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Thread: Population genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia (Günther et al. 2018)8 days old

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    Default Population genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia (Günther et al. 2018)

    New ancient DNA study on prehistoric Scandinavia:

    Quote Originally Posted by Abstract
    Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the routes and genetic composition of these postglacial migrants remain unclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57× coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavated across Scandinavia and dated from 9,500–6,000 years before present (BP). Surprisingly, among the Scandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east–west genetic gradient that opposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. Our results suggest two different early postglacial migrations into Scandinavia: initially from the south, and later, from the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along which novel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups met and mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns of genetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These potential adaptations include high frequencies of low pigmentation variants and a gene region associated with physical performance, which shows strong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans.
    Source: Population genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia: Investigating early postglacial migration routes and high-latitude adaptation







    Seems like Y-DNA I2 took a big hit with the arrival of Indo-European speaking, proto-Germanic R1a and R1b males, but the question still remains if Indo-European migrations brought Y-DNA I1 to the Nordic countries, or if I1a was already there.

    However, pigmentation analysis was also done, on these specimen:

    The high coverage and Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG)-treated genome (used in order to reduce the effects of postmortem DNA damage) [31] of SF12 allowed us to confidently discover new and hitherto unknown variants at sites with 55× or higher sequencing depth (S3 Text). Based on SF12’s high-coverage and high-quality genome, we estimate the number of SNPs hitherto unknown (not recorded in dbSNP [v142]) to be approximately 10,600. This number is close to the median per European individual in the 1000 Genomes Project [32] (approximately 11,400, S3 Text), although a direct comparison is difficult due to the lower sequencing depth, different data processing, and larger sample sizes in the 1000 Genomes Project. At least 17% of these SNPs that are not found in modern-day individuals were in fact common among the Mesolithic Scandinavians (seen in the low coverage data conditional on the observation in SF12), and in total 24.2% were found in other prehistoric individuals (S3 Text), suggesting a substantial amount of hitherto unknown variation 9,000 years ago (S3 Text). Thus, many genetic variants found in Mesolithic individuals have not been carried over to modern-day groups. Among the novel variants in SF12, four (all heterozygous) are predicted to affect the function of protein coding genes [33] (S3 Text). The “heat shock protein” HSPA2 in SF12 carries an unknown mutation that changes the amino acid histidine to tyrosine at a protein–protein interaction site, which likely disrupts the function of the protein (S3 Text). Defects in HSPA2 are known to drastically reduce fertility in males [34]. It will be interesting to see how common such variants were among Mesolithic groups as more genome sequence data become available. The genomic data further allowed us to study the physical appearance of SHGs (S8 Text); for instance, they show a combination of eye color varying from blue to light brown and light skin pigmentation. This is strikingly different from the WHGs—who have been suggested to have the specific combination of blue eyes and dark skin [18,20,21,23] and EHGs—who have been suggested to be brown-eyed and light-skinned [19,20].

    So there you have it, blue eyes did exist in Scandinavia already during the Mesolithic, and blue eyes were originally, most likely, a non-Indo-European trait.
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    @EliasAlucard , I1 has already been found in Mesolithic Scandinavia. So I doubt that this lineage came to the Nordic countries with Indo-European speakers. Besides, it has not been found in early IE remains (i.e., Yamnaya, Andronovo, Sintashta, Sterdny Zog, Corded Ware, and/or Bell Beaker) so far either. However, I’d still say that I1 must have been a very common marker among the Proto-Germanics. In a way, the relationship I1 has with Indo-European is similar to the one J1 and J2 have with Afro-Asiatic (the former is associable with a single branch of IE [i.e., Germanic], while the latter two are assiociable with a single branch of AA [i.e., Semitic]). I1 is hardly connected to IE as a whole tough (just like J1 and J2 are hardly connected to AA as a whole).
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    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    @EliasAlucard , I1 has already been found in Mesolithic Scandinavia. So I doubt that this lineage came to the Nordic countries with Indo-European speakers. Besides, it has not been found in early IE remains (i.e., Yamnaya, Andronovo, Sintashta, Sterdny Zog, Corded Ware, and/or Bell Beaker) so far either. However, I’d still say that I1 must have been a very common marker among the Proto-Germanics. In a way, the relationship I1 has with Indo-European is similar to the one J1 and J2 have with Afro-Asiatic (the former is associable with a single branch of IE [i.e., Germanic], while the latter two are assiociable with a single branch of AA [i.e., Semitic]). I1 is hardly connected to IE as a whole tough (just like J1 and J2 are hardly connected to AA as a whole).
    Still too little and strangely separated from quite mixed subclades of I2s, yet it finally has been found.
    How reliable are these predictions by Geneticist, I see lots of folks citing him since some years now.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Pioterus View Post
    Still too little and strangely separated from quite mixed subclades of I2s, yet it finally has been found.
    How reliable are these predictions by Geneticist, I see lots of folks citing him since some years now.
    Some I2a subclades are much more likely to be related to PIE/IE speakers than I1 is. Also, Genetiker is fairly reliable as far as haplogroup predictions are of concern.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    @EliasAlucard , I1 has already been found in Mesolithic Scandinavia. So I doubt that this lineage came to the Nordic countries with Indo-European speakers.
    I see, interesting, the plot thickens. I haven't really been following ancient DNA studies that closely in recent years, just the big ones like Haak et al. 2015 and stuff like that.

    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    Besides, it has not been found in early IE remains (i.e., Yamnaya, Andronovo, Sintashta, Sterdny Zog, Corded Ware, and/or Bell Beaker) so far either.
    Well I was thinking something along the lines, that a bunch of tribal R1a and/or R1b dudes could have picked up some I1 guys somewhere in continental Europe, and brought them with them to Scandinavia, I mean it's not that unusual that males befriend each other and bond somehow, you know. And I1 surely must have been in continental Europe before it reached Scandinavia (although, considering I1's low frequency in southern Europe, it must have headed straight north to Scandinavia). I1, I2, J1 and J2 are all found around the Black Sea. Considering the fairly tight association between Germanic speakers and I1, it's only reasonable to conclude that I1 must have been quite isolated in Scandinavia long before proto-Germanics.

    And since I1 has been found in Mesolithic Scandinavia, then the question is settled, that I1 got to Scandinavia before R1a/R1b, and obviously so too, did I2.

    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    However, I’d still say that I1 must have been a very common marker among the Proto-Germanics.
    Well not necessary. Unless I1 is found in early PIE remains, there's no reason to conclude that I1 was a proto-Germanic marker. The original proto-Germanics were genetically pretty much proto-Indo-Europeans, who had developed their own PIE dialect, you know, similar to how people in Texas speak their own distinct American English accent, but it's still totally American English. After a couple of hundred more years of isolation from other PIE speakers, proto-Germanic slowly started becoming more Germanic (you know, like Grimm's law and similar sound shifts). There was a proto-Germanic tribe before their language evolved into the proto-Germanic that we recognize today, with words such as hundred. Just as a case in point, the word for cannabis in the Germanic languages, hemp, was actually borrowed from the Scythian through Greek and Latin, kannabis, before the Grimm's law sound shift. So at one point, the proto-Germanics actually pronounced it "kannabis", then with Grimm's law, they began pronouncing it, *hanapiz:

    https://www.etymonline.com/word/hemp

    ^^ What makes hemp useful here, is that unlike for example *kmtom>hundred, it's not a PIE word, it's a Scythian word. So its presence in proto-Germanic and in compliance with Grimm's law, means that there was a proto-Germanic community before Grimm's law.

    Point is, before Grimm's law, there was a proto-Germanic community that spoke a late PIE dialect and an early dialect of Germanic, and they didn't necessarily have any I1 or I2 males among them their tribe. This was in all likelihood when proto-Germanic was still Satem, before the proto-Germanics had been influenced by Celtic or Italic and speakers and before the Kentumization of Germanic. Or maybe Germanic never went through a Kentumization, unlike Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian speakers (Germanic is generally classified as phylogenetically closer to Balto-Slavic than to other Kentum languages according to most language trees).

    Anyway what I'm saying is that it's not necessarily the case that the proto-Germanics had I1 from the start. But yeah obviously they included I1 males in their group when they reached Scandinavia, because Sweden is most likely where proto-Germanic really became a Germanic language. Germans have less I1 than Scandinavians, so obviously some Germanics migrated south from Sweden to Denmark and then Germany.

    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    In a way, the relationship I1 has with Indo-European is similar to the one J1 and J2 have with Afro-Asiatic (the former is associable with a single branch of IE [i.e., Germanic], while the latter two are assiociable with a single branch of AA [i.e., Semitic]). I1 is hardly connected to IE as a whole tough (just like J1 and J2 are hardly connected to AA as a whole).
    Yeah that's a good point, but I1 is mostly found among Germanics, of course it's also found non-Germanic Europeans (Poles especially, also Finns), but it's for sure strongest among Germanics.

    Yeah, wasn't one I2 specimen found in Yamnaya or something like that, a couple of years ago?

    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    Also, Genetiker is fairly reliable as far as haplogroup predictions are of concern.
    To be honest I found this Genetiker statement pretty funny, typical blogger rivalry (this is btw very typical of genome bloggers, lots of ego/drama over nothing):

    The Stora Förvar 11 finding makes it clear that anyone who concluded on the basis of the five Motala samples (which were I2) that I1 was absent in Mesolithic Scandinavia would have been foolish in doing so, especially in light of the fact that I1 is the predominant Y haplogroup in Scandinavia. And yet David Reich, David Anthony, Eske Willerslev, Greg Cochran, David “Davidski” Wesolowski, J. Maciamo Hay, and countless moronic blog and forum commenters have come to the same kind of foolish conclusion in deciding that R1b was absent in Mesolithic Western Europe, based on only two Mesolithic Western European samples.

    Wonder what @Polako has to say about that? Last I heard, Polako was saying that R1b has been found in Europe in the pre-PIE expansion era (I can't remember where in Europe, but it was way outside the PC steppe and much earlier than the IE expansions), so I'm sure Polako agrees with Genetiker. Still, if the 'genetics buffs' on the internetz ruled out R1b in prehistoric Europe based on only two samples, that was clearly a bit too hasty judgement on the question.
    Last edited by EliasAlucard; 2018-01-13 at 14:45.
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    Quoted for truth:
    Quote Originally Posted by Alaron View Post
    Anatolian Urhemait supporters are mostly butthurt Meds.
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    Quote Originally Posted by drgs View Post
    Poland is a misunderstanding. It is a country which lies on the frontier between western and slavic world, and which combines elements of both.
    In fact, they are not even the Europeans in strict sense, meaning European as in bearing the responsibility and understanding of European interests. Poland has always been an subordinate country, on one side sucking German dick, on the other side -- Russian one, some kind of "novice" europeans, who are full of inferiority complexes, hysteria and obsessity neuroses. This is also true for all Baltic countries

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    Quote Originally Posted by Power77 View Post
    Some I2a subclades are much more likely to be related to PIE/IE speakers than I1 is. Also, Genetiker is fairly reliable as far as haplogroup predictions are of concern.
    *Geneticist instead of Genetiker - damn autocorrecting google keyboard!!!

    The thing with I2a in Yamaya, I suppose it was a separate branch form the one that grew into the I2a-L621s. Anyway, yeah - I have seen that.

    Still am not sure where is "my" most ancient direct proto-papa found as of yet (any Y aDNA linked upstream to I2a-L621).
    and the IEEE Milestone for breaking the Enigma Code goes to... Polish Cipher Bureau 1932-39

    “We know each other,” he agreed. “They say that you follow in my steps.”
    “I go my own way. But you, you had never, until just now, looked behind you. You turned back today for the first time.”
    Geralt remained silent. Tired, he had nothing to say. “How... How will it happen?” he asked her at last, coldly and without emotion. “I will take you by the hand,” she replied, looking him straight in the eye. “I will take you by the hand and lead you across the meadow, through a cold and wet fog.” “And after? What is there beyond the fog?” “Nothing,” she replied, smiling. “After that, there is nothing.”
    ― Andrzej Sapkowski
    Świat się zmienia, słońce zachodzi, a wódka się kończy [The world is changing, sun is setting and we're running out of Vodka.]
    ― Andrzej Sapkowski

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