User Tag List

Page 4 of 4 FirstFirst ... 2 3 4
Results 31 to 37 of 37

Thread: Safavids, Iran and Shi'ism2520 days old

  1. #31
    Established Member
    Junior Member asingh's Avatar
    Last Online
    2018-02-28 @ 02:30
    Join Date
    2011-09-26
    Posts
    5,250
    Location
    India
    Gender
    Y-DNA
    H1a*
    mtDNA
    m3a1
    Race
    Caucasian
    Phenotype
    Indid
    Ethnicity
    Indian
    India

    Default

    ^^
    Mmm..nice. Though can you speak Farsi..? Or write/read the script..?
    Quote Originally Posted by Fact-Finder View Post
    It's like using Leonardo Dicaprio to play Rambo or something.

    http://i1350.photobucket.com/albums/...0.gif~original

  2. # ADS
    Advertisement bot
    Join Date
    2013-03-24
    Location
    ForumBiodiversity.com
    Posts
    All threads
       
     

  3. #32
    Established Member
    Washingtonian
    Last Online
    @
    Join Date
    2012-02-03
    Posts
    511
    Location
    United States
    Gender
    Race
    Caucasoid
    Phenotype
    Iranid
    United States Iran Timurid dynasty United States

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by asingh View Post
    ^^
    Mmm..nice. Though can you speak Farsi..? Or write/read the script..?
    I speak it. read and write enough to get by.

  4. The Following User Says Thank You to nk191919 For This Useful Post:

    asingh (2012-10-01)

  5. #33
    Regular Member
    Junior Member
    Last Online
    2013-09-08 @ 17:10
    Join Date
    2011-12-25
    Posts
    62
    Gender
    Age
    31

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by nk191919 View Post
    Images of Isfahan. Shah Abbas's capital.


    Palace of Shah Abbas is called "Ali Qapu", Azeri Turkish for "Supreme Door/Gate". "Ali" (pronounced as "Alii") although Arabic in origin are used in Azeri Turkish, for instance the word for Commander-in-chief or simple "Supreme Commander" is "Ali Baş Komandan", which is a title used for the president of the country. And Qapu (Qapı, probably "ı" replaced by "u" as the former sound does not exist in Persian) just means door.
    Last edited by Azeroglu; 2012-10-02 at 07:54.

  6. #34
    Established Member
    Washingtonian
    Last Online
    @
    Join Date
    2012-02-03
    Posts
    511
    Location
    United States
    Gender
    Race
    Caucasoid
    Phenotype
    Iranid
    United States Iran Timurid dynasty United States

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Azeroglu View Post
    Palace of Shah Abbas is called "Ali Qapu", Azeri Turkish for "Supreme Door/Gate". "Ali" (pronounced as "Alii") although Arabic in origin are used in Azeri Turkish, for instance the word for Commander-in-chief or simple "Supreme Commander" is "Ali Baş Komandan", which is a title used for the president of the country. And Qapu (Qapı, probably "ı" replaced by "u" as the former sound does not exist in Persian) just means door.
    Azerbaijani Turkish language was spoken at Safavid’s court, but having adopted Persian as official language and much of Persian culture the Safavids were mistakenly thought by outsiders to be Persian ( not by Iranians themselves), but they were truly Iranian with a unifying spirit. Iran has always been and will always be a nation of nations.
    Last edited by nk191919; 2012-10-02 at 17:04.

  7. #35
    Established Member
    Washingtonian
    Last Online
    @
    Join Date
    2012-02-03
    Posts
    511
    Location
    United States
    Gender
    Race
    Caucasoid
    Phenotype
    Iranid
    United States Iran Timurid dynasty United States

    Default

    GEORGIANS IN THE SAFAVID ADMINISTRATION

    Safavid interaction with Georgia and its inhabitants dates from the inception of the state in the early 16th century, when Georgians fought alongside the Qezelbāš in Shah Esmāʿīl I’s army (Grey, ed., pp. 190, 193; Scarcia Amoretti, p. 61). Under Shah Ṭahmāsb I (930-84/1524-76), Georgians, taken captive during the shah’s four expeditions into Georgia, began to be imported into Safavid territory. Ṭahmāsb’s campaign in 961/1554 is said to have brought thirty thousand people from the Caucasus to Persia (Shah Ṭahmāsb, p. 72; Ḥasan Rūmlū, ed. Navāʾī, p. 492; Eskandar Beg, p. 88). For the most part women and children, these were taken to the harems of the shah and the elite.

    Shah ʿAbbās I further enlarged the pool of Georgians in Persia. Thousands were captured and taken south during his various campaigns in the Caucasus between 1023/1614 and 1025/1616. Fifteen thousand families, Muslims, Jews, and Armenians, are said to have been deported from the Georgian capital of Zagam, Šīrvān, and Qarabāḡ and resettled in Faraḥābād in Māzandarān, where they were put to work to develop the area (Eskandar Beg, p. 881, tr. Savory, II, p. 1096; Della Valle, 1843, I, p. 598; Brosset, 1874-76, I, p. 488). According to the Georgian historian Parsadan Gorgidzhanidze and the Frenchman Jean Chardin, eighty thousand families, Georgians, Armenians, and Jews, were deported to Māzandarān and other areas (Gorgidzhanidze, p. 73; Chardin, II, p. 62). Eskandar Beg speaks of 130,000 as the number of Georgians taken to Persia during the campaign of 1025/1616, and Malekšāh Ḥosayn Sīstānī even claims the huge number of 200,000 captives (Eskandar Beg, pp. 900-901, tr. Savory, II, p. 1116; Malekšāh Ḥosayn, p. 509). Into the 19th century, concentrations of transplanted Georgians were still visible throughout Persia (Oberling and sources quoted therein).

    The influence and power acquired by the Georgians in this period began in the royal harem, where women from the Caucasus, many of them of Georgian origin, became prominent. No less than four of Shah Ṭahmāsb’s surviving sons were born to him by Georgian wives (Eskandar Beg, p. 133; tr. Savory I, pp. 215-17), and one of his daughters by a Georgian wife, the powerful Zaynab Begom, played an important role at the court of her nephew, Shah ʿAbbās I. According to John Fryer (II, pp. 290-91), the queen mother in the 17th century was always a Georgian. In reality, she was usually Circassian, though the difference is not always clear. Georgian women played an important role in the court’s marriage politics, and by the end of the Safavid reign a whole web of relations had been established (Krusinski, I, p. 122). Krusinski (I, pp. 128-29), inter alia insists that the influence of the Georgian harem women accounted for the Safavid tolerance for the country’s Christian population. Writing in the early 17th century, Pietro Della Valle (1663, p. 8; q.v.) claimed that there was not a household in Persia that did not have its Georgian slaves.

    Georgians entered the ranks of the army and the bureaucracy in great numbers as well, turning into the mainstay of ḡolāms, or slave soldiers. Allāhverdī Khan (q.v.), an Armenian from Georgia, served as the army’s commander-in-chief for more than fifteen years (1004-22/1595-1613). During the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I, most of the soldiers equipped with firearms were Georgians, their integration into the army facilitated by the relative ease with which they apparently gave up their religion and converted to Islam (Della Valle, 1843, I, p. 760; Kaempfer, p. 273). A total of thirty thousand Georgians are said to have served in Shah ʿAbbās’s army (Della Valle, 1663, p. 8). Georgians soon occupied administrative positions of the highest rank. Shah ʿAbbās in 998/1590 created the qollar (slave) corps, consisting of Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians, and its leader, the qollar-āqāsī, became one of the principal state officials (Eskander Beg II, p. 1106, tr. I, p. 527; Jonābādī, p. 716; Savory, p. 419; Taḏkerat al-molūk, tr. Minorsky, pp. 33, 46-47). Allāhverdī Khan was one of the first to hold this post. In the 1630s its incumbent was the equally powerful Ḵosrow Mīrzā (Rostam Khan), who has resided at the Safavid court since the days of Sultan Ḵodā-banda.

    Many provinces also fell under Georgian control. The first Georgian to occupy the governorship of a major province was Allāhverdī Khan, who in 1003-4/1595-96 received Fārs (Kūhgīlūya was added to his domain a year later). His son, Emāmqolī Khan (q.v.), succeeded him as the governor (beglerbegī) of Fārs and ruled that province until Shah Ṣafī had him and his family executed in 1042/1632. Šīrvān/Šarvān was another of the provinces to which Georgian governors were appointed. In 1013/1605 Shah ʿAbbās sent Constantin (Konstandīl) Mīrzā, the son of the Georgian king Alexander, to head this region. Emāmqolī Khan’s brother, Dāwūd Beg, served as governor of Qarabāḡ between 1037/1627 and 1040/1630 (Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 51; Eskander Beg and Wāla, p. 81; Mollā Jalāl-al-Dīn, pp. 275-76; Gorgidzhanidze, p. 85; Alonso, pp. 56, 105, 107). Golāms ruled Šūštar from 1042/1632 until the last days of the Safavids (Šūštarī, pp. 46-47). Ṣafīqolī Khan, the governor of Hamadān, was appointed beglerbegī of Baghdad following Shah ʿAbbās’s conquest of the city in 1033/1622-23 (Eskander Beg, p. 1004, tr. Savory II p. 1226-27). Georgia itself continued to be governed by a Georgian after the Safavid conquest, following an agreement between Shah ʿAbbās and Taimuraz (Ṭahmūraṯ) Khan, its last independent ruler, whereby the latter submitted to Safavid rule in exchange for being allowed to rule as the region’s wālī and for having his son serve as dārūḡa (city prefect) of Isfahan in perpetuity (Chardin, X, p. 29; Kaempfer, pp. 110-11). The first Georgian to hold the position of dārūḡa of the capital since 1620 was Ḵosrow Mīrzā (Della Valle 1843, II, p. 176). Ḵosrow Mīrzā held the position until his death in 1658, though he mostly let himself be represented by a deputy (nāʾeb). Georgians continued to occupy this position until the last days of the Safavid rule.

    The position of the Georgian ḡolāms was further strengthened under Shah Ṣafī and Shah ʿAbbās II. Eskandar Beg claims that at the time of Shah Abbās’s death, ḡolāms (not all of them Georgian) held twenty-one of the ninety-two most powerful positions (Eskandar Beg, pp. 1084-89, tr. Savory II, pp. 1309-17). And of the thirty-seven great amirs appointed under Shah ʿAbbās II, at least twenty-three wereḡolāms (Röhrborn, p. 33). Following the slaughter of a great many Qezelbāš, the Georgians under Shah Ṣafī consolidated their hold over key positions in the inner palace, the bureaucracy, and the military. The shah’s own chamberlain (mehtar) was a white eunuch of Georgian origin (Olearius, p. 571; Taḏkerat al-molūk, tr. Minorsky, pp. 127, 138). Aside from the positions of qollar-āqāsī and dārūḡa of Isfahan, they virtually monopolized the posts of dīvānbegī (q.v., chief justice) andsepahsālār (military commander). These and other positions tended to become hereditary, and one powerful functionary typically held more than one simultaneously. Thus Ḵosrow Mīrzā served as dīvānbegī and dārūḡa of Isfahan under Shah ʿAbbās, played a crucial role in the accession of Shah Ṣafī in 1038/1629, and was made qollar-āqāsī the following year, on which occasion he was renamed Rostam Khan (Eskandar Beg, p. 1078, tr. p. 1302; Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 46). In 1632, following a rebellion in Kartli, he became wālī of that part of Georgia (Eskander Beg and Wāla Eṣfahānī, pp. 114, 136; Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 144). Having been appointed to all of Georgia in 1058/1648, he remained in power until his death in 1069/1658. He is not to be confused with another Rostam Beg, who was dīvānbegī in the last years of Shah ʿAbbās I’s reign, and served as tofangčī-āqāsī (rifleman commander), sepahsālār, and beglerbeg of Azerbaijan between 1040/1631 and his execution in 1053/1643. Rostam Beg’s younger brother, ʿAlīqolī Khan, had a remarkable career spanning fifty years, during which he served as dīvānbegī under Shah Ṣafī (Eskander Beg and Wāla Eṣfahānī, pp. 146, 166; Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 197; Waḥīd Qazvīnī, p. 47; Olearius, p. 671), held the post of sepahsālār and the attendant position of beglerbegī of Azerbaijan between 1058/1648 and 1064/1654, fell out of favor, but was rehabilitated by Shah Solaymān, who reinstated him as sepahsālār. Chardin called him the effective ruler of the country at the time of his death in 1667 (Waḥīd Qazvīnī, pp. 138, 174-75; Tavernier, I, p. 638-43; Chardin, IX, pp. 555-63, X, p. 70). Rostam Beg’s son, Ṣafīqolī Khan, was appointed dīvānbegī in 1067/1657 (Šāmlū, fol. 133v.; Algemeen Rijks Archief, VOC 1224, fol. 316 v.), and took up the governorship of Mašhad in 1074/1664 (Šāmlū, fol. 146v.). Ṣafīqolī Khan’s son, Rostam Khan, was dīvānbegīunder Shah Solaymān and also served as tofangčī-āqāsī, and in 1692 was appointedsepahsālār and beglerbegī of Tabrīz (Mašīzī, p. 626; Ḵātūnābādī, pp. 548, 550). The brother of Gorgīn Khan (Giorgi XI, the former king of Kartli), Levan (Leon), also known as Šāhqolī Khan, was appointed dīvānbegī ofIsfahanin 1700 upon his victorious return from a campaign against the Baluch marauders in Kermān (Lockhart, p. 46; Lang, 1952, p. 527). Levan’s son, Kay-ḵosrow (Ḵosrow Khan) similarly briefly served as dīvānbegī in 1709 and was rewarded with the position ofdārūḡa of Isfahan for quelling a bread revolt, and in 1709 became sepahsālār and was also made wālī of Georgia (Algemeen Rijks Archief, VOC, 1753, fol. 293v.; Mostawfī, p. 116; Lockhart, pp. 49-50). He was killed during an expedition in Afghanistan against the Ḡilzī (q.v.) Afghans. The sepahsālār (and beglarbegī of Azerbaijan and wālī of Georgia) in 1716 was Ḥosaynqolī Khan (Wahtang VI), the brother of the qollar-āqāsī, Rostam Mīrzā. In 1717 he succeded his brother asqollar-āqāsī (Bushev, pp. 181-82; Algemeen Rijks Archief, VOC 1897, fol. 271; Krusinski, I, pp. 190, 198-99).

    As these examples show, the administrative and military power of Georgians continued right up to the end of the Safavid period. Fryer’s claim (II, p. 291) that in 1677 Georgians contributed forty thousand soldiers to the Persian army, is surely exaggerated, but Engelbert Kaempfer (p. 204) may well have been right in his assertion that, by the 1680s, about twenty thousand Georgians (including Circassians and Daghestanis) were living in Isfahan. Shah Solaymān, who seemed to have favored Georgians, asked Šahnavāz Khan (Vakhtang V), the king of Kartli, to marry his daughter Anusa and made Šahanavāz’s son, Alexander, the dārūḡa of Isfahan (Brosset, 1856, II/2, p. 9). It is also said that Shah Solaymān kept the Georgians content and forgetful of their origins by promoting them to high positions (Sanson, pp. 176-77). Their internal divisions, noted by Chardin (II, p. 42) and the fact that they never achieved full autonomy but had to compete with other groups, kept them from establishing supremacy in the administration. The Georgians, moreover, were not universally loved and their tremendous power gave rise to a great deal of friction and factionalism. Chardin tells the story of ʿAlīqolī Khan, a Georgian, who was sent to Lorestān and caused a local revolt (Chardin, IX, p. 206). The same author (V, p. 228) further notes that older Persians loathed the Georgian newcomers, calling them qara oḡlū, sons of blacks; he also remarks (II, pp. 42-43, 150) on the animosity that existed between Georgians and Armenians, another group that figured conspicuously in governmental circles. Others noted that the Georgians were feared in Persia (Carmelite Archives, O.C.D. 243 1 bis; Avril, p. 60). In late Safavid times an anti-Georgian faction consisting of the superintendant of the royal workshops (nāẓer-e boyūtāt) and the grand vizier is reported (Lang, 1952, pp. 530-31). There surely was no love lost between the Qezelbāš and the Georgians in late Safavid times; while the Qezelbāš are said to have encouraged the Afghans to invade Persia to further their own cause against the Georgians, anti-Muslim sentiments seem to have prompted some of the latter to hope for a Russian invasion (Lang, 1957, p. 109; Lockhart, pp. 86, 89; Röhrborn, p. 38).

    However that may be, the very demise of the Safavid state is entwined with Georgian military leadership. Giorgi XI or Gorgīn Khan (Šahnavāz Khan III), was the ruler of Georgia who, having lost his throne, in 1699 was made governor of Kermān with the task of halting the Baluchi incursions that threatened the country’s southeast. Four years later the need to repel invading Afghans prompted the shah to appoint him as sepahsālār, beglerbegī of Qandahār and, nominally, wālī of Kartli. In 1716 it was the turn of Ḥosaynqolī Khan (Vakhtang VI), Giogi XI’s regent in Georgia, to be appointed sepahsālār and charged with fighting the Afghans. Georgian troops, led by Rostam Khan, fought valiantly against the Afghans at the battle of Golnābād in 1134/1722, but their number was too small to keep the enemy from laying siege to Isfahan. A refusal on the part of Vakhtang VI, now again residing in Georgia, to send relief troops to Persia, finally made it impossible for the Safavids to save the city and their realm (Mostawfī, p. 129; Lang, 1957, pp. 104-13; Röhrborn, p. 89).


  8. #36
    Regular Member
    Race Scientist ashrf1979's Avatar
    Last Online
    2015-04-08 @ 14:32
    Join Date
    2011-11-19
    Posts
    178
    Location
    GREATER BAHRAIN
    Gender
    Race
    Caucasoid
    Phenotype
    Assyrid
    Ethnicity
    Semitic-Iranian
    Religion
    ISLAM-SHIA
    Iraq Islamic Republic of Iran Yemen Egypt Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by nk191919 View Post
    It was not until the Safavid dynasty that Iran became a Shia majority nation.

    The turkmen, the kurds, and the Baluchis are mostly Sunnis in Iran even today. But they all have a sizable Shia population.
    Iran converted to shia islam before the safavids, is converted to shia islam between the 9th & 10th AD Most Iranian dynasties before Seljuk invasion of Iran were Shia Muslims.

    For example

    Justanids (791–974 AD)

    Justanids

    The Justanids (Persian: جستانیان‎) were the rulers of part of Daylam (an area which encompasses all or portions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan, Zanjan and Qazvin) from the late eight century (791 AD) to the late 11th century (974 AD).[1]

    History

    The Justanids appear as "Kings of Daylam" at the end of the 8th century. Their centre was in the Rudbar of Alamut, running into the valley of the Shahrood. Two centuries later, this would become the main centre of the historical Nizari Ismailis or Assassins (Hashshashin) as they are known in the west. They appear in Islamic history as part of what Vladimir Minorsky has called "the Iranian intermezzo"[2] where indigenous Daylamite and Kurdish principalities take power in north west Persia after two to three hundred years of Arab rule. The Daylamite upsurge eventually culminated into the Buyid dynasty.

    After Marzuban ibn Justan converted to Islam in 805, the ancient family of Justan's became connected to the Zaydi Alids of the Daylam region. The Justanids adopted the Zaydi form of Shi'ism. In the 10th century, they became eclipsed by the Daylamite dynasty of Sallarids in Tarom (modern Iranian province of Zanjan). Nevertheless, the Justanids were tied into marriage with the Sallarids and preserved heir seat Rudbar in the highlands of Daylam. They also became allies with the Buyids. In the 11th century, they might have recognized the Suzerainty of the Ghaznavids. With the influx of the Seljuqs, they recognized the Suzerainty of the Seljuqs. But shortly after, they fade away from history.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justanids

    Alavids (864–929 AD)



    The Alavids or Alavians or Alids or Alijds, also known as the Zaydids, were a Zaidi Shia emirate based in Mazandaran (Tabaristan). They were descendants of the second Shi'a Imam (Imam Hasan ibn Ali) and brought Islam to the south Caspian Sea region of Tabaristan. Their reign was ended when they were defeated by the Samanid empire in 928 AD. After their defeat some of the soldiers and generals of the Alavids joined the Samanid dynasty. Mardavij the son of Ziar was one of the generals that joined the Samanids. He later founded the Ziyarid dynasty. Ali, Hassan and Ahmad the sons of Buye [bu:je] (that were founders of the Buyid or Buwayhid dynasty) were also among generals of the Alavid dynasty who joined the Samanid army. Their capital was the city of Amol.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alavids


    Aishanids (912–961 AD)

    Aishani or Aisani, or Aishiya (عیشانیه، عیسانیه) was a Kurdish dynasty that ruled 912–961 A.D. (300–350 A.H.) in parts of Kurdistan (western Iran) in areas such as Dinawar, Hamadan, Samghan, Sharizur etc. as far as Azarbaijan. Among its best known rulers are Wandad, Ghanim (or Ghanaym) and Daisam (Abu Salim Daisam). They were called Aishani after their ancestor Ahmad Aishani. The dynasties stronghold was at Kasan castle, probably near Sarpole Zahab.[1]

    Aishanids whose rule lasted for about 50 years was a section of Barzikani Kurds, and was subsequently succeeded by the related Hasanwayhids.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aishanids

    Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043 AD)



    The Ziyarids, also spelled Zeyarids (Persian: زیاریان or آل زیار‎) were a Dailamite[1] dynasty that ruled in the Caspian sea provinces of Gorgan and Mazandaran from 928-1043 (also known as Tabarestan). The founder of the dynasty was Mardavij (from 927 to 935), who took advantage of a rebellion in the Samanid army of Iran to seize power in northern Iran. He soon expanded his domains and captured the cities of Hamadan and Isfahan.

    Perhaps among the more interesting things from this era is that we know that Abu Rayhan Biruni, the great scientist of the Middle Ages, was supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state, in 1000 in Gorgan. In fact he dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and observed eclipses of the moon from there.[2]
    Ziyarid Dynasty

    Another feature is the tower Gonbad e Ghaboos built during this era. The tomb is one of the earliest architectural monuments with a dated inscription surviving in post-Islamic Iran. The tomb, built of fired brick, is an enormous cylinder capped by a conical roof. The circular plan, broken by 10 flanges, is 17 m in diameter, and the walls are 5.2 , thick. The height from base to tip is 49 m. Legend has it, that the body of Qabus was enclosed in a glass coffin which was suspended by chains from the interior dome inside the tower.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ziyarid_dynasty


    Buyid dynasty (934–1062 AD)



    The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویه‎ Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah Iranian[3][4][5][6][7][8] dynasty that originated from Daylaman in Gilan.[9] They founded a confederation that controlled most of modern-day Iran and Iraq in the 10th and 11th centuries.

    History

    The founders of the Būyid confederation were ‘Alī ibn Būyah and his two younger brothers, al-Hassan and Aḥmad. Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds of Ṭabaristān, ‘Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yaqut in 934. Over the next nine years the three brothers gained control of the remainder of the 'Abbāsid Caliphate. While they accepted the titular authority of the caliph in Baghdad, the Būyid rulers assumed effective control of the state.

    The first several decades of the Būyid confederation were characterized by large territorial gains. In addition to Fars and Jibal, which were conquered in the 930s, and central Iraq, which submitted in 945, the Būyids took Kermān (967), Oman (967), the Jazīra (979), Ṭabaristān (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Būyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.[10]

    The approximate century of Būyid rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since it was an interlude between the rule of the 'Abbāsid Arabs and the Seljuq Turks.[11] Indeed, as Dailamite Iranians the Būyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Persia's Sassānid dynasty.[12] In fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla they used the ancient Sassānid title Shāhanshāh (Persian: شاهنشاه‎), literally "king of kings".[13][14]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buyid_dynasty

    Hasanwayhid (959–1015 AD)

    Hasanawayhid or Hasanuyid (Arabic: حسنویه‎, Kurdish: Dewleta Hesnewiyan) was a Kurdish[1][2] principality from 959 to 1015, centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). The principality ruled western Iran and upper Mesopotamia. The founder of the dynasty was Hasanwayh bin Husayn from the Kurdish tribe of Barzikani. He managed to successfully resist Sahlan ibn Musafir, the Buyid governor of Hamadan, and the Buyid vizier, Ibn Al-Amed. In 970 he reached a compromise with Amed's successor which guaranteed his autonomy. Hasanwayh died in 979 at Sarmaj, located in south of Bisitun.

    After Hasanwayh's death, conflict broke out between several of his sons. The intervention of [Buyid Mu'ayyad al-Dawla of Ray led to defeat of Fakhr al-Dawla, one of Hasanwayh's sons. Then another heir, Abul-Najm Badr (Nasir al-Dawla), was installed as the leader of Bazikani Kurds, and the principality became a vassal of the Buyids. Abul-Najm expanded Hasanwayhid control to Shapur-Khwast, Dinawar, Nahavand, Asadabad, Borujerd, Ahwaz, Ilam, Kermanshah, Hulwan and Sharazur (Kirkuk).

    Around 1006, the principality came into conflict with the Annazids to the west. Abul-Najm Badr finally died in a minor battle in 1014. The principality was conquered by Abul-Shawk, the Annazid ruler. However the princely family continued to rule their stronghold at Sarmaj until the Seljuk Ibrahim Inal entered their territory in 1047.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasanwayhid

    ==================================

    Also Iranian Mongols (Ilkhanate 1256–1335 AD) They gained Persian language and shia islam from their Iranian wives and teachers Opposite their cousins (Mongols of central Asia ) who converted to Sunni Islam
    Last edited by ashrf1979; 2012-11-03 at 15:08.

  9. The Following User Says Thank You to ashrf1979 For This Useful Post:

    pariwash (2012-11-03)

  10. #37
    Established Member
    Washingtonian
    Last Online
    @
    Join Date
    2012-02-03
    Posts
    511
    Location
    United States
    Gender
    Race
    Caucasoid
    Phenotype
    Iranid
    United States Iran Timurid dynasty United States

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by ashrf1979 View Post
    Iran converted to shia islam before the safavids, is converted to shia islam between the 9th & 10th AD Most Iranian dynasties before Seljuk invasion of Iran were Shia Muslims.



    Also Iranian Mongols (Ilkhanate 1256–1335 AD) They gained Persian language and shia Islam from their Iranian wives and teachers Opposite their cousins (Mongols of central Asia ) who converted to Sunni Islam
    You are correct, there were regions that were mostly Shia such as Tabaristan today's Mazandaran Region. Buyid Dynasty which covered much of Today's Iraq and Western Iran was indeed ruled by Shias, and there were pockets of Shias in Iran who were minsters and administers of various Dynasties in Iran. However, the vast majority of Iranians did not become Shia until Safavid Dynasty, Shia became the state religion and it was embraced by the Majority of Iranians, not all. I have created thread on it, let discuss it there if you wish. here is the link http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/sho...an-and-Shi-ism



Page 4 of 4 FirstFirst ... 2 3 4

Similar Threads

  1. So will Iran be attacked or not ?
    By Acquisitorz in forum Politics & Law
    Replies: 194
    Last Post: 2018-06-15, 22:05
  2. What is your opinion about Iran?
    By Mosov in forum Current Affairs & Politics
    Replies: 46
    Last Post: 2017-04-01, 20:28
  3. Drug Addiction in Iran
    By karakoyunlu in forum Current Affairs & Politics
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 2012-02-08, 19:37
  4. Iran next in ME revolution?
    By annihilus in forum Politics & Law
    Replies: 28
    Last Post: 2011-02-15, 19:08
  5. Will Iran use nukes against Israel?
    By sgh in forum Current Affairs & Politics
    Replies: 17
    Last Post: 2010-06-12, 15:49

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
<