User Tag List

Results 1 to 2 of 2

Thread: Today Iran's Y Haplogroups686 days old

  1. #1
    Junior Member
    Last Online
    2017-11-30 @ 20:28
    Join Date
    2017-11-28
    Posts
    3
    Gender
    Age
    41

    Default Today Iran's Y Haplogroups

    The country was (and is) dominated by the east-west route that was, in the Middle Ages, known as the Silk road; it connected Media to Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, and the Mediterranean in the west, and to Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdia, and China in the east. Another important road connected Ecbatana with the capitals of Persis, like Persepolis and Pasargadae.

    Earliest Mention of the Lands - Farvardin Yasht
    Lands of Zarathushtra's Ministry
    A chapter of the Avesta that has the most intimate knowledge of Zarathushtra and his first followers, is the Avesta's Farvardin Yasht - chapter 10 of the book of Yashts.

    The Yasht (13.143 & 144) lists the names of individuals who were the first "hearers and teachers" of Zarathushtra's teachings. The Yasht memorializes and reveres the fravashis (spiritual souls) of these first "hearers and teachers" of Zarathushtra's teachings. In addition to specific names, it also memorializes all the righteous people in the five nations as well as those "all countries". The five nations mentioned are Airyana Vaeja (called Airyanam Dakhyunam in the Yasht) as well as four neighbouring lands. These four lands neighbouring Airyana Vaeja are Tuirya, Sairima, Saini and Dahi. Since -nam is a usual ending for many Avestan nouns, the nations are also named as Airyanam, Tuiryanam, Dahinam, Sairimanam and Saininam.
    The era of mass Arian migration (Indo-Aryan) to Persia and the beginning of the distinction between Indo-European tribes is assigned to roughly ~2000–1000 B.C.E.. The Aryans gave Persia its historical name: Airyana, The land of the Aryans from which the name Iran/Aryan comes. Arian Tribes who emigrated to the west became the ancestors of Greeks and people who chose east as their destination came to be known as Indo-Iranians. Aryan (Arian) means noble or honorable. It is widely held to have been used as an ethnic self-designation of the Iranians. When the Arians finally took over most of the Persian plateau they started organizing their domains. Small cities, headed by local mayors, and each independent of each other with almost no unity. This method soon proved useless, especially under the constant attack of new masters of Mesopotamia, Assyrians. Slowly, the Iranian tribes re-organized themselves into united kingdoms modeled after the Elamite Kingdom.

    Indo-Europeans that went west became the ancestors of Greeks, those that went east split into several Indo-Iranian tribes: (Persians, Medes, Parthians, Scythians etc.)

    Different pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the sixth millennium BP, perhaps even some centuries earlier than the earliest civilizations in nearby Mesopotamia [4]. Proto-Iranian language first emerged following the separation of the Indo-Iranian branch from the Indo-European language family [5]. Proto-Iranians tribes from Central Asian steppes arrived in the Iranian plateau in the fifth and fourth millennium BP, settled as nomads and further separated in different groups. By the third millennium BP, Cimmerians, Sarmatians and Alans populated the steppes North of the Black Sea, while Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians occupied the western part of the Iranian plateau. Other tribes began to settle on the eastern edge, as far East as on the mountainous frontier of north-western Indian subcontinent and into the area which is now Baluchistan. The nowadays Iranian territory had been occupied by Medes (Maad) in the central and north-western regions, Persians (Paars) in the south-western region and by Parthians (Parthav) in the north-eastern and eastern regions of the country. In the 6th century BC Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire (the first Persian Empire), which started in South Iran and spread from Libya to Anatolia and Macedonia, encompassing an extraordinary ethno-cultural diversity [6]. This widespread empire collapsed after two centuries (towards the end of the 4th century BC) on account of Alexander the Great. In the 2nd century BC, north-eastern Persia was invaded by the Parthians who founded an empire extending from the Euphrates to Afghanistan. Because of its location on the Silk Road, connecting the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty in China, it quickly became a centre of trade and commerce. The Parthians were succeeded by the Sassanid Empire, one of the most important and influential historical periods of Persia. Afterwards Iran was invaded by several populations such as the Arabs, Mongols and Ottoman Turks. The Muslim conquest of Persia in 637 AC led to the introduction of Islam, with the consequent decline of the Zoroastrian religion [7], which still survives in some communities in different part of Iran, especially in Tehran and Yazd.

    This continuous invasion of populations with different origin and culture created an interesting mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages and encompassing Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Azeris, Baluchs, Bandaris, Gilaks, Kurds, Lurs, Mazandarani, Persians, Qeshm people, Turkmens, Zoroastrians and a group of so-called Afro-Iranians, which might be the result of the slave trade with Zanzibar. Despite the great potentiality of this genetic scenario in providing useful information to reconstruct traces of ancient migrations, only few studies have investigated the multi-ethnic components of the Iranian gene pool [8]–,,,,,,[15].

    In order to shed some light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the Y-chromosomes of 938 Iranians, representative of the majority of the provinces and ethnic groups in Iran, were examined at an unprecedented level of resolution

    Haplogroup E in Iran is mainly represented by the E1-M123 (3.7%) and E1b-M78 (3.0%) branches. The first is almost entirely characterized by its sub-lineage M34 and reaches its highest incidence (13.6%) in Kurdistan. The second is present as E1b-M78* in Lorestan (9.8%) and E1b-V13 (5.9%) and E1b-V22 (2.9%) in the Zoroastrians of Yazd. It is worth noting the presence of individuals carrying African-specific haplogroups (three belonging to E2-M75 and 17 to E1b-M2) in South-East Iran (Hormozgan and Sistan Baluchestan), whereas the North-East African E1b-M81 is not observed.
    On the whole, the Iranian population is characterized by very high haplogroup diversity (0.952): the maximum value being observed in the Persians of Fars (0.962) and the minimum in the Arabs of Khuzestan (0.883) and the Turkmen of Golestan (0.821).

    Haplogroup J is predominant in Iran where both its sub-clades, J2-M172 and J1-M267, are observed. Its highest frequencies are registered in the populations located along the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea and along the Zagros Mountains ridge. Exceptionally high is the frequency observed in the Baluchi of Sistan Baluchestan, in agreement with their likely Caspian Sea origin.

    J1-M267 does not exceed 10% in the majority of the Iranian samples examined, with higher values only in Fars (11.4%), Zoroastrians from Yazd (11.7%), Gilan (12.5%), Assyrians from Azerbaijan (17.9%) and Khuzestan (33.4%). The proportion of the two sub-lineages, J1-Page08 and J1-M267*, is highly variant, being J1-M267* almost restricted to north-western Iranian groups and J1-Page08 mainly observed in populations living below the Dasht-e Kevir and Dasht-e Lut desert area, (approximately latitude 30°N). It reaches a frequency of 31.6% in the Arab group from Khuzestan at the border with southern Iraq.

    J2-M172 is the main Iranian haplogroup (22.5%), almost entirely (92.9%) represented by J2a-M410 sub-clades.

    The majority of the M410 chromosomes are J2a-Page55 and mainly represented by its main sub-clades M530, M47 and M67. In particular, the recently described J2a-M530 [46] shows high frequencies in the Zoroastrians of Yazd (17.6%) and Tehran (15.4%), and in the Persians of Yazd (17.0%). J2a-M47 reaches frequencies higher than 5% in the Zoroastrians of Yazd (8.8%), in Mazandaran, Khuzestan and Fars (∼7%), while it is absent in the Assyrians of Azerbaijan Gharbi and Tehran, in Sistan Baluchestan and in Hormozgan (except for the Qeshm group). J2a-M92 was observed in Sistan Baluchestan (12.5%) while the paragroup J2a-M67* was observed mainly in the Armenians of Tehran (8.8%). J2a-M68, previously reported in the neighbouring Iraqi population [20], [60], was not observed in Iran. As for the paragroups, J2a-M410* represents 2.8% of the total sample with ∼7% of frequency in Khuzestan, Mazandaran and Khorasan, whereas J2a-Page55*, observed at 6.6% in central Anatolia [46], accounts for 4.8% of the Iranian sample. J2-M172*, recently described in the neighbouring Iraqi Marsh Arabs (3.5%) [20], characterizes one subject from Khuzestan (1.8%).

    Haplogroup R in Iran is mainly represented by the R1 sub-lineages R1a-M198 and R1b-M269, whereas R2-M124 was observed only in 2.8% of the total sample. All the R1a Y chromosomes belong to the M198* paragroup with frequencies ranging from 0% to 25%. Indeed neither the “European” M458 nor the “Pakistani” M434 [45] have been observed in our samples. Haplogroup R1b-M269 shows its highest frequency in the Assyrians (29.2%, averaged on Tehran and Azerbaijan Gharbi groups). High values are also observed in the Armenians from Tehran and in Lorestan (both with ∼24%). With the exception of five chromosomes belonging to the paragroup R1b-M269* and three chromosomes clustering in the “European” sub-haplogroup R1b-M412, all the M269 Y chromosomes belong to the R1b-L23 clade.

    Haplogroup G is observed in this survey as G1-M285 and G2a-P15. G1-M285, previously described in the Iranian population [12], accounts only for 1.8% of the present Iranian sample. G2a-P15 is the most frequent sub-clade characterizing 9.1% of the total sample, with incidences ranging from 0% in Sistan Baluchestan to 19.3% in the Arabs of Khuzestan. Interestingly, the majority (74.7%) of the G2a-P15 Y chromosomes belong to the paragroups G2a-P15* and G2a-P303* [49].

    Haplogroup E in Iran is mainly represented by the E1-M123 (3.7%) and E1b-M78 (3.0%) branches. The first is almost entirely characterized by its sub-lineage M34 and reaches its highest incidence (13.6%) in Kurdistan. The second is present as E1b-M78* in Lore

    J2-M172: is the most common Hg in Iran (~23%); almost exclusively represented by J2a-M410 subclade (93%), the other major sub-clade being J2b-M12. Apart from Iranians, J2 is common in Mediterranean and Balkan peoples (Croatians, Serbs, Greeks, Bosnians, Albanians, Italians, Bulgarians, Turks), in the Caucasus (Armenians, Georgia, northeastern Turkey, north/northwestern Iran, Kurds, Persians); whilst its frequency drops suddenly beyond Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India.[116] In Europe, J2a is more common in the southern Greece and southern Italy; whilst J2b (J2-M12) is more common in Thessaly, Macedonia and central – northern Italy. Thus J2a and its subgroups within it have a wide distribution from Italy to India, whilst J2b is mostly confined to the Balkans and Italy,[117] being rare even in Turkey. Whilst closely linked with Anatolia and the Levant; and putative agricultural expansions, the distribution of the various sub-clades of J2 likely represents a number of migrational histories which require further elucidation.

    also should note Haplogroup J1 is not an Arab haplogroup in origin. It is one of the most ancient Y-DNA haplogroups. It is traced to prehistoric times, nearly 32.000 years ago, and is ancient than the origination of Semitic people. J1 seems mostly in Middle East and Caucasus, and lightly on Europe and South/Central Asia. According to several studies, J1 seems in high amounts among Arabic people in Arabian Peninsula, Levant and Mesopotamia as well. However, genetically, we can’t call this haplogroup “Semitic” because Semitic people mainly have the FGC11 lineage of this haplogroup in those areas. As Arabic society is mainly based on a unique cluster of J1 haplogroup, FGC11, it is wrong to call all people with J1 as “Semitic”. In this sense, we cannot attribute haplogroup J1 to arab origin. Haplogroup J (J-M267)was in north africa long before any arab step foot there. It entered north africa in the neolithics.Haplogroup J1 is not an Arab haplogroup in origin. It is one of the most ancient Y-DNA haplogroups. It is traced to prehistoric times, nearly 32.000 years ago, and is ancient than the origination of Semitic people. J1 seems mostly in Middle East and Caucasus, and lightly on Europe and South/Central Asia. According to several studies, J1 seems in high amounts among Arabic people in Arabian Peninsula, Levant and Mesopotamia as well. However, genetically, we can’t call this haplogroup “Semitic” because Semitic people mainly have the FGC11 lineage of this haplogroup in those areas. As Arabic society is mainly based on a unique cluster of J1 haplogroup, FGC11, it is wrong to call all people with J1 as “Semitic”. In this sense, we cannot attribute haplogroup J1 to arab origin. Haplogroup J (J-M267)was in north africa long before any arab step foot there. It entered north africa in the neolithics.
    Linux (Android 6.0 Marshmallow) Chrome 61.0.3163.98


  2. # ADS
    Advertisement bot
    Join Date
    2013-03-24
    Age
    2010
    Posts
    All threads
       
     

  3. #2
    Senior Moderator
    Plant of Life = Biological Magic 麻 EliasAlucard's Avatar
    Last Online
    @
    Join Date
    2009-10-22
    Posts
    14,715
    Location
    Sweden
    Gender
    Age
    34
    Y-DNA
    J1a2a1a2-P58+
    mtDNA
    H5a
    Race
    Caucasian
    Phenotype
    Alpinid
    Metaethnos
    proto-Semitic
    Ethnicity
    Assyrian/Armenian
    Politics
    Environment, Cannabis
    Religion
    Secular Agnostic
    Assyria Assyria 1913-1923 Armenia Lebanon Sweden Greece

    Default

    Hello @khosro shohani , welcome to ABF. This thread is largely (entirely?) a copy and paste from this study:

    Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians

    I'm not sure, but I believe we already have a thread about this study, and even if we don't, you can't just copy and paste a huge wall of text without adding any original content of your own, such as topic questions and so on.

    Also, please read the rules; they're your protection here

    Thread closed.

    //mod
    ReactOS <--- support this project so that we can get rid of Windows!
    Ubuntu MATE 16.04.1 LTS | PRISM-Break! | Windows7sins

    “A wise man makes his own decisions; an ignorant man follows public opinion.” ― Chinese proverb

    “Every decent man is ashamed of the government he lives under.” ― H. L. Mencken

    “The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.” ― Socrates

    “Damnant quod non intelligunt.” ― Latin proverb

    Quoted for truth:
    Quote Originally Posted by Alaron View Post
    Anatolian Urhemait supporters are mostly butthurt Meds.
    For the lulz:
    Quote Originally Posted by drgs View Post
    Poland is a misunderstanding. It is a country which lies on the frontier between western and slavic world, and which combines elements of both.
    In fact, they are not even the Europeans in strict sense, meaning European as in bearing the responsibility and understanding of European interests. Poland has always been an subordinate country, on one side sucking German dick, on the other side -- Russian one, some kind of "novice" europeans, who are full of inferiority complexes, hysteria and obsessity neuroses. This is also true for all Baltic countries
    Linux (Android 7.1.1) Chrome 62.0.3202.84


Similar Threads

  1. Slavery today.
    By evon in forum Race & Ethnicity in Society
    Replies: 29
    Last Post: 2014-11-19, 13:40
  2. I almost got shot today
    By Ezana in forum Race & Ethnicity in Society
    Replies: 16
    Last Post: 2010-08-11, 23:00
  3. Djibouti Today
    By Excel in forum Horn of Africa Tribune
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 2010-05-19, 01:01
  4. Who are today's Khawrji's?
    By Excel in forum Religion
    Replies: 5
    Last Post: 2010-02-13, 16:39

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
<