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    Default Human races are not like dog breeds, according to recent paper

    Human races are not like dog breeds: refuting a racist analogy

    From the abstract:
    In 1956, evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane posed a question to anthropologists: “Are the biological differences between human groups comparable with those between groups of domestic animals such as greyhounds and bulldogs…?” It reads as if it were posted on social media today. The analogy comparing human races to dog breeds is not only widespread in history and pop culture, but also sounds like scientific justification for eschewing the social construction of race, or for holding racist beliefs about human nature. Here we answer Haldane’s question in an effort to improve the public understanding of human biological variation and “race”—two phenomena that are not synonymous. Speaking to everyone without expert levels of familiarity with this material, we investigate whether the dog breed analogy for human race stands up to biology. It does not. Groups of humans that are culturally labeled as “races” differ in population structure, genotype–phenotype relationships, and phenotypic diversity from breeds of dogs in unsurprising ways, given how artificial selection has shaped the evolution of dogs, not humans. Our demonstration complements the vast body of existing knowledge about how human “races” differ in fundamental sociocultural, historical, and political ways from categories of nonhuman animals. By the end of this paper, readers will understand how the assumption that human races are the same as dog breeds is a racist strategy for justifying social, political, and economic inequality.
    Knowledge is consciousness of reality. Reality is the sum of the laws that govern nature and of the causes from which they flow.
    ---Ancient Egyptian proverb

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    I use the analogy of human races to breeds of dogs to justify a form of anti-Caucasoid racism, where Caucasoids are seen as having been impacted by the human domestication syndrome to a greater extent than other races.

    Domesticated animals have smaller brains, teeth, and snout length than wild animals (https://www.genetics.org/content/197/3/795):



    Among humans, the more gracilized races have smaller tooth size (https://mathildasanthropologyblog.wo...in-crown-size/):



    In one study, tooth size in an area of Mesopotamia was calculated as having decreased by 20-25% between the Late Chalcolithic (about 4000 BC) and the Iron Age.

    Cranial capacity has decreased during the Holocene in West Eurasia and North Africa (https://www.jstor.org/stable/41464021):

    Craniometric data collected in a uniform way on 241 series of male crania (approx. 9,500 individuals) and on 101 series of female ones (approx. 3,300 indiv.) originating from the NW quadrant of the Old World (Europe, N. Africa, etc.) and dated from Upper Paleolithic to modern times were used to evaluate the trend. Vault thickness and skull shape were accounted for when calculating cranial capacity (CC) from craniometric data. Among male samples the peak CC occurred in Mesolithic (1593 cc), the lowest value falls in modern times (1436 cc); in female samples timing is the same: Mesolithic maximum of 1502 ccm and modern minimum of 1241 cc. For both males and females the decrease through time is smooth, statistically significant and inversely exponential. A decrease of 157 cc (9.9% of the larger value) in males and of 261 cc (17.4%) in females is a considerable one, of the order of magnitude comparable to the difference between averages for H. erectus and H. sapiens sapiens.

    Chinese early Neolithic skulls also had higher cranial capacity and higher prognathism than modern Chinese skulls (https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article..._html/-char/ja), even though the reduction in cranial capacity was smaller than the reduction measured in West Eurasia and North Africa in the paper quoted above.



    Caucasoids have the lowest prognathism (the human equivalent of snout length) (http://www.femininebeauty.info/hanihara.flatness.pdf):



    In the same way that it's good for dogs to look like wolves, it's good for humans to look like monkeys.

    In the photo below from Borneo, the two men who are standing who look more like monkeys look better. They look more SSA or more archaic, and they have higher prognathism and a broader nose. Both even have frontal bossing. The two men who are sitting, who look more Caucasoid or more progressive, look weaker and more sad. They have lower prognathism and a narrower nose.



    Wolves and breeds of dogs that are similar to wolves, like huskies and Shiba Inu, have narrow eyes that are slanted inwards, but some of the ugliest-looking breeds of dogs, like pugs, have round eyes or eyes that are slanted outwards. Similarly all (or almost all) species of wild cats and big cats have eyes that are slanted inwards, but some of the ugliest-looking domesticated cats, like many Persian cats, have eyes that are slanted outwards.
    Last edited by Yyy; 2019-07-10 at 08:54.

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