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Thread: The Luwian Civilization – The Missing Link in the Aegean Bronze Age ?277 days old

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    Default The Luwian Civilization – The Missing Link in the Aegean Bronze Age ?

    EBERHARD ZANGGER
    The Luwian Civilization – The Missing Link in the Aegean Bronze Age
    https://www.academia.edu/25342860/Th...ean_Bronze_Age

    http://www.sueddeutsche.de/wissen/ge...ht-1.3264411-2

    Recent feedback on the Luwians, largely unknown on the historical chessboard, can now solve some riddles, at least according to Zangger's view. For this group, according to his thesis, formed the mysterious sea peoples, or at least their allies. They settled in western Turkey. The area has remained completely untouched by Bronze Age archeology so far. The Mycenaeans therefore did not proceed to a criminal action against a few one-eyed, but against the central world power, which was hostile to them: the presumably Luwian Troy.
    ----------------------
    http://luwianstudies.org/the-luwians...e-the-luwians/

    Current State of Knowledge

    Possibly due to its vast extent and complicated topography, for thousands of years the majority of western Asia Minor was politically fragmented into many petty kingdoms and principalities. This certainly weakened the region in its economic and political significance, but it also delayed the recognition of a more or less consistent Luwian culture.

    From a linguistics point of view, however, the Luwian culture is relatively well known. From about 2000 BCE Luwian personal names and loanwords appear in Assyrian documents retrieved from the trading town Kültepe (also Kaniš or Neša). Assyrian merchants who lived in Asia Minor at the time described the indigenous population as nuwa’um, corresponding to “Luwians.” At about the same time, early Hittite settlements arose a little further north at the upper Kızılırmak River. In documents from the Hittite capital Hattuša written in Akkadian cuneiform, western Asia Minor is originally called Luwiya. Hittite laws and other documents also contain references to translations into “Luwian language.” Accordingly, Luwian was spoken in various dialects throughout southern and western Anatolia. The language belongs to the Anatolian branch of Indo-European languages. It was recorded in Akkadian cuneiform on the one hand, but also in its own hieroglyphic script, one that was used over a timespan of at least 1400 years (2000–600 BCE). Luwian hieroglyphic ranks, therefore, as the first script in which an Indo-European language is transcribed. The people using this script and speaking a Luwian language lived during the Bronze and Early Iron Age in Asia Minor and northern Syria.
    The Missing Link
    http://luwianstudies.org/the-luwians/the-missing-link/
    Last edited by Skomand; 2017-03-11 at 13:19.

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    Mysterious civilization of 'Sea Peoples' were wiped out by 'world war zero' 3,000 years ago
    Theory proposes Luwian-speaking kingdoms joined to form a coalition
    This coalition then attacked and destroyed the nearby Hittite civilization
    Researchers say Egyptian text describing 'Sea Peoples' is about Luwians
    The Luwians were later destroyed in battle with Mycenaean kings at Troy

    More than 3,000 years ago, the flourishing Bronze Age civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean suddenly met their downfall.

    The Trojan War erupted as one of the final events culminating an era of chaos which one archaeologist has named 'World War Zero', plunging the region into a Dark Age soon after.

    And, it was all begun by a mysterious and powerful civilization which came to be known as the 'Sea Peoples,' a new theory suggests.
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencete...new-study.html

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    Review and critique of Zangger's thesis ( "Troy = Atlantis and the capital of an overlooked Luwian empire")

    Luise Loges

    WAR TROJA DIE HAUPSTADT
    DER SEEVÖLKER?


    Spektrum der Wissenschaft No 12 – Dezember 2016
    --------------------------------------------------
    https://www.academia.edu/23764190/Di..._und_Hethitern

    Eberhard Zangger, Serdal Mutlu und Fabian Müller

    Die Luwier: Bindeglied zwischen Mykenern und Hethitern
    Last edited by Skomand; 2017-03-13 at 01:48.

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    The Luwians: A Lost Civilization Comes Back to Life
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1DNyA90f_aw




    It is worth making clear to anyone watching that the material in this presentation is considered fringe by the larger archeological/historical community and makes assertions that contradict long standing conclusions about the Luwians, Troy, the end of the Bronze Age, and so forth. For example, few experts take the notion that the Luwians represented a major power on the scale of Egypt or the Hittites as likely with Luwian just being a family of languages and not a distinct people as such. They also take to task how the presenter seems to pick and choose his sources (such as relying on that medieval source over those of far more ancient origin with better access to the original facts) in order to fit his theory rather than the other way around as good science should do. Of course, this does not mean that the line of research given here should be automatically dismissed or not continued, but no one should make the mistake of thinking this represents the "accepted scholarly opinion" of the subject. Quite the contrary, it is widely seen as "fringe" and needs to do a lot to become the scientific "consensus."

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    New book by Zangger to appear in October:

    Die Luwier und der trojanische Krieg
    Eine Entdeckungsgeschichte
    Eberhard Zangger



    Das Buch über ein rätselhaftes Volk, das zu einer Weltmacht werden sollte, und die nicht minder dramatische Geschichte seiner Entdecker.

    Vor 3200 Jahren zerstörten mysteriöse Seevölker die Länder am Mittelmeer – ein blutiges Inferno und eine zivilisatorische Katastrophe gigantischen Ausmaßes. Lange rätselte man, wer diese Angreifer gewesen seien. Nun scheint das Rätsel gelüftet.

    Bevor die Griechen in den Trojanischen Krieg ziehen, stellen sie ihre Kontingente auf. 28 Königreiche entsenden 1186 Schiffe mit rund 100 000 Kriegern. Doch wozu braucht es eine solch gewaltige Streitmacht? Was erwartet die Griechen in Troja?

    Eine Entdeckungsgeschichte.

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    https://www.swr.de/swr2/programm/sen...gsi/index.html
    Die unbekannte Weltmacht
    Wer waren die Luwier?

    Es diskutieren:
    Prof. Dr. Manfred Hutter - Religionswissenschaftler und Kulturhistoriker, Universität Bonn, Prof. Dr. Mirko Novák - Archäologe und Altorientalist, Universität Bern, Dr. Eberhard Zangger - Geoarchäologe, Zürich

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    The longest Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the Bronze Age has been re-discovered


    https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogs...ohvEAJ4Rlfg.97

    The inscription and a summary of its contents also appear in a book by Eberhard Zangger that is being published in Germany today: Die Luwier und der Trojanische Krieg – Eine Forschungsgeschichte. According to Zangger, the inscription was commissioned by Kupanta-Kurunta, the Great King of Mira, a Late Bronze Age state in western Asia Minor. When Kupanta-Kurunta had reinforced his realm, just before 1190 BC, he ordered his armies to storm toward the east against the vassal states of the Hittites. After successful conquests on land, the united forces of western Asia Minor also formed a fleet and invaded a number of coastal cities (whose names are given) in the south and southeast of Asia Minor, as well as in Syria and Palestine. Four great princes commanded the naval forces, among them Muksus from the Troad, the region of ancient Troy. The Luwians from western Asia Minor advanced all the way to the borders of Egypt, and even built a fortress at Ashkelon in southern Palestine.

    According to this inscription, the Luwians from western Asia Minor contributed decisively to the so-called Sea Peoples' invasions – and thus to the end of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean.



    Die Luwier und der Trojanische Krieg.Eine_Entdeckungsgeschichte

    first 30 pages in German PDF

    https://www.academia.edu/34780430/Di...?auto=download
    Last edited by Skomand; 2017-10-10 at 21:36.

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    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencete...ea-People.html

    Tales of the mysterious 'Sea People' and a warring Trojan Prince are found on a 3,300-year-old stone tablet after a researcher finally manages to decode its inscriptions

    The ancient inscription tells of the rise of a powerful kingdom called Mira
    It started a military campaign led by a prince called Muksus from Troy
    The story tells of a time when the Sea People confederation destroyed cities
    The kingdom of Mira seems to have been a part of the aggressive group
    The inscription says Mira had a decisive hand in the Sea Peoples' invasions
    This means it helped end the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean

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    Here's a map of LBA West Asia:



    The kingdom of Mira is between Arzawa and Seha, just north of Millawanda (Miletus).
    Last edited by Semitic Duwa; 2017-10-13 at 02:30. Reason: Wrote "Mari" instead of "Mira" *facepalm*


    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    Those Bronze Age samples are just red herrings to distract you from the actual arrivals of populations with Semitic ancestry. Don’t take the bait by focusing on the wrong samples, lol. He is passing off Bronze Age Levantines with no evidence of strong predynastic input, as “Semites“. This way, he can flip it around and say Proto-Semitic speakers and predynastics were more or less identical to the Bronze Age Levantines sampled so far.

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    about Philistines:

    In the Bible, the Philistines are described as conquering the coastal region. Some historians conjecture that the term Philistine refers to a confederation of nations. Dr. Zangger admits that his knowledge of the Bible is too limited to draw conclusions, but according to his findings, the Philistines, described in the frieze as Philistia, were clearly an entity unto themselves.

    “The Luwian hieroglyphics state that Mira is part of the confederation, which make up the Sea People, and also describes Philistia as being part of the Sea People, all of whom came from Western Asia Minor,” Dr. Zangger explained. “They were not a unit unto themselves but they could form a unit if needed. There were 150 separate place names, and one of them was clearly Philistia.”



    Dr. Zangger noted that like the other nations in the confederation, the Philistines came from Western Asia Minor.
    Read more at https://www.breakingisraelnews.com/9...ous-sea-people

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