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Thread: Peopling of the Americas before Columbus679 days old

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    Default Peopling of the Americas before Columbus

    Here is the current unerstanding of the peopling of the Americas:

    1) 24 kya Proto-Amerinds lived near Bluefish Caves in Eastern Beringia (where a human-worked mammoth bone was found), but the Laurentide Ice Sheet was still blocking their way south. It melted 18-14 kya, and it is believed that this is when they entered America (they had lived in Beringia for ca. 8,000 years before that, so called "Beringian standstill"). It is believed that they numbered no more than few thousand people. Clovis Anzick-1 from Montana dated to 13 kya was a mix of Mongoloid and ANE admixtures, nothing Australasian was detected in his DNA.

    2) But unlike Clovis Anzick-1, some modern tribes (e.g. Karitiana, Surui, Xavante, Cabecar and Aleuts) have also a third ancestral component called "Population Y", which is partially Australasian-like (similar to Onge Negritos and to Australoid populations of Sahul). The Ami of Taiwan and the Ainu of Japan also have this admixture (but of course lower levels than Sahulians or Andamanese Islanders). The distribution of this admixture from "Population Y" looks like it could enter America before or simultaneously with Mongoloid and ANE admixtures, because only some South American (especially Amazonian) and some Central American tribes score it, while North Americans don't, if not counting the Aleuts.

    3) There is also a hypothesis that Jomon people from Japan migrated to America 6-9 kya and brough this "Population Y" admixture. There are some archaeological similarities between Jomon (Proto-Ainu) culture and Valdivia culture of Ecuador. There is also Y-DNA C3 in Ecuador:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312352/

    4) 5-6 kya Paleo-Eskimos (Dorset and Saqqaq cultures) came from Chukotka. They mixed with Proto-Na-Dene (it is possible that Na-Dene languages originated from them). Ancient Athabaskans had up to 40% of Paleo-Eskimo admixture, modern Na-Dene have 10-25%:



    5) 3 kya in western Alaska (Seward Peninsula) Neo-Eskimos emerged from mixing of Amerindian and Siberian groups. They represented the Old Whaling, Choris and Norton cultures. Later they move into Chukotka and establish the Old Bering Sea culture. They stay in Chukotka for the next several centuries, and 1.5 kya they migrate westward along the northern coast of Alaska (Thule and Birnirk cultures). After that they expand into what is now northern Canada, replacing & assimilating Paleo-Eskimos (Yupik tribe assimilated the most of this ancestry, 71-76%).

    6) 1 kya volcanic activity triggered the southward migration of Na-Dene speakers, they reached Utah 300-400 years later.

    7) A lot of evidence suggests that also Polynesians reached the Americas from Easter Island several hundred years ago:





    I wonder is it possible that this "Population Y" comes from hypothetical Paleo-Americans, who could enter America long before 18-14 kya - perhaps by boat along the coast, or they came much earlier, 40-30 kya, when an ice-free passage also existed (for some reason this possibility is not taken seriously):

    Last edited by Litvin; 2017-12-11 at 14:18.

  2. The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to Litvin For This Useful Post:

    David Noi (2017-12-12), Hispaniola (2017-12-11), Strong Flower (2017-12-11), upyours (2017-12-11)

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    i wonder how the first ones looked like

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    Another study, which seems to suggest an early extinct branch of the first people of the Àmericas has been found:Link to article
    This article is from january, but I can't recall that anyone have mentioned this here?

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    Sun Shield Pakal (2018-09-21)

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