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Thread: Population genomics of the Viking world (Ashot Margaryan et al. 2019)31 days old

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    Abstract:



    A link to actual paper.

    Haplogroups and ancestry estimates are here.

    Other supplementary materials are here and here.

    I would like to ask resident Scandinavians to take a look at this paper and share their discoveries.
    I found Orkney on the excel spreadsheet based on the study in your original post.

    Vikings are still running rampant through Scotland as, according to the researchers, 29.2 per cent of descendants in Shetland have the DNA, 25.2 per cent in Orkney and 17.5 per cent in Caithness. This compares with just with 5.6 per cent of men in Yorkshire carrying Norse DNA.

    It was Germanic invaders who ravaged the English coast instead, leaving a trail of genetic footprints in their wake.

    The German Y chromosome R1b S21 is found at a high frequency of 29 per cent in the east, compared with a range of 19-24 per cent across the rest of England.

    https://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle-2...-dna-1-3781684
    Eurogenes K15 on steroids via DIYdodecad and more samples etc... via Admixture Studio v1.4 :

    Using 1 populations approximation
    1 100% Southwest_English @ 4.152

    Mix-mode :
    1 75.59% Orcadian + 24.41% East_German @ 2.375 ; Orcadian is NorthEast Scottish e.g. Celtic + Viking

    Using 4 populations approximation
    1 25% East_German + 25% Hinxton3 (ancient England) + 25% Orcadian + 25% Southwest_English @ 2.246

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    Among the ancient samples, two individuals were derived haplogroups were identified as E1b1b1-M35.1, which are frequently encountered in modern southern Europe, Middle East and North Africa. Interestingly, the individuals carrying these haplogroups had much less Scandinavian ancestry compared to the most samples inferred from haplotype based analysis. A similar pattern was also observed for less frequent haplogroups in our ancient dataset, such as G (n=3), J (n=3) and T (n=2), indicating a possible non-Scandinavian male genetic component in the Viking Age Northern Europe. Interestingly, individuals carrying these haplogroups were from the later Viking Age (10th century and younger), which might indicate some male gene influx into the Viking population during the Viking period. Worth mentioning, that due to the small sample size of the rare haplogroups, these differences might be of stochastic nature therefore the results based on uniparental markers should be interpreted with caution.
    ....

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    The samples originate from over 80 archaeological sites, covering large parts of Northern Europe and
    Greenland which is now represented by multiple countries including: Greenland (Eastern and
    Western settlements, n=23 individuals), Iceland (n=17), Faroe Islands (n=17), Ireland (n=4), UK
    (n=42), Norway (n=41), Denmark (n=89), Sweden (n=123), Poland (n=10), Estonia (n=34), Russia
    (n=33), Ukraine (n=4) and Italy (n=5).
    ....

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    I1 is the most well represented
    haplogroup in our ancient dataset, and most regions contained individuals belonging to this lineage
    (especially Estonia, Russia, Denmark and Greenland), with the exception of the Isle of Man, Ireland
    and Italy, however these regions have comparatively small sample sizes which may not allow the
    detection of this haplogroup. The ancient samples of the present-study are mainly distributed in two
    main clades, I1a1b1-L22, which accounts for 71% of the I1 haplotypes in a Y-chromosome survey
    of Finland184 , and I1a2a-S246. Of particular interest, the clade I1a2a1a1d1a-S247 is especially well
    represented in Estonian samples, and is found mostly in present-day Finnish and Northern
    Scandinavian groups.

    ....

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    Many of the ancient Norwegian and Swedish samples were determined to be derived for the R1a1a1b1a3a-S221/Z284 marker, of nearly exclusive distribution within Scandinavian populations and occurring at approximately 20% in Norway
    ....

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    We find that within Scandinavia, present-day populations are still structured according to the ancient Viking population groups. The component that we associated as Norwegian-like is present at 45-65% in present-day Norway. Similarly, the ancient Swedish-like ancestry is present at 15-30% within Sweden. Of the four Swedish clusters, one is more related to the ancient Finnish than the Swedish like ancestry, and a second is more related to Danes and Norwegians. Danish-like ancestry is now high across the whole region
    ....

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    Outside of Scandinavia, the genetic legacy of the Vikings is consistent, though limited. A small component is present in Poland (up to 5%) and the south of Europe. Within the British Isles, it is difficult to assess how much of the Danish-like ancestry is due to pre-existing Anglo-Saxon ancestry; however, the Norwegian-like ancestry is consistently around 4%. The Danish-like contribution is likely to be similar in magnitude and is certainly not larger than 16% as found in Scotland and Ireland.
    The lack of strong variation in ancestry from Scandinavia makes sense if the Vikings did not maintain a diaspora identity over time but instead integrated into the respective societies in which they settled.
    ....

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    The genetic impacts are stronger in the other direction. The ‘British-like’ populations of Orkney became ‘Scandinavian’ culturally, whilst other British populations found themselves in Iceland and Norway, and beyond. Present-day Norwegians vary between 12 and 25% in their ‘British-like’ ancestry, whilst it is still (a more uniform) 10% in Sweden. Separating the VA signals from more recent population movements is difficult, but these numbers are consistent with our VA estimates.

    In fact, we found many Viking Age individuals with high levels of foreign ancestry, both within and outside Scandinavia, suggesting ongoing gene flow with different peoples across Europe. Indeed, it appears that some foreign peoples contributed more genetic ancestry to Scandinavia during this period than the Vikings contributed to them which could partially be due to smaller effective population size of the VA Scandinavians as opposed to their continental and British neighbors
    ....

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    The within-Scandinavia results make it clear that the group called “Sweden” represents a historical population that once existed in Sweden, replaced by more southern population/s containing more continental European ancestry. Similarly, Norwegian ancestry has declined but is still higher in the North-West of Scandinavia (i.e. Norway). Italian and Danish ancestry both increase over time and are higher in the south of Scandinavia, consistent with a migration flow.
    ....

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    Quote Originally Posted by DracoSentien View Post
    I found Orkney on the excel spreadsheet based on the study in your original post.

    Vikings are still running rampant through Scotland as, according to the researchers, 29.2 per cent of descendants in Shetland have the DNA, 25.2 per cent in Orkney and 17.5 per cent in Caithness. This compares with just with 5.6 per cent of men in Yorkshire carrying Norse DNA.

    It was Germanic invaders who ravaged the English coast instead, leaving a trail of genetic footprints in their wake.

    The German Y chromosome R1b S21 is found at a high frequency of 29 per cent in the east, compared with a range of 19-24 per cent across the rest of England.

    https://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle-2...-dna-1-3781684
    The genetic impacts are stronger in the other direction. The ‘British-like’ populations of Orkney became ‘Scandinavian’ culturally, whilst other British populations found themselves in Iceland and Norway, and beyond.
    ....

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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    VK139, "Polish-like" 0.968, Denmark Funen Galgedil, Viking, 9-11th centuries CE, R1a1a1b1a1a1c1, J1c3k
    R1a1a1b1a1a1c1 is L1029+:



    Gib back Funen Island.

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    Posted by Waldemar on another forum:




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    Quote Originally Posted by Wojewoda View Post
    My male haplogroup I1a3-Z63 found in Wielbark culture (supposedly Gothic) is absent in this dataset.
    So either all I1a3-Z63 men emigrated from Scandinavia before the Viking Age or they never lived there.

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    I guess this is Odin's worst nightmare?

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    So it seems that in the Viking Age half of Gotland was Polish-like:




    Gib clay!
    Last edited by Wojewoda; 2019-07-19 at 16:02.

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    life is like a bowl of cherries
    Last edited by Silesian; 2019-07-22 at 00:24.

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