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Thread: The composition of Cuba according to a 2014 autosomal study1778 days old

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    Quote Originally Posted by pgbk87 View Post
    You should know better than to take 128 AIMs as anything serious. This is 2014, and we deal with 200,000 SNPs and up son...



    The study is weak and inconclusive of anything.
    Well that just proves I skimmed the results, whoops. Yeah that's pretty shoddy. This reminds me of all that shitty testing done in Brazil in the past with small markers.
    I swear by my life, and my love of it, that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mine.

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    Quote Originally Posted by tauromenion View Post
    Yes. And this is unlike the Dominican Republic, which is more African in the south and east, and more European in the northwest.

    Haiti is pretty African throughout, but with more Central African in the northern parts than in the south.
    The south of the DR is a mixed bag, it's really the east that is most obviously/homogenously SSA. This is probably because of the routes the slave ships took to the Spanish Caribbean coming from Africa.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LexRD View Post
    The south of the DR is a mixed bag, it's really the east that is most obviously/homogenously SSA. This is probably because of the routes the slave ships took to the Spanish Caribbean coming from Africa.
    The Africanization of the east here is more a function of the American occupation of the island from 1915-34 than anything. They brought over British West Indians and Haitian workers to lower the labor costs of the sugar mills they owned both in this part of the island and Cuba, although the Cubans wouldn't stand for the arrangement and would quickly Cubanize the labor after they started to buy the ownership of the mills from the Yanks. That also meant giving the immigrant workers the boot, mostly against the Haitian ones, cuz' they had to be more circumspect with the West Indians, as the British Empire was still a force to be reckoned with at the time, and they looked up for their citizens, be them white or black.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Caipira View Post

    Once I read that most Cubans that left the country after commies took the power (1 million people) were white, and that made the percentage of them to drop since then.
    The drop is being overplayed more than anything, specially since all sectors of the Cuban population have the same birthrates (Cuba is noteworthy for being among the countries with the lowest birthrates in the Americas), and the fact that ever since the Mariel incident in the 1980's, all sectors of the Cuban population have been emigrating equally. Just as an example, the Cuban population have hardly grown from 11 million something since the 1960's, while the combined number from Hispaniola have passed from 6 million to 20 million in half a century.

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    i been to Cuba, its very mulattoid

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    I have included some insightful quotes from the study for clarity purposes.

    As indicated above, 55% of the participants self-reported to be “blanco”, 33% “mestizo” and 12% “negro”.
    This would explain the relatively high proportion of European ancestry in the final autosomal estimation; mulattos seem to identify as both "mestizo" and "negro".

    The average European, African and Native American ancestry in those self-reporting to be “blanco” were 86%, 6.7% and 7.8%, in those self-reporting to be “mestizo” 63.8%, 25.5% and 10.7%, and in those self-reporting to be “negro” 29%, 65.5%, 5.5%.
    Last edited by Gihanga_Rwanda; 2014-08-03 at 04:00.

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    Also, I've found this on Wikipedia, about Immigration to Cuba:

    Other results show that between 1902 and 1931, 780,400 (60.8%) were from Spain, 197,600 (15.4%) from Haiti, 115,600 (9.0%) from Jamaica and 190,300 (14.8%) other countries.[10]

    The source seems to be an interesting book.

    Were the immigrants from Haiti and Jamaica all black and mulatto? Or were among them people of pred. French and British ancestry? If it is the first, then Cuba received also a very significant black immigration (almost one quarter of total immigrants) at the same time they were receiving white immigrants. For comparison, black immigration was completely banned in Brazil between 1880s and 1930s, and even Asian immigration received strong opposition.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Caipira View Post
    Also, I've found this on Wikipedia, about Immigration to Cuba:

    Other results show that between 1902 and 1931, 780,400 (60.8%) were from Spain, 197,600 (15.4%) from Haiti, 115,600 (9.0%) from Jamaica and 190,300 (14.8%) other countries.[10]

    The source seems to be an interesting book.

    Were the immigrants from Haiti and Jamaica all black and mulatto? Or were among them people of pred. French and British ancestry? If it is the first, then Cuba received also a very significant black immigration (almost one quarter of total immigrants) at the same time they were receiving white immigrants. For comparison, black immigration was completely banned in Brazil between 1880s and 1930s, and even Asian immigration received strong opposition.
    Given the time period you're giving (American sugar kingdom/Banana Wars) it's with certainty that one could say that the majority of them were indeed black. The only reported immigration of whites and mixed people coming from Haiti happened during 1791-1804, when the revolution all but destroyed the old French colony. The majority of those landed in the eastern tip of the island and would be the main engine behind the development of the coffee culture there.

    As for the black immigration of the XXth century, those laborers were brought to work in the sugar mills of American consortiums based in New York (Cuban-Dominican, South Puerto Rico sugar company, Gulf and Western, etc., etc.), taking advantage of the benefits that would befall American investments in the island after the "negotiation" of the Platt's Amendment in 1901. In the 1930's, island based consortiums would begin the process of buying back the ownership of those mills, and due to pressures from the larger population, would start deporting a significant chunk of those workers, specially the Haitians, as the Jamaicans and others would be largely spared due to the influence of the British consul on the island.
    Last edited by El Andullero; 2014-08-03 at 15:42.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gihanga_Rwanda View Post
    I have included some insightful quotes from the study for clarity purposes.



    This would explain the relatively high proportion of European ancestry in the final autosomal estimation; mulattos seem to identify as both "mestizo" and "negro".
    Well, there were some differences between this sample and the National Census. The Census reported 65% White, 25% Mestizo (Mixed), which in Cuba means mulatto, and 10% "Negro". This is what the authors of this new study encompassing the length of the island said about it:

    " The distributions of gender and census categories (“blanco”, “mestizo” and “negro”) are slightly different from the reported 2002 census proportions. The proportion of females in the sample (58%) is higher than that reported in the census (50%). This is related to the fact that when the households were visited, relatively more women were the only household members present during the visit. With respect to the census categories, the sample included relatively more individuals classified as “mestizos” and less individuals classified as “blancos” than in the 2002 census (mestizos: 33% vs. 25%, blancos: 55% vs 65%), and the proportion of individuals classified as “negro” was overly similar in the sample and 2002 census (12% vs. 10%)". This sample also included more females 58% than in the Census.

    They also added the following for clarification purposes:

    "There were also slight differences in the way that the census categories were obtained: In the 2002 census, the “color” categories were classified by the census collectors, and when an individual was not present in the household, census categories were reported by family members. In the present sample, the census categories were obtained in two ways: self-reported and reported by a trained researcher and we observed a very high concordance between the two classifications".

    So I don't think the results would have been different, in any case, more mulattoes, slightly more blacks and less whites were included in this study vs. the census.

    The 72% European contribution is across all groups, and the same applies to the African and Native American components. For example, the average 'mestizo' person is 63.8% European and only 25.5% African, and 10.7% Native American. Even blacks show a 29% European contribution to their genome.

    - - - Updated - - -

    Cubans' mtDNA and its distribution according to provinces and regions:

    "The analysis of mtSNPs indicates that 34.5% of the mtDNA haplotypes have Native American ancestry, 38.8% African ancestry, and 26.7% Eurasian ancestry (Figure 5). The highest maternal Eurasian proportions were found in the provinces of Matanzas (58%), Artemisa (53%), and Pinar del Rio (49%) and the lowest in Santiago de Cuba (6%), Granma (7%) and Holguín (7.5%)". At the same time, the highest % of Native American haplogroups was found in Holguín, (59%) and Las Tunas (58%), and the lowest in Matanzas (13%), Cienfuegos (13%) and Pinar del Río (13%). Santiago de Cuba had the highest % of African mtDNA (57%) and Granma (52%). So no single maternal line, (Native American, African or European) represents the majority of Cubans' mtDNA, but if you add any two of them, they will constitute a majority. You can add Native American and European and you get a majority, or African and European or Native American and you also get a majority, but no single origin accounts for a majority. Each constitutes a large minority, except in the areas already mentioned above.
    Last edited by Serge; 2014-08-03 at 23:17.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Serge View Post
    Well, there were some differences between this sample and the National Census. The Census reported 65% White, 25% Mestizo (Mixed), which in Cuba means mulatto, and 10% "Negro". This is what the authors of this new study encompassing the length of the island said about it:

    " The distributions of gender and census categories (“blanco”, “mestizo” and “negro”) are slightly different from the reported 2002 census proportions. The proportion of females in the sample (58%) is higher than that reported in the census (50%). This is related to the fact that when the households were visited, relatively more women were the only household members present during the visit. With respect to the census categories, the sample included relatively more individuals classified as “mestizos” and less individuals classified as “blancos” than in the 2002 census (mestizos: 33% vs. 25%, blancos: 55% vs 65%), and the proportion of individuals classified as “negro” was overly similar in the sample and 2002 census (12% vs. 10%)". This sample also included more females 58% than in the Census.

    They also added the following for clarification purposes:

    "There were also slight differences in the way that the census categories were obtained: In the 2002 census, the “color” categories were classified by the census collectors, and when an individual was not present in the household, census categories were reported by family members. In the present sample, the census categories were obtained in two ways: self-reported and reported by a trained researcher and we observed a very high concordance between the two classifications".

    So I don't think the results would have been different, in any case, more mulattoes, slightly more blacks and less whites were included in this study vs. the census.

    The 72% European contribution is across all groups, and the same applies to the African and Native American components. For example, the average 'mestizo' person is 63.8% European and only 25.5% African, and 10.7% Native American. Even blacks show a 29% European contribution to their genome.

    - - - Updated - - -

    Cubans' mtDNA and its distribution according to provinces and regions:

    "The analysis of mtSNPs indicates that 34.5% of the mtDNA haplotypes have Native American ancestry, 38.8% African ancestry, and 26.7% Eurasian ancestry (Figure 5). The highest maternal Eurasian proportions were found in the provinces of Matanzas (58%), Artemisa (53%), and Pinar del Rio (49%) and the lowest in Santiago de Cuba (6%), Granma (7%) and Holguín (7.5%)". At the same time, the highest % of Native American haplogroups was found in Holguín, (59%) and Las Tunas (58%), and the lowest in Matanzas (13%), Cienfuegos (13%) and Pinar del Río (13%). Santiago de Cuba had the highest % of African mtDNA (57%) and Granma (52%). So no single maternal line, (Native American, African or European) represents the majority of Cubans' mtDNA, but if you add any two of them, they will constitute a majority. You can add Native American and European and you get a majority, or African and European or Native American and you also get a majority, but no single origin accounts for a majority. Each constitutes a large minority, except in the areas already mentioned above.
    I can't reply to the entire length of your post at the moment; but based on the above-mentioned results, the "mestizo" category is more or less equivalent to the "pardo" category in Brazil, not necessarily "mulatto". The Cuban 2002 has been disputed, the Institute of Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at UMiami estimates that the "negro" and "mestizo" population constitutes ~65% of the total population, currently residing in Cuba.

    Leaked US Cable OBSERVATIONS OF THE STATE OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY IN CUBA

    "6. (C) THE RACIAL DIVIDE: In spite of official statistics
    to the contrary, African descendent Cubans probably
    constitute a majority of the population."

    http://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cable...VANA462_a.html
    Last edited by Gihanga_Rwanda; 2014-08-04 at 20:00.

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    I personally do no t believe these reports.I am absolutely shocked that Native is showing up,because these results are obtuse to other reports from the past that point to Cubans having absent Native genes.I would suspect some faint signs of East Asian though in the population. But these results are pointing to Cubans population increasing with European ancestry.


    Quote Originally Posted by dominicanese View Post
    i been to Cuba, its very mulattoid
    They say the cities are where there is a strong presence of people of African descent and the country side to have more people of European descent.

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