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Thread: Ancient Human DNA from Shum Laka (Cameroon) in the Context of African Population History104 days old

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    Default Ancient Human DNA from Shum Laka (Cameroon) in the Context of African Population History

    Ancient Human DNA from Shum Laka (Cameroon) in the Context of African Population History
    Lipson, Mark (Harvard Medical School), Mary Prendergast (Harvard University), Isabelle Ribot (Université de Montréal), Carles Lalueza-Fox (Institute of Evolutionary Biology CSIC-UPF) and David Reich (Harvard Medical School)

    We generated genome-wide DNA data from four people buried at the site of Shum Laka in Cameroon between 8000–3000 years ago. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00 found at low frequencies among some present-day Niger-Congo speakers, but the genome-wide ancestry profiles for all four individuals are very different from the majority of West Africans today and instead are more similar to West-Central African hunter-gatherers. Thus, despite the geographic proximity of Shum Laka to the hypothesized birthplace of Bantu languages and the temporal range of our samples bookending the initial Bantu expansion, these individuals are not representative of a Bantu source population. We present a phylogenetic model including Shum Laka that features three major radiations within Africa: one phase early in the history of modern humans, one close to the time of the migration giving rise to non-Africans, and one in the past several thousand years. Present-day West Africans and some East Africans, in addition to Central and Southern African hunter-gatherers, retain ancestry from the first phase, which is therefore still represented throughout the majority of human diversity in Africa today.
    Interesting study coming out of the Reich lab soon; the study will be presented at the Society for American Archaeology meeting this month. It sounds like it will shed some light on the origins of the “Basal Human” component as well as Ancient North Africans. Any initial thoughts?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gihanga_Rwanda View Post
    Ancient Human DNA from Shum Laka (Cameroon) in the Context of African Population History
    Lipson, Mark (Harvard Medical School), Mary Prendergast (Harvard University), Isabelle Ribot (Université de Montréal), Carles Lalueza-Fox (Institute of Evolutionary Biology CSIC-UPF) and David Reich (Harvard Medical School)



    Interesting study coming out of the Reich lab soon; the study will be presented at the Society for American Archaeology meeting this month. It sounds like it will shed some light on the origins of the “Basal Human” component as well as Ancient North Africans. Any initial thoughts?
    Just my thoughts, aside from the Y chromosomes, I'm beginning to think the theory of Bantu migrations might be over hyped when I see studies like this. Since you're from a country nearby in the area that was supposedly affected by such migrations, what are your thoughts on that?


    As for the article, I'm not so much that shocked that in that part of Africa we see what appears to be substantially inner African substructure.
    We Wuz Kerma Kangz delusion..........

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    I am assuming that the article is claiming that these 4 individuals were more akin to Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies than to the modern West Africans, or from a population pulling in that direction?

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    Interesting... No core NC Autosomal profile at Shum laka could imply that it wasn't present at similar cultural sites during the holocene... notably around modern day Ghana and Nigeria at around 6-8KBC. Shum laka was said to have jumped from LSA to Iron Age (skipping the Neolithic phase) which can make sense of the Absence of a Bantu precursor.
    Last edited by El-Maestro; 2019-04-09 at 19:48.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Polako View Post
    Depends which prehistoric North Africa you mean. There's a preprint here saying that Neolithic North Africans (you know, the ones who replaced the hunter-gatherers there), were fully West Eurasian. Makes sense.

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/09/21/191569

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    This is good because this part of Africa is lacking in bio-anthropology in my opinion. Curious about the "Basel Human" component.

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    Quote Originally Posted by pgbk87 View Post
    I am assuming that the article is claiming that these 4 individuals were more akin to Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies than to the modern West Africans, or from a population pulling in that direction?
    I should have thought of this, but you're on the money it seems. Hunter gatherers like Biaka or Mbuti lie normally at the root to the hypothetical earliest human ancestor genetically.
    We Wuz Kerma Kangz delusion..........

    Quote Originally Posted by Meygaag View Post
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    Some of the layers (or all) of this site seemed to be above average for Pygmies, unless Pygmies became shorter or thsi was an admixed population (admixed Pygmies are considerably taller - i.e Cameroonian Pygmies vs Ituri Congolese ones).

    Or perhaps, the admixed Cameroonian Pygmies were always taller than what we presume to be regular Pygmy height, and this may simply be evidence of strong substructure.

    I wish there are other males outside the confirmed A00 one. It would be interesting to see what other ydna was present in this population, although the mtdna especially those from earlier periods will settle far more questions.

    Let's hope this shapes up to the ANA paper with more refinement of African ancestral clades.

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    Thus, despite the geographic proximity of Shum Laka to the hypothesized birthplace of Bantu languages and the temporal range of our samples bookending the initial Bantu expansion, these individuals are not representative of a Bantu source population. We present a phylogenetic model including Shum Laka that features three major radiations within Africa: one phase early in the history of modern humans, one close to the time of the migration giving rise to non-Africans, and one in the past several thousand years.
    The Bantu expansion is associated with haplogroup E1b1a or E1b1a7. Haplogroup A00 is much older than any other branch previously known, having its origins at the dawn of the human species' emergence (338 kya). What's interesting about Cameroon is that R1b is present in Chadic speakers at 20%. Reich's team should have looked at the Eurasian back migration to Cameroon to get the complete population history of Cameroon.

    Last edited by ThirdTerm; 2019-04-15 at 19:59.

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    Cameroon is no longer the home of Bantus

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gihanga_Rwanda View Post
    Ancient Human DNA from Shum Laka (Cameroon) in the Context of African Population History
    Lipson, Mark (Harvard Medical School), Mary Prendergast (Harvard University), Isabelle Ribot (Université de Montréal), Carles Lalueza-Fox (Institute of Evolutionary Biology CSIC-UPF) and David Reich (Harvard Medical School)



    Interesting study coming out of the Reich lab soon; the study will be presented at the Society for American Archaeology meeting this month. It sounds like it will shed some light on the origins of the “Basal Human” component as well as Ancient North Africans. Any initial thoughts?
    Finally, some more Ancient DNA from Sub Saharan Africa. About fucking time.

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