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Thread: Ancient DNA from Chalcolithic Israel (Harney et al. 2018)423 days old

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    Default Ancient DNA from Chalcolithic Israel (Harney et al. 2018)

    The material culture of the Late Chalcolithic period in the southern Levant (4500–3900/3800 BCE) is qualitatively distinct from previous and subsequent periods. Here, to test the hypothesis that the advent and decline of this culture was influenced by movements of people, we generated genome-wide ancient DNA from 22 individuals from Peqi’in Cave, Israel. These individuals were part of a homogeneous population that can be modeled as deriving ~57% of its ancestry from groups related to those of the local Levant Neolithic, ~17% from groups related to those of the Iran Chalcolithic, and ~26% from groups related to those of the Anatolian Neolithic. The Peqi’in population also appears to have contributed differently to later Bronze Age groups, one of which we show cannot plausibly have descended from the same population as that of Peqi’in Cave. These results provide an example of how population movements propelled cultural changes in the deep past.

    "Based on this uniquely fitting qpAdm model we infer the ancestry of Levant_ChL to be the result of a three-way admixture of populations related to Levant_N (57%), Iran_ChL (17%), and Anatolia_N (26%)

    It was striking to us that previously published Bronze Age Levantine samples from the sites of 'Ain Ghazal in present-day Jordan (Levant_BA_South) and Sidon in present-day Lebanon (Levant_BA_North) can be modeled as two-way admixtures, without the Anatolia_N contribution that is required to model the Levant_ChL population24,26. This suggests that the Levant_ChL population may not be directly ancestral to these later Bronze Age Levantine populations, because if it were, we would also expect to detect an Anatolia_N component of ancestry. In what follows, we treat Levant_BA_South and Levant_BA_North as separate populations for analysis, since the symmetry statistic f4(Levant_BA_North, Levant_BA_South; A, Chimp) is significant for a number test populations A (|Z| ≥ 3) (Supplementary Data 5), consistent with the different estimated proportions of Levant_N and Iran_ChL ancestry reported in24,26.

    [...]

    We observe a qualitatively different pattern in the Levant_BA_North samples from Sidon, Lebanon, where models including Levant_ChL paired with either Iran_N, Iran_LN, or Iran_HotuIIIb populations appear to be a significantly better fit than those including Levant_N + Iran_ChL. We largely confirm this result using the “Right” population outgroups defined in26. (abb. Haber: Ust_Ishim, Kostenki14, MA1, Han, Papuan, Ami, Chuckhi, Karitiana, Mbuti, Switzerland_HG, EHG, WHG, and CHG), although we find that the specific model involving Iran_HotuIIIb no longer works with this “Right” set of populations. Investigating this further, we find that the addition of Anatolia_N in the “Right” outgroup set excludes the model of Levant_N + Iran_ChL favored by26. These results imply that a population that harbored ancestry more closely related to Levant_ChL than to Levant_N contributed to the Levant_BA_North population, even if it did not contribute detectably to the Levant_BA_South population.

    We obtained additional insight by running qpAdm with Levant_BA_South as a target of two-way admixture between Levant_N and Iran_ChL, but now adding Levant_ChL and Anatolia_N to the basic 09NW “Right” set of 11 outgroups. The addition of the Levant_ChL causes the model to fail, indicating that Levant_BA_South and Levant_ChL share ancestry following the separation of both of them from the ancestors of Levant_N and Iran_ChL. Thus, in the past there existed an unsampled population that contributed both to Levant_ChL and to Levant_BA_South, even though Levant_ChL cannot be the direct ancestor of Levant_BA_South because, as described above, it harbors Anatolia_N-related ancestry not present in Levant_BA_South.

    [...]

    Our finding that the Levant_ChL population can be well-modeled as a three-way admixture between Levant_N (57%), Anatolia_N (26%), and Iran_ChL (17%), while the Levant_BA_South can be modeled as a mixture of Levant_N (58%) and Iran_ChL (42%), but has little if any additional Anatolia_N-related ancestry, can only be explained by multiple episodes of population movement. The presence of Iran_ChL-related ancestry in both populations – but not in the earlier Levant_N – suggests a history of spread into the Levant of peoples related to Iranian agriculturalists, which must have occurred at least by the time of the Chalcolithic. The Anatolian_N component present in the Levant_ChL but not in the Levant_BA_South sample suggests that there was also a separate spread of Anatolian-related people into the region. The Levant_BA_South population may thus represent a remnant of a population that formed after an initial spread of Iran_ChL-related ancestry into the Levant that was not affected by the spread of an Anatolia_N-related population, or perhaps a reintroduction of a population without Anatolia_N-related ancestry to the region. We additionally find that the Levant_ChL population does not serve as a likely source of the Levantine-related ancestry in present-day East African populations (see Supplementary Note 4)24.

    These genetic results have striking correlates to material culture changes in the archaeological record. The archaeological finds at Peqi’in Cave share distinctive characteristics with other Chalcolithic sites, both to the north and south, including secondary burial in ossuaries with iconographic and geometric designs. It has been suggested that some Late Chalcolithic burial customs, artifacts and motifs may have had their origin in earlier Neolithic traditions in Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia8,13,47. Some of the artistic expressions have been related to finds and ideas and to later religious concepts such as the gods Inanna and Dumuzi from these more northern regions6,8,47,48,49,50. The knowledge and resources required to produce metallurgical artifacts in the Levant have also been hypothesized to come from the north11,51.

    Our finding of genetic discontinuity between the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods also resonates with aspects of the archeological record marked by dramatic changes in settlement patterns43, large-scale abandonment of sites52,53,54,55, many fewer items with symbolic meaning, and shifts in burial practices, including the disappearance of secondary burial in ossuaries56,57,58,59. This supports the view that profound cultural upheaval, leading to the extinction of populations, was associated with the collapse of the Chalcolithic culture in this region18,60,61,62,63,64."




    Code:
    I0614	S0614.E1.L1	CHPKL104	petrous	75	Dabney, Korlevic	60	Rohland	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0615	S0615.E1.L1	CHPKIsolatedTeeth	tooth	75	Dabney, Korlevic	60	Rohland	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0643	S0643.E1.L1	CHPKL101	bone (long bone)	75	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	0,1269	1	0,289	0,37	..	..	..	30	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0644	S0644.E4.L1	CHPK00003	petrous	82	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	..	1	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0644	S0644.E1.L1	CHPK00003	petrous	70	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	0,0545	1	0,265	37,7	H4	0,971	[0.962,0.978]	41	1	0,869	0,265	F	..	0	(female)	(female)	No
    I0644	S0644.E3.L1	CHPK00003	petrous	92	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0109	1	0,067	0,428	..	..	..	46	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0686	S0686.E1.L1	CHPKN10E7	bone (long bone)	77	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0687	S0687.E1.L1	CHPKCHPK00001	bone (long bone)	74	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0688	S0688.E1.L1	CHPKL108G/H	bone (long bone)	70	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0689	S0689.E1.L1	CHPKL00002	bone (long bone)	73	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	0,1246	1	0,038	0,038	..	..	..	17	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0691	S0691.E1.L1	CHPKL109J	bone (long bone)	63	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0692	S0692.E1.L1	CHPKL307B	bone (phalanx)	64	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	0,0227	1	0,134	0,179	..	..	..	51	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I0693	S0693.E1.L1	CHPKL109L	bone (long bone)	69	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	0,0795	1	0	0,00953	..	..	..	18	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1153	S1153.E1.L1	CHPK017	petrous	73	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0034	1	..	0,0171	..	..	..	37	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1156	S1156.E1.L1	CHPK022	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,005	1	..	0,177	..	..	..	62	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1157	S1157.E1.L1	CHPK023	petrous	70	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	..	0	..	..	..	..	..	na	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1158	S1158.E1.L1	CHPKL101-007	petrous	78	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0062	1	..	0,104	..	..	..	66	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1162	S1162.E1.L1	CHPKL101G-025	petrous	82	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,007	1	0,004	2	L3b1	0,665	[0.401,0.841]	66	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1169	S1169.E10.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $	74	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0093	1	0,124	5,57	J2a	0,865	[0.850,0.880]	44	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1169	S1169.E11.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $	71	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0053	1	0,186	1,27	..	..	..	43	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1173	S1173.E1.L1	CHPKL108B-032	petrous	88	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0105	1	0,224	0,409	..	..	..	38	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1174	S1174.E1.L1	CHPKL108G/H-033	petrous	75	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0031	1	0,091	0,204	..	..	..	45	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1185	S1185.E1.L1	CHPKL2058-027	petrous	77	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0027	1	0,138	1,12	..	..	..	47	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1186	S1186.E1.L1	CHPKL205B-010	petrous	89	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0041	1	0	0,263	..	..	..	68	0	..	..	..	..	..	..	..	..
    I1159	S1159.E1.L1	CHPKL101-009	petrous	83	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0065	1	0,019	0,754	..	..	..	56	1	0	0,021	F	..	0	(female)	(female)	..
    I1169	S1169.E5.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $$	20	Dabney, Korlevic	50	Rohland **	partial	0,0013	1	0,136	17,9	J2a2	0,978	[0.965,0.987]	na	1	0,03	0,12	F	..	7	(female)	(female)	..
    I1152	S1152.E1.L1	CHPK008	petrous	79	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0248	1	0,147	198	J2a2d	0,994	[0.991,0.997]	57	1	1,14	0,149	F	..	2988	(female)	(female)	No
    I1154	S1154.E1.L1	CHPK018	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0046	1	0,216	2,74	T2g1a	0,983	[0.899,0.996]	48	1	0,05	0,131	F	..	20	(female)	(female)	No
    I1164	S1164.E1.L1	CHPKL104-002	petrous	92	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0101	1	0,17	30,9	J2a2d	0,992	[0.982,0.997]	49	1	0,39	0,17	F	..	697	(female)	(female)	No
    I1168	S1168.E1.L1	CHPKL104-034	petrous	83	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,039	1	0,152	188	T2+150	1	[0.998,1.000]	54	1	1,06	0,145	F	..	2745	(female)	(female)	No
    I1169	S1169.E1.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0861	1	0,126	377	J2a2d	0,985	[0.979,0.989]	65	1	8,29	0,119	F	..	13468	(female)	(female)	No
    I1169	S1169.E4.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $$	21	Dabney, Korlevic #	50	Rohland **	partial	0,0113	1	0,101	9,68	J2a2d	0,94	[0.925,0.950]	na	1	0,03	0,074	F	..	10	(female)	(female)	..
    I1169	S1169.E8.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $	16	Dabney, Korlevic #	50	Rohland **	partial	0,1708	1	0,111	52,2	J2a2d	0,995	[0.990,0.998]	56	1	0,55	0,092	F	..	1201	(female)	(female)	..
    I1169	S1169.E9.L1	CHPKL105-012	petrous $	15	Dabney, Korlevic	50	Rohland **	partial	0,0407	1	0,142	292	J2a2d	0,995	[0.991,0.997]	51	1	0,96	0,12	F	..	2119	(female)	(female)	..
    I1177	S1177.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-013	petrous	82	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0043	1	0,231	6,95	N1b1	0,989	[0.963,0.997]	43	1	0,09	0,147	F	..	52	(female)	(female)	No
    I1179	S1179.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-016	petrous	65	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0156	1	0,207	77,8	T2	0,992	[0.988,0.995]	48	1	0,55	0,179	F	..	1140	(female)	(female)	No
    I1181	S1181.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-029	petrous	82	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0036	1	0,192	16,2	T2	0,983	[0.970,0.991]	45	1	0,09	0,144	F	..	50	(female)	(female)	No
    I1182	S1182.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-031	petrous	72	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0134	1	0,182	28,6	T1a+152	0,978	[0.963,0.989]	48	1	0,63	0,166	F	..	1516	(female)	(female)	No
    I1183	S1183.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-035	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0123	1	0,183	46	R0a	0,965	[0.953,0.975]	50	1	0,45	0,175	F	..	870	(female)	(female)	Yes
    I1184	S1184.E1.L1	CHPKL1100-020	petrous	72	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0083	1	0,211	30	T1	0,958	[0.942,0.968]	46	1	0,41	0,175	F	..	726	(female)	(female)	No
    I0690	S0690.E1.L1	CHPKL305F	bone (phalanx)	73	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland	partial	0,0778	1	0,23	1,36	..	..	..	31	1	0	0,032	M	..	0	..	..	..
    I1151	S1151.E1.L1	CHPK006	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0054	1	0,024	0,323	..	..	..	52	1	0	0,025	M	..	0	..	..	..
    I1155	S1155.E1.L1	CHPK021	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0079	1	0,181	10,5	K1a	0,962	[0.932,0.978]	48	1	0,09	0,119	M	T1a1a*	21	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	No
    I1160	S1160.E1.L1	CHPKL101B-005	petrous	79	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0047	1	0,214	4,49	N1a1b	0,998	[0.954,1.000]	45	1	0,05	0,139	M	T1a1a1b2	7	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	No
    I1160	S1161.E1.L1	CHPKL101B-011	petrous	114	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0224	1	0,155	279	I6	0,992	[0.986,0.995]	60	1	1,35	0,144	M	T1a1a1b2	1476	6,79E-03	2,51E-03	No
    I1165	S1165.E1.L1	CHPKL104-004	petrous	82	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0418	1	0,16	149	HV1a'b'c	0,997	[0.992,1.000]	49	1	0,95	0,144	M	T1a1a1b2	1035	3,62E-03	2,32E-03	No
    I1166	S1166.E1.L1	CHPKL104-014	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0226	1	0,166	59,7	H	0,991	[0.985,0.995]	47	1	0,62	0,156	M	T1a1a	526	1,95E-02	7,36E-03	No
    I1166	S1167.E1.L1	CHPKL104-026	petrous	90	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0199	1	0,182	99,5	..	0,994	[0.989,0.998]	48	1	0,9	0,174	M	T1a1a	869	5,78E-03	3,65E-03	No
    I1170	S1170.E1.L1	CHPKL105-030	petrous	75	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0297	1	0,165	78,8	T1a2	0,974	[0.966,0.979]	51	1	0,67	0,15	M	T1a1a	532	6,32E-03	4,49E-03	No
    I1171	S1171.E1.L1	CHPKL106-019	petrous	76	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0331	1	0,148	36	K	0,984	[0.977,0.989]	44	1	0,26	0,117	M	E1b1b1b2	123	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	No
    I1172	S1172.E1.L1	CHPKL108B-024	petrous	71	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0058	1	0,21	7,43	K1a	0,982	[0.953,0.993]	45	1	0,12	0,153	M	T1a1a	24	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	No
    I1175	S1175.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-003	petrous	73	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,005	1	0,235	1,25	..	..	..	44	1	0,02	0,147	M	..	2	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	..
    I1178	S1178.E1.L1	CHPKL109L-015	petrous	84	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0598	1	0,143	329	I6	0,984	[0.978,0.989]	60	1	2,56	0,153	M	T1a1a	3219	5,91E-03	1,59E-03	No
    I1180	S1180.E1.L1	CHPKL109M-028	petrous	67	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0041	1	0,16	11,2	T	0,998	[0.987,1.000]	47	1	0,09	0,139	M	T1a1a*	19	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	No
    I1187	S1187.E1.L1	CHPKL301N-001	petrous	78	Dabney, Korlevic	90	Rohland *	partial	0,0078	1	0,235	9,38	U6d	0,976	[0.955,0.989]	42	1	0,12	0,161	M	T	19	(<200 X SNPs)	(<200 X SNPs)	No
    Source
    Last edited by Semitic Duwa; 2018-08-20 at 14:22.


    Quote Originally Posted by MnM View Post
    Morocco is a western lapdog.
    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    Those Bronze Age samples are just red herrings to distract you from the actual arrivals of populations with Semitic ancestry. Don’t take the bait by focusing on the wrong samples, lol. He is passing off Bronze Age Levantines with no evidence of strong predynastic input, as “Semites“. This way, he can flip it around and say Proto-Semitic speakers and predynastics were more or less identical to the Bronze Age Levantines sampled so far.
    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    @Semitic Duwa

    Wonder what the resident Proto-Semite has to say about this. I thought unmixed Egyptians were supposed to be Abusir with less/zero Chl?

    In your view, does this prove you wrong, or is it just a coincidence () that M1 is absent in one of the three subsamples from Abusir, and rare overall?

    And don’t change your signature now, please. I’m looking forward to you looking more and more incompetent as more aDNA is published. Wish there was a way to speed this up. But the extra wait and seeing you with your pants down every day, kinda has its own appeal, too.

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    Too bad we didnt nuclear data from that L3b1 carrier.

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    What I find troubling is the fact that they focused on a single site. While I understand the constraints on the preservation of DNA in arid climates, there is no shortage of chalcolithic tumuli containing human remains in Israel, many of which are far more likely to yield ancient populations that weren't genetic dead-ends.


    Quote Originally Posted by MnM View Post
    Morocco is a western lapdog.
    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    Those Bronze Age samples are just red herrings to distract you from the actual arrivals of populations with Semitic ancestry. Don’t take the bait by focusing on the wrong samples, lol. He is passing off Bronze Age Levantines with no evidence of strong predynastic input, as “Semites“. This way, he can flip it around and say Proto-Semitic speakers and predynastics were more or less identical to the Bronze Age Levantines sampled so far.
    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    @Semitic Duwa

    Wonder what the resident Proto-Semite has to say about this. I thought unmixed Egyptians were supposed to be Abusir with less/zero Chl?

    In your view, does this prove you wrong, or is it just a coincidence () that M1 is absent in one of the three subsamples from Abusir, and rare overall?

    And don’t change your signature now, please. I’m looking forward to you looking more and more incompetent as more aDNA is published. Wish there was a way to speed this up. But the extra wait and seeing you with your pants down every day, kinda has its own appeal, too.

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    Chalcolithic Iranians really did mix around.

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    Quote Originally Posted by An Shigao View Post
    Chalcolithic Iranians really did mix around.
    Several of the samples are T1a-L208, much like you. However in this case, it could also be due to Anatolia_N-related ancestry.

    The appearance of Iran_Chl-type ancestry probably is the most important feature of the Levantine Chalcolithic, this is also likely to be congruent with the initial arrival of J lineages in the region (J1-L862 and J2b1-M205 in particular). The problem here is that we are at a loss regarding the exact source of this type of ancestry. There's much to bet that what we call Iran_Chl here might actually have arrived from Mesopotamia, which unfortunately remains a blank spot on the map of ancient genomics.

    The best cultural correlate for the southward spread of that type of ancestry is probably the Halaf culture, Ubaid is another possible contender:




    Last edited by Semitic Duwa; 2018-08-22 at 15:02.


    Quote Originally Posted by MnM View Post
    Morocco is a western lapdog.
    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    Those Bronze Age samples are just red herrings to distract you from the actual arrivals of populations with Semitic ancestry. Don’t take the bait by focusing on the wrong samples, lol. He is passing off Bronze Age Levantines with no evidence of strong predynastic input, as “Semites“. This way, he can flip it around and say Proto-Semitic speakers and predynastics were more or less identical to the Bronze Age Levantines sampled so far.
    Quote Originally Posted by NonFingo View Post
    @Semitic Duwa

    Wonder what the resident Proto-Semite has to say about this. I thought unmixed Egyptians were supposed to be Abusir with less/zero Chl?

    In your view, does this prove you wrong, or is it just a coincidence () that M1 is absent in one of the three subsamples from Abusir, and rare overall?

    And don’t change your signature now, please. I’m looking forward to you looking more and more incompetent as more aDNA is published. Wish there was a way to speed this up. But the extra wait and seeing you with your pants down every day, kinda has its own appeal, too.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Semitic Duwa View Post
    What I find troubling is the fact that they focused on a single site. While I understand the constraints on the preservation of DNA in arid climates, there is no shortage of chalcolithic tumuli containing human remains in Israel, many of which are far more likely to yield ancient populations that weren't genetic dead-ends.
    So in the wider picture, what does their conclusion mean, for modern Levantines?
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    Anatolian Urhemait supporters are mostly butthurt Meds.
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    Poland is a misunderstanding. It is a country which lies on the frontier between western and slavic world, and which combines elements of both.
    In fact, they are not even the Europeans in strict sense, meaning European as in bearing the responsibility and understanding of European interests. Poland has always been an subordinate country, on one side sucking German dick, on the other side -- Russian one, some kind of "novice" europeans, who are full of inferiority complexes, hysteria and obsessity neuroses. This is also true for all Baltic countries

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