion and last big population turnover of the Holocene in Europe. Starting around 5350 BP the first nomadic herders from the steppes invaded Central Europe establishing the Globular amphora culture (figure 10g), probably pushed by the climate pessimum conditions and taking advantage of the weak state of Neolithic farmers. A few centuries later came the great invasion by the Battle Axe people (Corded Ware culture). The Indo-European nomads had domesticated the horse, developed the war chariot, acquired the bronze culture and had a patriarchal war-like culture. The Late-Neolithic farmers did not stand a chance, and according to genetics the third known major genetic shift in Europe took place, being the first the Neanderthals substitution by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and the second the replacement of the hunter-gatherers by Neolithic farmers.

    Ötzi, the iceman from Tyrol, was a Neolithic farmer closely related to the LBK people that lived in this violent times and met a violent final (figure 10d). Whether he was killed by other waning Neolithic farmers, by resurging hunter-gatherers now pastoralists, or by invading Indo-European nomadic herders is not possible to know. But as he fled his enemies uphill only to be buried in ice for over 5000 years, he was a testimony of both the changing climate of the Mid-Holocene Transition and its devastating effect on human societies.


    "Impact of the ~ 2400 yr solar cycle on climate and human societies"


    So it was Neoglaciation which killed Oetzi.


    Quote Originally Posted by WIKIPEDIA
    Neoglaciation

    The neoglaciation ("renewed glaciation") describes the documented cooling trend in the Earth's climate during the Holocene, following the retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, the most recent glacial period. Neoglaciation has followed the hypsithermal or Holocene Climatic Optimum, the warmest point in the Earth's climate during the current interglacial stage. The neoglaciation has no well-marked universal beginning: local conditions and ecological inertia affected the onset of detectably cooler (and wetter) conditions.

    Driven inexorably by the Milankovitch cycle, cooler summers in higher latitudes of North America, which would cease to completely melt the annual snowfall, were masked at first by the presence of the slowly disappearing continental ice sheets, which persisted long after the astronomically calculated moment of maximum summer warmth: "the neoglaciation can be said to have begun when the cooling caught up with the warming", remarked E. C. Pielou.[1] With the close of the "Little Ice Age" (mid-14th to late 19th centuries), neoglaciation appears to have been stalled in the late 20th century, assumed to be caused by anthropogenic global warming. Whether it has been temporarily or semi-permanently stalled, neoglaciation has been marked by a retreat from the warm conditions of the Climatic Optimum and the advance or reformation of glaciers that had not existed since the last ice age. In the mountains of western North America, montane glaciers that had completely melted reformed shortly before 5000 BP.[2] The most severe part of the best documented neoglacial period, especially in Europe and the North Atlantic, is termed the "Little Ice Age".

    In North America, neoglaciation had ecological effects in the spread of muskeg on flat, poorly drained land, such as the bed of recently drained Lake Agassiz and in the Hudson Bay lowlands, in the retreat of grassland before an advancing forest border in the Great Plains, and in shifting ranges of forest trees and diagnostic plant species (identified through palynology).

    The view that neoglaciation is ending in present times, is assumed by those who identify the most recent climate changes and global warming as the onset of a new period in Earth history, speculatively calling it the "Early anthropocene", as a coming geological age dominated by the effects of Homo sapiens.
    So if neoglaciation has indeed ended (big if), will Oetzi-like Sardinians recolonize Europe in the near future?
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2017-07-13 at 12:15.

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  3. #72
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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    And the question: what was the mechanism which caused such dramatic decrease in the relative number of "Ötzis" between the Neolithic and present day.
    It should have been the incoming wave of Yamnaya settlers. Of course Ötzis tribe is still around in modern Europe, but their lineage has faced serious competition since then.
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  4. #73
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    Quote Originally Posted by EliasAlucard View Post
    It should have been the incoming wave of Yamnaya settlers. Of course Ötzis tribe is still around in modern Europe, but their lineage has faced serious competition since then.
    he essential theme of the book is the process by which the Indo-European peoples poured out of the Pontic steppes and the Semitic peoples pushed out of Arabia to conquer and even destroy the city civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, the Hittite, and the Cretan) and to almost completely obliterate the ancient Highland Zone peoples (Sumerians, Elamites, Hurrians, etc.), whose sole linguistic survivors today are the Basques and some small Caucasic groups. These great movements of warlike pastoral, grass-land peoples were caused by the sudden onset of a drier climate known to prehistorians as the "Sub-Boreal."
    "Four Thousand Years Ago""
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2017-07-13 at 15:11.

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