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Thread: Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon (Matisoi-Smith et al. 2018)551 days old

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    Default Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon (Matisoi-Smith et al. 2018)

    So, finally some new, interesting ancient DNA papers Of course the study starts with some anti-Assyrian stuff I'm sure this paper will make @Durcherrs happy though

    Quote Originally Posted by Abstract
    The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700–400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society.
    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190169









    So apparently, the Phoenicians brought some European gene flow, to Lebanon, here's the conclusion from the study:

    While previous Y chromosome analyses of modern populations around the Mediterranean demonstrated the impact of Phoenician males on the genetic makeup of many communities [5], we now see that it is likely that the Phoenician trade networks or settlements strategies also included the translocation of women throughout the region as well as the assimilation of indigenous women in Phoenician settlements. Analyses of genetic variation in modern Lebanese populations [6] suggest closer affiliations with Europe based on mitochondrial lineages. Our result, identifying the European lineage T2b3 in the BEY197 site, suggests that some of those European mtDNA lineages could be associated with the integration of European women in Phoenician communities in Lebanon.

    Of course a couple of European mtDNA lineages shouldn't be exaggerated, but this could provide a reasonable explanation, to some blue eyed Lebanese and Alawites (like Bashar al-Assad), although such traits could also have arrived in Lebanon post-Phoenicia (Crusaders) and quite probably even pre-Phoenicia. However, the European mtDNA lineages the Phoenicians brought to the Levant, were most likely from southern Europe and not from northern Europe, so the Phoenician connection may not be the ultimate explanation of possible pigmentation changes in the Levant. Also, modern Lebanese don't really have that much of the northern European component anyway, so the Phoenicians importing some European women probably wasn't a big deal. But this begs the question: the sizeable Mediterranean component in modern Levantines, did this come from the Phoenicians importing some southern European women to Lebanon, or is this simply archaic shared ancestry between Mediterraneans in general?

    This paper however, does lend support, to the notion that the Levant was never fully isolated from southern Europe, even before southern European empires expanded into the Near East.
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    Quoted for truth:
    Quote Originally Posted by Alaron View Post
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    Autosomal data possible to derive from them?

    The presence of X2 MTDNA is interesting. From memory it shows amongst Druze and particularly some North African Jews.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Svin View Post
    Autosomal data possible to derive from them?
    Doesn't seem to be a high budget study, so no.

    Quote Originally Posted by Svin View Post
    The presence of X2 MTDNA is interesting. From memory it shows amongst Druze and particularly some North African Jews.
    If I remember correctly, mtDNA X2 is carried by among others, Sicilians today. Or maybe it was X1, not sure.
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    “A wise man makes his own decisions; an ignorant man follows public opinion.” ― Chinese proverb

    “Every decent man is ashamed of the government he lives under.” ― H. L. Mencken

    “The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.” ― Socrates

    “Damnant quod non intelligunt.” ― Latin proverb

    Quoted for truth:
    Quote Originally Posted by Alaron View Post
    Anatolian Urhemait supporters are mostly butthurt Meds.
    For the lulz:
    Quote Originally Posted by drgs View Post
    Poland is a misunderstanding. It is a country which lies on the frontier between western and slavic world, and which combines elements of both.
    In fact, they are not even the Europeans in strict sense, meaning European as in bearing the responsibility and understanding of European interests. Poland has always been an subordinate country, on one side sucking German dick, on the other side -- Russian one, some kind of "novice" europeans, who are full of inferiority complexes, hysteria and obsessity neuroses. This is also true for all Baltic countries

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    European slaves ?

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    Quote Originally Posted by beyoku View Post
    European slaves ?
    Could be, but either way, it unlikely had any major autosomal effect on modern Lebanese. Also slavery back then wasn't as big a thing, as it was in later centuries.

    @Semitic Duwa , what's the Semitic point of view on this study, did the Phoenicians import a lot of Sardinians?
    ReactOS <--- support this project so that we can get rid of Windows!
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    “A wise man makes his own decisions; an ignorant man follows public opinion.” ― Chinese proverb

    “Every decent man is ashamed of the government he lives under.” ― H. L. Mencken

    “The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.” ― Socrates

    “Damnant quod non intelligunt.” ― Latin proverb

    Quoted for truth:
    Quote Originally Posted by Alaron View Post
    Anatolian Urhemait supporters are mostly butthurt Meds.
    For the lulz:
    Quote Originally Posted by drgs View Post
    Poland is a misunderstanding. It is a country which lies on the frontier between western and slavic world, and which combines elements of both.
    In fact, they are not even the Europeans in strict sense, meaning European as in bearing the responsibility and understanding of European interests. Poland has always been an subordinate country, on one side sucking German dick, on the other side -- Russian one, some kind of "novice" europeans, who are full of inferiority complexes, hysteria and obsessity neuroses. This is also true for all Baltic countries

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