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Thread: Faces of the Roma people throughout Europe.!2657 days old

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    Default Faces of the Roma people throughout Europe.!







    The Romani are an ethnic group living mostly in Europe, who trace their origins to the Indian Subcontinent. The Romani people are divided into a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma and the Iberian Calé or Caló, located originally, and currently still mostly, in Anatolia, Iberia, Central and Eastern Europe.
    There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide.[2] Many Romanies refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination[3]
    There are an estimated 4 to 9 million Romani people in Europe and Asia Minor (as of 2000s).[4] although some estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.[5] Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia, and Ukraine. Several more million Romanies may live out of Europe, particularly in the Middle East and in the Americas.
    The Romani people recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences and self-designation. The main branches are:[6][7][8][9]
    Roma, crystallized in Eastern Europe and Central Italy, emigrated also (mostly from the 19th century onwards), in the rest of Europe, but also on the other continents;
    Iberian Kale, mostly in Spain (see Romani people in Spain), but also in Portugal (see Romani people in Portugal), Southern France and Latin America;
    Finnish Kale, in Finland, emigrated also in Sweden;
    Welsh Kale, in Wales;
    Romanichal, in the United Kingdom, emigrated also to the United States and Australia;
    Sinti, in German-speaking areas of Central Europe and some neighboring countries;
    Manush, in French-speaking areas of Central Europe;
    Romanisæl, in Sweden and Norway.
    Among Romanies there are further internal differentiations, like Bashaldé; Churari; Luri; Ungaritza; Lovari (Lovara) from Hungary; Machvaya (Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia) from Serbia; Romungro from Hungary and neighbouring carpathian countries; Erlides (also Yerlii or Arli); Xoraxai (Horahane) from Greece/Turkey; Boyash (Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, Rudari, or Zlătari) from Romanian/Moldovan miners; Ursari from Romanian/Moldovan bear-trainers; Argintari from silversmiths; Aurari from goldsmiths; Florari from florists; and Lăutari from singers.
    Areas in Europe with significant population of Romy according to this map.





    History

    Main article: History of the Romani people
    Origins
    Main article: Origin of the Romani people
    Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Romanies originated from the Indian subcontinent, emigrating from India towards the northwest no earlier than the 11th century. The Romani are generally believed to have originated in central India, possibly in the modern Indian state of Rajasthan, migrating to the northwest (the Punjab region, Sindh and Baluchistan of modern-day Pakistan and India) around 250 BC. In the centuries spent here, there may have been close interaction with such established groups as the Rajputs and the Jats. Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is believed to have occurred between AD 500 and AD 1000. Contemporary populations sometimes suggested as sharing a close relationship to the Romani are the Dom people of Western Asia and North Africa and the Banjara of India.[45]
    The emigration from India likely took place in the context of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni[46] As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. The 11th century terminus post quem is due to the Romani language showing unambiguous features of the Modern Indo-Aryan languages,[47] precluding an emigration during the Middle Indic period.
    Genetic evidence supports the mediaeval migration from India. The Romanies have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations",[48] while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe indicates "a common origin and founder effect".[48][49] A study from 2001 by Gresham et al. suggests "a limited number of related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting from a distinct caste or tribal group".[50] The same study found that "a single lineage ... found across Romani populations, accounts for almost one-third of Romani males."[50] A 2004 study by Morar et al. concluded that the Romani population "was founded approximately 32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16–25 generations ago".[51]
    Possible connection with the Jat people
    While the South Asian origin of the Romani people has been long considered a certitude, the exact South Asian group from whom the Romanies have descended has been a matter of debate. The discovery in 2009 of the "Jat mutation" that causes a type of glaucoma in Romani populations suggests that the Romani people are the descendants of the Jat people found in Northern India and Pakistan.[52][53] This relation to Jats had earlier been suggested by Michael Jan de Goeje in 1883.[54] The 2009 glaucoma study however contradicts an earlier study that compared the most common haplotypes found in Romani groups with those found in Jatt Sikhs and Jats from Haryana and found no matches



    Arrival in Europe


    The migration of the Romanies through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe


    First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749)
    In 1322, an Irish Franciscan monk, Symon Semeonis encountered a migrant group, "the descendants of Cain", outside the town of Heraklion (Candia), in Crete. Symon's account is probably the earliest surviving description by a Western chronicler of the Romani people in Europe.
    In 1350, Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).[56]
    Around 1360, a fiefdom, called the Feudum Acinganorum was established in Corfu, which mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romanies on the island were subservient.[57][58]
    By the 14th century, the Romanies had reached the Balkans; by 1424, Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Some Romanies migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century. The two currents met in France.
    Romanies began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnaichal from Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romanies also settled in South America.
    When the Romani people arrived in Europe, the initial curiosity of its residents soon changed to hostility against the newcomers. The Romani were enslaved for five centuries in Wallachia and Moldavia, until abolition in 1856.[59]
    Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. In England, Romani were sometimes hanged or expelled from small communities; in France, they were branded and their heads were shaved; in Moravia and Bohemia, the women were marked by their ears being severed. As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Poland, which was more tolerant, and Russia, where the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.[60]


    Religion



    Migrant Romani populations have adopted the dominant religion of their country of residence, while often preserving aspects of older belief systems and forms of worship. Most Eastern European Romanies are Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, or Muslim.
    Those in Western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant (particularly in southern Spain many are Pentecostal). In Turkey, Egypt, and the Balkans, the Romanies are split into Christian and Muslim populations. Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla and Saint Sarah are the Patron saints of the Romani people in Roman Catholicism.


    Music
    Romani music plays an important role in Central and Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Slovenia and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Romani.
    Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutari tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis.
    Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele. Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Romanies themselves, draw heavily on Romani music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Shantel in Germany, Goran Bregović in Serbia, Darko Rundek in Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello in the United States.
    Another tradition of Romani music is the genre of the Romani brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania.
    The distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe. European-style gypsy jazz ("jazz Manouche" or "Sinti jazz") is still widely practiced among the original creators (the Romanie People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, and Tchavolo Schmitt.
    The Romanies of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka and gırnata. A number of nationwide best seller performers are said to be of Romani origi

    Here is the link
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romani_people

    Now the faces of the Roma people throughout Europe.[COLOR="Silver"]

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    Roma in Romanian Eastern Europe




    Roma Girl in Serbia





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    Roma men in Czech republic

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    Romania

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    Last edited by Mister G; 2012-06-07 at 09:56.

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    Serbia

    ---------- Post added 2012-06-07 at 02:26 ----------



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    Greece.



    Netherlands
    Last edited by Mister G; 2012-06-07 at 10:34.

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    A fascinating group of people, thanks for the pics.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Breogan View Post
    A fascinating group of people, thanks for the pics.
    You are welcome, I am really enjoying this, and feel free to add as you wish, and that goes for everyone who is presently viewing this thread. All inputs are welcome, along with DNA results of each Roma groups throughout Europe
    Last edited by Mister G; 2012-06-07 at 10:42.

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    Noomi Rapace is half Gypsie:

    Si no tiengo as armas prestas usi yo no doy a mida tendré muy bien mereçida a carraña mas salvatxe.

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    Tony Gatlif is part Algerian and Part Roma, He is a film director

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    Roma from the Balkans

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    ---------- Post added 2012-06-07 at 02:57 ----------



    Her name is Roza Erdenko
    Last edited by Mister G; 2012-06-07 at 10:58.

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    instrument above is called a castanets
























    The flamenco and its Indian Subcontinent origins.

    Flamenco (Spanish pronunciation: [flaˈmeŋko]) is a genre of music, song and dance from Andalusia in southern Spain, noted for its energetic and staccato style. It grew from Andalusian and Romani music and dance styles.[1][2][3]
    The cante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance) and palmas (handclaps) are the principal facets of flamenco.
    In recent years flamenco has become popular all over the world and is taught in many countries; in Japan flamenco is so popular that there are more academies than in Spain.[4][5] On November 16, 2010, UNESCO declared Flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[6]


    There are questions not only about the origins of flamenco, but also about the origins of the word itself. There are many theories (summarized below), but no solid evidence for any of them. The word was not recorded until the late 18th century. The Spanish word Flamenco literally means flamingo. The dance does resemble the form of the elegant bird which is not only native to Southern Spain but can be found all along the migratory routes of the Romani people across moorish North Africa even to their origin in India. Since the dance style of Flamenco may well have originated in (or been strongly influenced by) the expressive Kathak dance of north-western India the term flamenco may have originally been a Spanish colloquialism to label the dance.
    George Borrow asserted the word flemenc [sic] is synonymous with "gypsy".[citation needed] Blas Infante, in his book Orígenes de lo flamenco y secreto del cante jondo, suggests the word may derive from Andalusian Arabic fellah mengu, "Escapee Peasant", referring to the Muslim Andalusians (Moriscos) who stayed in Spain and mixed with the Romani newcomers when the Spanish reclaimed their land.
    Other hypotheses include "Fleming, native of Flanders" (Dutch Vlaming). Spain ruled Flanders for many years, and Charles I of Spain and V of Germany[disambiguation needed ] is said to have brought to Toledo an entire Flemish court.[citation needed] The Spanish wife of his father, Felipe de Austria, brought Andalusian musicians to Court and the Habsburg Spanish troops in their Netherlands domains were accompanied by musicians and, on their return to Spain, these became known to other Europeans, including the players of more sober traditional Andalusian music as 'Flamenco', the flemish style.
    The entry for "Flamenco" in the 1786 Diccionario español e ingles (Volume 1), gives the following definition: "f.m. a bird that has a red breast and pinions". "Flama"[7] in Spanish means flame or fire, and "enco" or "endo", is a suffix which means a quality-of, or having a-similarity-to, or pertaining-to.[8]
    [edit]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flamenco












    A indian and flamenco dance fusion, both art forms together.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Go7CxmezEsA

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoNjp...eature=related
    The videos above, it is a great demonstration of the similarity as well as differences of the two beautiful art forms.


    Enjoy
    Last edited by Mister G; 2012-06-07 at 20:27.

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    ^I think the subtle similarities and differences between both North Indian and Gypsy dances are amazing...

    Traditional Kathak
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Olg3J...eature=related

    Russian Gypsy
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9vQ1...ayer_embedded#!

    Rajasthani Kalbeliya
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROYW67NSPcA
    Last edited by Selva175; 2012-06-07 at 20:57.

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    Is there a map that shows percentages instead of absolute numbers?

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    Sinaí Gimenez;

    President of the association of gypsies in Galicia, Spain.


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