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Thread: Ancient chewing gum reveals Scandinavia's oldest human DNA7 days old

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    Default Ancient chewing gum reveals Scandinavia's oldest human DNA

    May 15 (UPI) -- Scientists have recovered human DNA from 10,000-year-old chewing gum found in Sweden. The DNA is the oldest to be sequenced from the region.

    Researchers found the masticated lumps of birch bark pitch, a sap-like tar, among the remains of an early Mesolithic hunter-fisher site called Huseby Klev, located on Sweden's west coast.

    During the Stone Age, humans used the bark-derived chewing gum as a glue to make tools. The pieces of gum were originally found in the 1990s, but scientists had yet to develop the technology necessary to process human DNA.

    Scientists in Sweden and Norway were able to successfully extract DNA from the masticated gum and sequence the genome of three human individuals.

    DNA analysis showed the individuals were closely related to other groups of hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia, as well as Mesolithic populations in Europe. However, the tools found at Huseby Klev are part of technological lineage that archaeologists have traced to the East European Plain, modern day Russia.

    The new genetic data, detailed this week in the journal Communications Biology, suggests Scandinavia hosted a unique convergence of disparate genetic and technological lineages.

    "Demography analysis suggests that the genetic composition of Huseby Klev individuals show more similarity to western hunter-gatherer populations than eastern hunter-gatherers," Emrah Kirdök, researcher at Stockholm University, said in a news release.

    Scientists hope new discoveries of ancient DNA will provide further insights into the origins, migration patterns and behaviors of the earliest Scandinavian settlers.

    "DNA from these ancient chewing gums have an enormous potential not only for tracing the origin and movement of peoples long time ago, but also for providing insights in their social relations, diseases and food," said Per Persson, researcher at the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo.
    https://www.upi.com/Science_News/201...9791557924253/



    Ancient DNA from mastics solidifies connection between material culture and genetics of mesolithic hunter–gatherers in Scandinavia
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-019-0399-1


    This thread is for those interested in this sort of stuff. What I found interesting was the mtDNA of the three individuals.
    Mitochondrial DNA
    We used samtools mpileup command to create mitochondrial consensus sequences using the nucleotides that have a base-call and mapping quality score of more than Q30. We assigned mitochondrial haplogroups with HaploFind36 and HaploGrep 237 (Table 1). We reviewed the results with PhyloTree (build 17)38. Mitochondrial genomes from all three individuals belong to the U5a2d haplogroup. ble008 was assigned to U5a2 by HaploGrep 2, but the same sequence is assigned to U5a2d haplogroup by HaploFind and we accept this result (Supplementary Excel Table 1). The mitochondrial U5a2d haplogroup is consistent with earlier published results for ancient individuals from Scandinavia, U5a being the most common within SHG. Of the 16 Mesolithic individuals from Scandinavia published prior to our study, seven belong to the U5a haplogroup, and nine share the U2 and U4 haplogroups5,6 (Table 1). The library properties for ble samples after processing and pmd filtering. Statistic for ble004 is for merged damage repair and blunt-end repair libraries, ble007 is for blunt-end-repair merged libraries, ble008 is for merged libraries made from extracts produced with different protocols (Supplementary Table 1, Methods)

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    That's the upside to adolescents putting their gum everywhere we expect it does not belong. Future generations will know everything about our DNA.

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    ssa chewing gum

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