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Thread: Who civilized Europeans and white people?12 days old

  1. #121
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    Quote Originally Posted by Itoli View Post

    We barely have any wooden artifacts in Africa going back a couple centuries despite it being the primary building material, in contrast. Yet, we were still able to deduce that some very advanced societies with complex social structures were present in West Africa by the time of the nok.
    I looked up what the NOK were. They seem to fit the same time frame as Celts.
    This came up:
    http://www.fr.de/kultur/nok-ein-ursp...ultur-a-655867

    Nok culture was first dated between 500 BC and 200 AD. According to the results of the Frankfurt researchers, it has now been assumed that it flourished from 1500 to year zero. Nothing happened here before the NOK. They seem to have immigrated. They may have fled to the south from a desertification of the Sahel zone. These are all speculations,"explains Peter Breunig. He knows how important speculation is for research. You shouldn't bother the audience with it.
    ... the archaeologists found no palaces, no temples. A culture without writing, of which not much more than dishes, stone axes, smelting furnaces for the production of iron, just a handful of iron objects and the famous Nok terracotta figures have survived.
    Very advanced societies ? WTF!

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  3. #122
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    Celtic steel making

    Celtic steel was a commodity much sought-after in the Roman Empire due to its outstanding quality. 34 Celtic steel artefacts from the archaeological sites of Gründberg/Linz and Magdalensberg/Carinthia, dating from Roman times (100 BC – 100 A. D.), have been subjected to microanalysis. As shown by the analysis of specimens based on steel samples from the province of Noricum, the single pieces consisted of numerous components of different steel grades. The result is a banded structure of the artefacts, which can be attributed to the forging technique usual in the Celtic era. First, several crude steel blanks were hammered into a bar. The workpiece was then got from these steel bars by fire-forging. Depending on the hardness and toughness required, unalloyed or alloyed steel grades were used. In the course of forging, hard elements were embedded in a matrix of softer metal (multilayer material). To achieve the desired hardness of the steel bars, one method was to add phosphorus or carbon. Alternatively, annealing in a charcoal bed at 1000 °C followed by rapid cooling was in use during Roman times. The results of the metallurgical assessment prove that the designation "quality product" for "Norican steel" is fully warranted.

  4. #123
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    Molecular Biologist Silesian's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by CWF View Post
    Your statement makes no sense at all. You lead with typical euro BS denial of your crimes by calling the europeans wholesale industrial theft of another continent's resources 'splitting and polishing rocks' while attempting to both equalize and feign concern for local black on black crime in one town in Nigeria.

    When your BS lies has multiple levels you know you're really working hard. Senseless white on white crime is certainly well known to europeans.
    A touching video of Yebawa being reunited with his white slave master @ 11:51 , efforts to abolish slavery. Something I learned when a boy gets circumscribed he gets to choose a slave.


    No white activists speaking out about white slavery owners.
    Last edited by Silesian; Today at 03:10.

  5. #124
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    Molecular Biologist Itoli's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Skomand View Post
    I looked up what the NOK were. They seem to fit the same time frame as Celts.
    This came up:

    Very advanced societies ? WTF!
    Say it aint so?!? The guy who thinks the Celts were more civilized than the Sumerians is befuddled that a society would be called advanced without the discovery of a writing system or palaces.

    Ignoring the clownery, I wasn't referring specifically TO the Nok, I said *by the time* of the Nok. Dhar Tichitt for example is dated from 2000 BC to 500BC :













    Between 4000 BC and 1000 BC: At Tichitt-Walata—"Before 2000 BC, what is today the southern Sahara was inhabited by significant numbers of herders and farmers. On the rocky promontories of the Tichitt-Walata (Birou) and Tagant Plateaus in modern day Mauritania,they built what are considered among the earliest known civilizations in western Africa. Composed of more than 400 stone masonry settlements, with clear street layouts, some settlements had massive surrounding walls while others were less fortified. In a deteriorating environment, where arable land and pasturage were at a premium, the population grew and relatively large-scale political organizations emerged - factors which no doubt explain the homogeneity of architecture, settlement patterns, and material culture (e.g., lithic and ceramic traditions). This agro-pastoral society traded in jewelry and semi-precious stones from distant parts of the Sahara and Sahel, while crafts, hunting, and fishing were also important economic pursuits...Their elites built funerary monuments for themselves over a period extending from 4000 to 1000 BC."
    -Ray A. Kea, and Mauny, R.(1971),“The Western Sudan” in Shinnie: 66-87. Monteil, Charles (1953),“La Légende du Ouagadou et l’Origine des Soninke” in Mélanges Ethnologiques (Dakar: Bulletin del’Institut Francais del’Afrique Noir)]

    That's not to detract from the Nok, though. They were by no means a "primitive" society from all we *do* know of them. Archaeological excavations on Nok sites show an agricultural society which independently developed iron working, rode pack animals, had a set social structure, and progressed well enough to have a very expansive and readily identifiable art industries. After the Nok there is a quiet period archaeologically in that part of West Africa but a few empires that emerged after that showed a marked influence from their artistic traditions. A similarity we also see among them is that they all utilized courtyard-centric architecture.







    [IMG][/IMG]

    That widespread influence either indicates that the Nok were already part of a large and powerful societal complex, or they were engulfed by one during that archaeological "quiet period" and ended up influencing them.
    Last edited by Itoli; Today at 03:36.

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